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EFFECT OF WATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON THE

GROWTH AND YIELD OF RICE

A Thesis
By

SANJIT CHANDRA BARMAN


Examination Roll No. 12 Ag. ENVS. JJ-15M
Registration No. 28022
Session 2000-2001
Semester: January-June, 2013

MASTER OF SCIENCE
IN
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE


BANGLADESH AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
MYMENSINGH-2202

MAY 2013

EFFECT OF WATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON THE


GROWTH AND YIELD OF RICE

A Thesis
By
SANJIT CHANDRA BARMAN
Examination Roll No. 12 Ag. ENVS. JJ-15M
Registration No. 28022
Session 2000-2001
Semester: January-June, 2013

Submitted to
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE
IN
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE


BANGLADESH AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
MYMENSINGH-2202

MAY 2013

EFFECT OF WATER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON THE


GROWTH AND YIELD OF RICE
A Thesis
Submitted to
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
Master of Science
in
Environmental Science
By
SANJIT CHANDRA BARMAN
Examination Roll No. 12 Ag. ENVS. JJ-15M
Registration No. 28022
Session 2000-2001
Semester: January-June, 2013
Approved as to style and contents by

______________________________
(Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Ali)
Supervisor

______________________
(Prof. Dr. M.A. Sattar)
Co-Supervisor

____________________
(Prof. Dr. M.A. Sattar)
Chairman, Defense Committee
&
Head, Department of Environmental Science
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202
May 2013

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At the beginning, the author bows to the grace and mercy of the almighty God without whose
desire he could not make his dream a reality, a successful completion of the research and submission
of the dissertation.
The author really does not have adequate word to express his deepest sense of gratification ever
indebtedness and sincere appreciation to his benevolent teacher and honorable research supervisor
Professor Dr. Muhammad Aslam Ali, Department of Environmental Science, Bangladesh
Agricultural University, Mymensingh, for his scholastic guidance, valuable suggestions, timely
instructions, and constant encouragement for the successful completion of the research work.
The author is deeply indebted to his co-supervisor Professor Dr.M .A Sattar, Department of
Environmental Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh for his kind
cooperation, incisive criticism of the earlier draft of this study. His contribution and suggestions
helped the author to overcome many errors during the course of this work.
The author fells obliged to express heartfelt gratitude to all of his respected teachers taught him
and showed affections upon him throughout his study at the faculty of Agriculture, Bangladesh
Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
The auther expressces his cordial thanks to his wife Krisna Rani Sarker who helped him directly by
continuous support during the whole period of study at BAU, Mymensingh.

Last but no way the least, the author would like to convey all his gratitude and respect to
his parents for their heartiest blessings, endless sacrifices and dedicated efforts to establish
his luminous carrier. He also owes a debt of gratitude to his a brothers and all other
relatives for their blessings, constant inspiration an endless love, who have sweet much to
bring him up in todays position and keen interest to have higher studies continued.
Finally, the author expresses his deepest sense of gratitude and sincere thanks to all his
kith and kin, friends, well wishers and all those whose names could not be mentioned, but
who have extended their co-operation, continuous inspiration blessing throughout the
entire period of academic fife.
The author
May 2013

iv

ABSTRACT
A field experiment was carried out at Muktagacha, Mymensingh during the
Boro season of 2012-2013 to find out the effects of alternate wetting and
drying irrigation (AWDI) methods on the growth and yield of rice. The
experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with six
(6) irrigation treatments. Three treatments, T1, T3 and T5 were selected in which
continuous standing water was maintained at a depth of' 5cm. Three AWDI
treatments, T2, T4 and T6 were used in which irrigations were applied when
water level dropped 20, 10 and 15cm below ground level, respectively. All the
irrigation treatments significantly affected the rice yield and some other yield
contributing parameters. The study revealed that the highest grain yield (5.82
t/ha) was found in treatment T6. On the contrary treatment T1 gave a yield of
3.35 t/ha, T2 4.47 t/ha, T3 4.81 t/ha, T4 5.46 t/ha and T5 5.05 t/ha. The higher
water requirement were found in the treatments T1 (131.8cm), T3 (131.8cm)
and T5 (126.8cm) respectfully while treatment T2, T4 and T6 needed 111.8,
121.8 and 116.8cm respectfully. The study revealed that AWDI plots
significantly increased the number of effective tillers per hill, grain yield, straw
yield and biological yield compared to the control plots. Although the AWDI
treated (T2) plots showed maximum water savings (15.1%) however rice yield
(4.47 t/ha) was significantly lower compared to T6 treatment (5.81 t/ha).
Considering all the results from the experiment, it can be inferred that AWDI
treatment T6 (15cm below ground level), would be the best choice for the water
saving (11.3%) and highest rice yield in silty loam soil and highest water
productivity index was T6 (0.498) and lowest water productivity index was T1
(0.254). Under different irrigation treatments shows percent yield increased,
percent water saved, and increased water productivity index.

LIST OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER

TITLE

PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

iv

ABSTRACT

CONTENTS

vi

LIST OF TABLES

viii

LIST OF FIGURES

ix

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

1.

INTRODUCTION

1-3

2.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

4-11

3.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

12-26

3.1

Experimental Site

12

3.1.1

Location

12

3.1.2

Soil characteristics

12

3.1.3

Climatic conditions

13

3.2

Field Experimental Design

13

3.2.1

Selection of plot area

14

3.2.2

Preparation of the field

15

3.2.3

Fertilizer application

15

3.2.4

Measurement through perforated piper

15

3.2.5

Intercultural operations

16

3.3

Irrigation Treatments

16

3.4

Transplantations of Seedlings

17

3.4.1

Selection of variety

17

3.4.2

Transplanting

17

3.5

Irrigation Requirement

18

3.6

Determination of Effective Rainfall

18

3.7

Determination of Crop water Requirement (WR)

19

vi

LIST OF CONTENTS (CONTD.)


CHAPTER TITLE

PAGE

3.8

Determination of water savings

19

3.9

Determination of Water Productivity Index (WPI)

19

3.10

Harvest Operations

20

3.10.1

Harvesting and threshing

20

3.10.2

Determination of moisture content

20

3.10.3

Grain yield and straw yield

20

3.10.4

Collection of data on yield and yield contributing parameters

20

4.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1

Irrigation Treatments

24

4.2

Effect of Irrigation Treatments on Yield and Yield


Contributing Parameters.

27

4.2.1

Effect of irrigation treatments on number of effective tillers


per hill

27

4.2.2

Effect of irrigation treatments on panicle length

28

4.2.3

Effect of irrigation treatments on the number of filled grains


per panicle

28

4.2.4

Effect of irrigation treatments on 1000 grain weight

28

4.2.5

Effect of irrigation treatments on grain yield

29

4.2.6

Effect of irrigation treatment (AWDI) on straw yield

29

4.2.7

Effect of water stress on harvest index (HI)

30

5.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

31-33

REFERENCES

34-38

vii

24-31

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE

TITLE OF THE TABLES

PAGE

3.1

Physico-chemical properties of soil of the experimental site

12

3.2

Monthly weather data of the study area during the experimental


period (2010)

13

3.3

Fertilizer doses as applied to the experimental plots

15

3.4

Details of the seedling collected for the experiment

17

3.5

Information related to transplantation of seedlings

18

4.1

Statement of water application of different irrigation treatments

25

4.2

Effect of different irrigation treatments on the yield and yield


contributing parameters of rice (BRRIdhan 28)

26

viii

LIST OF FIGURES
SL. NO.

TITLE OF THE FIGURES

PAGE

3.1

Layout of the experimental plots

3.2

Experimental pipe used in rice field

21

3.3

Establishment of AWDI pipe in rice field

21

3.4

AWDI pipe in rice field

22

3.5

To monitoring water level in rice field

22

3.6

Consultancy with farmers about AWDI Method

23

4.1

Irrigation requirements for different treatments

25

4.2

Variations of number of effective tiller hill-1 for different


irrigation treatments

27

Variations of 1000-grain weight for different irrigation


treatments

28

4.4

Variations of straw yield for different irrigation treatments

29

4.5

Water productivity index for different irrigation treatments

30

4.3

ix

14

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AWDI

Alternate Wetting and Drying Irrigation

BAU

Bangladesh Agricultural University

BRRI

Bangladesh Rice Research Institute

cm

Centimeter

FAO

Food and Agricultural Organization

Fig.

Figure

Kg

Kilogram

Kg/ha

Kilogram per hectare

LSD

Least Significant Difference

LS

Level of Significance

MV

Modern Variety

MOP

Muriate of Potash

RCBD

Randomized Complete Block Design

TSP

Triple Super Phosphate

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Alternate Wet and Dry Irrigation (AWDI) is a water management system where
rice fields are not kept continuously submerged but are allowed to dry
intermittently during the rice growing stages. Water is the most important
component of sustainable rice production, especially in the traditional rice growing
areas of Asia. From time immemorial, rice has been grown in lowland areas under
flooded conditions. More than 75 percent of the world's rice is produced under these
conventional irrigation practices (i.e., continuous flooding) (Van der Hoek et al.,
2001). Rice grown under traditional practices in the Asian tropics and subtropics
requires between 700-1500 mm of water per cropping season depending on soil
texture (Bhuiyan, 1992). However, this conventional water management method
leads to a high amount of surface runoff, seepage, and percolation that can account for
50-80 percent of the total water input (Sharma, 1989).
Recently, the scarcity of, water has been increasing worldwide. By 2025, the per
capita available water resources in Asia are expected to decline by 15-54 percent
compared with that of 1990 availability (Guerra et al., 1998). Agriculture's share of
water will decline at faster rate because of the increasing competition for available
water from urban and industrial sectors. Despite the constraints of water scarcity, rice
production and productivity must rise in order to address the growing demand for
rice driven largely by population growth and rapid economic development in Asia.
Therefore, producing more rice with less water is therefore a formidable challenge
for achieving food and water security for these regions (Facon, 2000). In other
words, the efficiency of water use in irrigated rice production systems must be
significantly increased.
One such strategy to address this need is the use of alternate wet/dry irrigation
method (AWDI) for cultivated rice. This method is increasingly used in parts of
Asia, especially in Japan, China, Korea, Thailand, Indonesia and India. Contrary to
most lowland rice-growing practices used throughout the world, the rice field is not

under continuous flooding but instead, is irrigated intermittently during the


production period (Van der Hoek et al., 2001). AWDI is a water management
strategy that can increase the water use efficiency at the field level by reducing
seepage and percolation during the production period.
Experience with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) techniques also shows that
farmers who grow irrigated rice with continuous flooding have been wasting large
vohimes of water (Uphoff, 2006). The SRI is a production system that emphasize the
use of younger seedlings (< 15 days) planted singly and at wider spacing, together
with the adoption of intermittent irrigation, organic fertilization, and active soil
aeration to the extent possible (Stoop et al., 2002; Uphoff, 2007). The SRI
system shows that keeping paddy soils moist but not continuously saturated gives
better results, both agronomically and economically, than flooding rice throughout
its crop cycle. SRI methods enable farmers to reduce their irrigation by 25-50%
while

realizing

higher

and

more

profitable

production

(Uphoff

and

Randriamiharisoa, 2002; Anthofer, 2004; Namara et al., 2004; Li et al., 2005; Sato,
2005; Uphoff, 2006).
However, good water control and minimal use of water is both the most controversial
component in rice farming and the factors most difficult for farmers to regulate.
Also, due to the variation in climatic and edaphic factors, results from AWDI
methods adopted in one area may not correlate with other areas. The current study,
therefore, was undertaken to identify the effects of alternate wetting and drying
periods on rice productivity, soil environment. e.g. soil moisture content, soil
porosity and microbial growth under field condition.

Considering the above views and points the present study was undertaken to
achieve the following major objectives:
To find out the growth performance and yield of rice under different
irrigation management practices.
To determine the suitable irrigation water management practice (AWDI),
percents of water use efficiency for optimum rice yield and percent of water
savings and increased water productivity index.
To determine the effects of water management practices (AWDI,
Conventional Flooding Irrigation) on soil moisture content, soil organic
matter content, soil pH and soil nutrient availability.

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Obermueller and Mikkelsen (2013) conducted the growth and development of
rice, cv. Calrose, was closely observed from seedling stage to maturity in a
controlled greenhouse environment. At harvest the yield components, total yield of
grain and straw, root production and distribution, and total uptake of N, P, K, Ca,
Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, and S were determined. Rice plants grown under flooded
conditions were superior to non-flooded plants except for the first 40 days after
planting.
Tejendra et al. (2011) proposed that alternate Wet and Dry Irrigation (AWDI) is a
water management system where rice fields are not kept continuously submerged
but are allowed to dry intermittently during the rice growing stage. A field
experiment was conducted in Chiba, Japan during the rice growing season (MaySeptember) of 2008 to assess AWDI and continuous submerged water management
practices for their effects on productivity, the surrounding environment, water
savings, and Water Productivity Index (WPI). The impact of age of seedlings and
plant spacing were also assessed.
Iswandi et al. (2011) conducted this communication reports on separate research
efforts in India and Indonesia to evaluate the effects that modifying methods of
plant, soil, water and nutrient management could have on populations of soil
organisms, particularly on those that can have beneficial consequences for crop
growth and yield. Comparison of these parallel studies draws attention to the
impacts that management can have on the soil biota, given that certain organisms
are known to have positive implications for plants nutrition, health, and
productivity.
Issaka et al. (2008) conducted rice production in Ghana faces several problems:
notably water shortage, low soil fertility, poor soil and water management and
appropriate varieties for the various production systems. A study was started in

2006 and repeated in 2007 with the main objective of comparing the effect of four
soil and water management practices on the growth and yield of four rice varieties.
Joginder et al. (2008) proposed that long-term sodic-water irrigation may
adversely affect the quality of soil organic carbon along with some soil properties.
The extent to which the adverse effects can be ameliorated through the use of
gypsum and amendments needs to be known. Soil properties and microbial biomass
carbon (MBC) were studied after 14 years of sodic water (SW) irrigation and
application of different levels of gypsum, farmyard manure (FYM), green manure
(GM), and wheat straw (WS) to a sandy loam soil. Irrigation with SW increased
pH, electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, exchangeable sodium
percentage (ESP), and bulk density, and decreased final infiltration rate of soil.
Application of gypsum and organic amendments reversed these trends. Decrease in
MBC due to SW irrigation was from 132.5 to 44.6 mg/kg soil in the 0-75 mm soil
layer and from 49.0 to 17.3 mg/kg soil in the 75-150 mm soil layer. Application of
gypsum and organic amendments significantly increased MBC; GM and FYM were
more effective than WS. Changes in soil ESP explained 85 and 75% variation in
MBC in the unlamented and organically amended SW treatments, respectively.
John et al. (2008) proposed that microbial activities important to effects on crop
productivity and nutrient cycling can be altered by agricultural management
practices. This study was conducted to determine whether soil microbial
populations and their N cycling activities differ between conventional and
alternative management practices. Physical, chemical, and microbial soil properties
were measured at soil depth intervals of 0 to 7.5, 7.5 to 15, and 15 to 30 cm at a site
in southeastern Pennsylvania during the second and fifth years after conversion
from a conventional, chemically intensive system to alternative systems utilizing
legumes and animal manure as N sources.
Hossain (2008) conducted experiment on a small scale at the farm of Bangabandhu
Sheikh Mujibur Raman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur to find out
possible effects of different level of irrigation on the production of MV Boro rice

(BRRIdhan 29). The experiment conducted in small pots using randomized


complete block design (RCBD) was given ten irrigation treatments and replicated
five items to obtain more representative results. To measure water level depletion
perforated pipes were installed. The result showed that the lowest (4.99 t/ha) yield
was obtained when saturated condition was maintained and water level in the pipe
depleted 8 inches below the ground level. The yield was 6.99 t/ha maintained when
continuous submergence at a depth of 2 inches was maintained. The second highest
yield (6.89 t/ha) was obtained for the treatment T2 (10 cut water depleted from
ground surface) though the water requirement in this case was critically lower than
the previous one. The study also revealed that higher plant heights were attributed
by an increasing water requirement. Considering the water productivity treatment
T2 was found to be the best without major reduction in yield.
Jha et al. (2007) conducted a field experiment at the Bangladesh Agricultural
University farm was conducted by to compare the traditional water management
practices in the rice field with the modern water saving techniques. The experiment
was figured using split plot design and consisted of 5 irrigation treatments viz.,
continuous submergence, application of irrigation water 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after
the disappearance of standing water from the plots, respectively. They also reported
an increase in plant height with the increase in water requirement though its effect
on the production unit remained insignificant. He recommended that 5 cm irrigation
water should be applied 3 days after the disappearances of standing water from the
soil surface to obtain the maximum water use efficiency.
Studies on utilization of irrigation water in rice field and water saving techniques
like shallow application of water was conducted by the Bangladesh Rice Research
Institute (BRRI) in different stations around the country during 2005 and 2006
which recommended that irrigation in Boro rice field should be provided 3 days
after disappearing of standing water. Such a practice is economically more
beneficial than the traditional practice of continuous standing water. In yield gap
studies conducted in the Boro seasons of 2005 and 2006. BRRIdhan 29 with BRRI
recommended practices produced grain yield of 8.73 t/ha which was about 47

percent higher than farmers practice (5.96 t/ha) at Kapasia, Gazipur. Such a
practice is economically more beneficial than the traditional practice of continuous
standing water (BRRI, 2006).
BRRI (2007) reported from experiments the interaction effect of irrigation interval
based on perched water table depth for water saving and N fertilization methods in
rice cultivation. In this experiment, conventional method of fertilizer application
was found better. Poly Venal Carbon (PVC) tube was concluded to be one of the
easiest tools for determining perched water table depth for water saving in rice
field.
Experiments conducted by BINA on different rice varieties revealed that
intermittent irrigation technique, what they call alternate flooding and drying
irrigation (AFDI) saved more than 40 percent irrigation water with insignificant
reduction in yield (BINA 2007). Hence BINA recommended maintaining an
interval of 5 to 7 days between consecutive irrigations. It was also found that AFDI
technique reduced continuous decline of water table (BINA. 2007).
Islam et al. (2005) conducted experiments oil glass house at the Bangladesh
Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) farm to find out the effect of water stress in
two drought tolerant rice mutants developed by BINA. Five irrigation treatments
were used in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated thrice. The
found the highest grain yield (7.07 t/ha) in treatment T3 (3 cm standing water +
water stress up to 80 percent field capacity), hill the highest water productivity was
found in treatment T5 (3 cm standing Neater + water stress up to 40 percent field
capacity). The study revealed that the mutants could withstand stress up to 40
percent field capacity.
Ceesay and Uphoff (2005) conducted in lowland rice farming, water control is the
most important management practice that determines the efficacy of other
production inputs such as nutrients, herbicides, pesticides, farm machines,
microbial activity, mineralization rate, etc. Poor drainage that keeps soil saturated is
detrimental to crops and degrades soil quality. In many rice irrigation systems,

drainage mechanisms and practices are dysfunctional or inadequate because


farmers believe that rice grows best when water is supplied in abundance. Rice
fields are therefore kept continuously flooded and are drained only at time of
harvest. This practice is not only wasteful, but also leads to leaching of soluble
nutrients, blocks soil microbial activities, and slows down mineralization and
nutrient release from the soil complexes.
Santos et al. (2005) conducted in Brazil, rice is produced in two ecosystems:
lowland with flood irrigation and rained upland. Most rice fields are on Oxisols
with low water-holding capacity and often with low fertility. Moreover, rice
cropping in upland conditions is considered of high climatic risk, because of its
dependency of regular rainfall. In the most risky areas, the lower productivity of
upland rice as compared with flooded rice is mainly attributed to one to two dry
spells (veranicos) during the rainy season.
Won et al. (2005) carried out a study to improve water productivity (the grain yield
per unit volume of water irrigated) by water-saving irrigation techniques e.g. the
effects of very shallow intermittent irrigation (VSII) with 2 cm irrigation shallow
intermittent irrigation (SII) with 4cm irrigation and traditional deep water irrigation
(DWI) with more than 10 cm oil rice growth and yield in the field for two years.
The amount of irrigation water during the rice-growing period (average of two
years) was 318, 391 and 469 mills in VSII, SII and DWI, respectively.
Rice growth and grain yield were not significantly influenced by the treatments. As
the irrigation water input decreased, the water productivity increased. The water
productivity was increased by 46 percent in VSII and 20 percent in SII, on an
average, compared to DWI. The shallower the irrigation depth the lower was the
breaking weight and consequently the higher the lodging resistance, the deeper was
the roots in file soil. In DWI, the percentage of head rice was lower and the
potential content was higher, suggesting deterioration in the palatability of cooked
rice due to the increase of chalky rice. The water-saving rate was 32.9 percent in
VSII and 17.2 percent in Sil as compared with typical deep water irrigation in
Korea.

Belder et al. (2004) conducted some experiments in irrigated lowlands and


followed alternate submerged to non submerged (ASNS) practices as recommended
to farmers in China. The sites had silty clay loam soils, shallow groundwater tables
and percolation rates of I to 4.5 min per day. Grain yields were 4.1 to 5.0 t/ha with
1.40 kg N/ha and 6.8 to 9.2 t/ha with 180 kg N/ha. Biomass and yield did not
significantly differ between ASNS and continuous submergence (CS), but water
productivity was significantly higher under ASNS than under CS in two out of
three experiments. There was no significant interaction (Water x N) on yield,
biomass and water productivity. During the non submerged periods, pounded water
depths or shallow groundwater tables never went deeper than 35cm and remained
most of the time within the rooted depth and the soil water potentials did not drop
below-kPa. The results were typical for poorly drained irrigated lowlands in Asia
and revealed that ASNS can reduce water use without affecting yield if the shallow
groundwater stays within 30cm below ground level.
Balasubramanian et al. (2001) conducted a study focusing on reducing the water
requirement and improving water use efficiency in wet seeded and puddled lowland
rice. Field experiments were conducted in collaboration with the Chinwag
University, Zinhazw, at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimhatore, India,
during the Kharif and Rabi seasons of 1997 in a randomized block design with nine
levels of irrigation, replicated three times. Irrigation levels significantly influenced
the weed population and biomass in both seasons. Grain yield was the highest with
irrigation at 5 cm depth 1 day after the disappearance of ponded water in direct
seeded rice, transplanted rice and continuous submergence of 2.5 cm. Water use
was the maximum with transplanted rice due to extended land preparation and
nursery rising. Continuous submergence of 2.5cm on wet seeded rice recorded the
highest water productivity and saved 25 percent and 24 percent water than the
transplanted rice in the Kharif and Rabi seasons, respectively, without impairing
productivity and net returns. Higher water productivity considerable net returns and
benefit-cost ratio clearly showed the scope for economizing irrigation water by
continuous submergence of 2.5cm and may be recommended for wet seeded rice in

lieu of 5cm which resulted in 25 percent savings in irrigation water than that of
transplanted rice.
Moya et al. (2001) used the alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation
technique and continuous water application were to evaluate the on-farm water
management strategies for rice production in Tuanlin and Wenjiaxiang, Huberi,
China during the wet seasons of 1999 and 2000. Detailed data regarding on-farm
water management strategies, such as frequency and timing of irrigation, depth of
water applied, sources of water, pond and pump use were collected from 30 sample
farmers from each site through field interviews. Input and output data of rice
production including prices were also collected for economic comparison of the
two sites in terms of rice production and profitability. Results showed that most
fanners do not practice a pure form of AWD or of continuous flooding. However,
more farmers in both sites practiced AWD in 2000, when there was a higher
shortage of irrigation water than in 1999.
Cabangon et al. (2001) executed a study whose objective was to quantify the
impact of alternate welting and drying irritation (AWD) and timing of N-fertilizer
application on rice growth, water input, water productivity and fertilizer-use
efficiency. The experiment was carried out in Jinhua. Zhejiang Province and in
Tuanlin, Hubei Province, China following a Split-plot design. The main plots
received 2 water treatments (W1 = AWD irrigation and W2 = continues flooding).
The subplot consisted of four N-application treatment (Fo = Control, no = N
fertilizer, F1 = 2 splits, as farmers practices; F2 = 4 and F3 = 5 or 6 splits
depending on the season) The total N input all season was 150 and 180 kg N/ha in
Jinhua and TL, respectively.
Didiek (1998) conducted a field experiment at the farm level in Indonesia, to study
intermittent irrigation techniques and their influences on water saving. The aim of'
the study was to understand the response of several rice varieties under various
intermittent irrigation patterns and to determine water use efficiency and
effectiveness. The experimental design was split plot design with three replications

10

of five levels of intermittent irrigation. The sub-plot factors were three rice verities.
There was no correspondence between variety and intermittent irrigation for crop
growth and yield. Flooding of 5 to 7 cm during the vegetative and ripening stages
or flooding during the vegetative and reproductive stages showed higher water use
efficiency than continuous flooding. The yield of rice variety was higher than
Wricul and Ciliwung rice verities under all intermittent irrigation treatments.
Dalal and Mayer (1987) proposed that microbial biomass in soils with different
clay contents and under different management, corrected for years of cropping.
Microbial biomass has declined in both soils after 30 years of cropping. However,
the Waco soil has retained more of its microbial biomass carbon due to its higher
clay content, which has helped preserve its stocks of organic carbon.

11

CHAPTER 3

MATERIALS AND METHODS


3.1 Experimental Site
3.1.1 Location
This work was carried out at Muktagacha, Mymensingh. It is within the municipal
area of the district town and well facilitated with all kinds of modern and
mechanized agricultural accessories. The experimental site was situated in between
2446 to 2502 N and 91o42 to 9200 E. The topography of the land being plane
was very suitable for check basin irrigation with uniform submergence of soil in all
the experimental plots. There was a reservoir for water SLIPPIV, just a short
distance away form the plots. The experimental plots were located inside a close
growing rice field that provided an actual rice growing environment in the site.
3.1.2 Soil characteristics
Analysis of the soil physical properties showed that the textural class of the soil in
the experimental field was silty loam and of grey colour. Soil fertility parameters
are presented in Table 3.1
Table 3.1 Physico-chemical properties of soil of the experimental site
pH
4.8

Organic
matter (%)

Zn

Soil

(%)

(ug/g)

(ml/100g)

(ug/g)

(ug/g)

texture

2.59

0.15

0.19

15

0.56

Silty loam

12

3.1.3 Climatic conditions


Climatologically parameters affect the production most than any other factor. Some
weather data of the experimental site for the period of experiment were collected
from Muktagacha, Mymensingh. These are presented in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Monthly weather data of the study area during the experimental
period (2013)
Month

Rainfall (cm)

Air temperature (C)


Maximum Minimum Average

Relative
humidity
(%)

Total rainfall
(mm)

No. of
rainy
days

January

27.30

12.40

19.85

62

February

0.5

29.50

14.90

22.20

46

March

221.5

33.10

20.60

26.85

51

April

733.1

24

30.50

21.60

26.05

73

3.2 Field experimental design


The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD)
having 3 blocks and 6 irrigation treatments. Each block represented a replication
and contained 6 experimental plots. The six irrigation treatments were allocated to
these plots at random. So, there were 18 experimental plots all together. Fig.3.1
shows a layout of the experimental plots.

13

`N

T1

T2

Treatment 1

1.5 m
1.0 m

T3

1.5 m

1.5 m

Treatment 2

Treatment 3

Treatment 4

Treatment 5

Treatment 6

T2

T3

T4

T3

T4

T5

T4

T5

T6

T5

T6

T1

T6

T1

T2

Replication 2

Replication 3

Replication 1

Fig. 3.1 Layout of the experimental plots


3.2.1 Selection of plot area
The dimension of an experimental plot was 1.5m X 1.5m. The plot size was
selected based on the facilities available for rice production. Moreover, a wide and
open horizon along with availability of unobstructed sunshine. irrigation facilities,
ease of water conveyance were among the other factors considered.

14

3.2.2 Preparation of the field


The experimental field was prepared by a power tiller and a ladder. It was then
fragmented into 6 major blocks. Each block was then divided into 6 experimental
plots. The plots were surrounded by 25cm wide and 20cm high levees and
separated by 1.0 in transition zones. A 1.5 in huffier zone was maintained between
he blocks (Fig.3.1). The buffer zones were created to prevent seepage between 4
joining plots.
3.2.3 Fertilizer application
Standard recommended doses or fertilizers were used in the experimental plots.
Triple superphosphate (TSP), murate of potash (MOP), gypsum and zinc sulphate
fertilizers were applied only once before transplanting, whereas urea was applied
thrice after transplantation (Table 3.3).
Table 3.3 Fertilizer doses as applied to the experimental plots
Before Transplantation
Fertilizer
Dose (kg/ha)
TSP

130

MOP
Gypsum
Zinc sulphate

166
50
9.52

After Transplantation
Fertilizer

Date of Application

Urea

05-02-13

Dose
(kg/ha)
170

3.2.4 Measurement through perforated pipes


The technique of alternate wetting and drying practice is quite new in the region. In
this experiment some pieces of PVC pipe were used to measure the depletion of
soil water in the field. The diameter of the PVC pipe was 7.5 cm. The pipes were
perforated to intake water from the saturated soil zone. The length of the pipes was
30 cm. The 30cm long pipes were installed in the treatments of T2, T4 and T6 where
water level fell 10, 20 and 15cm below the ground level respectively. The pipe was
installed in the field keeping 10cm above the soil to check floating debris getting
inside the pipe. After irrigation had been applied, water entered in the pipe through

15

small perforations and the water level inside the pipe was at the same level as that
of outside. With the progress of time, the water in the soil got depleted and at some
moment the standing water above the ground level disappeared. But a close
observation revealed that there was water in tile soil and that level was indicated by
the water level inside the pipe. Thus, irrigation water was applied when the
depleting water table inside the pipe reached a certain level.
3.2.5 Intercultural operations
Since the weed competes with the rice plant and shares the available nutrients in the
soil, all the weeds were uprooted by hand whenever it got its head up in the
experimental plots.
3.3 Irrigation treatments
Different levels of irrigation were applied to determine the suitable one considering
the rice growth and yield, water savings technology. In each of the cases, the field
was allowed to be dried up to a certain level. The depleted water table was
observed from the pipes installed in the field. A wooden stick scale was used to
measure the water level inside the pipe. The experiment had six irrigation
treatments.
The treatments were as follows:
T1 = 10 cm standing water maintained 1st 3 weeks, then kept 5cm throughout
the growing season;
T2 = Irrigation when water level in the pipe fell 20cm below the ground
level;
T3 = 5 cm standing water maintained throughout the growing season;
T4 = Irrigation water when water level fell 10cm below ground level;
T5 = Irrigation water for 1st 3 weeks, then mid season drain out, re-flooding
at flowering
T6 = Irrigation when water level in the pipe fell 15cm (6) below the ground
level.

16

3.4 Transplantation of Seedlings


3.4.1 Selection of variety
Selection of rice variety was really a critical choice to be made. A critical choice
takes into account the popularity of some location specific varieties in one hand and
the high yield potential on the other hand. BRRIdhan 28 is a variety, developed by
the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), has both popularity and high yield
potential. It has the following characteristics:
Ripen grain is of golden color but rice white, fine and palatable;
Usual planting and harvesting times are third week of December and last
week of April. respectively;
Lateral leaves are not erect and efflorescence at the top:
Average growth duration is 135 days and average yield 5.82t/ha.
In this experiment BRRIdhan 28 was selected as a specimen. Seedlings grown
elsewhere were collected for this study (Table 3.4).
Table 3.4 Details or the seedlings collected for the experiment
Variety

Supplying entity

Date of sowing

Height of seedlings (cm)

BRRIdhan 28

BADC,
Muktagacha,
Mymensingh

01-01-13

25

3.4.2 Transplanting
The seedlings were collected on 28th January, 2013 and were transplanted in the
plots on the same day. Transplantation details are given in the Table 3.5.

17

Table 3.5 Information related to transplantation of seedlings


Date of the transplantation in the experimental plot

28-01-13

Hill to hill distance (cm)\

15

Row to row distance (cm)

25

3.5 Irrigation requirement


For treatment T1, 10cm irrigation was applied and maintained throughout the
growing season until 2 weeks before harvest. For other treatments, 5 cm irrigation
was applied to the plots after certain depletion of water level inside the PVC pipes
was observed. Irrigation was given by a bowl of 4 liter capacity.
3.6 Determination of effective rainfall
Effective rainfall is the rainfall that is available in the plant root zone, allowing the
plant to germinate or maintain its growth. In its simplest sense, effective rainfall
means useful or utilizable rainfall. The term effective rainfall has been interpreted
differently, not only by specialists in different field but also by different workers in
the same field. From the point of view of the water requirement of crops, the Food
and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (Dastone, 1974) has
defined the annual or seasonal effective rainfall as the part of the total annual or
seasonal rainfall Nchich is useful directly and/or indirectly for crop production at
the site where it falls, but without pumping. In this study, the effective rainfall was
estimated by using the USDA Soil Conservation Method (Smith, 1992). The
equations are as follows:
P effective =

P total (1.25 - 0.2 P total)


125

for P total <250 min. and P effective = 125 + 0.1 P total


for P total > 250 win
Where,
P effective = effective rainfall, mm
P total = total rainfall, mm

18

3.7 Determination of crop water requirement (WR)


The water requirement for rice was computed by adding the applied irrigation
water, effective rainfall during the growing season and water for land preparation
(Rashid. 1997).
3.8 Determination of water savings:
Water discharge from the irrigation pipe was calculated as the volume of water (m3)
flowing through the pipe and measured as cubic meter per second (m3/s). The time
required to maintaining appropriate water levels in the main plots during each
irrigation was noted and summed to calculate the total volume of water applied to
the plots throughout the cropping season. Water saving percentage was calculated
as follows:
Water Savings (%) = Water Supplied in Flooded Plot - Water Supplied in AWDI Plot 100
Water Supplied in Flooded Plot

Furthermore, water loss was also calculated based on the amount of water supplied
in each plot. A simple measuring scale was used to determine the level of water
(cm) lost each day during wetting period.
3.9 Determination of Water Productivity Index (WPI):
Water-use efficiency is intrinsically ambiguous in relation to crop production
(Sharma, 1989; Bhuiyan et al., 1995). In this paper, WPI was calculated as the ratio
of crop yield (kg/h) per unit water m3/h) supplied as defined by Jaafar et al. (2000).
It includes irrigation, rainfall and antecedent soil moisture.
Water productivity index (kg/m3) =

Grain Yield (kg/h)


Total Water Supplied (m 3 /h)

19

3.10 Harvest Operations


3.10.1 Harvesting and threshing
The RRRldhan 28 was harvested on 18 May 2013. From each plot 5 sample hills
were selected randomly and harvested separately. The sample hills were
investigated threshed and packed separately. Crops inside 1 m square (1m X 1m) of
land was harvested with a view to obtaining the information related to yield and
yield contributing parameters.
3.10.2 Determination of moisture content
Moisture content of the sample was determined using a moisture reader machine
which was collected from the office of the Deputy Director of the DAE,
Mymensingh.
3.10.3 Grain and straw yields
The grains were sun dried to lower the moisture content to 14 percent (weight
basis) for the subsequent measurements. Similarly, straw yield was also calculated
by taking the weight of the sun dried straw.
3.10.4 Collection of data on yield and yield contributing parameters
Data on the following yield and yield contributing parameters were taken before
threshing the grains from the plant.
Plant height (cm)
Number effective tillers per hill
Length of the panicle (cm)
No. of filled and unfilled grain per panicle
Yield of unfilled grain (t/ha)
Grain yield (t/ha)
Straw yield (t/ha) and
Harvest index (%)

20

Fig. 3.2 Experimental pipe used in rice field

Fig. 3.3 Establishment of AWDI pipe in rice field

21

Fig. 3.4 AWDI pipe in rice field

Fig. 3.5 Monitoring water level in rice field

22

Fig. 3.6 Discussion with farmers about AWDI Method

23

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


This chapter includes description of the experimental outputs along with their detail
discussion. Quantitative information related to yield and all yield contributing
parameters, such as plant height, effective tillers, length of the panicle, number of
filled and unfilled grains per panicle, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield
and harvest index, with the best possible precision, were collected for different
treatments.
4.1 Irrigation treatments
During the first 15 days after transplantation, 5 cm standing water was maintained
in all the plots to avoid weed infestation (crop establishment period). Water
required for crop establishment was estimated 27.2 cm.
Thereafter, plots were irrigated according to irrigation treatments. Treatments T1
was considered to be the control and the plots under this treatments were irrigated
continuously throughout the growing season. Plots under the AWDI treatments
were irrigated when water level in the perforated pipes dropped to specified depths
below the ground surface. The time of water application was indicated by the
depletion of water level in the perforated pipes measured from the round surface.

24

Table 4.1 Statement of water application to different irrigation treatments


Effective
rainfall
(cm)

Total
amount of'
irrigation
(cm)

27.2

34.6

131.8

20

27.2

34.6

111.8

15.1

10

20

27.2

34.6

131.8

T4

20

27.2

34.6

121.8

7.59

T5

20

27.2

34.6

126.8

3.8

T6

20

27.2

34.6

116.8

11.3

Treatment

No. of
Irrigation

Water for
land
preparation
(cm)

T1

10

20

T2

T3

Water for crop


establishment
(cm)

% water
saved

one irrigation means application of 5cm water


Here,
Highest water saving plot was treatment T2, T4 and T6 and lowest water
saving plot was treatment T1, T3 and T5. Because treatment T2, T4 and T6 was
AWDI plot and treatment T1, T3 and T5 was continuous flooding plot.
Table 4.1 shows that the maximum number of irrigations was given to the plots
under treatments T1, T3, T5. Plots under treatments T2, T4 and T6 received 6, 8 and 7
irrigations respectively. Irrigation amounts for the treatments T1 T2, T3, T4, T5 and
T6 were 131.8, 111.8, 131.8, 121.8, 126.8 and 116.8cm, respectively. A graphical
representation of irrigation requirements in different treatments after transplantation

Amount of Irrigation (cm)

is shown in Fig. 4.1.


135
130
125
120
115
110
105
100
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

Irrigation
treatments
Treamtents

Fig. 4.1 Irrigation requirements for different treatments

25

Table 4.2. Effect of different irrigation treatments on the yield contributing parameters of rice (BRRIdhan 28)
Treatments

Plant
height
(cm)

Total
tiller
plant-1

No of
effective
tiller plant-1

Panicle
length
(cm)

Filled
grain

Unfilled
grain

1000GW(g)

Grain
Yield
(t/ha.)

Straw
Yield
(t/ha.)

Biological
Yield
(t/ha.)

HI
(%)

T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
CV (%)
LSD
Level of Sig.

79.96b
81.08a
81.95a
82.50a
82.33a
82.97a
3.63
1.957
**

11.20d
12.53c
13.91b
16.35a
14.64b
16.52a
5.34
1.155
**

7.09e
10.64d
12.20c
14.34ab
13.41b
15.21a
5.54
0.938
**

20.09b
22.30a
22.85a
22.22a
22.95a
22.55a
3.07
1.332
*

86.82e
90.58e
131.70c
140.49b
118.99d
163.14a
2.97
4.365
**

26.32a
22.28b
20.90bc
19.50c
13.70d
12.73d
5.55
1.539
**

23.93
24.76
23.43
23.87
23.81
24.09
3.39
NS

3.35e
4.47d
4.81c
5.46b
5.05c
5.82a
3.73
0.237
**

4.34d
5.49ab
5.12bc
5.93a
4.69cd
5.81ab
6.99
0.663
**

7.69c
9.96b
9.93b
11.39a
9.74b
11.63a
3.56
0.693
**

43.60d
44.85cd
48.48abc
47.95bc
51.95a
50.05ab
4.15
3.517
**

T1 = 10 cm standing water maintained 1st 3 weeks, then kept 5cm throughout the growing season;

T2 = Irrigation when water level in the pipe fell 20cm below the ground level;

T3 = 5 cm standing water maintained throughout the growing season;

T4 = Irrigation water when water level fell 10cm below ground level;

T5 = Irrigation water for 1st 3 weeks, then mid season drain out, re-flooding at flowering

T6 = Irrigation when water level in the pipe fell 15cm (6) below the ground level.

Water
productivity
index (WPI)
kg/m3
0.254
0.399
0.364
0.448
0.398
0.498
3.78
0.084
**

Here,

Treatment T1 gave a low amount of yield. Due to continued flooding tillering and effective tillering was low. As a result production was low.
Treatment T6 gave a highest amount of yield. Because the alternate wet and dry irrigation treatments significantly affected the rice yield and some other yield
contributing parameters. So due to AWDI method increased tillering and effective tillering and as a result treatment T6 gave a highest yield and production was
high.

26

4.2 Effect of irrigation treatments on yield and yield contributing parameters


The experiment aimed at exploring the possible effects of different irrigation
treatments on production and production related parameters. Grain yield and yield
contributing parameters for each of the treatments were analyzed. These are
presented in Table 4.2. Detail output of statistical analysis and ANOVA are
presented in Appendix.
4.2.1 Effect of Irrigation treatments on number of effective tillers per hill
Statistical analysis of the experimental findings as presented in Table 4.2. Showers
that the effect of irrigation treatments on number of effective tillers was significant
at 1 percent level of probability. The highest number of effective tillers (15.21) per
hill was found in treatment T6 and the number consistently decreased in treatments
T1 (7.01). T2 (10.64), T3 (12.20), T5 (13.41) and T4 (14.34) as shown in Fig. 4.3.
The results showed that the number of effective tillers per hill in the AWDI
treatments (T2, T4 and T6) increased significantly from that of the control (T1, T3,
T5).

No. of Effective tillers/hill

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

Irrigation treatments

Fig. 4.2 Variations of number of effective tiller hill-1 for different irrigation
treatments

27

4.2.2 Effect of Irrigation treatments on panicle length


The experimental results showed that there was no effect of the treatments on
panicle length. The cause of the non significant output of the panicle length might
be the insufficient photosynthesis from less vigorous crop canopy having reduced
leaf area (Table 4.2).
4.2.3 Effect of irrigation treatments on number of filled grains per panicle.
Table 4.2 shows that the number of filled grains per panicle increased consistently
in the AWDI treatments. However, in this parameter only T3 was significantly
different from those of the control (T1 and T5) and the other three AWDI treatments
(T2, T4 and T6)
4.2.4 Effect of irrigation treatments on 1000-grain weight
The highest 1000-grain weight (24.76gm) was obtained in treatment T2 followed by
treatments T1 (23.93g), T3 (23.43g), T4 (23.87g), T5 (23.81g) and T6 (24.09g). Fig.
4.4 shows a plot of 1000-grain weights for the treatments. However, Table 4.2
shows that the variations of these weights in different treatments are not statistically

Thousand grain weight (g)

significant.

25
24.5
24
23.5
23
22.5
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

Irrigation treatments

Fig. 4.3 Variations of 1000-grain weight for different irrigation treatments

28

4.2.5 Effect of irrigation treatments on grain yield


Grain yield, the most important parameter of an agronomic analysis, was found to
be significantly influenced. The highest grain yield (5.82 t/ha) was obtained in the
treatment T6. The yield consistent increased in the AWDI treatments (T2, T4, and
T6). Statistical analysis showed that the yields in T1 (3.35 t/ha). However, yield
obtained in T1, T3, and T5 were significantly different from one another.
4.2.6 Effect of irrigation treatments on straw yield
Straw yields in different irrigation treatments were significantly different at 1
percent level of probability (Table 4.2). However, the straw yield difference
between T2 and T3 is not statistically significant. This revealed that the straw yield
was affected by different levels of irrigation. The highest yield was obtained from
treatment T4 (5.93 t/ha) followed by T1 (4.34 t/ha), T2 (5.49 t/ha), T3 (5.12 t/ha), T4
(5.93 t/ha), T5 (4.69 t/ha) and T6 (5.81 t/ha). Variation of straw yield for different
treatments is shown in Fig 4.5. Since the straw yield is the function of plant height
and number of effective tillers, treatments resulting higher number of tillers and
greater plant heights produced higher straw yield.

Straw yield (t/ha)

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

Irrigation treatments

Fig. 4.4 Variations of straw yield for different irrigation treatments

29

4.2.7 Effect of water stress on harvest index (HI)


The experiment showed that different levels of irrigation did not have any
significant effect on the harvest index. The highest value of harvest index (51.95%)
was found for the treatment T5, which was statistically similar to those obtained in
treatments T6 (51.11%) (Table 4.2).
4.2.8 Effect of water productivity index for different irrigation treatments
The highest water productivity index (0.498) was obtained in treatment T6 followed
by treatments T4 (0.448), T2 (0.399), T5 (0.398), T3 (0.364), T1 (0.254) and. Fig. 4.5

Water productivety inde


(kg/m3)

shows a water productivity index for different irrigation treatments.

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

Irrigation Treatments

Fig. 4.5 Water productivity index for different irrigation treatments

30

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


Experiments and field testing of the AWDI method of cultivating rice from
different parts of the globe have demonstrated the utility of AWDI for water saving
in irrigated rice farming. This experiment also indicated that Water Productivity
Index increased and that land productivity (i.e., yield per unit of land) did not differ
from conventionally flooded irrigation. In addition, AWDI was observed as a
suitable method to reduce insect pests of rice without an increase in labor for
management. There seems to be a potential to use AWDI as part of an integrated
pest and disease management strategy in irrigated rice cultivation. This experiment
revealed a possibility of controlling weeds by using single dose of appropriate
herbicides, and by maintaining a shallow standing water depth until crop
establishment (IS DAT), and subsequently maintaining the alternate wetting and
drying periods until maturity.
This field experiment confirms that AWDI is a promising method in irrigated rice
cultivation with benefits on water saving and maintaining the productivity
comparable to conventional flood irrigation. The increased productivity of water
and its resource saving aspects are likely to be the critical factors that will make
farmers and other stakeholders adopt AWDI in water-scarce areas. However, it is
difficult to draw general conclusions as AWDI methods adopted in a certain area
may not transfer to other areas because of variability in topography, soil, and
climatic conditions across the rice agro-ecological domains. Therefore, it is
important that comparative studies be conducted in different environments to verify
this practice as a way to conserve water under conditions of water scarcity while
maintaining, or increasing, crop yields.
This chapter summarizes some important facts that evolved from the study,
undertaken at Muktagacha, Mymensingh. It also includes some recommendations
for possible future works in the areas of alternate wetting and drying irrigation of
rice.

31

5.1 Conclusions
The alternate wetting and drying irrigation treatments significantly affected
the rice yield and some other yield contributing parameters. The results
revealed that though the highest grain yield (5.82 t/ha) was found in the
treatment T6.
Treatment T6 gave a yield of 5.82 t/ha which was very close to the highest
one obtained in T4. So, the experiment result proved that AWDI method T6,
T4 and T2 appears to produce the best output.
Treatment T1, gave a low amount yield of 3.35 t/ha. So, the treatment T1
appears to produce the low output.
The study revealed that AWDI plot increased plant height, number of
effective tillers per hill, number of total tillers per hill, grain yield, straw
yield and biological yield and flooded plot decreased number of effective
tillers per hill, number of total tillers per hill, grain yield, straw yield and
biological yield. Considering all the outputs from the experiment, it can be
inferred that practicing treatment T6, would be the best choice for rice
cultivation in silty loam soil, here farmers can be suggested to irrigate their
lands.
5.2 Recommendation
Followings are some of' the specific points that have to he addressed in further
studies
The study on the effect of AWDI on rice production was done in small
experimental fields. Further studies may be conducted at farmers field for
the verification of the results.
In order to distinguish between the effects of active versus passive drainage,
schedule versus on demand flooding and AWDI on other agricultural

32

parameters, including fertilizer uptake and control of weeds and other


pathogens, detailed investigations need to be done.
Studies on AWDI should include the institutional aspects. Farmers'
cooperation is essential for effective use of AWDI and identification of
methods to ensure correct water management practices. At the moment, very
little information is available on what farmers perceive as restricting factors
in implementing AWDI and this should be a key issue in future research.
Integrated approach of research on AWDI including the soil, fertilizer,
agronomic and IPM issues should be made and the findings can therefore be
disseminated to the farmers through DAE, NGOs, etc.
Studies of AWDI need to be extended to consider the effects on disease
prevalence and incidence, rather than just mosquito vector populations.

33

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