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Parameswaran.S, Sr. Engineer, Application, PG-GAS , ABB India Ltd 13.04.

2016

Line Protection Concepts


REx670

Overview

Transmission Lines and Classifications

Protection Scheme

| Slide 2

Distance Protection

Differential Protection

Power Swing Block

Back Up Protection

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

Directional Over Current

Over Voltage

Supplementary Functions

Auto Reclose (1ph and 3 ph)

Synchro-check.

Line Protection Distance


Overview
BUS

BUS
52

CT

CT

52

X
LPT

LPT

21
85
68
79
67/67N
51/51N
50STB
DR
59/27
60
25
BPT

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 3

BPT

Line Protection Differential


Overview
BUS

BUS
52

CT

CT

52

X
LPT

LPT
87
79
67 / 67N
51 / 51N
DR

DR
59/27
60
25
BPT

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 4

BPT

Line Classification
Source Impedance Ratio
IEEE C37.113
119

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 5

Classification depends on

Source to Line Impedance Ratio (SIR)

Nominal Voltage
Line Type

SIR

Short Line

>4

Medium Line

0.5 to 4

Long Line

< 0.5

Line Protection
Application

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 6

Short Line

Differential Protection

Distance Protection with Permissive Over Reach or Blocking


scheme.

Medium Line

Distance Protection with Permissive Under Reach or


Permissive Over Reach

Back up Over current protection (Directional or Non


Directional)

Optional over-voltage and differential protection

Line Protection
Application

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 7

Long Line

Distance Protection with Permissive Under Reach optional


Permissive Over Reach

Back up Over current protection (Directional or Non


Directional)

Over-voltage

Optional differential protection

Distance
Measuring Principle
BUS

BUS
Uf

X
If
Z<

Z = R + j XL
If

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 8

Uf

ZMeasured =

Z = (R + j XL ) / 2

Distance Protection
Zone Reach

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 9

The location of voltage transformer decides the reach of the


distance relay.

The location of current transformer decides the directionality.

Distance Protection
Zone Reach and Operating Time
A

Zone 3
t3
Zone 2

t2
t1

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 10

Zone 1

Need for Different Zones


Under Reach
10
Z = R + j XL

10 A

If1

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 11

Uf

10 A

If
20 A

Ra

15

If2
Uf

If = 10 + 10 = 20 A

Rf = 5 + 15 = 20

Uf = 20 x 20 = 400 V

Z< = 400 / 10 = 40

The measured impedance is more than the actual fault


impedance. Thus relay will under-reach because of infeed.

Need for Different Zones


Over Reach
BUS

BUS
Uf

If

Uf

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 12

When one of the lines of a double circuit is open and earthed at


both the ends, the relay over-reaches.

Due to CVT (because of the damping circuit in the secondary), if


the transient (in primary) is high, the relay tends to over-reach.

Zone Characteristics
Zone 1 and 2

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 13

Zone 1

Under-reaching forward zone

Reach generally set to 80% of total line impedance

Trip is without any intentional time delay

Aim: To protect line

Zone 2

Over-reaching forward zone

Reach generally set to minimum 120% for single circuit and


150% for double circuit of total line impedance.

Trip is time delayed, generally between 0.35 s to 0.6 s

Aim: To protect line, back-up to remote end bus-bar.

Zone Characteristics
Zone 3 and 4(5)

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 14

Zone 3

Over-reaching forward zone

Reach generally set to 120% of total line impedance and


longest line (remote end bus) impedance

Trip is time delayed, generally between 0.8 s to 1.0 s

Aim: Back-up to longest outgoing line from remote end bus

Zone 4 (5)

Over-reaching reverse zone

Reach generally set to 20% of protected line impedance

Trip is time delayed, generally between 0.35 s to 0.6 s

Aim: Back-up to local bus-bar, Back-up to outgoing lines 20%


of line impedance.

Distance Protection
Line Characteristics
BUS

BUS

Z = R + j XL
Uf

If

Ra

XL

RL

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 15

Distance Protection
Fault Loops
X
Rfpe
ZE

XL
ZL

RL
X

Rfpp / 2
XL
ZL

RL
ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 16

Distance Protection
Reach Characteristics
Non - Directional
A

Reverse

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 17

Forward

Quadrilateral Characteristics

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 18

Distance Protection - Complexities


Load Encroachment and PSB

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 19

If the settings is set not considering the locus of the maximum


expected load on the line, the impedance locus under such a
heavily loaded condition might enter zone reach and cause maloperation of distance protection.

Example: Consider a double circuit line with fault on one of the


line.

When the faulted line is under-going auto-reclose, the load is now


shifted to healthy line.

The Zone 1 reach is set considering only maximum load on single


line and set to 46.87 L 84 deg.

Pre-fault, impedance measured by relay = 110 k / 1500 = 73.33


which is outside zone reach.

During fault on line 2, load on line 1 doubled, the impedance


measured by relay = 110 k / 3000 = 36.67 which is within in
zone reach.

Distance Protection - Complexities


Load Encroachment
A

B
Iload = 1500 A
Line 1

Iload = 1500 A

Line 2

B
ILoad = 3000 A
Line 1

X
Line 2

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 20

Load Encroachment
Characteristics

Load Encroachment Single Phase


ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 21

Load Encroachment Phase to Phase

Distance Protection
Need of scheme communication
A

Zone 3
t3
Zone 2

t2
Zone 1

t1

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 22

For a fault in Zone 2, the trip is delayed

Distance Protection
Need of scheme communication
A

Zone 2
t2
Zone 1

t1

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 23

If zone 1 is set to cover full protected line, relay may over-reach


and trip beyond the protected zone.

Scheme Communication

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 24

To achieve fast fault clearing for a fault on the part of the line not
covered by the instantaneous zone 1, the stepped distance
protection function can be supported with logic, that uses
communication channels (PLCC, OLTE etc)

Following are the communications schemes;

Blocking Scheme

Permissive Schemes (over-reaching and under-reaching)

Direct Inter-trip.

A permissive scheme is inherently faster and has better security


against false tripping

But, permissive scheme depends on a received CR signal for a


fast trip, so its dependability is lower.

Scheme Communication
Blocking Scheme
A

Cr Send

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 25

Reverse

Fault in reverse zone sends carrier to remote end.

On receipt of carrier, instantaneous tripping is blocked.

Scheme Communication
Blocking Scheme
A

Reverse

Cr Send

Cr Not Received

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 26

tcoord
Z2 - Start

AND

Trip CB

Zone 2 Start

AND

Carrier Send

Scheme Communication
Permissive Under Reach Scheme
A

Cr Send

Reverse

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 27

Fault in zone 1 sends carrier to remote end.

On receipt of carrier, instantaneous tripping is permitted (Zcom


trip)

Scheme Communication
Permissive Under Reach Scheme
A

Cr Send

Reverse

Cr Received
Z2 - Start

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 28

AND

Trip CB

Zone 1 Start

AND

Carrier Send

Scheme Communication
Permissive Over Reach Scheme
A

Cr Send

Reverse

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 29

Fault in zone 2 sends carrier to remote end.

On receipt of carrier, instantaneous tripping is permitted (Zcom


trip)

Scheme Communication
Permissive Over Reach Scheme
A

Cr Send

Reverse

Cr Received
Z2 - Start

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 30

AND

Trip CB

Zone 2 Start

AND

Carrier Send

Distance Protection - Complexities


SOTF

SOTF is used to achieve a fast trip for a fault on the whole line,
when the line is being energized.

Cls Command
Z2 ND Start

SOTF Trip
AND

Impedance Mode

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 31

Zone 2 is selected in order to cover 100 % of the line and to cover


the remote case of charging the line on to a remote end bus fault.

Non directional start is used in order to secure a trip at fault


situations where directional information cannot be established, for
example, due to lack of polarizing voltage when a line PT is used

Distance Protection - Complexities


STUB and Broken Conductor
Bus A

Bus B

Bus A

Bus B

IL = 0
UL = Ur

50 STB

Zmeas =

Line

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 32

STUB is active only when the line disconnector is open.

Required as the polarizing voltage is not available for distance to


operate.

Broken conductor is required as the impedance measured under


open jumper condition is very high (theoretically) and hence
distance will not operate.

Broken conductor works on the principle of detecting the


unbalance current.

Fault Statistics
Need of Auto-Reclose

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 33

Feeder

Percentage occurrence

Transmission Line

85

Bus Bar

12

Generator Transformer

Type of fault

Percentage occurrence

LG

85

LL

LLG

LLL

2 or less

Auto Reclose (AR)


Single Phase AR

Owing to higher transient fault statistics in line, AR is used


in line. This ensures higher availability and hence reliability.
CB Ready
CB Closed

AND

AND

No Blocking
Start
CB Spring Charged
CB SF6 Healthy

CB Ready
AND

No Blocking
CB Ready
CB Closed
Block

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 34

Block AR
AND

Start AR

Auto Reclose
Transient Single Phase Fault Single Phase Relosing

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 35

Distance Protection - Complexities


Directional Over Current and Earth Fault

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 36

A fault with high fault impedance might not be detected by


Distance Protection. Hence a back-up directional earth
fault protection is necessary along with distance protection

Distance Protection - Complexities


Directional Over Current and Earth Fault

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 37

Differential Protection
Advantage over distance

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 38

For short lines, due to high SIR, the distance relay tends to over
reach.

The resistance of a cable is lesser than a over-head line. Hence


setting the resistive reach for a cable is a challenge.

Without the scheme communication, it is difficult cover 100% of


the line with Distance protection without over-reaching.

Differential protection is used in case of short lines and cables to


overcome the disadvantages above

Differential Protection
Challenges

Line charging current, especially high in case of cables, pose a


serious challenge to avoid mal-operation.

When transformer is included in the zone of protection, the


transformer inrush and harmonics also needs to be considered for
protection.
Ic1

RED
670

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 39

Idiff,false = Ic1 + Ic2

Communication

Ic2

RED
670

Differential Protection
Application Example

Three Terminal Line with 1 Breaker Scheme

Three Terminal Line with Transformer in Protected Zone


ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 40

Differential Protection
Operate Bias Characteristics

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 41

Application Configuration
Function Blocks REL670
Similar instances of
ZMQAPDIS to be
used for Zone 3, 4
and 5. Configuration
shown are
informative only and
not to be adopted for
commission without
prior validation by
ABB

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 42

Parameter Settings
Zone 1
Settings shown are
informative only, not
to be used for site
commissioning
directly without prior
validation by ABB

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 43

Parameter Settings
Zone 2
Settings shown are
informative only, not
to be used for site
commissioning
directly without prior
validation by ABB

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 44

Application Configuration
Function Blocks REL670
Configuration shown
are informative only
and not to be adopted
for commission
without prior
validation by ABB

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 45

Parameter Settings
Phase Selection
Settings shown are
informative only, not
to be used for site
commissioning
directly without prior
validation by ABB

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 46

Parameter Settings
Power Swing Block
Settings shown are
informative only, not
to be used for site
commissioning
directly without prior
validation by ABB

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 47

Parameter Settings
SOTF
Settings shown are
informative only, not
to be used for site
commissioning
directly without prior
validation by ABB.

Configuration shown
are informative only
and not to be adopted
for
commission
without
prior
validation by ABB

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 48

Distance Protection - Complexities


Fuse Fail

The aim of the fuse failure supervision function is to block voltage


measuring functions at failures in the secondary circuits between
the voltage transformer and the IED in order to avoid unwanted
operations.

Typical examples of voltage measuring functions are:

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 49

Distance protection

Under / Over Voltage

Synchrocheck

Voltage check for the weak in feed logic

Fuse Failure detection is based on

Negative sequence algorithm

Zero sequence algorithm

Delta current and delta voltage

Fuse Fail
Zero Sequence

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 50

Zero sequence algorithm

Based on the zero sequence measuring quantities.

During Fuse fail condition: A high value of voltage 3U0


without the presence of the zero-sequence current 3I0.

Condition for operation: If the measured zero sequence


voltage is higher than the set value 3U0> and the measured
zero sequence current is below the set value 3I0<.

Suitable for directly or low impedance earthed networks.

During a fault: A high value of voltage 3U0 and 3I0 is present.


Thus the protection is not blocked by Fuse Failure protection.

Fuse Fail
Configuration and Settings
Settings shown are
informative only, not
to be used for site
commissioning
directly without prior
validation by ABB
Configuration shown
are informative only
and not to be adopted
for
commission
without
prior
validation by ABB

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 51

Scheme Communication
Configuration and Settings
Settings shown are
informative only, not
to be used for site
commissioning
directly without prior
validation by ABB
Configuration shown
are informative only
and not to be adopted
for
commission
without
prior
validation by ABB

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 52

Application Configuration
Differential Protection RED670
Configuration shown
are informative only
and not to be adopted
for commission
without prior
validation by ABB

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 53

Parameter Setting
Differential Protection
Settings shown are
informative only, not
to be used for site
commissioning
directly
without
validating.

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 54

Case Study 1
Normal Operation AR, Fault

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 55

Fault in line, and main CB not ready for AR, but Tie CBs AR is
successful.

Case Study 1
Impedance Locus during first fault

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 56

Impedance Locus enters zone 1 and trips CB instantaneously

Case Study 1
Fault during reclaim time

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 57

Fault during reclaim time, all the three phases of Tie CB is opened

Case Study 1
Impedance Locus during second fault

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 58

Impedance Locus enters zone 1 and trips CB instantaneously

Power Swing Block

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 59

Power swing may occur when

Heavily loaded line gets disconnected

A big generator trips

Wrong Synchronizing

Power Swing
Impedance Locus Movement

ABB Group
Month DD, Year

| Slide 60