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INTRODUCTION

Purpose of Program

Producers investigating anaerobic digestion on their farm need to know how much biogas is produced, how much is needed to

An interactive web-based model is under development by researchers at Cornell University that will allow a user to determin

Project Participants

Kifle Gebremedhin, Curt Gooch, Peter Wright, and Binxin Wu.

Project Categories

Environmental Conditions `
Digester Type and Geometry
Installation of Digester
Building Materials
Soil Conditions
Manure Information

Computer Tips

The program will guide you from one page to the next. We suggest you follow through to the "Summary" page.
If you need to change a value on a previous page, use your browser's "back" button or the "previous" button at the bottom o
NOTE: It may be easier to first print the 6 category pages. Then, once you've been able to look up the data, you can
d, how much is needed to heat the digester, and how much is left over for other uses. The value for each is largely based on the design of

ll allow a user to determine the biogas generation and resulting energy partitioning for various digester conditions specified by the user. Item

mary" page.
us" button at the bottom of the page. Once you make the change, be sure to hit "update" at the bottom of the page. Otherwise, the pro
ook up the data, you can come back to the site and enter all of the information at one time.
ly based on the design of the system and the availability of biologically degradable energy in the influent. Only after accurate values are pre

specified by the user. Items in the program that the user can select include digester size, type, and construction materials, hydraulic retent

e page. Otherwise, the program will not use the updated value in its calculations.
er accurate values are predicted can a producer make an informed business decision relative to anaerobic digestion on their farm and the d

materials, hydraulic retention time, operating temperature, influent value, geographic location, and others. The model will be set up so a use
ion on their farm and the design that works best for their conditions.

odel will be set up so a user can manipulate values for many of the input variables to do "what ifs". Reports can be generated that will docum
e generated that will document each variable value for each iteration. A future component of the model will be a module that will perform a c
odule that will perform a complete economic analysis based on the design chosen.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Item Values
1A. Enter latitude (degrees)

1B. Enter elevation above (ft)


sea level

1C. Enter maximum and Maximum Minimum Wind Sky


minimum monthly Speed Condition
temperatures in (select s (select
degrees °F for the number number
desired month (s) from from
Table 1) Table 2)
Month Temp. Temp.
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
Septembe
r
October
November
December

Table 1. Wind Table 2. Coefficient for Sky Condition


Speed Averages

Calm < 5 mph Very clear 0.9


Moderate
wind 5-10 mph Clear 0.85
Partially
High wind 11-20 mph cloudy 0.8
Strong Mostly
wind > 20mph cloudy 0.7
Hazy or
Other smoggy 0.6
Clouds
obscure
the sun 0
DIGESTER TYPE AND GEOMETRY
Item Values
2A. Digester Plug flow
type
(select Mixed (available
one) soon)

2B. Operating
temperatu
re (select Mesophillic (101 °F)
one)
Thermophillic (135
°F)
Other
°F

2C. Enter days


hydraulic
retention
time

2D. Digester Rectangular with flat


configurati top
on (select
one)
Length (L) (ft)

Width (W) (ft)

Depth (D) (ft)

Rectangular with
arch top

Length (L) (ft)

Width (W) (ft)

Depth (D) (ft)

Radius (R) (ft)


Upright cylindrical
with flat bottom

Radius (R) (ft)

Depth (D) (ft)

Cylindrical with
conical bottom

Depth (D1) (ft)

Depth (D2) (ft)

Radius (R) (ft)

2E. Enter Top cover (in)


thickness
Wall (in)
Floor (in)
Top cover insulation
(in)

Wall insulation (in)

Floor insulation (in)

Sidewall insulation
(in)

Endwall insulation
(in)
MANURE INFORMATION
Two options are available for inputting manure
information. Be sure to include only the manure that is
processed by the digester.
Item Values
6A. Option 1. (ft3/day)
Enter daily volume of
manure entering the
digester
Enter daily volatile (lb/day)
solids
6B. Option 2.
Manure entering the
digester is calculated
from the following
information using
standard equations

Lactating Cows -
Group 1
Number of
Cows
Milk (lbs/cow/d
Production ay)

Dry Matter (lbs/cow/d


Intake ay)

Milk Fat (g/g


milk/day)
Milk True (g/g
Protein milk/day)

Lactating Cows -
Group 2
Number of
Cows
Milk (lbs/cow/d
Production ay)

Dry Matter (lbs/cow/d


Intake ay)

Milk Fat (g/g


milk/day)
Milk True (g/g
Protein milk/day)
Lactating Cows -
Group 3
Number of
Cows
Milk (lbs/cow/d
Production ay)

Dry Matter (lbs/cow/d


Intake ay)

Milk Fat (g/g


milk/day)
Milk True (g/g
Protein milk/day)

Lactating Cows -
Group 4
Number of
Cows
Milk (lbs/cow/d
Production ay)

Dry Matter (lbs/cow/d


Intake ay)

Milk Fat (g/g


milk/day)
Milk True (g/g
Protein milk/day)

Lactating Cows -
Group 5
Number of
Cows
Milk (lbs/cow/d
Production ay)

Dry Matter (lbs/cow/d


Intake ay)

Milk Fat (g/g


milk/day)
Milk True (g/g
Protein milk/day)

Lactating Cows -
Group 6
Number of
Cows
Milk (lbs/cow/d
Production ay)

Dry Matter (lbs/cow/d


Intake ay)

Milk Fat (g/g


milk/day)
Milk True (g/g
Protein milk/day)

Dry Cows
Number of Dry Cows
Average Body Weight (lbs)
of Dry Cows

Replacements
Number of 1,000 to
1,250 lb heifers
Number of 800 to
1,000 lb heifers
Number of 600 to 800
lb heifers
Number of 400 to 600
lb heifers

Bedding
Requirements
Organic Bedding for
Lactating (lbs/day)
Cows
Dry Cows (lbs/day)
Heifers (lbs/day)

Wastewater
Milking Center (gallons/d
Wastewater ay)
Other Wastewater (gallons/d
ay)
BUILDING MATERIALS
Item Values
4A. Enter heat conductivity of building and Sidewall (BTU-in./hr-ft2-°F)
insulation materials from Table 3

Endwall (BTU-in./hr-ft2-°F)

Floor (BTU-in./hr-ft2-°F)

Cover (BTU-in./hr-ft2-°F)

Sidewall insulation (BTU-


in./hr-ft2-°F)

Endwall insulation (BTU-


in./hr-ft2-°F)

Floor insulation (BTU-in./hr-


ft2-°F)

Top cover insulation (BTU-


in./hr-ft2-°F)

Table 3. Heat Conductivities of Building and Insulation Materials

Wall and
Floor Cover and Insulation
Polystyren
Polystyren e Polystyrene -
Gravel e Bead Composite Expanded Polystyrene - Extruded
Material Concrete Board Board (EPS) (XEPS)
Heat
conductivit
y
(BTU-
in./hr-ft2-
°F) 13.87 1.03 1.65 0.95 0.73

4B. Enter transmissivity of top cover material (Opaque = 0, Clear Glass or Plastic =
1.0, White Plastic = 0.01-0.05)
SOIL CONDITIONS
Item Values
5A. Enter soil properties from Table Density (lb/ft3)
4
Specific heat
(BTU/lb - °F)

Heat
conductivity
(BTU-in./hr-ft2 -
°F)

Table 4. Thermal Properties of Soil Materials

Material Density Specific Heat


Heat Conductivity

(lb/ft3) (BTU/lb - (BTU-in./hr-ft2 -


°F) °F)

Soil 165.63 0.21 17.34


minerals
Granite 165 0.2 20.8
Quartz 166.25 0.19 61.03
Glass 169.38 0.2 5.55
Clay 8.88
Gravel 14.33
Sand 16.45
Sand, 21.78
saturated
Sand and 14.7
gravel
Sand and 6.24
clay
Silt 8.62
Silt, stony 15.33
INSTALLATION OF
DIGESTER
Item Values
3A. Installation
of digester
with Under
respect to ground
the (top wall is
surface of flush with
the the
ground ground)
(select
one)

Partially
under
ground
(Enter
depth
below)

Above
ground
(floor is
flush with
the
ground)
Partial
depth
under
ground (ft
SUMMARY
Item Values
Environmental Conditions
Latitude (degrees) 43
Elevation (ft) 450
Max. Min. Wind Sky
Temp. (° Temp. Speed(m Condition
F) (°F) ph) s
January 30 14 13 0.8
February 32 15 13 0.8
March 42 25 13 0.8
April 55 35 13 0.8
May 68 45 13 0.8
June 76 53 13 0.8
July 81 59 13 0.8
August 78 57 13 0.8
September 71 51 13 0.8
October 60 41 13 0.8
November 47 32 13 0.8
December 35 21 13 0.8

Digester Type and Geometry


Digester Type Plug flow
Operating Temperature (°F) 101
Hydraulic Retention Time (days) 22
Digester Configuration Rectangul
ar with flat
top
Digester Dimensions
Length (ft) 104
Width (ft) 29
Depth (D1) (ft) 18
Depth (D2) (ft)
Radius (ft)
Thickness
Top Cover (in) 0.12
Wall (in) 11
Floor (in) 11
Top Cover Insulation (in) 0
Wall Insulation (in) 1.96
Floor Insulation (in) 1.96
Sidewall Insulation (in) 1.96
Endwall Insulation (in) 1.96

Installation of Digester
Installation of Digester with Respect to the Surface of Under
the Ground ground
(top wall is
flush with
the
ground)

Building Materials
Heat Conductivity of Building and Insulation Materials
Sidewall (BTU-in./hr-ft2-°F) 10.4
Endwall (BTU-in./hr-ft -°F) 2
10.4
Floor (BTU-in./hr-ft -°F)
2
10.4
Cover (BTU-in./hr-ft -°F)2
2.29
Sidewall Insulation (BTU-in./hr-ft -°F)
2
1.04
Endwall Insulation (BTU-in./hr-ft -°F)
2
1.04
Floor Insulation (BTU-in./hr-ft -°F)
2
1.04
Top Cover Insulation (BTU-in./hr-ft -°F) 2
0
Transmissivity of Cover 0.01

Soil Conditions
Soil Properties
Density (lb/ft3) 90.52
Specific Heat (BTU/lb - °F) 0.19
Heat Conductivity (BTU/min-m - °F) 6.93

Manure Information
Daily Volume of Manure Entering the Digester (ft3/day) 2118
Daily volatile solids (lb/day) 0
OUTPUT
1. Heat Balance

Heat Gain
(or Loss)
(Btu) Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep

Solar Heat
Gain 774808 1036486 1717663 2263017 2807262 2917542 2920118 2533927 1887244
Heat
Needed to
Heat 19967424 18035092 19967424 19818783 16273816 12917599 11336816 12251075 14156273
Influent 3 9 3 4 5 9 0 3 9

Heat Loss
Through
Top cover 591955 524519 505794 406094 333463 264695 232305 251038 290075

Heat Loss
Through
Walls 83400860 75329809 83400860 64042035 59226698 52637289 51067918 52578803 54684295

Heat Loss
Through
Floor 52534878 47450857 52534878 39419578 40733564 39419578 40733564 40733564 39419578
Energy in
Effluent
(Manure + 24574790 22196584 24574790 23782054 24574790 23782054 24574790 24574790 23782054
Gas) 1 6 1 9 1 9 1 1 9

Heat
Required
to Operate
the 33542712 30261962 33439811 29979252 26022462 21858002 20248183 21354023 23406944
Digester 9 9 3 6 8 0 0 3 3

Suppleme
ntal
Energy
Required
for
Digester
Heating 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2. Gas Production

Biogas
(ft3) Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep

Gross
Biogas
Production 2346217 2119163 2346217 2270532 2346217 2270532 2346217 2346217 2270532

Biogas
Needed to
Maintain
Operating
Temperat
ure of the
Digester 623470 562490 621557 557235 483688 406282 376360 396914 435073
Net
Biogas
Available
for Other
Use 1722746 1556673 1724659 1713297 1862528 1864250 1969856 1949302 1835459
Oct Nov Dec Total

1328594 834686 668960 21690313

18468039 21765271 19967424 20492504


0 1 3 15

378420 445974 547002 4771339

78988101
62852822 67258758 83400860 2

52566806
40733564 39419578 52534878 6

24574790 23782054 24574790 28934833


1 9 1 55

28731660 32394233 33548802 33478805


3 6 5 21

0 0 0 0
Oct Nov Dec Total

2346217 2270532 2346217 27624813

534045 602123 623583 6222826

1812171 1668409 1722633 21401987