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Fl id

Fluids
Dr. Muhammad Syukri
Syukri,, MT
Department of Physics, Faculty of Math and Natural Sciences
Unsyiah

Definition of a Fluid
A fluid
fl d is
i a substance
b
that
h flows
fl
under
d the
h action
i off shearing
h i
forces. If a fluid is at rest, we know that the forces on it are in
balance.
A gas is a fluid that is easily compressed. It fills any vessel in
which it is contained.
A liquid is a fluid which is hard to compress. A given mass of
liquid will occupy a fixed volume, irrespective of the size of
the
h container.
i
A free surface is formed as a boundary between a liquid and a
gas above it
it.

Fluid Mechanics
Liquids
q
and gases
g
have the abilityy to flow
y They are called fluids
y There are a variety of LAWS
LAWS that fluids
obey
y Need some definitions
y

Density
The
h density
d
off a fluid
fl id is
i defined
d fi d as its
i mass per unit
i
volume. It is denoted by the Greek symbol, .

= m
kgm-3

k
kg
m3

water= 998 kgm-3


air =1.2kgm-3

If the density is constant (most liquids), the flow is


incompressible.
If the density varies significantly (eg some gas
flows), the flow is compressible.
(Although gases are easy to compress, the flow may be treated as
incompressible if there are no large pressure fluctuations)

Density
y

Regardless
g
of form (solid,
(
liquid,
q
gas)
g ) we
can define how much mass is squeezed
into a pparticular space
p

mass
density =
volume

Pressure
y

A measure of the amount of force


exerted on a surface area

force
pressure =
area

Pressure
Pressure is
i the
h force
f
per unit
i area, where
h the
h force
f
is
i
perpendicular to the area.

Nm-2
(Pa)

p=

F
A

N
m2

pa= 105 Nm-2


1psi =6895Pa

This is the Absolute pressure, the pressure compared to


a vacuum.
The pressure measured in your tyres is the gauge pressure,
pp-ppa.

Pressure in a Fluid
The p
pressure is jjust the weight
g of all the
fluid above you
y Atmospheric
t osp e c pressure
p essu e iss just the
t e weight
we g t
of all the air above on area on the surface
of the earth
y In a swimming pool the pressure on your
body surface is just the weight of the
water above you (plus the air pressure
above the water)
y

Pressure in a Fluid
So, the onlyy thingg that counts in fluid
pressure is the gravitational force acting
on the mass ABOVE you
y
y The deeper you go, the more weight
above yyou and the more pressure
p
y Go to a mountaintop and the air pressure
is lower
y

Pressure
Pressure in
i a fluid
fl id acts equally
ll in
i all
ll directions
di i
Pressure in a static liquid increases linearly with depth

p= g h
pressure
increase

increase in
depth
p (m)
( )

The pressure at a given depth in a continuous, static body of


liquid is constant.
p1

p2

p3

p1 = p2 = p3

Pressure in a Fluid
Pressure acts
perpendicular
to the surface
and increases
at greater
depth.

Pressure in a Fluid

Buoyancy
Net upward
force is
called
ca
ed the
t e
buoyant
o ce!!!
force!!!
Easier to
lift a rockk
in water!!

Displacement of Water
The amount of
water displaced
p
is
equal to the
volume of the
rock.

Measuring pressure (1)


Manometers
p1

p2=ppa

x
liquid
density

p1 = px

(negligible pressure
change in a gas)

px = py

(since they are at


the
h same height)
h i h)

pz= p2 = pa

py - pz = gh
p1 - pa = gh

So a manometer measures gauge pressure.

Measuring Pressure (2)


Barometers
A barometer is used to measure
the pressure of the atmosphere.
atmosphere
The simplest type of barometer
consists of a column of fluid.
p2 - p1 = gh
pa = gh
examples
water: h = pa/g =10
105/(103*9
9.8)
8) ~10m
mercury: h = pa/g =105/(13.4*103*9.8)
~800mm

vacuum

p1 = 0

h
p2 = pa

Archimedes
Archimedes Principle
An immersed bodyy is buoyed
y upp byy a fforce
equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
y If the
t e buoya
buoyantt force
o ce o
on an
a object iss
greater than the force of gravity acting on
j , the object
j
will float
the object,
y The apparent weight of an object in a
liquid is gravitational force (weight) minus
the buoyant force
y

Flotation
y

A ffloatingg object
j displaces
p
a weight
g off fluid
f
equal to its own weight.

Flotation

Gases
The p
primaryy difference between a liquid
q
and a gas is the distance between the
molecules
y In a gas, the molecules are so widely
separated,
p
, that there is little interaction
between the individual moledules
y IDEAL GAS
y Independent of what the molecules are
y

Boyles
Boyle s Law

Boyles
Boyle s Law
Pressure depends
p
on densityy of the gas
g
y Pressure is just the force per unit area
eexerted
e te by tthee molecules
o ecu es as tthey
ey collide
co e
with the walls of the container
y Double the density,
density double the number of
collisions with the wall and this doubles
the pressure
y

Boyles
Boyle s Law
Density is mass
divided by
volume.
Halve the
volume and you
double the
density and thus
the pressure
pressure.

Boyles
Boyle s Law
y

At a ggiven temperature
p
for a given
g
quantity of gas, the product of the
pressure and the volume is a constant
p

P1V1 = P2 V2

Atmospheric Pressure
J the weight
Just
g of the air above you
y
y Unlike water, the density of the air
decreases
ec eases w
with
t aaltitude
t tu e ssince
ce aair iss
compressible and liquids are only very
slightly
g y compressible
p
y Air pressure at sea level is about 105
newtons/meter2
y

Barometers

Buoyancy in a Gas
An object
j surrounded byy air is buoyed
y upp byy
a force equal to the weight of the air
displace.
p
y Exactly the same concept as buoyancy in
water. JJust substitute air for water in the
statement
y If the buoyant force is greater than the
weight of the object, it will rise in the air
y

Buoyancy in a Gas

Since air g
gets less
dense with altitude,
y force
the buoyant
decreases with
altitude. So helium
balloons dont rise
forever!!!

Bernoulliss Principle
Bernoulli

Bernoulliss Principle
Bernoulli
Flow is faster when the p
pipe
p is narrower
y Put your thumb over the end of a garden
hose
ose
y Energy conservation requires that the
pressure be lower in a gas that is moving
faster
y Has to do with the work necessary to
compress a gas (PV is energy, more later)
y

Bernoulliss Principle
Bernoulli
y

When the speed


p
off a ffluid increases, internal
pressure in the fluid decreases.

Bernoulliss Principle
Bernoulli

Bernoulliss Principle
Bernoulli

Why the streamlines are compressed is


quite complicated and relates to the air
boundary layer, friction and turbulence.

Bernoulliss Principle
Bernoulli