UNESCO
EDUCATION REVITALISATION PROJECTPHASE
PROJECT
II
NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERI
ENGINEERING
NG TECHNOLOGY
FLUID MECHANICS
COURSE CODE: MEC214
YEAR 22 SE MESTER I
THEORY
Version 1: December 2008
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Contents
Week 1
1.0
Fluids
1.1
Definition
1.2
Classification of fluids
1.2.1 Gases
1.2.2 Liquids
1.3
1.4
Properties of fluids
Week 2
2.0
Types of fluids
2.1
2.2
Newtonian fluids
2.3
NonNewtonian fluids
2.4
Week 3
3.0
Pressure equation
3.1
3.2
An orifice tank
4.0
4.1
The barometer
4.2
Piezometer
4.3
Utube manometer
4.4
5.0
6.0
Derivation of equations
6.1
6.2
FLUID MECHANICS
WEEK 1
1.1.1 Define a fluid.
1.2
The different types of fluids.
1.3
1.4
FLUIDS
Liquids have definite volumes: may vary likely with temperature and pressure.
Definition Fluid is a substance which deforms continuously under the action
of shearing forces, however small they may be i.e it offers negligible
resistance to change of shape and is capable of the following. Thus a fluid can
either be a liquid or gas.
Distinction or classification of fluids.
1.1
1.22a Liquids:  Liquids have definite volumes and the volume may vary likely with
temperature and pressure; and normally have free surface.
1.23.1 Gases:  Gases normally occupy the volume of their containers and they can
readily be compressed. The fundamental difference between liquid and gas is
that liquid is hard to be compressed while gas can easily be compressed.
1.23.2 Liquids: e.g. water, oil, petrol, kerosene, paint, e.t.c.
1.23.3 Gases: Oxygen, carbon dioxide, Nitrogen e.t.c
1.3
Liquids
Gases
container.
3. A free surface is formed of the container is 3. It will completely fill any vessel in
greater than that of the liquid.
which it is placed and does not form
a free surface.
4. The molecular structure of liquid are less
densely packed, making the structure looser
than that of solids. Thee individual molecules
have greater freedom of movement causing
change of structure..
Mass density
Specific weight
Relative density.
(i)
Mass density:Mass density is defined as the mass of the substance per unit volume.
m
kg .m 3
v
1.42
(ii)
Specific weight: Specific weight, , is defined as the weight per unit volume.
weight Mg m
=
=
x g = g
volume
v
v
1.43
(iii)
Relative density or Specific gravity:Relative density, is defined as the ratio of the mass density of a substance to some
standard mass density.
For solids and liquids the standard mass density chosen is the maximum density of
water(which occurs at 4c at temperature and pressure)
subs tan ce
H 2 0 at 4C
For gases, the standard density may be that of Hydrogen at a specified temperature and
pressure, but the term is not used frequently.
Relative density is dimensionless, since it is pure number.
Typical value: Water 1.0; oil 0.9.
1.44
Specific Volume: This is defined as the reciprocal of either mass density or reciprocal of
either mass density or specific weight; i.e volume per unit mass or volume per unit weight.
Unit = m
1.45
Pressure: Pressure is the intensity of a force measured per unit area of the surface on which
the force acts. The pressure exerted by a fluid has the following important properties:i.
ii.
The pressure exerted by a fluid at a point that is, on a very small area, is the same in
all directions.
The direction of the resultant pressure exerted by a fluid at rest on a solid surface is
always perpendicular (normal) to the surface.
1.46 VISCOUSITY
Viscosity is the internal resistance to movement of one layer of the fluid over an adjacent one.
It is the property of a fluid rather than that of a static fluid. Relative movement between two
layers requires shear forces parallel to the surface over which they act.
1.47 Vapour Pressure:All liquids have the tendency to evaporate when they are bounded by interface. Evaporation
means that there is a continuous movement of molecules in the form of vapour pressure
above the liquid surface. The magnitude corresponds to the rate of molecules escaping from
the surface. The number of liquid molecules going out of the liquid continues to increase until
it reaches the point where the vapour pressure is sufficient to maintain a balance i.e the
number of molecules leaving the liquid is equal to the number entering it. At this stage, when
there is a balance, the liquid saturated with vapour and the vapour pressure at this point is
called saturation pressure.
If ABCD (FIG 1) represents an element in a fluid with thickness perpendicular to the diagram,
then the force P will act over an area A equal to BC x s. The force per unit area p/a is the shear
stress and the deformation, measured by the angle (the shear strain), will be proportional
to the shear stress.
In a solid, will be a fixed quantity for a given value of , since a solid can resist shear stress
permanently. In a fluid, the shear strain will continue to increase with time and the fluid will
flow. It is found experimentally that in a true fluid, the rate of shear strain (or shear strain per
unit time) is directly proportional to the shear stress.
(1) Cohesion
(2) Adhesion
(3) Viscosity
1.48 Adhesion: Adhesion is the physical attraction of the physical attraction of the of one material
for the surface of another. (see Portland cement)
The most widely accepted and investigated theory of adhesion is the wet ability a adsorption
theory. This states that for maximum adhesion the adhesive must come into complete imitate
contact with the surfaces of the adherent. That is the adhesive must completely wet the
adherent.
Cohesion: A phenomenon in which the same material in contact makes them cling
together(with two different materials the similar).
According to kinetic theory, cohesion is caused by attraction between particles at the atomic or
molecular level.
Surface tension, which causes liquids to form spherical droplets is caused by cohesion.
1.49 Surface Tension: The property that causes the surface of a liquid to behave as if it were
covered with a weak elastic skin; this is why a needle can float on the smallest possible area
because of cohesive forces between molecules at the surface.
1.410 Capillarity: This is the spontaneous movement of liquids up and down narrow tubes or
capillarity. The movement is due to unbalanced molecular attraction at the unbalanced
molecular attraction at the boundary between the liquid and the tube.
If liquid molecules near the boundary are more strongly attracted to molecules in the
materials of the tube than to other nearby liquid molecules, the liquid will rise in the tube. If
liquid molecules are less attracted to the material of the tube than to other liquid molecules,
the liquid will fall.
WEEK 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.1
Types of fluids.
Newtonian fluids.
NonNewtonian fluids.
State Newtons law of viscousity.
Explain the effects of viscousity in fluids.
TYPES OF FLUIDS
There are two types of fluids namely, ideal and real or nonideal fluids. The ideal fluid does not
exhibit viscous properties and cannot sustain frictional and shear stresses when in motion. The
forces sustaining its motion are purely pressure forces. Since it cannot sustain frictional
stresses, it cannot dissipate mechanical energy into heat. On the other hand, the real fluid
possesses viscous properties sustains frictional and shear stresses and dissipates mechanical
energy into heat. In practice, the ideal fluid does not exist, but the flow of many real fluids can
be analysed by assuming that they are ideal especially if their viscousities are low.
Fig. 2.1:
2.2
Newtonian fluids: The fluids that obey Newtons law of viscousity and for which N has a
constant value are known as Newtonian fluids. These fluids are the ones whose viscousities
are not dependent on the rate of shear or the duration and or the duration and conform to
Newtons basic law of viscous resistance.
=N
dv
dy
Most common fluids fall into this category, for which shear stress is e.g. Gases and thin liquids
Shear
Stress
Plastic
Bingham Plastic
PseudoPlastic
Newtonian fluid
Dilatant
Ideal fluid T = 0
Rate of Shear,
du
dy
2.3
Non Newtonian fluids:Fluids which do not obey Newtons law of viscousity are known as nonNewtonian and fall into
one of the following groups.
(1)
Plastics, for which the shear stress must reach a certain minimum value before flow
commences. Thereafter, shear stress increases with the rate of shear according to
the relationship.
du
= A + B
dy
Pseudoplastic, for which dynamic viscousity decreases as the rate of shear increases
(e.g. colloidal solutions, clay, milk, blood, solution of cement)
(3)
(4)
Thixotropic: substances for which the dynamic viscousity decreases with the time
for which shearing forces are applied (e.g. thixotropic jelly paints, e.g. printers ink)
(5)
Rheopectic materials for which the dynamic viscosity increases with the time for
which shearing forces are applied.
(6)
2.4
Liquid
Specific gravity
1. Alcohol, ethyl.
0.79
2. Benzene
0.88
0.81
5. Mercury
13.6
6. Crude oil
0.85 0.93
7. Lubricating
0.85 0.88
8. Water
1.00
Types of Fluids
There are two types of fluids, namely, ideal and real or nonideal fluids. The ideal fluid does not
exhibit viscous properties and cannot sustain frictional and shear stresses when in motion. The
forces sustaining its motion are purely pressure forces.
Since it cannot sustain frictional stresses, it cannot dissipate mechanical energy into heat. On the
other hand, the real fluid possesses viscous properties sustains frictional and shear stresses and
dissipates mechanical energy into heat.
In practice, the ideal fluid does not exist, but the flow of many real fluids can be analysed by
assuming that they are ideal especially if their viscosities are low.
WEEK 3
2.1 Explain how a fluid can exert pressure due to its own weight.
2.2 Derive an expression for the pressure at a point in a fluid.
2.3 Explain why the pressure in a fluid varies with depth.
h3
A
h2
h1
B
Fig 3.1
Consider a cylindrical container as shown in fig 3.1. A fluid of known density is poured into it to a
level l1. The area of the crosssection is A.
Pr essure =
But density =
Force Weight W
=
=
Area
Area
A
Mass(M )
Volume(V )
W = Mg
Pr essure ( ) =
Mg vg
=
A
A
W = Mg
Pr essure (P ) =
Mg
vg
=
A
A
V = Ah
Pr essure =
Ahg
A
= gh
3.3
h3
A
h2
h1
B
WEEK 4
Describe the working principles of the following fluid measuring instruments.
Explain their uses
3
4
12
The barometer.
13
Piezometer.
14
U tube manometer.
15
The inverted U tube.
Describe the working principles of the following fluid measuring instruments.
Explain their uses
4.1
(1) The Barometer:A practical method of measuring pressure of the atmosphere of the atmosphere is by means
of the mercury barometer (fig 4.1)
Fig 2
The space A at the top of a closed vertical tube dipped in an open bath of mercury is emptied
of air as far as possible. The pressure in space A is then equal only to the vapour pressure of
the mercury vapor. However, this vapour pressure is low and may often be neglected. The
space A is therefore almost at zero pressure.
The pressure of the atmosphere on the mercury in the open bath forces the liquid up the
tube until the sufficient to balance the pressure of the atmosphere.
Let h be the height of the mercury column above the level mercury in the bath; that is h is the
height of the mercury barometer. Let Ws be the specific weight of mercury and a specific
weight of mercury and a the crosssection area of the tube;
The volume of mercury column = ax h
Weight of mercury column = Ws x a x h
Pressure exerted by the mercury at the level of the bath
weight of column
area of tube
ws x a h
a
= ws h
This is the pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the mercury surface in the bath. The height
h of the Barometer is therefore directly proportional to the pressure of the atmosphere.
The density of mercury is 13.6 x 103 Kg
m3
2.41 (ii) Piezometer:The relationship between pressure and head is utilized for pressure measurement in the
manometer or liquid gauge. The simplest form is the pressure tube or Piezometer shown in
fig. 4.2
h1
h2
A = gh1
Fluid P,
Liquid Q1
Mass Density
h2
h1
The Utube gauge, fig. 4.3, can be used to measure the pressure of either liquids or gases. The
bottom of the Utube is filled with a manometric liquid Q which is of greater density man and is
immiscible with the fluid P, liquid or gas of density P, whose pressure is to be measured if B is the
level of the interface in the lefthand limb and C is a point at the limb and C is point at the same level
in the righthand limb,
Pressure B at B = Pressure C at C
For the lefthand limb
Pressure Pb = Pressure Pa at A + Pressure due to depth h1 of fluid P
= A + gh1
For the righthand limb.
Fluid, density
man
X
X
h
b
Liquid, density
The inverted Utube shown in fig 4.4 is used for measuring pressure difference in liquids. The
top of the Utube is filled with a fluid, frequently air, which is less dense than that connected
to the instrument. Since the fluid in the top is at rest, pressures at level xx will be the same in
both limbs.
xx = A ga man gh
For the righthand limb
xx = B g (b + h )
B A = g (b a ) +gh( man )
Thus
or if A and B are at the same level ,
B A = ( man )gh
If the top of the tube is filled with air man is negligible compared with and
B A = gh .
If the tip of the tube is filled with air man is negligible compared with and
B A = gh .
On
the other hand, if the liquid in the top of the tube is chosen so that man is very nearly
equal to , and provided that the liquids do not mix, the result will be a very sensitive
manometer giving a large value of h for a small pressure difference.
WEEK 5
Compressibility and the Bulk Modulus.
All materials whether solid, liquid, or gases are compressible, that is the volume V of a given mass
will be reduced to Vv when a force is exerted uniformly all over its surface. If the force per unit
area of surface increases to P+p, relationship between change of pressure and change of volume
depends on the bulk modulus of the material.
Bulk modulus =
change in pressure
volumetric strain
Volumetric strain is the change in volume divided by the original volume. Therefore, volumetric
strain =
dv
V
Bulk modulus =
K = v
Vd
dv
d
(The minus sign indicates that the volume decreases as pressure
dv
increases.
Therefore,
Change in volume
Change in pressure
=
Original volume
Bulk mod ulus
=
V
K
K = v
d
dv
.1.1
V =
. 1.2
Differentiating,
Vd + dv = 0
v
dv =  d
1
dv =  2 d
1.3
p
Putting the values of v and dv obtained from equations (1.2) and (1.3) in equation (1.1)
K =
d
d
..1.4
Where P = m/v
PV = RT
Replacing V by
; x
= RT
= PRT
VISCOUSITY
The criteria which determines whether flow is viscous or turbulent is the quantity
vl
, known as
Re =
vl
vd
= 2000
vl
, where V is the kinematic Viscosity
v
1
v = i.e
=
4cm
3cm
G
5cm
a
X
2
d
K.E = wmr
M = 2+1+3+4 = 10kg
R = 3+1+2+2 = 8m
I = mr
= M1r1 + M2R2 + M3R3 +M4R4
= 2 x 3 + 1 x 1 + 3 x 2 + 4 x 4
= 2 x9 + 1 + 3 x 4 + 4 x 4
= 18 + 1 + 12 + 16
= 47kgm
Radius of gyration
M = M1 + M 2 + M3 + M4
w x Mk = w x mr
Mk x mr = I
I = Mk
K = (I/M)
Moments of inertia (page 710)
K.E = mv
V = wr
k.e = m(wr)
= mwr
K.E = w x mr
Example : To find the moment of inertia (1) and the radius of gyration (k) of a uniform thin rod about
an axis through one end perpendicular to the length of the rod.
S
S
d1
Z
dz
d2
I = bd
12
I = Mk = bd
12
K = d
12
I = Md
12
but M = bd
Example 3: Find I for a rectangular plate 20cm x 10cm of mass 2kg about an axis 5cm from are 20cm
side as shown.
Mass of strip = bx
= 0.01kg/cm
z =d 2
aw zd
z =d c
If 2 0, total thrust =
d2
awzd
d1
z2 d2
aw
2 d1
d 2 d 2
aw 2 1
2
2
aw 2
d 2 d12
2
aw
(d 2 d1 )(d 2 + d1 )
2
d + d1
aw(d 2 d1 ) 2
d 2 + d1
is the depth halfway down the plate i.e. it indicates the depth of the centre of gravity of
2
Total thrust
aw(d 2 d1 ) z
a(d 2 d1 )w z
The centre of pressure is the point of application of the resultant force due to fluid pressure on one
face of an immersed surface.
O
b
dp
dx
G
Fig. 6
The sum of
the moments about the water surface 00 fig K of the forces on all the thin strips such as D must
dp = p x bdx
= wx . bdx, sin ce p = wx
Moment of this force about 00 is dp . x
=
wxbdx . x
wx 2bdx
p about 00.
2
wx bdx and this is equal to the moment P x
P about 00
Hence

AB
Thus
P . y = w x I AB
y=
wI AB wI AB I AB
=
=
P
wA
Ax
x
Second moment of area about 0  0
First moment of area about 0  0
Let I G = Second moment of area A about axis through G parallel to water surface 00
AK2
Where K is the corresponding radius of gyration. Then the parallel theorem for 2nd moments of area
stated:2
I AB = I G + A x
2
y =
IG + A x

Ax
2
AK 2 + A x
Ax
K2
+x
K
But GC = y x = + x x
K2
GC =
WEEK 6
6.1 State the parallel axes theorem.
6.2 Derive an expression for the total thrust acting on a vertical plate submerged in a liquid.
6.3 Identity the point where the resultant thrust acts.( depth of centre of pressure).
Example 1 To find the moment of inertia(I) and the radius of gyration (k) of a uniform
thin rod about an axis through one end perpendicular to the length of the rod.
. x.x2 x2
Total
second
x 2
moment
x3
as X
2
x dx =
O,
MK
for
a 3
3
but
all
M a
such
x
3
elements
a
3
can
be
written
If the top of the tube is filled with air Pman is negligible compared with P and Pb Pa = Pgh.
On the other hand, if the liquid in the top of he fluid is chosen so that Pmax is very near equal to P,
and provided that the liquid do not mix, the result will be a very sensitive manometer giving a large
value of h for a small pressure difference.
Compressibility and the bulk modulus.
All materials whether solid, liquid, or gases are compressible, that is the volume V of a given mass
will be reduced to Vv when a force is exerted uniformly all over its surface. If the force per unit
area of surface increases to P+p, relationship between change of pressure and change of volume
depends on the bulk modulus of the material.
change in pressure
Volumetric strain
Volumetric strain is the change in volume divided by the original volume. Therefore, volumetric
strain = dv
Bulk modulus =
K =
 Vdp
dv
Vdp
dv
increases.
Therefore, change in volume = change in pressure
Original volume
v SP
=
v
K
bulk modulus
K=
Vdp
.1.1
dv
v=
1
. 1.2
P
Differentiating,
Vdp + PdV = 0
Dv =  (v) dp
P
Substituting for V from equation 1.2
dv =  (1) dp
1.3
p
Putting the values of v and dv obtained from equations (1.2) and (1.3) in equation (1.1)
K=P
dp
..1.4
dp
The value of K is shown by equation (1.4) to be dependent on the relationship between pressure and
density and, since density is also affected by temperature, it will depend on how the temperature
changes during compression. If the temperature is constant, conditions are said to be isothermal,
while if no heat is allowed to enter, or leave during compression, conditions are adiabatic. The ratio
of the adiabatic bulk modulus to the isothermal bulk modulus is equal to r, the ratio of the specific
heat of a fluid at constant pressure to that at constant volume.
For liquids, is approximately unity and the two conditions need not be distinguished; for gases, the
difference is substantial (for air =1.4)
Perfect gas: A perfect gas is defined as a substance that satisfies the perfect gas law.
PVs = RT. (1) and that has constant specific heats, specific volume; R is the gas
constant; and T is the absolute pressure; R is the gas constant; and T is the absolute temperature.
The perfect gas must be distinguished from the ideal fluid.
An ideal fluid is frictionless and incompressible. The perfect gas has viscosity and can therefore
develop shear stresses, and it is compressible according to equation (i) above.
It may be written as P = PRT
Where P = m/v
PV =RT
Replacing V by 1/p; P x 1/P = RT
P = PRT
4cm
3cm
G
5cm
2cm
d
2
d
2
K.E = wmr
M = 2+1+3+4 = 10kg
R = 3+1+2+2 = 8m
I = mr
= M1r1 + M2R2 + M3R3 +M4R4
= 2 x 3 + 1 x 1 + 3 x 2 + 4 x 4
= 2 x9 + 1 + 3 x 4 + 4 x 4
= 18 + 1 + 12 + 16
= 47kgm
Radius of gyration
w x Mk = w x mr
Mk x mr = I
I = Mk
K = (I/M)
Moments of inertia (page 710)
K.E = mv
V = wr
k.e = m(wr)
= mwr
K.E = w x mr
Example 3: Find I for a rectangular plate 20cm x 10cm of mass 2kg about an axis 5cm from are 20cm
side as shown.
Mass of strip = bx
= 0.01kg/cm
QUESTIONS PART A
1.
2)
A particular fluid stored in a container has a volume of 3m3 and mass of 40kg. Calculate
i)
Specific weight
ii)
Specific volume
iii)
Relative density
A container fig. Q2 shown below has the following fluids stored in it. What would be the
pressure exerted by air (Pair), if pressure (PA) at the bottom of the container is 200 KN/m2
and the density of oil is 600 Kg/m3, that of water is 1000 Kg/m3. Take specific gravity of
mercury to be 13.6.
Air
3m
Oil
2m
Water
500mm
Mercury
3)
4)
What would be the pressure in KN/m if the equivalent head is measured as 600mm of
a)
b)
What would be
a)
b)
the absolute pressure of water at a depth of 12m below the free surface.
Assume that the density of water to be 1000 Kg/m3 and the atmospheric pressure is 101
KN/m2.
5)
101 KN/m2
4m
3m
Fig. Q5
Fig. Q5 is a container that has two immiscible fluids in it. Calculate the pressure at point A
(at the bottom of the container).
6)
7)
8)
100mm and 10mm respectively. Find the effort required to lift a load 20KN. The
pistons are on the same level.
b)
The diameters of the pistons of a hydraulic jack are in the ratio 1:5. The pistons are
on the same level and a force 200N is applied to the smaller piston. Determine the
load that could be raised by the larger piston.
What would be the pressure in KN/m2, if the equivalent head is measured as 4000mm of
a)
b)
c)
The pressure at a point in the sea is 8 atmospheres. What is the depth of the point, if the
specific gravity of sea water is 1.17?
A
10m
Fig. Q9
Fig. Q9 is special Jar that contains water. If the pressure required to remove the cork at B is
150 Kpa, calculate the value of the pressure P that must be applied at A.
10)
A Utube manometer is arranged as shown in fig. Q10 to measure the pressure difference
between two points A and B in a pipeline conveying water of density = 103 Kg  m3.
The density of the manometer liquid Q is 13.6 x 103 Kg. m3 and point B is 0.3m higher than
point A. Calculate the pressure difference when h = 0.5m.
Fluid P of density
A
b
a
h
++
++
++++
++
++++
++
++++++
++
++ ++
++ ++++ ++++ ++ ++ ++++ ++
++ ++++
++ ++
++ ++
+++ ++ ++++++
++ ++
++ ++++
++ ++
++ ++ ++
Manometric liquid Q of
density man
Fig. Q10
PART B
1)
If the critical velocity of air in a pipe of 125mm diameter is 0.234 m/s, what would be the
Reynolds number.
Calculate also the critical velocity of water in the same pipe. Take the kinematics viscosity of
air as 1.46 x 105 m2 and that of water as 1.10 x 106 m2
2)
Oil of specific gravity 0.9 and viscosity 0.17 NS/m2 is pumped through a 75mm diameter
pipeline at the rate of 2.7 kg/s.
Show that the critical velocity is not exceeded.
3)
Water flows through a pipe 25mm in diameter at a velocity of 6 m/s. Determine whether
the flow would be laminar or turbulent assuming that the dynamic viscosity of water is
1.30 x 105 kg
ms
kg
ms
m3
is pumped through the same pipe, what type of flow will occur.?
WEEK 7
UNDERSTANDING THE ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE AND ITS
APPLICATION
7.0 BUOYANCY OF FLOATING BODIES
When ever a body is immersed wholly or partially in a fluid it is
subjected to an upward force which tends to lift (buoy) it up. This
tendency for an immersed body to be lifted up in the fluid, due to
an upward force opposite to action of gravity is known as
buoyancy. The force tending to lift up the body under such
condition is known as buoyant force or force of buoyancy or up
thrust. The magnitude of buoyant forces can be determined by
Archimedes principle.
7.1 Archimedes principles:
This states that when a body is wholly or partially immersed in
fluid, it experiences an up thrust which is equal to the weight of
fluid displaced. This is mainly about ships and boats: how they
managed to float upright, and why they sometimes do not.
Consider the equilibrium of a stationary floating object such as a
ship. Two forces act upon it its own weight W which is acting,
7.2
7.3 HYDROMETER
A given floating body will float at different height in liquids of
different densities for example, because the temperature and
salinity of the sea varies from place to place, its density also
values, and so a ship will float at different depths in different part
of the world. The depth at which a given body floats can be used
to indicate the density of the liquid. An instrument does it is called
a hydrometer.
The hydrometer is usually shaped as shown in the diagrams
below, weighted at the bottom so that it floats upright. The stem
is graduated.
(i)
By making the area A rather small, that is, by making the steam
narrow, we obtain a sensitive hydrometer, one which gives a large
change in height in for only a small difference (0) in densities.
7.4 FLOATING BODIES
Consider a wooden board that float in the position shown below.
From fig (i) the weight W=mg acts through the center of gravity G
and the upthrust R acts through the center of buoyancy B of the
displaced fluid in the same straight line as W. for body tilted at
angle the volume of liquid remains unchanged but the shape of
volume and its center of gravity changes while the center of
buoyancy move from B to B, and a turning moment, WX is
produced.
=w. GM.
Note that comparing fig (ii) and (iv), it can be seen that,
(I)
(II)
(III)
WEEK 8
DETERMINATION OF METACENTRIC HEIGHT OF A VISSEL.
p=px
Righting movement=W.GM
= 8 x 10
28.000x66x103
=0.43m
EXAMPLE 3
The crew of a small motor cruiser all moves to one side of the
vessel to wave to a passing boat. The displacement of the cruiser
is 40 tomes. The combined mass of the crew is 400kg and thing
are initiated distributed evenly over the width of the boat which is
4m. If the metacentric height of
The boat is 0.25m, through what angle does it turn when the crew
all move to one side
The angle, = PX
WGm
= 400X2
40,400X0.25
= 0.08 rad
:. Q=460.
WEEK 9:
UNDERSTANDING THE PRINCIPLE OF
CONSERVATION OF
MASS
9.1 PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
The theory of fluid flow tests on two principles namely the
principle of conservation of mass and principle of conservation of
energy. The principle of conservation of mass stated that matter
can neither be created nor destroyed but can be transformed from
one form to another
This principle can be applied to the flow of fluid. Using the
principle of conservation of mass, it can be said that in a given
period of time, the same mass of fluid that enter a system must be
equal to the amount of fluid flowing out.
9.2
CONSERVATION OF MASS
Consider a flow through a pipe of crossarea A1, density 1, and
valuation V1 at section (1) i.e. point of entry and 2, A2, V2 at
section (2) i.e. at outlet mass flow rate at section (1) = 1A1V1
Mass flow rate at section (2) = 2A2V2
(1)
(2)
Give the density of the fluid passing through the pipe of cross
section in unit time, the mass flow rate can found,
Mass flow rate, m = AV = Q (kg/m3/s)
The unit is kilogram per second (kg/s).
= 7.88 x 103
1.293 x 3
WEEK 10
UNDERSTANDING THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
10.1 CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
Consider an element of fluid shown below will posses potential
energy due to its height Z above datum and Kinetic energy due to
its velocity V and the same way as any other object.
For an element of weight, mg.
Potential energy = mg Z
Potential energy per unit weight = mgz = Z           (i)
mg
Kinetic energy = mg V2 = mV2
g
Kinetic energy per unit weight = mV2           (ii)
Force exerted on AB = PA
After a weight of fluid has flowed along the stream tube, section
K.E per
P.E per
unit weight
unit weight
P1
+ V2 +
2g
Total energy
Z1 = H         (IV)
Each of these has the dimension of length or head and they are
often referred to as his pressure head p/g, the velocity head
V2/2g the potential head Z and total head it. Applying this equation
between two points 1 and 2 on stream line, equation d becomes.
P1 + V12 + Z1 = P2 + V22 + Z2       (v)
g
QUIZ 1.
QUIZ 2.
QUIZ 3.
WEEK 12:
Momentum = MV .
The particles of a fluid stream will possess momentum, and, whenever the
velocity of the stream is changed in magnitude or direction, there will be a
corresponding change in the momentum of the fluid particles. In accordance
with Newtons second law, a force is required to produce this change, which
will be proportional to the rate at which the change of momentum occurs. The
force may be provided by contact between the fluid and a solid boundary (e.g.
the blade of a propeller or the wall of a bend in a pipe) or by one part of the
fluid stream acting on another. By Newtons third law, the fluid will exert an
equal and opposite force on the solid boundary or body of fluid producing the
change of velocity. Such forces are known as dynamic forces, since they arise
from the motion of the fluid and are additional to the static forces due to
pressure in a fluid; they occur even when the fluid is at rest.
To determine the rate of change of momentum in a fluid stream consider a
control volume ABCD (as shown below). As the fluid flow is assumed to be
steady and nonuniform in nature the continuity of mass flow across the
control volume may be expressed as.
l 2 A2V2 = l 1 A1V1 = m
i.e there is no storage within the control volume and m is the fluid mass flow.
The rate at which momentum exits the control volume across boundary
CD may be defined as
l 2 A2 V2V2
Similarly the rate at which momentum enters the control volume across AB
may be expressed as
l 1 A1V1V1
Thus the rate of change of momentum across the control volume may be seen
to be
l 2 A2V2V2 = l1 A1V1V1
Note that this is the increase of momentum per unit time in the direction of
motion, and according to Newtons second law will be caused by a force F ,
such that
This is the resultant force acting on the fluid element ABCD in the direction of
motion.
By Newtons third law, the fluid will exert an equal and opposite reaction on its
surroundings.
12.2
corresponding angle
Similarly,
F = F
2
x
+F
Again, the force exerted by the fluid on the surroundings with be equal and
opposite. For three dimensional flows, the same method can be used, but the
fluid will also have component velocities Vz1 and Vz2 in the z direction and the
corresponding rate of change of momentum in this direction will require a
force
Fz = m V z VZ 1
QUIZ
Derive the momentum equation and the resultant force for a fluid flow in pipe
for both two and three dimensional flow.
velocity of the jet respectively. The jet after striking this plate [vertical],will get
its direction changed through 90 ; but, it will move on and off the plate with
velocity v, if we neglect the friction between the jet and the plate as is possible
when the plate is smooth. If the friction is considered, the velocity of liquid
coming off the plate will be slightly less than v.
The force exerted by the jet on the plate [assuming is smooth] in the
direction of jet. [X direction],
Fx =Rate of change momentum [in the direction of force]
= [Initial momentumfinal momentum]
= Impulse momentum principle.
= [mass/sec] x [velocity of jet before striking the plate velocity of jet
after
striking the plate].
= aV [V0]
Or
Fx = aV2
Where = mass density of liquid; a = area of jet and d = diameter of the jet.
It may be noted that a jet leaves in the direction normal to Xaxis, the final
velocity in the Xdirection is zero
HELD INCLINED TO
THE JET
The fig. below shows the stationary flat plate inclined at 0 to the direction of
horizontal jet. If a and v are the crosssectional area and velocity of the jet
respectively, then the mass of liquid per second striking the plate
= x aV
After striking the plate (assuming it smooth), the jet leaves the plate with
velocity equal to initial velocity (V).
Let us apply the impulsemomentum equation in the direction normal to the
plate. Force in normal direction, Fn = aV (Vsin  0)
= aV2 sin
This normal force can be resolved into two components; component Fx parallel
to the direction of jet and component Fy, normal to the direction of the jet
Fx = Fn sin = aV2 sin x sin = aV2 sin2
Fy = Fn cos = aV2 sin x cos
Consider a fluid jet striking a stationary curved plate (smooth) at the centre
shown below. The jet after striking the plate comes out with the same velocity,
in the tangential direction of the curved plate.
The velocity at the outlet of the plate can be resolved into the following two
components:
i.
ii.
Or
Fx = aV2 (1 + cos )
Similarly,
Fy = aV (V1y V2y)
Where
NOTE
The resultant of the force F = Fx2 + Fy2
V = 30m/s
Example 2: A jet of water strikes with a velocity of 35m/s a flat plate inclined at
300 with the axis of the jet. If the crosssectional area of the jet is 25cm2,
determine:
i.
ii.
F = aV2 sin
= 1000 x (25 x 104) x 352 x sin 300
= 1531.25N (Ans.)
ii.
QUIZ 1.
QUIZ 2.
QUIZ 3.
2.
Turbulent flow:  This occurs when the fluid particle move in very
irregular paths causing an exchange of momentum from one
portion of a fluid to another. This is also called a non viscous flow.
Laminar flow tends occur when the fluid velocity s small or the
fluid velocity is large or both the turbulent flow sets up greater
shear stresses and causes more mechanical energy to be
converted to thermal energy.
3.
4.
5.
Uniform Flow: This occurs when, at every point the velocity vector
is identical in magnitude and direction at any given instant. That is
du
du
He
used
thin
ud
= 13.3
and this is less than 2000, so the flow is laminar.
Quiz 1:
A pipeline 700mm in diameter carries a flow of methane gas at
150C and gauge pressure 3 bars. The density of the gas is
2.70kg/m3 and its viscosity is 1.15 x 105 N s/m2. The mean
velocity of flow of the gas is 0.95 m/s.
Quiz 2
Find the friction factor of the conditions given in questions 1, and
estimate the pressure drop in a 100m length of the pipeline. The
Vd
15.1 PUMP
A pump is a machine which provides energy to a fluid in a fluid system. It
assists to increase the pressure energy or kinetic energy or both of the
fluid by converting the mechanical energy.
15.1.1CLASSIFICATION OF PUMP
On the basic of transfer of mechanical energy the pumps can be
classified as follows:1.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
Centrifugal pump
2.
i.
Reciprocating pump
ii.
Plunger pump
iii.
Piston pump
iv.
Diaghran pump
15.1.2CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
A centrifugal pump consists of the following main component that is
impeller, casing, suction pipe and delivery pipe. The impeller is a wheel
(or rotor) with a series of backward curved vanes (or blades). It is
mounted on a shaft which is usually coupled to an electric motor. The
casing is an air tight chamber surrounding the pump impeller. It contains
suction and discharge arrangements, supporting for bearings and
facilitate to house the rotor assembly. It has a provision to fix stuffing
box and house packing material which prevent external leakage. The
pipe which connect the center/eye of the impeller to sump from which
liquid is to be lifted is known as suction pipe. In order to check the
formation of air pocket the pipe is laid air tight.
The centrifugal pump works on the principles that when a certain mass
of fluid is rotated by an external source, it is thrown away from the
central axis of rotation and a centrifugal head is produce which enable it
to rise to higher level. As the impeller rotate at an angular velocity with
the aid of a shaft and the electric motor, it creates a vacuum that force
the liquid into the housing which subsequently discharge out through
the discharge pipes.
15.2.1
15.2.2
15.3.1
i.
ii.
Kaplan turbine. Here the runner also has two vanes attached to a hub or
a boss and are mounted in such a way that their angles can be adjusted
while the turbine is in motion. These blades are usually adjusted
automatically by means of a servo motor governing. With the change of
angle of the runner blade at varying load condition, quantity of water
passing through the blades also changes to suit the varying load
conditions. This type of turbine thus has a speciality that it gives good
efficiency even at different load conditions and water flows over the
blades without shock.
F
Area of plunger
= F
a
As per Pascals law, the above intensity P will be equally transmitted in all
directions.
The pressure intensity on ram = p = F = W
a
or
W=F x A
a
Compressed air has been accepted as more useful power medium and
replacing steam, because of the following advantages.
Compressed air can transmitted from one point to another with ease.
Use of compressed air is safe.
The tools using compressed air do not overheat in use and are cheaper
and easy to maintain.
Pneumatic tools are lighter than similar ones using steam.
high speed and can be directly coupled to turbine, electric motors etc.
Rotary compressors deliver more clean air and uniform delivery of air is
obtained.