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Letter of Transmittal
May 26, 2008 Mr. Ch. Sohail Research Methods and Techniques Bahria University Karachi. Dear Sir, Here is the report based on “Why are supermarkets preferred over small retail stores”, which you had authorized and is ready for your perusal. Through this report we’ve got a chance to learn a lot about the customer preferences at supermarkets and what are the basic factors due to which they prefer shopping from the superstores rather than the retail stores If there be any clarification demanded, we would appreciate a call from you to our group members. Sincerely, Ahsan Faheem (10020) Maaz Khalid (9981) M. Usman Badar (9992)

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Acknowledgements
All praise is to Allah who makes everything possible in the universe and beyond. First of all, we would like to thank Allah, who helped us with everything and made everything come together, then our parents and family who have always supported us in every good thing that we do. We are greatly thankful to our course instructor for Research Methods and Techniques, Mr. Ch Sohail, who provided us clear concepts and a strong foundation of understanding for the subject. He made the course a valuable learning experience for all of us and made us grow as learned individuals. We would also like to thank our University; The Bahria University has been a great learning place with different academic and extra-curricular experiences, all contributing to our growth as students. Lastly we would like to thank our fellow classmates for making this learning experience a thoroughly productive and enjoyable one. Hopefully this report will serve a good purpose. Thank you, Ahsan Faheem (10020) Maaz Khalid (9981) M. Usman Badar (9992)

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Introduction
Retailing in Pakistan:
Retailing in Pakistan, and for that matter in most of the Third World Countries, has traditionally been a small scale business, meant mainly for small and less or not educated entrepreneurs. Till late sixties, large scale retailing institutions like Super Markets, Departmental Stores and Discount Houses were unheard of in Pakistan. However, utility Store and canteen stores Department, a type of mini super markets, are functioning since the time of independence; but these stores were mutual benefit stores for service of government servants and Defense Services personnel respectively. In late sixties, in Lahore, a super market chain with the name of COOP stores was introduced. The CSD still remains a mutual benefit store but utility stores have been opened to general public. The chain of COOP store of Lahore was later taken over by Utility Stores Corporation of Pakistan. In the rural areas of Pakistan, the retailing still follows the same traditional "HUTTI' system — small shops which provide very necessary daily use items to the villagers from available stores. These days almost all grocery items, cosmetics, vegetable ghee, and other essential items including shelf medicines are available on HUTTIES, but back in fifties rather till late in sixties very few items could be procured from these HUTTIES. In the urban areas of Pakistan, almost all types of related outlets exist. The introduction of sector wise planned markets in the newly planned modern city of Islamabad the capital, gave new dimensions to modern retailing in Pakistan. Thereafter almost in all other cities and new towns of Pakistan, where a new residential locality had to be developed, special emphasis was given to plan retail markets in a proper way.

The main retail urban outlets are:
Small retailers Large retailers/ wholesale retail stores Department stores Super markets Utility stores Cooperative stores Medical & general stores Specialty stores Friday, Tuesday or Sunday Bazaars

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Small Retailers:
These are very similar to HUTTIES found in the rural areas of the country. Normally these types of stores are located in suburbs of the cities and towns and take care of the demands and requirements of the people living in that area.

Super Markets:
A supermarket is a departmentalized food store. Pakistan entered the super market era at a time when some western European countries were moving from super market to 'Hyper mart'. The first supermarket in Pakistan was opened at Karachi in 1968. During last 27 years quite a few of them have sprung up, but most of these are more like mini super markets rather than full fledged supermarkets with intensive and extensive product mix. Even food items like meat, fresh fruits, are not available with
most of them.

Role of Supermarkets:
Supermarkets simply meet the needs of consumers as cost effectively as possible, while acting within the bounds of ever-extending legislation, therefore in large part their behavior simply reflects the desires of consumers and government. Larger retailers do exert significant "buyer power" which can be destructive, more carefully thought out rules on Trade Justice and allowable ethics in international trade could well reduce this. Recent consumer interest in Fair Trade has lead to a "rush to Fair Trade" by many retailers and supermarkets which is welcomed, but there is no saying whether it will last or not, as supermarkets will always be ready to throw fair trade products out of the door to replace them with products that meet the needs of the next wave of consumer interest.

Despite the low purchasing power of the majority of Pakistani consumers, multinational companies dominate sales in the household care market. This is because those consumers who do buy household care products are affluent enough to afford the goods offered by foreign multinationals, which they buy through supermarkets and hypermarkets in urban areas. The multinationals also benefit from the perceived higher quality of their goods, and the lack of domestic competitors. This is underpinned by their capacity to invest more in advertising and promotional campaigns aimed at boosting consumer awareness of their products

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Global retailers eye on Pakistani market:
Pakistan's economy is yet in its infancy when compared to the role, scope and impact of retailing giants of the developed world. Retailing is about the economies of scale. It is not the per unit profit on merchandize, but the profit on volume and the time span within which it is made; that is at the core of the retailing. The reasons for retailers from the developed world to set up stores in developing countries are apparent. The home turf represents mature markets where scope for expansion is restricted. While immensity of scale, size, space and number of products offered for sale are the salient features of modern retailing, the key to success lies in economies of scale in purchasing and selling the goods. For developing countries like Pakistan, retailing in the afore-depicted sense is a matter of time. With world-wide progressive applicability of the regulations and procedures of WTO, rising incomes creating urban middle class in developing countries, emergence of mass marketing retailing outlets as entirely foreign-owned or as joint-ventures with local entrepreneurs appears to be inevitable. Benefits of such retailing are immense for the consumer, with generally assured quality of products and competitiveness of prices. Retailing has the potential to be a boon for the consumers, provided state institutions act as regulators with imbibed sense of integrity. Mass consumer marketing can generate massive economic benefits both for the operator, native manufacturers of the products as well as for the consumers and social benefits for the community and the economy at large. It can be a great impetus not only for commerce but also for the manufacturing sector to observe discipline, integrity and commitment as to the standards and norms of respective products to open up foreign markets via the retailer.

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Research Process at a Glance
Our research was based on several steps and through an entire process we have concluded certain results. The research process included the following steps: At the initial stages we had an idea of growing trends of supermarkets in Pakistan. We realized that this was being seen as a problem for some and an opportunity for the others. To gain more knowledge and to have a clearer picture we decided to conduct an exploratory research. The initial research was conducted in terms of secondary research where articles on the internet and magazines were viewed which confirmed the increased trend of supermarkets and highlighted why people preferred going to supermarkets. The details of the exploratory research have been mentioned in the research proposal. Next step in the research process was to conduct various focus groups so that we have an idea about the general opinion of different people and what do they have to say about the increasing trends of supermarkets and also to gain their suggestions about the current scenario of supermarkets. One of our aims was also to know the peoples opinion about the changes they would want to see in the supermarkets in the future. These focus groups provided us with a conclusion highlighting various factors as to why people prefer going to supermarkets over retail stores. Exploratory research helped us find out the alternatives and other concepts as to why people preferred going to supermarkets then small retailer shops .which helped making research objectives and research questions and helped us framing our questions for the questionnaire. The initial research helped us to create our mega hypotheses. We then decided that our sampling unit will be households and sampling element will be individuals in the household who went to supermarkets, this defined our target population. Then we decided that non probability sampling will be done due to cost /time constraints. We did the convenience sampling .and got our questionnaires filled. When the questionnaires were filled we did editing and coding .Editing in terms of finding out what people wrote in open ended blanks to rectify them and coding was done for further tabulation of the data. After tabulation we started the work of hypothesis testing. We short listed the questions for the purpose of hypothesis testing .we had a predetermined error of 2% which helped us prove our hypothesis and made us come to our conclusion which you will see in the report along with the hypothesis testing.

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Research Process

Exploratory Research

Setting Research objectives and designing research questions

Focus Group

Survey: Getting Questionnaires filled

Tabulation of Data: entry, coding and editing

Hypotheses testing

Conclusion

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Background
In Pakistan the retail and wholesale business accounts for over 25 per cent of the GDP with the share of trading even bigger than the manufacturing sector. According to the latest Pakistan Economic Survey, the sector is growing at the rate of 9.9 per cent. Some European retail chains have shown interest in Pakistan. A German retail giant, the Macro has entered into Karachi market. A few other retail firms are said to be in the process of entering into Pakistani market. So far the Wal-Mart name has not come up on the list of companies aspiring to enter. It is estimated that in 2002, about 6.8 million of the 50 million people living in urban Pakistan belonged to the upper and upper–middle class, and represented a grocery market worth $1.7 billion. This segment, projected to grow to 17 million people by the year 2010, is expected to be the first to switch to modern retail stores.

Purpose of the research:
The purpose of the research is to find out various reasons for people’s preference to shop in supermarkets rather than small retail shops. This of course is an opportunity for people wanting to open supermarkets in the future.

Research Objectives:
1. The objective of this report is to analyze the extent of consumer preference for superstores. 2. To determine which reason dominates or stands out the most for consumer’s preference for superstores 3. To determine what other services can be added in supermarkets which consumers would prefer. 4. To find the future of supermarkets in Karachi.

Research design:
Research methods employed were: 1. Exploratory research 2. Descriptive research

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Exploratory research
We have conducted exploratory research in terms of secondary data to clarify the purpose/problem of the research. For many customers these supermarkets are really best place to visit for shopping. "You find almost everything under one roof and that also on reasonable rates," says Amjad Hussain, a resident of walled city and a regular visitor of Makro, superstore at Ravi Road, Lahore. He gives many reasons for coming to this place to shop. "The staff is very customer friendly, the store is really big and you can bring family with you. You will face no problems regarding parking of your vehicle, you can carry shopped goods through shopping trolleys direct to your vehicle and contrary to most other such Pakistani stores there are even washrooms for customers," Other shopping-stores, even retailers now need to provide such facilities to customer if they want to remain in competition with such big shopping stores, he says. According to Agri-Food Past, Present & Future Report of Pakistan in August 2005 prepared by government of Canada .Supermarkets are increasing in popularity and currently account for 10% of retail food sales. Modern retail formats, notably supermarkets/hypermarkets and convenience stores, are expanding across Pakistan and giving rural and urban consumers access to a considerably wider selection of goods and services. Also factors like continued migration of rural consumers to urban areas in search of work and an improved standard of living and the number of Pakistanis returning to the country having worked abroad will also fuel growth of urbanization. These factors will be underpinned by the increased penetration of supermarkets and hypermarkets in urban Pakistan, which will be able to offer consumers a wide range of modern, convenient products at highly competitive prices. Throughout the country consumers will continue to demand basic household care products they know to be effective, demonstrating little interest in the short to medium term in highly advanced and expensive products or formats. Through secondary data we have found that supermarkets are being preferred and increasing in number throughout Pakistan.

Descriptive research:
After doing exploratory research we further have done descriptive research to know what makes people prefer supermarkets over small retail outlets and to do so under descriptive research method, surveys will be used to gather primary source data. The questionnaire is attached in the appendix.

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Analysis of Questionnaire
1. Q1. How often do you go for shopping to supermarkets? a. Daily b. Weekly c. Twice a month d. Once a month e. Any Other periodicity (please specify)_______________________

OPTIONS Daily Weekly Twice a Month Once a Month Others Total 06 15 14 15 0 50

RESULTS

PERCENTAGE 12% 30% 28% 30% 0% 100%

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Visiting Frequency Daily Weekly Twice a month Once a Month Others

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Q2. Which supermarket(s) do you usually visit for shopping? a. Agha’s super market b. Naheed supermarket c. Imtiaz d. Makro e. Other (please specify)______________________ ecify)___________________________________

OPTIONS Agha’s Naheed Imtiaz Makro Others Total 11 08 09 06 16 50

RESULTS

PERCENTAGE 22% 16% 18% 12% 32% 100%

18 16 14 12 Agha's 10 8 6 4 2 0 Visiting Frequency Naheed Imtiaz Macro Others

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Q3. Please specify the range of your TOTAL MONTHLY family income: a. Less than Rs. 25000 b. Rs. 25001-50000 c. Rs. 50001-75000 d. More than Rs. 75001

OPTIONS Less than Rs 25000 Rs 25001-50000 Rs 50001-75000 More than 75000 Total

RESULTS 07 07 16 20 50

PERCENTAGE 14% 14% 32% 40% 100%

25

20

15

Less than 25000 25001-50000

10

50001-75000 More than 75000

5

0 Income Level in Rs.

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Q4. How far is the supermarket from your home? a. Walking distance(< 5 minutes) b. 5-10 minutes drive c. 11-20 minutes drive d. More than 20 minutes drive

OPTIONS Walking Distance 5-10 mins 11-20 mins More than 20 mins Total

RESULTS 07 16 15 12 50

PERCENTAGE 14% 32% 30% 24% 100%

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Distance Walking Distance 5-10 Minutes 11-20 Minutes More than 20 Minutes

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Q5. Will you still go to supermarket even if it is not near your home? a. Yes b. No c. Maybe/ Don’t know

OPTIONS Yes No Maybe Total 26 12 12 50

RESULTS

PERCENTAGE 52% 24% 24% 100%

30

25

20 Yes No 10 Maybe

15

5

0

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Q6. Would you like to have home delivery service? a. Yes b. No c. Maybe, sometimes

OPTIONS Yes No Sometimes Total 16 17 17 50

RESULTS

PERCENTAGE 32% 34% 34% 100%

17.2 17 16.8 16.6 16.4 16.2 16 15.8 15.6 15.4 Home Delivery Yes No Sometimes

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Q7. On an average how much time do you spend shopping in supermarkets? a. Approximately 1 hr b. 1 hrs to 2 hrs c. 2.01 hrs to 3 hrs d. >3hrs

OPTIONS Approx 1hr 1.01-2 hr 2.01-3 hr More than 3hr Total

RESULTS 21 21 05 03 50

PERCENTAGE 42% 42% 10% 06% 100%

25

20

15

Approx 1hr 1.01-2hr

10

2.01-3hr More than 3hr

5

0 Time Spend Durring Shopping

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Q8. At what time usually you prefer going to supermarkets? a. Pre-noon b. Afternoon c. Evening d. Night e. Late night

OPTIONS Pre-Noon Afternoon Evening Night Late Night Total

RESULTS 06 10 17 12 5 50

PERCENTAGE 12% 20% 34% 24% 10% 100%

18 16 14 12 Pre-Noon 10 8 6 4 2 0 Preference of Time Afternoon Evening Night Late Night

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Q9. Rate how much importance you give to the different aspects in supermarkets. (On a scale of 1-5, 5 is the most important and 1 is the least important) a. Location b. Variety c. Price d. Environment in general e. Car parking space f. Deals/Discounts you get g. Choosing product yourself h. Status symbol i. More space to walk around j. Service provided by sales force k. One stop shop l. Cleanliness

Options A B C D E F G H I J K L 1 1 0 2 1 1 11 0 23 3 19 0 0 1 2 4 0 0 6 1 1 3 5 4 12 13

Rating Scale 3 0 7 5 20 0 2 4 3 9 4 8 3 12

4 17 9 16 15 16 28 14 9 20 8 18 34

5 28 34 27 8 32 8 29 10 14 7 11

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Q10. Do the supermarkets you visit have helpful and friendly sales force? a. Yes b. No c. Don’t care

OPTIONS Yes No Don’t Care Total 32 11 07 50

RESULTS

PERCENTAGE 64% 22% 14% 100%

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Friendly Sales Force

Yes No Don't Care

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Q11. Would you like all the employees in supermarkets to have a specific dress code? a. Yes b. No c. Don’t care

OPTIONS Yes No Don’t Care Total 29 10 11 50

RESULTS

PERCENTAGE 58% 20% 22% 100%

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Dress Code

Yes No Don't Care

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Q12. Would you like to be served beverages while shopping? a. Yes b. Maybe c. No

OPTIONS Yes May Be No Total 20 19 11 50

RESULTS

PERCENTAGE 40% 38% 22% 100%

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Yes May Be No

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Q13. Would you prefer some children playing area to be made? a. Strongly Agree b. Agree c. Disagree

OPTIONS Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Total

RESULTS 15 22 13 50

PERCENTAGE 30% 44% 26% 100%

25

20

15 Strongly Agree Agree 10 Disagree

5

0 Preference For Clildren Playing Area

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Hypothesis Testing
Mega Hypothesis:
Ho: People prefer super markets over retail stores Ha: people do not prefer super markets over retail stores.

Hypothesis# 1
Ho: At least 60% people prefer to go to supermarket even if it is far from there home. Ha: Less than 60% people prefer to go to supermarket even if it is far from there home. Level of significance:

α = 1%

26 µ = 30

Ztab = -2.33

Zcalc =

.

1.156

Zcalc= -1.156 Conclusion:
We see that the value of test statistic does not fall in the critical region hence we can not reject our H0. The data provide sufficient evidence to conclude that super markets are preferred over retail stores even if supermarket is far from there place.

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Hypothesis# 2
Ho: There is no relation between Number of visit to supermarket and income level. Ha: There is relation between Number of visit to supermarket and income level. Level of significance: α = 1% v = (nc-1) (nr-1) v = 12 Less than 25000 Daily Weekly Twice a Month Once a Month Other Period Total Computation: 7 7 50 6 0.84 0 01 04 02 0 07 2500150000 0 03 02 0 0 05 5000175000 01 03 05 07 0 16 More than 75001 05 08 03 06 0 22

Total 06 15 14 15 0 50

15 2.1 50 7 14 1.96 50 7 15 2.1 50 7 0 0 50 5 6 0.6 50 5 15 1.5 50 5 14 1.4 50 5 15 1.5 50 5 0 0 50 16 6 1.92 50

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16 16 16

50 50 50

15 14 15

4.8 4.48 4.8

16 0 0 50 22 6 2.64 50 22 15 6.6 50 22 14 6.16 50 22 15 6.6 50 22 0 0 50 Formula:

Computation: 13.668

X2tab = 26.217 X2calc= 13.66 Conclusion:
We see that the value of test statistic falls outside the critical region hence we can accept our Ho. There is no relation between Number of visit to supermarket and income level.

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Hypothesis# 3
Ho: At most 8 people on average preferred to go to supermarket. Ha: More than 8 people on average preferred to go to supermarket.

Ha: μ ≤ 8 Ho: μ > 8 Zα = Z0.01 = 2.33

Zcalc =

=

10

. √

Zcalc = 3.25 Conclusion:
We see that the value of test statistic falls in the critical region hence we can reject our H0. More than 8 people on average preferred to go to supermarkets.

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Conclusion

After doing the hypotheses testing we have concluded the following results: 1. The number of visits made to supermarkets is dependent on the income of the people. 2. People generally prefer supermarkets over retail stores because of deals and discounts they get. 3. People also prefer super markets over retail stores because of the price factor. 4. Super markets are preferred over retail stores more because of variety as compared to location. 5. Super markets are preferred over retail stores because of convenient parking. All the results obtained from our sub-hypotheses as mentioned above helped us to prove our mega hypotheses. Most of our respondents belonged to the income group of Rs.50,000 and above, therefore we conclude that people from higher income bracket prefer superstores over small retail stores.

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Recommendations

Our recommendations are as follows: 1. Superstores should also consider car parking space as an important way to attract more customers. 2. We recommend to the supermarkets that their employees should have a specific dress code. 3. There has been a preference for children play area to be made. 4. Since majority of the people spend more than 1 hour in supermarkets beverages should be served while shopping 5. Supermarkets should continue to offer competitive prices because mostly people go there because of the price factor.

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Name: _______________________ Age: ________________ Contact: _____________________ Gender: _____________ Research Questionnaire Why Super Markets are Preferred over Retail Stores in Pakistan Q1. How often do you go for shopping to supermarkets? f. Daily g. Weekly h. Twice a month i. Once a month j. Any Other periodicity (please specify)_______________________ Q2. Which supermarket(s) do you usually visit for shopping? f. Agha’s super market g. Naheed supermarket h. Imtiaz i. Makro j. Other (please specify)___________________________________ Q3. Please specify the range of your TOTAL MONTHLY family income: e. Less than Rs. 25000 f. Rs. 25001-50000 g. Rs. 50001-75000 h. More than Rs. 75001 Q4. How far is the supermarket from your home? e. Walking distance(< 5 minutes) f. 5-10 minutes drive g. 11-20 minutes drive h. More than 20 minutes drive Q5. Will you still go to supermarket even if it is not near your home? d. Yes e. No f. Maybe/ Don’t know Q6. Would you like to have home delivery service? d. Yes e. No f. Maybe, sometimes Q7. On an average how much time do you spend shopping in supermarkets? e. Approximately 1 hr f. 1 hrs to 2 hrs g. 2.01 hrs to 3 hrs h. >3hrs BAHRIA UNIVERSITY KARACHI CAMPUS 29

RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Q8. At what time usually you prefer going to supermarkets? f. Pre-noon g. Afternoon h. Evening i. Night j. Late night Q9. Rate how much importance you give to the different aspects in supermarkets. (On a scale of 1-5, 5 is the most important and 1 is the least important) m. Location n. Variety o. Price p. Environment in general q. Car parking space r. Deals/Discounts you get s. Choosing product yourself t. Status symbol u. More space to walk around v. Service provided by sales force w. One stop shop x. Cleanliness Q10. Do the supermarkets you visit have helpful and friendly sales force? d. Yes e. No f. Don’t care Q11. Would you like all the employees in supermarkets to have a specific dress code? d. Yes e. No f. Don’t care Q12. Would you like to be served beverages while shopping? d. Yes e. Maybe f. No Q13. Would you prefer some children playing area to be made? d. Strongly Agree e. Agree f. Disagree

REPORT

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APPENDIX

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