History of news media: When we talk about history of news media then we must have to look the date

when the first news was broadcasted, it was July 5 1954 yes it is the date from where our journey is going to be started. The first news channel to broadcast news on TV was BBC which before this they were broadcasting news through radio. They have covered almost all the key events of the last 53 years before that the radio was in action since 1922.

History of Pakistani news media: The decision to establish a general purpose television service with the participation of private capital and under the general supervision of the Government of Pakistan (GOP) was taken in October 1963. Subsequently the GOP signed an agreement with Nippon Electronic Company of Japan, allowing it to operate two pilot stations in Pakistan. The first of these stations went on air in Lahore on 26 November 1964. PTV-Karachi Centre connected with RBSs in the country through Microwave link cover about 90% of the population. With the opening of PTV News PTV transmitted its satellite transmission round the clock. The transmission includes ETV and PTV News transmission. After that PTV launched PTV News, a new satellite channel in the face of tough international competition. The objective was of providing news update for 24 hours. In Pakistan’s history media especially news media was not very effective as we were having only one source which was PTV a government channel and they were not allowed to broadcast any thing against government as it was proved by many programs were stopped during broadcasting written by famous critic and writer Anwar Maqsood. This was the darkest period of media in Pakistan when it was neither free nor fair as it was not presenting the flaws or the way to cope up the flaws of Pakistan and its regime, and this was not it many of journalists had seen the harsh treatment under late Gen. Zia’s regime bitter memories of the late Gen. Zia-ul-Haq’s martial law with its strict media censorship and ‘press advice’. Dissenting journalists were arrested and some were even flogged. Since very beginning the media was under high restrictions of government or I must say slavery of government like one of our present senior journalist Mustafa said "Having been through such terrible times under Zia-ul-Haq when pre-censorship was in force, I find that what we have today is like heaven.

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Current state of news media in Pakistan: Yes heaven the right word for many of news channels because when they got free they initially were cautious, not knowing exactly what the government was up to, but after realizing the situation they forgot their objectives and just started hunt for money by presenting hot, exaggerated and news that viewers would like to see rather then the actual news. When we were researching the primary material for our report we met Mr. Muhammad Ali Siddiqui, Head of coordination/Anchor at Business plus news channel, he accepted that many of news channels abuses the freedom which were given to them and broadcasted many of over rated programs which were un watchable by many viewers either with family or with their children. And one fact about this we found that the footages of dead bodies and violence creates Desensitization, it is a psychological process that has often been involved in explaining viewers' emotional reactions to media violence. Research on emotional reactions to violent messages has been concerned with the possibility that continued exposure to violence in the media will result in desensitization, that is, that exposure to media violence will undermine feelings of concern, empathy, or sympathy that viewers might have toward victims of actual violence. Research has shown that viewers who watch large amounts of media violence show less physiological reactivity to violence in other contexts. Mr. Muhammad Ali Siddiqui further said that “media before emergency was targeting not only government but also the army of Pakistan and there is no other country you will find in which army is criticized in any condition, as American army in doing operation in Iraq and Afghanistan all Americans know that it is wrong but no one is protesting against army but against administration” and for that he provide us a reason “irritating some one in critical manner can kill positive side of that person and same is the case with army and if army stops working effectively then who is going to defend the country?” And for government my question is why they are against government although government was the one who have actually made media free but when news channels got beyond limits the government imposed ban on channels and stopped their transmission which I think was the justified step but not on right time because I think this is government’s failure that it was unable to control those channels.

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Curb on Pakistan News media: When the curb was being implemented on news channels PTV was the only one safe out there, there could be many reasons behind that like it was the only channel under the control of state or may be PTV from very beginning has acted as a pet for government but all other private news channels came to a grinding halt after the government blocked all transmission, as President Gen. Pervez Musharraf imposed emergency rule on this South Asian country. Shortly after Musharraf ordered the suspension of the constitution, curbs were imposed on the media through amendments in two ordinances. These ordinances of Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) bar news media from printing or broadcasting "anything which defames or brings into ridicule the head of state, or members of the armed forces, or executive, legislative or judicial organ of the state." Restraints have also been put on the media from printing or broadcasting material that is likely "jeopardize or be prejudicial to the ideology of Pakistan or the sovereignty, integrity or security of Pakistan, or any material that is likely to incite violence or hatred or create inter-faith disorder or be prejudicial to maintenance of law and order." According to the view of Mr. Mohiuddin Aazim, controller news and current affairs, news one channel, print journalism may have to "hide behind some form of symbolism", which will be a challenge as "there will be a greater need to speak out" just like during the late Gen. Zia regime. "It's like revisiting the past and is indeed very sad, more so because it makes Pakistan look bad, not Musharraf" In a news Beena Sarwar said “Musharraf’s ham-handed dealing with the media over the past year, and particularly the last couple of weeks, evokes Musharraf has been comparatively gentle … Until now, his claim that he gave the media more freedom than ever before was true to an extent, say journalists, but it is a freedom they have fought for, and it has come with a price. In stories of curb on news media not only the electronic media was affected but the print media was also the one which suffered not significantly but it did as it is clear from this news. The government of Pakistan’s southern Sindh province banned six newspapers in the city of Karachi on charges of publishing “obscene photographs” and “blackmail”. The offices were sealed and the owners of the newspapers and staff were arrested.

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Fair news media: Fair media doesn’t means media being true only in critical manner but its responsibility is to provide true but balance news. Media must not try to exaggerate the original news. Starting from the current regime when government introduced laws to control the media to be fair, the government set-up Regulatory Authority for Media Broadcasting Organization (RAMBO) in April 2000 and promised to award licenses by the first quarter of 2001, but the only progress appeared to be the renaming of the RAMBO to Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) on January 16, 2001 which has been entrusted to frame regulations, rules for establishment and operation of radio and television channels in the private sector. I would not speak in favor of President Musharraf or news media but an opinion. Actually it is a side effect of what news media was showing and exposing about the present government. News media was continuously hitting present government which I would say American or British government would have not even tolerated CNN or BBC in this way while conveying messages or information like our news media to the rest of the world. Their are certain codes of ethics and conducts in all fields which our news media was not following and justifying as "freedom of expression" and rebellions are always punished in every ways. Jang group is one of the strongest media group in Pakistan and always tried to expose its strength while attacking present regime if things goes against them. They should realize who has given them rights to be on television media.... they should accept PEMRA rules that government has set for them. According to Wikipedia, "media responsibility" is a term for the belief that the mass media has a basic responsibility to strengthen and support democratic processes. Fairness, honesty and ethical behavior in addition to open and probing minds must be nurtured Should the media be playing the role of mediator in a confrontational situation, asks Huma Yusuf in a column of THE NEWS, as she critiques the electronic media's coverage of the Lal Masjid crisis? As media is said to be the fourth pillar of any state so it should support other three pillars the executive, the legislative and the judiciary and for that the news media should realize their responsibilities of being fair rather then just free.

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Free news media: Free media, media should be free, freedom of speech are some of slogan that are often heard from many media personalities at different times and many of them believe they have won freedom after the fight with government for their rights and what I think is that it was only the will of government who gave this freedom to them otherwise I think that was impossible one of the step to make them free and prosper was when the government on January 16, 2001 approved the proposal to establish National Institute of Mass Communication in Islamabad by ministry of Information to integrate the training establishments of the Pakistan Television, Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation and the Information services. The official statement said it would be a degree-awarding institute with state of art training facilities. When it comes to the channels that were banned the one name of GEO is not forgettable as they are still the only channel which is banned till date and for this reason emotionally charged Hamid Mir said "Musharraf claims to have given media its freedom, but he cannot be farthest from the truth. It is the constitution of Pakistan that has given freedom to media and that is why he suspended it, I am telling you, he and his foreign masters are the ultimate losers. Pakistanis have realized that they have to choose between Musharraf and Pakistan, and they will go for Pakistan". However, unlike the muzzling of the electronic media, the print media is relatively free. In our country television has its freedom but they are using their freedom negatively, for example they show the videos of bomb blasts which not only affected the people badly but also portray a negative effect of our country. The events of bomb blast took place in every country but their media did not show it negatively as our media shows. For example dead bodies drowned in blood of bomb blast victims on GEO, ARY and AJJ TV. On the other hand...Geo has gained popularity which should be appreciated and recognized in exposing certain issues which has never been discussed. My personal opinion to all media partners to show positive for the betterment of people of Pakistan instead of hitting government or army. People of Pakistan are suffered with a plenty of issues which should be discussed and exposed.

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Future of news media in Pakistan: As the media is knows as the fourth pillar of the state. As we have noticed that in the past few year the news media grows at a very rapid pace and we expected to grow at a same pace in the near future due to the current situation of Pakistani news media, the news media have to be more responsible in the future and promote positive image of Pakistan in the world. There should be certain limits for media that media should follow and provide news within these limits if the news media stayed within these limits then it is expected that the license will be issued to the new news channels in the new future. Recently we have seemed that Pakistani news media has been portraying the negative aspects of the government and neglecting the positive work of the government. In the future it should cover both side of the picture. In the future Pakistani news media should be fair enough to exploit the evils of the society as well as to appreciate the goodness of society. As we see that many new news channel have started and we can hope to see many more to be operational in the future but they should feel their responsibilities. Pakistan economic and social condition of future is all dependent upon news media. Literacy level of country is rising and therefore people want to be aware of what is going on in the society and in future the news media should take care of this matter also media should spread heath related programs. In short the future of Pakistani news media should be moderate. News media should provide public with true news rather than exaggerated news.

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Ideal state of media: Pakistan being a free state has to have an ideal and perfect news media that provides the broadest possible spectrum of information and opinion to the people of the country. This sought of news media allows individuals to choose what they wish to see, hear and read people of Pakistan need to be better informed. Ideal Pakistani news media would have a additional media specific values, honesty, relevance, quality and it would present diverse views of people as well as the government. An ideal media provides different channels and different modes of communication available to all specially dissenters. Because now the key determining structures of societies are antithetical to entertaining, inspiring, education, informing, and providing means for developing shared ideas and agendas for everyone others than in the limited sense of doing these things consistently with reproducing elite class political, gender and racial disadvantages. If we analyze the current state of news media in Pakistan, the worthy aims of almost all channels are swamped by unworthy objectives that maintain our subordination. Thus the mainstream media now a days pretend that it delivers honesty, relevance, diversity but only within the constraints of first serving elite, corporate, political and other interest. Although Pakistani media has improved over the last years and keeping in view the current state of news media in Pakistan it would become very close to the ideal state only if this drawback is removed, if its provide honest information as the first priority and ignore any interest of elite class that might exist. But along with this Pakistani news media to be ideal it has to be responsible. By highlighting the realities of society an ideal news media does not exploit any situation, which might create a feeling of terror and despair in the mind of the people. The primary role of an ideal news media anywhere in the world is to provide a channel through which views of both minority and majority can be expressed especially given the fact that the majority of democracies are too large to facilitate direct democracies. An Ideal media presents a forum in which multiple opinions are courted represented in which discussions are encouraged.

Conclusion: For concluding this topic I would just say that you cant be fair without being free and when media is free than it is the moat power full weapon of the world and with every power comes responsibility and being responsible they should stop trying to make each other lame and I think which not the job of responsible media and on the other hand media blames government while government blames media not following rules and not being fair so this practice should be stopped.

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