6 views

Uploaded by Yanis Muhammad

Just Bahan kuliah

- Ch15 testing
- Cap13
- Roy J. Dossat - Principles Of Refrigeration.pdf
- FLUID MECHANICS LECTURE NOTES
- Manometers
- DP LT Calibration
- BB101 Engineering Science Chapter 5 Solid and Fluid 1
- Tank Anchorage (Overturning Stability)
- 1 Field Control
- Skema Jawapan Modul Tembak 32
- Gravitation Class IX
- ENG-1460-F07-TT1+soln
- Chapter 12 (Hydro statics)
- Catalogue 2014 en HD
- Chap 02 (Fluid mechanic ).pdf
- WaterVapor
- Fluid-1 (1) notes on cosmology
- Why Bodies Float Ppt
- Module 1 Numericals Questions
- Lesson 3

You are on page 1of 34

Fluids

Dr. Muhammad Syukri

Syukri,, MT

Department of Physics, Faculty of Math and Natural Sciences

Unsyiah

Definition of a Fluid

A fluid

fl d is

i a substance

b

that

h flows

fl

under

d the

h action

i off shearing

h i

forces. If a fluid is at rest, we know that the forces on it are in

balance.

A gas is a fluid that is easily compressed. It fills any vessel in

which it is contained.

A liquid is a fluid which is hard to compress. A given mass of

liquid will occupy a fixed volume, irrespective of the size of

the

h container.

i

A free surface is formed as a boundary between a liquid and a

gas above it

it.

Fluid Mechanics

Liquids

q

and gases

g

have the abilityy to flow

y They are called fluids

y There are a variety of LAWS

LAWS that fluids

obey

y Need some definitions

y

Density

The

h density

d

off a fluid

fl id is

i defined

d fi d as its

i mass per unit

i

volume. It is denoted by the Greek symbol, .

= m

kgm-3

k

kg

m3

air =1.2kgm-3

incompressible.

If the density varies significantly (eg some gas

flows), the flow is compressible.

(Although gases are easy to compress, the flow may be treated as

incompressible if there are no large pressure fluctuations)

Density

y

Regardless

g

of form (solid,

(

liquid,

q

gas)

g ) we

can define how much mass is squeezed

into a pparticular space

p

mass

density =

volume

Pressure

y

exerted on a surface area

force

pressure =

area

Pressure

Pressure is

i the

h force

f

per unit

i area, where

h the

h force

f

is

i

perpendicular to the area.

Nm-2

(Pa)

p=

F

A

N

m2

1psi =6895Pa

a vacuum.

The pressure measured in your tyres is the gauge pressure,

pp-ppa.

Pressure in a Fluid

The p

pressure is jjust the weight

g of all the

fluid above you

y Atmospheric

t osp e c pressure

p essu e iss just the

t e weight

we g t

of all the air above on area on the surface

of the earth

y In a swimming pool the pressure on your

body surface is just the weight of the

water above you (plus the air pressure

above the water)

y

Pressure in a Fluid

So, the onlyy thingg that counts in fluid

pressure is the gravitational force acting

on the mass ABOVE you

y

y The deeper you go, the more weight

above yyou and the more pressure

p

y Go to a mountaintop and the air pressure

is lower

y

Pressure

Pressure in

i a fluid

fl id acts equally

ll in

i all

ll directions

di i

Pressure in a static liquid increases linearly with depth

p= g h

pressure

increase

increase in

depth

p (m)

( )

liquid is constant.

p1

p2

p3

p1 = p2 = p3

Pressure in a Fluid

Pressure acts

perpendicular

to the surface

and increases

at greater

depth.

Pressure in a Fluid

Buoyancy

Net upward

force is

called

ca

ed the

t e

buoyant

o ce!!!

force!!!

Easier to

lift a rockk

in water!!

Displacement of Water

The amount of

water displaced

p

is

equal to the

volume of the

rock.

Manometers

p1

p2=ppa

x

liquid

density

p1 = px

(negligible pressure

change in a gas)

px = py

the

h same height)

h i h)

pz= p2 = pa

py - pz = gh

p1 - pa = gh

Barometers

A barometer is used to measure

the pressure of the atmosphere.

atmosphere

The simplest type of barometer

consists of a column of fluid.

p2 - p1 = gh

pa = gh

examples

water: h = pa/g =10

105/(103*9

9.8)

8) ~10m

mercury: h = pa/g =105/(13.4*103*9.8)

~800mm

vacuum

p1 = 0

h

p2 = pa

Archimedes

Archimedes Principle

An immersed bodyy is buoyed

y upp byy a fforce

equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

y If the

t e buoya

buoyantt force

o ce o

on an

a object iss

greater than the force of gravity acting on

j , the object

j

will float

the object,

y The apparent weight of an object in a

liquid is gravitational force (weight) minus

the buoyant force

y

Flotation

y

A ffloatingg object

j displaces

p

a weight

g off fluid

f

equal to its own weight.

Flotation

Gases

The p

primaryy difference between a liquid

q

and a gas is the distance between the

molecules

y In a gas, the molecules are so widely

separated,

p

, that there is little interaction

between the individual moledules

y IDEAL GAS

y Independent of what the molecules are

y

Boyles

Boyle s Law

Boyles

Boyle s Law

Pressure depends

p

on densityy of the gas

g

y Pressure is just the force per unit area

eexerted

e te by tthee molecules

o ecu es as tthey

ey collide

co e

with the walls of the container

y Double the density,

density double the number of

collisions with the wall and this doubles

the pressure

y

Boyles

Boyle s Law

Density is mass

divided by

volume.

Halve the

volume and you

double the

density and thus

the pressure

pressure.

Boyles

Boyle s Law

y

At a ggiven temperature

p

for a given

g

quantity of gas, the product of the

pressure and the volume is a constant

p

P1V1 = P2 V2

Atmospheric Pressure

J the weight

Just

g of the air above you

y

y Unlike water, the density of the air

decreases

ec eases w

with

t aaltitude

t tu e ssince

ce aair iss

compressible and liquids are only very

slightly

g y compressible

p

y Air pressure at sea level is about 105

newtons/meter2

y

Barometers

Buoyancy in a Gas

An object

j surrounded byy air is buoyed

y upp byy

a force equal to the weight of the air

displace.

p

y Exactly the same concept as buoyancy in

water. JJust substitute air for water in the

statement

y If the buoyant force is greater than the

weight of the object, it will rise in the air

y

Buoyancy in a Gas

Since air g

gets less

dense with altitude,

y force

the buoyant

decreases with

altitude. So helium

balloons dont rise

forever!!!

Bernoulliss Principle

Bernoulli

Bernoulliss Principle

Bernoulli

Flow is faster when the p

pipe

p is narrower

y Put your thumb over the end of a garden

hose

ose

y Energy conservation requires that the

pressure be lower in a gas that is moving

faster

y Has to do with the work necessary to

compress a gas (PV is energy, more later)

y

Bernoulliss Principle

Bernoulli

y

p

off a ffluid increases, internal

pressure in the fluid decreases.

Bernoulliss Principle

Bernoulli

Bernoulliss Principle

Bernoulli

quite complicated and relates to the air

boundary layer, friction and turbulence.

Bernoulliss Principle

Bernoulli

- Ch15 testingUploaded byKamlesh Kumar
- Cap13Uploaded byludibo2324
- Roy J. Dossat - Principles Of Refrigeration.pdfUploaded byMarcoTaco
- FLUID MECHANICS LECTURE NOTESUploaded bymailbkrao
- ManometersUploaded byDileep
- DP LT CalibrationUploaded bykvsangeeth
- BB101 Engineering Science Chapter 5 Solid and Fluid 1Uploaded byAh Tiang
- Tank Anchorage (Overturning Stability)Uploaded byrobertantoreni
- 1 Field ControlUploaded byMehrnoosh Aref
- Skema Jawapan Modul Tembak 32Uploaded byWhy Huda
- Gravitation Class IXUploaded byRohit Kumar
- ENG-1460-F07-TT1+solnUploaded bysamiralbayati
- Chapter 12 (Hydro statics)Uploaded byTeresa Pulga
- Catalogue 2014 en HDUploaded byBrad Barnes
- Chap 02 (Fluid mechanic ).pdfUploaded byK'roll Azham Avear
- WaterVaporUploaded bynidhalsaada
- Fluid-1 (1) notes on cosmologyUploaded byAbdulkeriim Noor Hersi
- Why Bodies Float PptUploaded bySample Son
- Module 1 Numericals QuestionsUploaded byTOP DHAMAKA
- Lesson 3Uploaded byNora Guzman
- Ce121l Fluid Mechanics Laboratory ManualUploaded byJeremy Pagdagdagan
- Lab Report 1Uploaded byAnonymous orNHXM0f0
- psiUploaded bykopokopo
- Lesson Plan 2 (Final)Uploaded byMarco Cando
- BASIC QUAl~TITIES AND UNITSUploaded byankit bansal
- Compar ItUploaded bydineshkbunker08
- ASTM D 831 – 94 (Reapproved 1999) Gas Content of Cable and Capacitor OilsUploaded byalin2005
- report of Ex 1Uploaded byshkar ahmad
- Water Pressure MRSM 2008 P3BUploaded bysylent goh
- IOM PGUploaded byTree

- MST 303Uploaded byYanis Muhammad
- 1.Kontrak Perkuliahan Geomatika Lanjut.txtUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- Flv ArabicUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- Analytic SignalUploaded bySrikanth Jutru
- jhon - CopyUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- tes.txtUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- analytic_signal_reduction-to-pole.pdfUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- 2.17.43 Slides 0 ENGINE LaunchingConference 12 15022006 Manzella2Uploaded byYanis Muhammad
- Mr. Muh Yanis Financial-support FormUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- Geom at i Cav 91 InstallUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- SurfUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- PipelineUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- serialUploaded byYudhajr
- tes beh TemporaryUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- TesUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- 10 Simple Harmonic Motion FMIPAUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- Tes-seismoUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- hanya kataUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- list baju.txtUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- sumanualUploaded bycmk7824
- Robotics 2013 00 SyllabusUploaded byYanis Muhammad
- okUploaded byYanis Muhammad

- NPTEL Solar Cells SlidesUploaded byMadhur Mayank
- sl heavy duty bearings.pdfUploaded byVivek
- Wincal Manual 103719-0 Rev eUploaded byJose Manuel Castro
- Boiling Assignment Part 1Uploaded byBrianRungen
- Bluetooth Optimization v3 ThumpBST THUMP2017 FreePlay Reach CR4BT CR5BTUploaded byValeDrake
- Appendix 4: Rocky View County Council Agendas, Reports and MinutesUploaded byAirdrie Planning and Development Department
- En 2010 Ammonitcatalogue WebUploaded byzivkovic branko
- China Daily - April 12 2018Uploaded byBožidar Vasiljević
- erp2005_ehp_07_Durchführen des Planungslaufes mit MRP Live.pdfUploaded bychongsa
- Bio WarUploaded byPradeep Kumar
- DeloitteUploaded byIzZa Rivera
- Probability Questions With SolutionsUploaded bykrackyournut
- ooad diagrams with explanationUploaded byP.Nanda Kumar
- 48852507 Geography and World PowerUploaded byJúnior Sousa
- Borouge - Ms Work Details With BoqUploaded bymiteshsuneriya
- RA 10918_Pharmacy Law.pdfUploaded byTammy Aguilar
- ICCROM_doc04_StandardsPreventiveConserUploaded bySimion Mihaela
- Vol 1_0 Kakaka EPC Tender Package - Contents - Round 1Uploaded bydinesh thevarajah
- Johnstone Et Al. 1998Uploaded byTabita Timeea Scutaru
- Knowledge Management. Why Do We Need It for Corp OratesUploaded byMichele D'Urzo
- Shweta taneja latestUploaded byengineeringwatch
- Practical 5Uploaded byFarid Fazamy
- ResumeUploaded byTony Wagner
- 250A Checklist for Critiquing a Research ArticleUploaded byitsngeblokbrengsek
- LinesUploaded by_shubham_tomar_
- millenium ii installationUploaded byron36
- Seller Copy of InvoiceUploaded byEdu Tainment
- MZ07 BrochureUploaded byXanti Zabala Da Rosa
- AICTE-NPTEL Online Faculty Development ProgrammeUploaded bymdzakir_hussain
- Structure and Written ExpressionUploaded byFiaz Ahmed Naich