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## Ui\WER.SITI TI]I\ HIJSSEII\ OI{N MAI,AYSIA

PEPERIKSAAN AKHIR
SEMESTER II
SESI 2010111

NAMA KI'RSUS

TEKNOLOGI PEMBUATAN

KOD KURSUS

BDA 3052

PROGRAM

3 BDD

TARIKH PEPERIKSAJ\${

APRIL/MEI 2011

JANGKA MASA

./'\.RAHA.N

## JA\MAB EMPAT (4) DARr LrMA (s)

SOALAN DI BA}IAGIAN A DAN JAWAB
DUA (2) DARr (3) SOALAN Dr BAI{AGTAN
B

ficA PUttII{

(30) r'/rrMT

ITILIYANA KHAIRUNNISA

KAMARDIN

FqNsiltPtrrnu5

SULIT

tr
BDA

3052

## PART A (80 MARKS):

This section contains

ONLY.

Q1

(a)

## What is a casting process? State three (3) capabiiities and advantages

of

casting procsss.

(4 marks)
(b)

Briefly explain, what is the function of flask, riser, core and pattern in the sand
casting molds?
(4 marks)

(c)

## With the aid of a sketch state the investuient casting process.

(7 marks)

(d)

A mechanical part with the tolerance of *0.075 mm with small thickness will be
produced using a casting process. The product needs to be produced in a high
quantity and good quality of surface finish and dimensional accuracy with less
finishing process. In order to produce this part, select the best casting process
and discuss why it is selected.
(5 rnarks)

Q2

(a)

## Draw areatfigure of a force diagam shcwing the geometiic relationship

between all the forces acting on the chips in orthogonal cutting.
(7 marks)

(b)

## By using illushations, distinguish and explain two forms of milling in the

peripheral milling. Describe the geometry of the chip formed by this process.
(6 marks)

(c)

List down three (3) processes ttrat can be done by the drill machine other than
making ahole'
(3 marks)

(d)

(4 marks)

BDA

3052

## List all the various rolling process available?

(3 rnarks)

Briefly explain open die forging, impression die forging and flashless forging.
(4 marks)
(c)

## Explain forward and backward extrusion assisted with figures.

(5 marks)

(d)

what are blanking, piercing / punching, bending and forming processes. Give
example for each one ofthe procssses.
(4 marks)

(e)

In general, what are all advantages and disadvantages of hot working and cold
working processes?
(4 marks)

Q4

(a)

(3 marks)

(b)

(3 marks)

(c)

(d)

in plastics

rr""::;;-'
(5 marks)

(e)

(5 marks)

QS

(a)

## In powder metallurgy process, packing factor is a very important charactedstic

to be known. Identifu the relationship between packing factor and porosity

of

compacted parts.

(3 marks)

(b)

welding process can be divided into two major categories. what are the two
major categories and explain their differences from the point of processing
fundamental. Give two examples for each category.
(8 marks)

BDA 3052

(c)

Welding operator found out that tfr. :oirrt result of metal inert gas CMIG)
welded products are not constant. Some of the parts were seriously bumt and
full of porosity. There were welded with inconsistent penetration depth. List
out thiee (3) possible reasoils and explain the countermeasures that can be
taken.
(9 marks)

BDA 3052

## PART B (20 MARI(S):

This section contains THREE (3) questions. Choose and answer any TWO (2) questions

ONLY.

Q6

cutting operation, the cutting tool has a rake angle of 5o. The lathe is
set so the chip thickness befcre the cut is 0.25 nam. After the cut, the deformed chip
thickness is measured to be 0.7 mm.

ln

an orthogonal

Calculate:

(a)
(b)
(c)

## the chip thickness ratio

the angle of the shear plane
the length of the shear plane

(d)
(e)

a rake angle

of

## the new length of the shear plane

the new angle ofthe shear plane

-----r

By refening to ail of the results, explain the reiation of rake angle with the length and
angle of the shear plane in the orthogonal cutting operation.

(i0 marks)

Q7

(a)

## A work piece having 75 mrn diameter and length 300 mm is to be reduced

to diameter of 69 mm as final size. The depth of cut is 1 mm- The work piece is
rotating at 900 RPM. A carbide tool of 8 degree rake angle is used. The chip
thickness is 1.3 mm. The feed rate is 0.25 mm /rev.
rJ s 212,091'f
d

" -li-:--+
N+-

=1f^^
Calculate: o{ .g"
N s 91m

(i)

,,"l\$ity,

,[s\-^,,

(ii)

## f SThe time taken to machine up to 69 mm diameter to lengfh

(iii)

of 200 mm.
Total Material Removal Rate (MRR)

cutting

lorr6tu'\$=7.

hnr+s

w{,=

(b)

t\ l'o

**/qr.

\$^ "+
s

lor:(o:ra")

v{;"1

( .tr,r

-td

(5 marks)

x(10y1 .f ( n^)
A slab rnilling operation iJperformed to finish tlie top surface of a steel work
piece rectangular in section. The size of the work material is 350 mm iength
and 7\$ mm wide. A helical milling cutter ,'which has a 75 mm diameter and
ten teeth, is set up to machine. The cutting speed is 130 m/min, the chip load
is 0.15 mm/tooth and depth of cut is 3 mm.
Calculate the following:

(i)

r'^-"

E
BDA 3052

(ii)

(5 marks)

Q8

r
:

## when cutting speed is 100 m/min, tool life is 10 min:

when cutting speed is 75 m/min, tool tife is 30 min.

(a)

(b)

## Based on your equation, compute,

the tool tife for a speed of 110 m/min, and
the speed corresponding to atool life of 1j min.

i)
ii)

(10 marla)

3052 Manu

nal Exam Se

51

(a)

## Process in which molten

metal flows by gravit-v or other
force into a inoici
where it solidifies in the shape
of the mold cavity. _

Can create complex paft geometries
Can create both external and
internal shapes
Some casting processes arc
net shope; others t*e near
net shape
Can produce ve{y large parts
Some casting methods are
suited to mass

production
(1 mark each, max. 3 marks)

(b)

## Flask - a box containing two parts

mold, cope and drag * I mark
Riser - is a reservoir in the
mold that serves as a source
of liquid metar for flre
casting to compensate for
stirintage

J**

solidification.

I mark

## Placed ir''side the mold cavitv to defiae

the interior geomerry

r?:h:-irm
Pattern - is used to
_forrn the mold cavity, made of
other material which has the
rrrup.

"r*r"

of

- r mark

part to be cast

(4 marks)

(c)

wax

ffiH

patternffi
\wry
(r)

(2)

ffiffii
(3)

(4)

W
(6)

## (1) wax pattems are produc

ed, Q)several patterns are
attached to a sprue to form
pattern tree (3) trre pattem
a
hee is-coat"a *itr, ini*
r"r.r-"r*fractory
the full mord is formed uv .or..i"g"tjrJ
materiar,
(4)
coated "t
,rrmcient refractory materiar
".

*itl

F,r
BDA 3052

to make it rigid (5) the mold is held in an inverted position and heated to melt the
wax
and permit it to drip out of the cavity, (6) the mold is preheated to a high temperature,
t]re molten metal is poured, and it solidifies (7) the rnotA is broken awJy from
the
finished casting and the parts are separated from the sprue

## (d) Die casting.

(l)
A)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

- 1 mark

highproductionrate
hrge production quatities
closetolerance possiblo +0.026 for small part
good surface finish

thinsectionpossible
small grain size and and good strength due to rapid
(1 mark for each erl\$wsr, max 4 answers)

(a)

force to

r\"*

force,

shear

## Fo: cutting force, Ft: thrust force,

force,

R:

normal
the resultant force

( 1 mark for

Fn =

BDA 3052

*---__Trhla
up milling

( l mark)

down

rnilling

(1 mark)

-

## the direction of motion of the cutter

cutter teeth is opposite the feed direction when
the teeth cut into the work.
(1 mark)

?oIn Milling or climb milling - the direction of cutter motion is the sarne as
the feed direction when the teettr cut into
the work.
(1 mark)

## In up milling the chip formed by each cutting

tooth starts out very thin and
increases the thickness during tlr" ,,r."p of the
cutter.

(t mark)
In down milring the chip formed. by each cutting
tooth starts out very thick and
reduces the thickness tlrroughout the cut.
(1 mark)

(c)

1. Reaming
2. Tapping
3. Counterboring
4. Countersinking
5. Centering
6. Spot

(d)

## Cleaning - cleaning operatioti to ensure rnaterial

will be removed uniformly
from the surfaces etched.
laskanl is appiied to certain portions of
the part surface' It appiied to those portions
of the #".t ,*a"e that are not to
be etched.

## Etching the part is immersed in an etchant that chemically

attacks those
portions of- the surface that are not masked
Demasftipg - The maskant is removed from the
part.

r
i

BDA 3052

S3

(a)

## Various rolling process are:

i. Two-High Rolling

Mill

## ii. Three-High Roliing Mill

iii. Four-High Rolling Mill
iv. Cluster Mill

v.

## Tandem Rolling Mill

(3 marks)

(b)

Open-die forging - work is compressed between two flat dies, allowing metal
to flow laterally with minimum constraint

q,!6d.
lYq6.a

tw&(ddq0}l

## lmpression-die forging - die coutains cavity or impression that is imparted to

workpart
Metal flow is constained so that flash is created.

## Flashless forgrng - workpart is completely constrained in die

No excess flash is created.

(4 marks)

(c)

As rarn approaches die opening, a small portion of billet remains that cannot be forced
through die opening. This extoa portion, called the butt, must be separated from
extrudate by cutting it just beyond the die exit Starting billet cross section usually
round. Final shape of extrudate is determined by die opening.

## Also called baclcward extrusion and reverse extrusion

Limitations of indirect extrusion are imposed by
a Lower rigidify of hollow ram
G Difficulty in supporting extruded product as it exits die.

___t'*

ffi--r
d\$Pi

Ia)

(e) 'The punched out part from the strip is taken for subsequent
operation, it is
called blanking. The punched out part from strip is sluj
i**t"1ir rcrap. It is
called punching /piercing.

(e)

Q4

In hot working process, more deformation is possible. Ductility
of the material is
good' Final product shape is good. Lower forles
and power trran in cold working
More intricate work geometries possible, need for annealing
may be reduced or
eliminated
Disadvantages -Reduce in strength, Scale fonnation,
no dimensional control, no
good surface finish.
CoId Working: Advantage: increased strength that results
from strain hardening.
Surface finish is good. Grain flow during J."formation
can cause desirable
directional properties in product. No heatLg of work required.
Disadvantages- Higher forces and. power requirea in th;
deformation operation,
Su.faces of starting work piece muit be free of scaie and
dirt.

(a)

Flow of polymcr

## Extruded polymer "remembers" its previous shape when

in the rarger
to return ta it after leaving the die orifice

RDA

(b)

3052

## A common test of interparticle friction is the angle of repose, which is the

angle formed by a pile of powders as they are poured from a nalrow funnel.

\----_---Z
\-/
\,/
\

tr ///,v

Funnet

tt
L-l

Pile of powders

(c)

enste of repose

## What are the differences between thermoplastics and thermosets plastics?

Give examples for each one of them.
(4 marks)

Thermoplestics
Chemical structure remains unchanged during heating and shaping
More important commercially, comprising more than 7O9lr of total plastics
tonnage
Can be reused after re-melting
Thermosets
Undergo a curing process during heating and shaping, causing apermanent
change (cr o s s -linking) in molecular structure
Once cured, they carnot be remelted.

(d)

Yiscosity of a polymer melt decreases with shear rate, thus the fluid becornes
thinna at higher shear rates. Viscosity decreases with temperatuxe, t}us the
fluid becomes thinner at highet ternperatures.
Yiscoelasticity
It is the properfy of a material that determines the strain it experiences when
subjected to combination of siless and stain
Possessed by both polymer solids and polymer melts
Example: die swell in exkusion, in whichthe hotplastic expands when exiting
the die opening.

Die swell
I

r"ra*o*

## Feedstock is passed through a series of rolls to reduce thiclcress to desired

gage Expensive equipment, high production rates. Process is noted for good
surface finish and high gage accuracy.Typical materials: rubber or rubbery
thermoplastics such as plasticized PVC

BDA 3052

il:iffi"lrl?;ry;X:,8:-,

## shower currains, vinyl rable

ctoths, poot riners,

w
*--NN**
/._kEk

re-eB{.*

ffiE{t_

L_lMl*

-N>XNN
fl)
(2t

(a)

(b)

,wob

ffi
M6lddpan

(d)

S5 (a)

/:

(c)

i*

+*

porosity + packing
factor: 1.
packing factor
bulk density divided by true density.
One of the above

relation

Furtherexplaination +

2 marks.

tmart<.
Total Marks: 3 marks

O)

Fusionwelding
(The material is melted

## Example: Arc welding, {dog

R*.G*ce

mark
2 marks
welding Oxy-fuel gas welding.
I mark

the process)

## Solid state weldins

(coarescence resurlts frgm
application of pressure alone
or a combinuriol

point)

;;e prelr*.)

3::r-fry0":melting
Example:
Diffirsion welding,

filction

wetOing

ll*k
?::F
I MArK

BDA 3052

(c)

## -Torch movement speed.

-Need constant and comect speed.
-Current and voltage setting
-Constant and correct current setting
-Shield gas flow rate.
-Constant and enough gas to shield the welding area until
&e melted area resolidified.
-Shield gas q4pe.
-Some materials are reactive against certain shield gas (titanium
and nitrogen)
2 marks (for each examFle of countermeasure).
I mark (for each correct explaination).

BDA 3052

## PART B (20 MARKS):

s6

(a)

(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

r:

:0.357 _ 2 marks
tan : 0.357(cos5)lt-(0.357 sin 5|
A366 :20.1o _ 2 marks
.0
to: ls sin 0 .'. ls :0.2510.343 :0.72g mm _
1.5 mark
tan \$ : 0.357(cos1) /t-(0.357 sin l) :
0.359 : 19o _ 2 marks
to= ls sin \$ ... is = 0.2510.325 :
0.769 mm - 1.5 mark

Ato:

0.2510.7

## Increasing the rake angle, will increase the

shear angle and reduce the length
of shear
plane. - 1 mark
(10 marks)

s7 (a)

1' Cutting

2'

Time

velocity:

rc

xdxN

taken:!.lgm

1000 =

:0.99 mins.
T_

z.

RpM:200 / a,5X

g00

tir*J;im"ken :

0.88

x d x feed

x3 :2.64minutes.

## ii) MRR for73mmdiamet., Iti;?of iloi:rH#"boo

iii) MRR for 71 mm diameter : 2A0x 1 x 0.25 :
SO,tiOO
iv) MRR for 69 mm diameter: 195 x I 0.25 : qg,:lSO
Totai IyIRR = 53000 + 5i5000 + 50000 +
4g750: cubic mm /min.

(b)

(5 marks)

## cuttingverocity:zuxDxN/r000 =3.r4zx 75 xN:

130
N: 130 x 1000 /3.t4}x 75:551 R.PM
Feed rate : N x number of teeth x chip
load: 551 x 10 x 0.25

826.5

## Approach length:75 mm.

Time taken to machine

i)

ii) Mry:.* *
rnm / mln^

x reed ,ut"

## : (L + 75) / feed rate

I [t: ii?r8;!

];f;3iffiff:
(5 marks)

BDA 3052

(a)

(t) 100(10)"= C
Yg-.^qy,ions:
100(10)' :75(30)"
n 100 + nla l0 = Ia 75 + n11139
4.61+2.3 n= 4.31+3.4 n
4.61"

and

r!g(1.80

!:= 100(10)0:7 =
Check C:75(30)o'7 = ZSt3Oo.27
=
ll1 f27:

C=

(c)

186

t{,.g

186.0

T=

4 marks

n=5.27

(b)

e)75(30).: g.

3 marks

## l.6gtn27 :1.693.7 = 6.97 min

u (15)0'27: 186.0
v = 186.0(15,)02? = 186.0/2.07

=g9,g6 m/min

3 marks

":t'

E:

10