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Mankind
and Terror

As diversas formas de terror:


apresentao.

ARENDT, H. Essays in Understanding. P


297.

Mankind
and Terror

Diferena entre terror


comum e totalitrio

ARENDT, H. Essays in Understanding. P


298.

Mankind
and Terror

Terror usado para destruir


as leis e a proteo da
liberdade.

ARENDT, H. Essays in Understanding. P


298.

Mankind
and Terror

Terror revolucionrio e terror


tirnico encontram um fim.

ARENDT, H. Essays in Understanding. P


298.

Mankind
and Terror

O terror totalitrio floresce


quando a oposio acaba, e
no diminui, como nos outros
casos.

ARENDT, H. Essays in Understanding. P


298-299.

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HISTORY TEACHES US that terror as a means of frightening
people into submission can appear in an extraordinary variety of
forms and can be closely linked with a large number of political
and party systems that have become familiar to us. The terror of
tyrants, despots, and dictators is documented from ancient times
on, the terror of revolutions and counter-revolutions, of majorities
againstminorities and of minorities against the majority of
humanity, the terror of plebiscitary democracies and of modern
one-party systems, the terror of revolutionary movements and the
terror of small groups of conspirators.
The key difference between totalitarian terror and all other forms
of terror we know of is not that it existed on a quantitatively larger
scale and claimed a larger number of victims.
- na mesma pgina: asiatic indifference; superfluity of human
beings.
Wherever we find terror in the past, it is rooted in the use of force that
originates outside the law and in many cases is consciously applied to
tear down the fences of law that protect human freedom and
guarantee
citizens' freedoms and rights.
If we single out the two forms of terror that have been historically the
most effective and politically the bloodiest-the terror of tyranny and
the terror of revolution-we soon see that they are directed toward an
end and find an end. The terror of tyranny reaches an end once it has
paralyzed or even totally dispensed with all public life and made
private individuals out of all citizens, stripping them of interest in and
a connection with public affairs. And public affairs are concerned, of
course, with much more than we generally circumscribe with the term
"politics." Tyrannical terror has come to an end when it has imposed a
graveyard peace on a country. The end of a revolution is a new code
of laws-or counterrevolution. The terror finds its end when the
opposition is destroyed, when nobody dares lift a finger, or when the
revolution has exhausted all reserves of strength.
The turning point that decides whether a one-party system will
remain a dictatorship or develop into a form of totalitarian rule
always comes when every last trace of active or passive opposition in
the country has been drowned in blood and terror. Genuinely

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totalitarian terror, owever, sets in only when the regime has no more
enemies who can be arrested and tortured to death and when even the
different classes of suspects are eliminated and can no longer be
taken into "protective custody."

Mankind
and Terror

Duas outras caractersticas


do terror totalitrio.

ARENDT, H. Essays in Understanding. P


298-299.

Mankind
and Terror

O terror vai alm de uma


legislao draconiana. Ele
age fora da lei. As leis do
regime so to respeitadas
quanto as leis anteriores.
Importante: com esse
desrespeito pela lei, vem a
culpabilizao massiva de
inocentes.

ARENDT, H. Essays in Understanding. P


300.

- logo abaixo that it does not shrink but grows as the opposition is
reduced.
Terror that is directed against neither suspects nor enemies of the
regime can turn only to absolutely innocent people who have done
nothing wrong and in the literal sense of the word do not know why
they are being arrested, sent to concentration camps, or liquidated.
The
second key factor follows from this, namely, that the graveyard peace
that spreads over the land under pure tyranny as well as under the
despotic rule of victorious revolutions, and during which the country
can recover, is never granted to a country under totalitarian rule.
There
is no end to the terror, and it is a matter of principle with such
regimes
that there can be no peace. As totalitarian movements promise their
adherents before they come to power, everything will remain in
permanent flux.
The initial terror is replaced by draconian legislation that establishes
in law what will be considered "transgressions"- interracial sexual
relations or arriving late for work, i. e., insufficient grasp of the
Bolshevist system, in which the worker belongs body and soul to a
production process guided by principles of political terror-and so
retroactively legalizes the initial reign of terror. This retroactive
legalization of conditions created by revolutionary terror is a natural
step in revolutionary legislation. The new draconian measures were
supposed to put an end to the extra-legal terror and establish the new
law of the revolution. What is characteristic of totalitarian regimes
is not that they too pass new laws of this kind, such as the Nuremberg
laws, but that they do not stop there. Instead, they retain terror as a
power functioning outside the law. Consequently, totalitarian terror
pays no more attention to the laws decreed by the totalitarian regime
than it does to those in effect before the regime's assumption of
power. All laws, including the Bolshevist and Nazi laws, become a
fa~ade whose purpose is to keep the population constantly aware that

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REFERNCIAS BIBLIOGRFICAS

Mankind
and Terror

Outra caracterstica do terror


totalitrio.

ARENDT, H. Essays in Understanding. P


302.

Mankind
And Terror

Dificuldades de
understanding.
Nota: achar uma traduo
pra understanding.

ARENDT, H. Essays in Understanding. P


302.

Mankind
and Terror

Terror acaba com a categoria


de meios e fins na poltica.

ARENDT, H. Essays in Understanding. P


303.

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the laws, no matter what their nature or origin, do not really matter.
This feature is a modern form of mind control that is not so much
interested in what is actually going on in the mind of the prisoner
as it is in forcing him to confess crimes that he never committed. This
is also the reason why provocation plays practically no role at all in
the
totalitarian police system. Who the person to be arrested and
liquidated
is, what he is thinking or planning-that is already determined by the
government in advance. Once he is arrested, his actual thoughts and
plans are of no consequence whatever. His crime is objectively
determined, without the help of any "subjective" factors. If he is a
Jew, he is a member of the conspiracy of the Elders of Zion; if he has
heart
disease, he is a parasite on the healthy body of the Germanic people;
if
he is arrested in Russia when an anti-Israeli and pro-Arab foreign
policy is in force, then he is a Zionist; if the government is intent on
eradicating the memory of Trotsky, he is a Trotskyite. And so on
Difficulties that are at the same time proof we are indeed up against
something new and not just a variant of tyranny-is that not only are
all our political concepts and definitions insufficient for an
understanding of totalitarian phenomena, but also all our categories of
thought and standards for judgment seem to explode in our hands the
instant we try to apply them here. If, for example, we apply to the
phenomenon of totalitarian terror the category of means and ends, by
which terror would be a means to retain power, to intimidate people,
to make them afraid, and so in this way to cause them to behave in
certain ways and not in others, it becomes clear that totalitarian terror
will be less effective than any other form of terror in achieving that
end. Fear cannot possibly be a reliable guide if what I am constantly
afraid of can happen to me regardless of anything I do. Totalitarian
terror can
be given a free hand only at that point when the regime has assured
itself by means of a wave of the most extreme terror that opposition
has indeed become impossible..
If the means have become the ends, if terror is not just a means to
subjugate people by fear but is an end for the sake of which people
are sacrificed, then the question of the meaning of terror in

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Mankind
and Terror

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Outros dois fatos necessaries


para se entender o terror
totalitrio.

REFERNCIAS BIBLIOGRFICAS

ARENDT, H. Essays in Understanding. P


303 e 304.

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totalitarian systems has to be put differently and answered outside the
category of means and ends.
THe authorities behaved identically in both the cases of totalitarian
rule we know of. Not even word of deaths is released. Every effort is
made to create the impression not only that the person in question has
died but also that he never existed at all. Any efforts to learn anything
about his fate thus become utterly pointless. The often maintained
view that the Bolshevist concentration camps are a modern form of
slavery and are therefore fundamentally different from the Nazi
death camps, which were operated like factories, is therefore
mistaken on two counts. No slaveholders in history ever used up their
slaves with such incredible speed. Different from other forms of
enforced labor, too, is a mode of arrest and deportation that cuts off
its victims from the world of the living and sees that they "die off"
under the pretext that they belong to a dying class; that is,
exterminating them is justified because their death, though perhaps by
other means, is foreordained anyhow.
The second fact is the striking one repeatedly verified, particularly
in the Bolshevist regime, that no one except for the leader in power at
the moment is immune from terror, that the people who are the
executioners today can easily be transformed into the victims of
tomorrow.
Logo abaixo: David Rousset has called concentration camps the "most

Campos de concentrao e a
extino da espontaneidade

304, 305.

totalitarian society," and it is true that the camps serve, among other
purposes, as laboratories in which human beings of the most varied
kinds are reduced to an always constant collection of reactions and
reflexes
The concentration camps not only eradicate people; they also further
the monstrous experiment, under scientifically exacting conditions, of
destroying spontaneity as an element of human behavior and of
transforming people into something that is even less than animal,
namely, a bundle of reactions that, given the same set of conditions,
will always react in the same way.
()
For a totalitarian government to achieve its goal of total control over
the governed, people have to be deprived not only of their freedom
but also of their instincts and drives, which are not programmed to
produce identical reactions in all of us but always move different

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REFERNCIAS BIBLIOGRFICAS

Terror totalitrio e o fim da


noo de
culpa/responsabilidade.

305

Terror totalitrio e a lei que


o rege.

305, 306.

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individuals to different acts. Totalitarian government's failure or
success therefore ultimately depends on its ability to transform
human beings into perverted animals. Ordinarily this is never
altogether possible, even under the conditions of totalitarian terror.
Spontaneity
can never be entirely eradicated, because life as such, and surely
human life, is dependent on it. In concentration camps, however,
spontaneity can be eradicated to a great extent; or, at any rate, the
most
careful attention and effort is expended there on experiments for that
purpose. If that is to be accomplished, people obviously have to be
robbed of the last traces of their individuality and transformed into
collections of identical reactions; they have to be cut off from
everything that made them unique, identifiable individuals within
human society. The purity of the experiment would be compromised
ifone admitted even as a remote possibility that these specimens of
the species homo sapiens had ever existed as real human beings.
By confessing to crimes that they never committed and in most cases
never could have committed, they publicly proclaim that the people
whom we thought we were seeing for so many years really never
existed at all.
Totalitarian terror, then, is no longer a means to an end; it is the
very essence of such a government. Its ultimate political goal is to
form and maintain a society, whether one dominated by a particular
race or one in which classes and nations no longer exist, in which
every individual would be nothing other than a specimen of the
species. Totalitarian ideology conceives of this species of the human
race as the embodiment of an all-pervasive, all-powerful law.
Whether it is seen as a law of nature or a law of history, this law is
actually the law of a movement that rages through mankind, that finds
its embodiment in humankind, and is constantly put into action by
totalitarian leaders.
()
In other words, the law of killing, the law by which totalitarian
movements come to power, remains in effect as the law of the
movements themselves; and it would not change if the utterly
improbable should come to pass, namely, if they achieved their
goal of bringing all of humanity under their sway.

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