(1900) The Chinese Horrors and Persecutions of the Christians | Emperor | Confucius

CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

THE CHARLES WILLIAM WASON COLLECTION ON CHINA AND THE CHINESE

fnfo^F.-Ly-

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Chinese Horrors
AND

:^ERSECUTIONS of the CHRISTIANS
CONTAINING

A

'ULL

ACCOUNT OF THE GREAT INSURRECTION IN CHINA; ATROCITIES OF THE "BOXERS;" MASSACRE OF
FOREIGNERS AND NATIVE CHRISTIANS; HEROIC ATTEMPTS TO RESCUE THE FOREIGN MINISTERS AND AMBASSADORS, ETC.
TOGETHER WITH THE.

COMPLETE HISTORY OF CHINA
OWN TO THE PRESENT
;

TIME,

INCLUDING THE
;

WAR WITH

JAPAN MANNERS, CUSTOMS AND PECULIARITIES OF THE PEOPLE SUPERSTITIONS IDOL WORSHIP; INDUSTRIES; NATURAL SCENERY, ETC., ETC.
;

By Henry Davenport
Author of
^^

Northrop
xtc.^<ic.

Queen of

Republics,^* "

Gem Cyclopedia"

Profusely Illustrated with Superb Illustrations

WORLD

BIBLE

HOUSE

PHILADEIvPHIA, PA.

UN

-,..!->

»^\,t

EHTERCO ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRE6S,

IN

THE YEAR

1S00.

BV

SEORGE W. BERTRON
t"

THC OFFtCC OF rME LtBRARIAN OF CONGRESS, AT WASHINGTON,

D

.

urn

Cornell University Library

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924107207387

BOXERS ENROLLING AT A MILITARY POST FOR THE INSURRECTION IN CHINA.

BIRD'S-EYE VIEW MAP,

SHOWING PEKIN, TIEN TSIN, TAKU AND ALL IMPORTANT TOWNS, INCLUDING THE GREAT WALL, CHINA.

CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
Empire
I. PAOK.

CHAPTER
17

IX.
PA«X.
. .

Early History of the Celestial

The Punishment of Criminals.

180

CHAPTER

X.

CHAPTER

II.

Chinese Mechanics and Merchants 191

The Story op the Han Rulers

.

.

30

CHAPTER

CHAPTER
III.
. .

XI.
19&

The Mongol Conquest of China

44

Chinese Marriage Customs

CHAPTER

IV.
.

CHAPTER
.
.
.
.

XII.

The First Manchu Ruler

74

Varieties of Chinese Life.

21S

CHAPTER

V.

CHAPTER XIII.
Food, Dress
91

The Taeping Rebellion and Story OF Chinese Gordon

and Amusements of the
235

Chinese

CHAPTER
Prince

VI.
.

CHAPTER
.

XIV.
. .

Kung and the Regency

122

The Religions op China

254

CHAPTER

VII.

CHAPTER XV.
145

The Reign op the Emperor Kwangsu

Country Life in China

.

,

274

CHAPTER
Court

VIII.

The Emperor op China and His
162

CHAPTER

XVI.

Agricultural Products and Exports 280

V

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
Life and Travel
in

XVII.
289

CHAPTER
Two

XXIII.-

-

.

-L

Corea
XVIII.

Princes Wakkjng for a

Throne 362

CHAPTER
Outbreak of the China and Japan
'

CHAPTER XXIV.
299
Perils to Foreigners in China
.

War Between
XIX.

.

.

369

CHAPTER

.

-

CHAPTER XXV.
Peculiar Chinese Superstitions and Customs . 379.

The Battle

of Ping-Yang

309

CHAPTER XX.
Japan's

Great Naval Victory

.

.

.325

CHAPTER XXVI.
Under the Fire of Boxer Savages
.

CHAPTER

XXI.
.

387

Stirring Incidents OF the Campaign

338

CHAPTER
Pekin

XXVII.

CHAPTER
Uprising OF the Boxers

XXII.
357

Rescue of the Foreign Ministers at
404

PREFACE.
THE horrible massacre of foreigners in China has shocked the whole lized world. An insurrection, attended by unparalleled
o'

atrocities

aroused the deepest concern in America and Europe. All intelligent persons are eager to obtain reliable information conct ing China and the great revolution which has involved the Powers of Eurc and our own country. This information is contained in this volume. It treats of the history of China from the earliest times to the prese day. Dating back to the earliest dawn of history, China has outlived all th great nations of ancient times, and is a living empire to-day. No other natic in the world has such a record. Against the flood that has swept might

kingdoms into oblivion, China has stood like an immovable rock. She is th wonder and the miracle among the august Empires of the East. The reader traces her surprising growth, her conquests aud her power He sees the rise and fall of brilliant at a period when "time was young." dynasties, while one emperor after another appears upon the checkered scene, each of whom is invested with the proud title of "The Son of Heaven." He reads the graphic story of the Han Rulers, who, in arms and conquests, are worthy to be ranked with Roman Caesars. He learns why, for more than 2,000 years, the Chinese have been proud to call themselves the " Children of Han." Then comes the Mongolian conquest. With tramping legions, with dashing steeds and gleaming spears, the Northern hordes sweep down upon The panorama of startling events the plains of the " Flowery Kingdom." the dynasty by which China is governed at moves on, and we are brought to the present time. The Manchus ascended the "Dragon Throne," and still sway their sceptre over nearly 400,000,000 of the human race. The History of China within the present century is read with eager interest. With the record of other great crises, a masterly and thrilling account is given of the famous Taeping Rebellion. Suddenly a young EngThe world knows him now as the celelish officer appears upon the scene. brated "Chinese Gordon," who performed miracles of valor and conquest. Fertile in resources, brave and magnetic, silent and stern, unyielding as granite, his story reads like that of the renowned old heroes of classic fable. This is followed by an account of Prince Kung and the Regency, and the history closes with the reign of the present Emperor. Then comes a full description of China and its people. The gorgeous splendors of the Emperor's Court and Palace are vividly pictured ^the

PREFACE.
ly.stery tliat surrounds him, the vast power he wields, the princes and nobles hat attend upon him, the curious ceremonies of his marriage, the awe with ch his subjects prostrate themselves before him, the palatial magnificence,

of the Empress and the disdain for foreign sovereigns. This superb work also contains a full description of Corea, the "Hermit ngdom," and furnishes a concise account of the war between China and pan in 1894. ^^^ causes of the great conflict are stated, and an accurate itimate of the two armies is given their numbers, discipline, equipments id the ability of their commanders. The rapid movements of the Japanese -my, its brilliant achievements at Ping-Yang, and the great naval battles e fully described. The whole course of stirring events is traced, and the iader sees the rolling battle clouds and hears the shock of contending legions. But thrilling interest is aroused throughout our country by the bloody uprising in China against all foreigners, resulting in the murder of the German Ambassador and the indiscriminate persecution and slaughter of native Christians. The " Boxers," a secret society, the members of which do not look upon murder as a crime, an organization compact, mysterious and dangerous, carried terror to all parts of Northern China, and it has been asserted by foreigners on the ground, were in league with the Imperial Government. The dreadful crimes of these desperadoes, of whom many thousands
life

make all civilized nations stand aghast. The greatest anxiety manifested by the Great Powers, including our own Government, in the was unexpected events that imperilled all Americans and Europeans within the bounds of the Flowery Kingdom. No such massacre as that begun by the " Boxers," with painful evidences that the^ intended to complete it, has stained the pages of modern history. full account is given in this volume of the heroic efforts of the Allied Powers to reach Pekin and rescue the unfortunate Ministers, Ambassadors and their families shut up in the Legations, upon which the most desperate and bloodthirsty attacks were made. This part of the story has in it all the elements of tragedy, accompanied by the most painful uncertainty as to the final outcome of the uncontrolled uprising of conspirators. The value of such a volume as this, which contains only authentic
took up arms,

A

after the most careful scrutiny cannot be overestimated. It traces the disorder and its attendant massacres with an impartial hand from the origin of the trouble. It depicts the scenes that have a horrible fascination for every reader. It tells a plain, unvarnished tale of the woes suffered by Christians in China. It is a comprehensiv prized in every home to which it is admitted. work that will be

statements, and

is

composed of facts gathered

Lr)ipa

:

r ron)

bi)e

rvarlicsb

i iir)es

io

br)e

rresepb JJay.
I.

CHAPTER

EARLY HISTORY OF THE "CELESTIAL EMPIRE."

ALL
world by

Asia

is

astir.

Old nations that

The Chinese

are unquestionably the oldest

have slept the sleep of ages are
to

nation in the world,

and

their history goes
his-

waking
centuries
itself;

modern ideas. For China was almost a
it

back to a period to which no prudent

torian will attempt to give a precise date.

now

forms a part of the
is

They speak the language and observe
same
social

the

galaxy of eastern empires and
of interest to both

a centre

and

political

customs that they

Europe and America.

did several thousand years ago,

and they are
to-day of a

No

nation in the world has been so rigid

the only living representatives

and unchangeable as China, and none has
preser\'ed with

people and government which were contem-

such tenacity the laws, cus-

porary with the Egyptians, the Assyrians, and
the ancient Jews.

toms and national peculiarities which existed
long before the Christian era.

A

most

re-

markable people are the Chinese, comprising
nearly one-third of the

Same To-Day
So
far

as in Early Times,

human race, scattered
little

as our

knowledge enables us to

over a vast realm,

maintaining

inter-

speak, the Chinese of the present age are in
all essential

course with other countries, and lacking in
that spirit of enterprise which,
for the last

points identical with those of the
is

time of Confucius, and there

no reason to
the

few years, has

distinguished the Japanese.

doubt
national

that before his

time

Chinese

But modern
Asia,

civilization
is

advances even

in

character
its

had

been

thoroughly

and China

learning that she cannot

formed
the

in

present mould.

The

limits of

remain the China of three or four thousand The ships of many nations touch years ago.
at her ports
;

Empire have varied from time to time

under circumstances of triumph or disunion,
but the Middle Kingdom, or China proper, of the eighteen provinces has always possessed

commerce seeks entrance at her

most intelligent people are asking and already the darkness is illuquestions, mined with the light of a new and better era.
gates; her
2

more or

less

of its existing proportions.

Another striking

and

peculiar

featurt

17

18
about China
that
is

CHINA: PAST
the small

AND PRESENT.
Even though the
details are

amount of influence

noi recited the

the rest of the world has exercised
it.

upon

In fact it

is

only during the present

China's instirecollection of the antiquity of with the stututions must be ever present
dent, as affording an

century that that influence can be said to

indispensable clue to

have existed at

all.

Up

to that point China

the character of the Chinese people and the

had pursued a course of her own, carrying on her own struggles within a definite limit, and completely indifferent to, and ignorant of, the ceaseless competition and contests of mankind outside her orbit, which make up
the history of the rest of the old world.

composition of their government.

Chinese are supposed to have been a nomad tribe in the province of Shensi which lies in the northwest of China, and

The

first

^

among them at last appeared a ruler, Fohi, whose name at least has been preserved.
His deeds and his person are mythical, biif: he is credited with having given his country
its first

The long

struggles

for

supremacy

in

Western Asia between Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian, the triumphs of the Greek, followed by the absorption of what remained of the Macedonian conquests in the Empire of Rome, even the appearance of Islam and
the

regular government.

The

First

Emperor.

Mahomedan

conquerors,

who changed

the face of Southern Asia from the Ganges

One of his successors was Hwangti (which means Heavenly Emperor), who was the first to employ the imperial style of Emperor, the
earlier rulers

and long threatened to overrun Europe, had no significance for the people of China, and reacted as little on their destiny as if they had happened in
to the Levant,

having been content with the

inferior title of

Wang,

or prince.

He

adopted

the convenient decimal division in his administration as well as his coinage.

His domin-

another planet.

ions were divided into ten provinces, each of

these into ten departments, these again into

A

Curious History.

ten districts, each of which held ten towns.

All that pertains to China has a peculiar
interest to the reader.

He

regulated the calendar, originating the

He
At

is

studying the

Chinese cycle of sixty years, and he encour-

history of one of the

most remarkable naevery step he

tions that ever existed.

meets with surprises, and eagerly follows the
record of events,

many

of them startling and

aged commerce. He seems to have been a wise ruler and to have been the first of the His grandson, who was great Emperors. also Emperor, continued his good work and
earned the reputation of being " the restorer or even founder of true astronomy."

unparalleled, although they transpired "

when

time was young."

As

a curiosity in

human

existence, the earlier history of this country

may justly

receive careful notice.

In these

ancient records

we

see the beginning and

progress of a people whose numbers, laws,

customs, conservatism and strange ideas are
the wonder of the modern world.

But the most famous of Hwangti's succeswas his great grandson Yao, who is still one of the most revered of all Chinese He was "diligent, enlightened, rulers. polished, and prudent," and if his words
sors
reflected his actions

We learn

he must have been most

the infancy of a people who have grown and multiplied to their present vast proportions

solicitous of the welfare of his people.
is

He
t'l-

specially remarkable for his anxiety to dis-

and power.

cover the best

man

to succeed Kva

I'n

/ /I / iA;','ii,//.iu.
.

^-^

'

20

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
last

government, and d-iring the

twenty-eight

years of his reign he associated the minister

Chun

with him for that purpose.
his death
after

On
Chun,

he

left

the crown to him, and

some

hesitation,

accepted the

most capable and experienced Such an impartial reasonable mode of selecting the head and of a community can never be perpetuated. The rulers themselves may see its advanletting

the

minister rule the State.

cliarge, but he in turn hastened to secure the

tages and

may endeavor

as honestly as these

co-operation of another minister
in the

named Yu
had
conperiod covis

work of

administration, just as he

three Chinese princes to carry out the arrangement, but the day must come when the

been associated with Yao.

The

family of the able ruler will assert
to the succession,

its

rights
its

ered by the rule of this triumvirate

and take advantage of
its

sidered one of the most brilliant and perfect in Chinese history, and it bears a resem-

opportunities from

close connection with
its

the government to carry out

ends.

blance to the age of the Antonines.

The Emperor Yu,
his predecessors,

true to the practice of

High Idea of Princes.
These rulers seem to have passed their from practical work in framing moral axioms, and in carrying out a model scheme
leisure

nominated the President of the Council as his successor, but his son Tiki
seized the throne,

and became the founder

of

the

first

Chinese dynasty which was called

the Hia from the
ruled

name

of the province
is

first

of government based on the purest

ethics.

by

his father.

This event

supposed

They

considered that " a prince entrusted
subjects absolutely

to have taken place in the year

with the charge of a State has a heavy task.

The
thing

happiness

of

his

depends upon him.
is

To

provide for every-

2197 B. C. and the Hia dynasty, of which there were seventeen Emperors, ruled down to the year 1776 B. C. These Hia princes present no
features of interest,

his duty

;

his ministers are only

in office to

assist

put him," and also that " a
fulfill

and the last of them, deposed by one of his prinnamed Kia, was
cipal nobles,

prince

who

wishes to

his obligations,

Ching Tang, Prince of Chang.
Rulers.

and to long preserve his people in the ways of peace, ought to watch without ceasing that
the laws
are

The Chang
dynasty,

observed with

exactitude."

This prince was the founder of the second

They were staunch upholders of temperance,
and they banished the unlucky discoverer of
the fact that an intoxicating drink could be

known

as Chang,

which held pos-

session of the throne for
to
1 1

22 B. C.

years, or down With the exception of the

654

obtained from

rice.

founder,
fast to

who seems

They

also held

the theory that

all

man,

this

to have been an able dynasty of twenty-eight Emperors

government must be based on the popular In fact the reigns of Yao, Chun, and will.

did nothing very noteworthy.

morality deteriorated veiy
family,

The public much under this

Yu

are the ideal period of Chinese history
all

when

questions were decided
justice,

by moral

right and

and even now Chinese

and it is said that when one of the Emperors wanted an honest man as ministci he could only find one in the person of a

philosophers are said to test their
morality

maxims of
rulers.

by the degree of agreement they
practice of

common laborer. At last, in the 1 2th century before our era, the enormities of the
Chang
rulers reached a climax in the person

may
1

have with the conduct of those

With them passed away the

of Chousin,

who was deposed by

a pop':!;ii

EARLY HISTORY.
rising

21

headed by

Wou Wang,

Prince of

Chow.
This successful soldier, whose
fies

and devotion to repair the evils of his day, and to raise before his countrymen a higher
ideal of duty.

name

signi-

He

has been called the Chi-

the Warrior King, founded the third Chi-

nese Pythagoras, very learned yet obscure,

nese dynasty of Chow, which governed the

and the mysterious Taouism which he founded
holds the smallest or the least assignable part
in

867 years down During that protracted period there were necessarily good and bad Emperors, and the Chow dynasty was rendered

Empire

for the long space cf

to 255 B. C.

what passes

for the religion of the Chinese.

As

a philosopher and minister Laoutse will but as a practical reformer and politician
far

always attract attention and excite speculation,

specially illustrious

by the appearance of the

great social and religious reformers, Laoutse,

he was

surpassed by his younger and less

Confucius, and Mencius during the existence

theoretical

contemporary Confucius.

of

its

power.

The founder

of the dynasty

instituted the necessary reforms to

prove that
his

Influence of the Great Teacher,

he was a national benefactor, and one of
successors,

Confucius was an

official in

the service of

known

as the Magnificent King,

one of the great princes
governing power of China

extended the authority of his family over

who divided the among themselves

some of

the States of Turkestan.

during the whole of the seventh century
before our era, which beheld the appearance

Confucius Appears.

of both of these religious teachers and leaders.

But on the whole the rulers of the Chow dynasty were not particularly distinguished, and one of them in the eighth century B. C. was weak enough to resign a portion of his
sovereign rights to a powerful vassal, Siang-

He was

a trained administrator with

long experience when he urged upon his
prince the necessity of reform, and advocated

a policy of union throughout the States.

His exhortations v/ere

in vain,

and so

far

ill-

kong the Prince of

Tsin, in consideration of

timed that he was obliged to

resign, the

his undertaking the defence of the frontier

service of one prince after another.

In his

against the Tartars.

At

this

period the

day the authority of the Chow Emperor had
been reduced to the lowest point. Each prince

authority of the central government passed

under a cloud.
three
centuries

The Emperor's

perogative
last

became the shadow of a name, and the would not
call for notice

of the rule of this family

was unto himself the supreme authority. Yet one cardinal point of the policy of Confucius was submission to the Emperor,
as implicit obedience to the head of the State

but for the genius

of Laoutse and Confudius,

who were

both

throughout the country as was paid to the
father of every Chinese household.

great moral teachers and religious reformers.

Although

Laoutse, the founder of Taouism, was the
first in

he
his

failed to find

a prince

after his

own

heart

point of time, and in
greatest

some
in

respects he

example and precepts were not thrown
in

v/as

the

of these reformers. a low

He

away, for

a later generation his reforms

found his countrymen sunk moral indifference and

state of

were executed, and down to the present day
the best points in Chinese government are

religious

infidelity

which corresponded with the corruption of the times and the disunion in the kingdom.

based on
telligent

his'

recommendations.

If "

no

in-

He

at

once

set himself to

work with energy

greatest

monarch arose" in his time, the Emperors have since sought to con-

.22

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
his usages

form with
ideal

of the great philosopher.

and to rule after the His name

tion of

prudence and daring, gradually made

themselves supreme

among

their fellows.

It

by a band of devoted disciples, and the book which contained the moral and philosophical axioms of
and
his teachings wei-e perpetuated

was said of one of them that " like a wolf or a tiger he wished to draw all the other princes into his claws, so that he might devour
them."
Several of the
later

Confucius passed into the classic literature of
the country and stood in the place of a Bible
for the Chinese.

Tsin princes,

and particularly one named

Chow

Siang
carried

Wang, showed
is

great capacity, and

The

list

of the great Chinese reformers

out a systematic policy for their
disement.

own aggran-

completed by the name of Mencius, who, coming two centuries later, carried on with
better opportunities the reforming

When Nan Wang was approaching the end
of his career, the Tsin princes

work of
Sheking

had obtained

Confucius, and

left

behind him in

his

everything of the supreme power short of the

the most popular book of Chinese poetry and

a crowning

tribute to the great master.

name and the right to wear the Imperial yellow robes. Ching Wang, or to give him his
later

name

as Emperor, Tsin Chi Hwangti,

The Warlike

Period.

From

teachers

we must

again pass to the

chronicle of kings, although few of the later

was the reputed great-grandson of Chow Siang Wang, and under him the fame and power of the Tsins reached their culminating
point.

Chow Emperors
fered

deserve their names to be

This prince also proved himself one

rescued from oblivion.

One Emperor

suf-

of the greatest rulers

who

ever sat on the

a severe defeat while attempting to

Dragon Throne of China.

establish his authority over the troublesome
tribes

beyond the
that " his

frontier

;

of another

it

was

A

Soldier and Statesman.

written

good

qualities merited a

The country had been

so long distracted

happier day," and the general character of
the age

may be

inferred from

its

being desigwarlike

nated by the native chroniclers
period."

"The

what seemed an interminable marked by weakness and vice, the old age, Chow dynasty came to an end in the person of Nan Wang, who, although he reigned for nearly sixty years, was deposed in ignominious fashion by one of his great vassals, and reduced to a humble position. His conqueror became the founder of the- fourth
last, after

At

by internal strife, and the authority of the Emperor had been reduced to such a shadow, that peace was welcome under any ruler, and the hope was indulged that the Tsin princes, who had succeeded in making themselves the most powerful feudatories of the Empire, might be able to restore to the central government something of
splendor.
its

ancient

power and

Nor was
ungratified.

the expectation unreasonable or The Tsins had fairly earned by

their ability the confidence of the

Chinese

Chinese dynasty.

During the period marked the last four
dynasty,

of internal

strife

which

and their principal representative showed no diminution of energy on attainnation,
post,

centuries of the
steadily

Chow
waxed

one

family had

ing the throne, and exhibited in a higher and on a wider field, the martial and

stronger and stronger China.

among

the princes of

The

princes of Tsin,

by a combina-

statesman-like qualities his ancestors had displayed when building up the fabric of their

24

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
what
is

Their power as princes of the Empire. acquiesced in by the supremacy was not
other great feudatories without a struggle,

Kami
aided

now the Gobi Desert, and made the frontier fortress of the Empire.
civil

In his

administration

Hwangti was

and more than one campaign was fought before all rivals were removed from their
path,

by the

minister Lisseh,

who seems

to

have been a

man

of rare

ability,

and to have
sat
his

and

their authority passed unchallenged

entered heartily into

all his

master's schemes

as occupants of the Imperial office.

for uniting the Empire.

While Hwangti on the throne with a naked sword in
hand, as the

Ruler at the Age of Thirteen.
It was in the middle of this final struggle,

emblem of

his authority, dis-

pensing justice, arranging the details of his

and when the
eventful reign.

result

might

doubtful, that Tsin Chi

When

still be held Hwangti began his he began to rule he

many campaigns, and
innumerable
minister
affairs

superintending

the

of his government, his

was only thirteen years of age, but he quickly showed that he possessed the instinct of a statesman, and the courage of a born comOn the one hand he mander of armies. sowed dissension between the most formidable of his opponents, and brought about by
a stratagem the disgrace of the ablest general

was equally active in reorganizing the administration and in supporting his
sovereign in
literary classes
ciples,

his

bitter

struggle with the

who

advocated archaic prin-

and whose animosity to the ruler was inflamed by the contempt, not unmixed with ferocity, with which he treated them.

The Empire was
vinces,

divided into thirty-six pro-

and on the other he increased his army in numbers and efficiency, until it became unquestionably the most formidable
in their service,

and he impressed upon the governors

the importance of improving communications
within their jurisdiction.

fighting force in China.

While he endeavored thus to attain internal peace, he was also studious in providing for the general security of the Empire, and with this object he began the construction of
a fortified wall across the northern frontier to
serve as a defence against the troublesome

New

Roads

in All Directions.
this general precept,

Not content with
shall

he

issued a special decree ordering that " roads

be made

in all directions

throughout

the Empire," and the origin of the main
routes in China

may be found

with as

much

Hiongnou

tribes,

who

are identified with the

certainty in his reign as that of the roads of

Huns
in the

of Attila.
first

This wall, which he began
exists as the Great

Europe

in the

days of Imperial Rome.

When
power

years of his reign, was finished
stilt

advised to assign
to his relatives

some portion of

his

before his death, and

and high

officials in

the pro-

Wall of China, which has been considered one of the wonders of the world.

vinces he refused to repeat the blunders of

He was
tribes of

careful in his

many wars

with the

predecessors, and laid down the permanent truth that " good government is
his

Mongolia not to allow himself to be drawn far from his own border, and at the close of a campaign he always withdrew his
Great Wall.
Central Asia he was

impossible under a multiplicity of masters,"

power in his own hands, and he drew up an organization for the civil
centralized the
service of the State

He

troops behind the

more

enterprising,

Towards and

which virtually

exists at

the present day.

The two salient

features in

pne of his best

c^enerals,

Moungtien, crossed

that organization are the indisputable supre-

EARLY HISTORY.
macy
of the

25
his bitterest

Emperor and the non-employ-

he found that

opponents were

ment of the officials in their native provinces, and the experience of two thousand years has
proved their practical value.

men
a
son.

of letters, and that the literary class as
hostile to his interests

body was

and per-

Instead of ignoring this opposition or
it

When
his

he conquered his internal enemies

seeking to overcome

by the same agency,
and contempt,
^

he resolved to complete the pacification of
country by effecting a general disarmaall

Hwangti expressed
itself,

his hatred

not only of the literary class, but of literature

ment, and he ordered that

weapons should
This

and resorted

to

extreme measures of

be sent

in to his capital at

Hienyang.

" skilful disarming of the provinces

daily to the wealth
capital,"

added and prosperity of the

up the gage of battle thrown down by the Emperor, and Hwangti became the object of the wit and
coercion.

The

writers took

He

built

which he proceeded to embellish. one palace within the walls, and

abuse of every one

who

could use a pencil.
It

His birth was aspersed.

was

said that

the Hall of Audience was ornamented with

was not a Tsin at
child foisted

all,

that his origin

he was of

twelve statues, each of which weighed twelve

the humblest, and that he was a substituted

thousand pounds.
dence,

But

his

principal resi-

on the

last

of the Tsin princes.

named

the Palace of Delight, was
laid

without the walls, and there he

out

Grand Council Summoned.
These personal attacks were accompanied

magnificent gardens, and added building to
building.

In one of the courts of this latter
is

palace,

it

said he could have

drawn up

10,000 soldiers.

A

Standing Army.

This eye to military acquirements in even
the building of his residence, showed the

temper of

his

mind, and, in his

efforts

to

by unfavorable criticism of all his measures, and by censure where he felt that he deserved praise. It would have been more prudent if he had shown greater indifference and patience, for although he had the satisfaction of triumphing by brute force over those who jeered at him, the triumph was accomplished by an act of Vandalism, with which his name
will

form a regular army, he had recourse to
" those classes in the

be quite as closely associated

in history

without any fixed

community who were profession, and who were
China

possessed of exceptional physical strength."

He

was thus the

earliest possessor in

of what might be called a regular standing

any of the wise measures or great works His vanquished oppothat he carried out. nents left behind them a legacy of hostility and revenge of the whole literary class of China, which has found expression in all the
as

army.

lishing his

With this force he succeeded in estabpower on a firm basis, and he may
for his
;

national histories.

have hoped also to ensure permanence
dynasty
but, alas
!

for the fallacy of

human
with

expectations, the structure he erected

fell

him.

The struggle, which had been in progress some years, reached its culminating point in the year 213 B. C, when a Grand Council of the Empire was summoned at Hienyang. At this council were present not only the
for

Great as an administrator, and successful
as a soldier,

Emperor's chief military and

civil

officers

Hwangti was unfortunate

in

one

from the

different

provinces, but also the

struggle that he evoked.
01 his career,

At an

early period

large literary class,
office

when

success seemed uncertain.

composed of aspirants to and the members of the academies and

26
college of Censors.

CHINA: PAST
The opposing
forces in
face,

AND PRESENT.
we approached to it, but the practical government which consists in keeping men
nearer
within

China were thus drawn up face to
it

and

would have been surprising if a collision had not occurred. On the one side were the supporters of the man who had made China again an Empire, believers in his person and
sharers in his

the sphere of their proper duties."

He

then proceeded to denounce the literary

class as

being hostile to the State, and to
destruction of their works

recommend the
declaring that "

glory; on the other were those

now

is

the time or never to

who had no

admiration for this ruler,

who

close the mouths of these secret enemies and
to place a curb

detested his works, proclaimed his successes

on

their audacity."

dangerous innovations, and questioned his
right to bear the royal name.

The Emperor
ratified

at

once from his throne

the policy and ordered that no time All books were proscribed, and
issued
to

should be lost in executing the necessary

"A

Vile Flatterer."

measures.
orders

The purpose of the Emperor may be detected when he called upon speakers in
this

were

burn every work
existed.

except those relating to medicine, agriculture,

assembly of

his

friends

and

foes

to

and such science as then
out with terrible
as

The

des-

express their opinions of his administration,

truction of the national literature

extol his

and when a member of his household rose to work and to declare that he had

was carried completeness, and such
free

works

were preserved are not

from

"surpassed the very greatest of his predecesThis courtier-like declaration, which would have been excusable even if it had had a less basis of truth than it unquestionably possessed in the case of Hwangti, was received with murmurs and marks of dissent by the literary class. One of them rose and denounced the speaker as "a vile flatterer," and proceeded to expatiate on the superior Not merit of several of the earlier rulers. content with this unseasonable eulogy, he advocated the restoration of the Empire to its old form of principalities, and the consequent undoing of all that Hwangti had acsors."

the suspicion of being garbled or incomplete
versions of their original text.

The burning

of the books was accompanied
tion of five

by the execuhundred of the literati, and by the

banishment of many thousands.
Inexcusable Tyranny.

By

this

sweeping measure, to which no

parallel is to

be found in the history of other
silenced during the last
life

countries,

Hwangti

few years of his

the criticisms of his chief

to bear for

complished.

Hwangti interrupted this speaker and

called

memory has had two thousand years the sully of an inexcusable act of tryanny and narrowmindedness. The price will be pronounced too heavy for what was a momentary gratifienemies, but in revenge his
cation.

upon his favorite minister Lisseh to reply to him and explain his policy. Lisseh began by stating what has often been said since, and in
other countries, that "
rule,

The reign of Hwangti was not prolonged many years after the burning of the books.
In 2IO B. C. he was seized with a serious
illness,

men

of letters are, as a

very

little

acquainted with what con-

to

which

he

succumbed,

partly

cerns the government of a country, not that

because he took no precautions, and partly,

nothinfj

government of pure speculation which is more than a phantom, vani.shing the

no doubt, through the incompetence of his physicians. His funeral was magnificent,

28

CHINA: PAST
dug
in the
river,

AND PRESENT.
ing produced the great ruler Hwangti, and
its

and, like the Huns, his grave was

bed of a

and with him were buried
left

his

destiny

was Napoleonic
at the

in its brilliance

wives and his treasure.

This great ruler
of vigor such as
is

behind him an example
in

and evanescence. Looking back

long period which

seldom found

the

list

of

connects the mythical age with what
considered the distinctly historical
the Tsins,

may

be
01

Chinese kings of
life.

effete

physique and apathetic

epoch
close

He

is

the only Chinese

whom

it is

said that his favorite exercise

Emperor of was

we

find

that

by the

of

the third century before the Christian era

walking, and his vigor was apparent in every

China possessed settled
remarkable portion of
ature,

institutions, the
its
still

most
liter-

department of State.

On

one occasion when

existing

he placed a large army

of, it is said,

600,000

and mighty
remote
recent

rulers.

It is

hardly open

men
the

at the disposal of

one of his generals,

to doubt that the Chinese annahst finds in

how
at

commander expressed some fear as to Hwangti this huge force was to be fed. I will it to me. once replied, "Leave

these

instruction

as

more
first

as much interest and we should in the record of times, and proof of this may be

ages

provide for everything.
rather in

my palace

than

There shall be want in your canip."
Ruler.

discovered in the fact that the history of the
four dynasties, which

these few pages,

we must dismiss in occupies as much space in

A Famous
He
general himself, but he

the national history as the chronicle of events

does not seem to have been a great

from Tsin Chi Hwangti to the end of the

knew how
the
merits

to select

Ming dynasty
official

in

1644, at which date the
dynasty, which has

the best commanders, and he was also so

history of China stops, because the

quick

in

discovering

of

the

history of the

Manchu

some of his most notable victories were obtained by his skill in detaching them from their service or by ruining their reputation by some intrigue more
generals opposed to him, that
astute than honorable.

occupied the throne ever since, will only be
given to the world after
it

has ceased to

rule.

Folly and Incompetence.

Yet,

all

deductions

We

must not be surprised

at this discur-

made, Tsin Chi Hwangti stands forth as a
great ruler and remarkable man.

siveness,

because the teachings of human

experience are as clearly
its

marked

in those

The Tsin dynasty only survived
a few years.

founder

early times

as they have been since, and

Hwangti's son Eulchi became

Chinese historians aim as

much

at establish-

Emperor, but he reigned no more than three years. He was foolish enough to get rid of the general Moungtien, who might have been
the buttress of his throne; and the minister

ing moral and philosophical truths as at giving a complete record of events.

The conse-

quences of

human

folly

and incompetence

are as patent and conspicuous in those daj's
as they are now.

Lisseh was poisoned, either with or without
his connivance.

The

ruling

power
to
his

is lost

Eulchi himself shared the
his

by one family and
because

transferred

another
business,

same

fate,

and

successor, Ing

Wang,

the prince neglects

reigned only six weeks, committing suicide
after losing

gives himself over to the indulgence of pleasure, or fails to see the signs of the times.

a battle, and with him the Tsin
Its
chief,

dynasty came to an end.

nay
its

its

only claim to distinction, arises from

hav-

and

Cowardice and corruption receive their due inevitable punishment. The founders of

EARLY HISTORY.
the dynasties are
warriors,
all

29
aggressive,

brave and successful

defiant

and

and

defeated the

who

are superior to the cant of a

Imperial forces.
asserted
their

The

provincial governors

hyper-civilized state of society,

which covers
first

independence, and

founded
atten-

declining vigor
effeteness,

and marks the

phase of

ruling families.

The Empire became

and who see that
passions they

as long as there

uated by external attack and internal division.

are

human

genius to
to build

make

the

may be moulded by many serve the few and

But, to use the phrase of the Chinese
"after

historians,

long

abiding

disunion,

up an autocracy.
only to
individuals.
felt in

union revived."

The

strong and

capable

Nor

are the lessons to be learnt from his-

man always
belief in

appears in one form or another,

tory applicable
faults of

The

and the Chinese people, impressed with a
both the divine mission of their

an Emperor are

every house-

hold of the community, and injure the State.
Indifference
entailed

and obtuseness at the weakness on the frontier and
capitals.

capital

Emperor and also in the value of union, welcome with acclaim the advent of the prince

in the

who

will

restore

their

favorite

and

ideal

provincial

The

barbarians

grew

system of one-man government.

CHAPTER

II.

THE STORY OF THE HAN RULERS.

AS
dynasty.

the Chinese are

still

proud to

call

many works
place.
in

of public

utility,

among which
from Loyang

themselves the sons of

Han

it

will

roads and bridges

occupied the foremost
his capital

be understood that the period covered by the Han rulers must be an
in

He removed
difficult

Honan

to Singanfoo

in Shensi,

and as

important epoch in their history, and than one respect they were the first national

more

Singan was

of access in those days,

When

the successors of Tsin Chi
to

he constructed a great high road from the centre of China to this somewhat remote
spot on the western frontier.

Hwangti proved unable
the victorious general
discomfiture

keep the throne,
profited

who

by

their

was

named

Liu

Pang.

He

The
This

First Suspension Bridge.
still

had been a trusted official of the Emperor Hwangti, but on finding that his descendants could not bear the burden of government, he resolved to take his own measures, and
he
lost

road

exists,

and

has

been

described by
It

several travellers in our time.

no time

in collecting troops

and

in

making a bid for popularity by endeavoring to save all the books that bad not been
burned.

was constructed by the labor of 100,000 the most difficult country, crossing great mountain chains and broad rivers. The Chinese engineers employed on making of this road, which has excited the

men through

His career

This was in the year 202 B. C. bears some resemblance to

the admiration of all
first

who have

traversed

it,

discovered and carried into execution

that of Macbeth, for a soothsayer meeting him on the road predicted, " by the expression of his features, that he was destined to

the suspension bridge, which in other countries is

quite a

modern

invention.

One

of

these "flying bridges," as the Chinese called

become Emperor." He began his struggle for the throne by defeating another general named Pgiwang, who was also disposed to

them,

is

150 yards across a valley 500
is still

feet

below, and

in use.

At

regular intervals along this road Kaotfor
travellers,

make a

bid for supreme power.

After this

sou constructed rest-houses

success Liu Pang was proclaimed Emperor as Kao Hwangti, meaning Lofty and August

and postal-stations
ful

for

his

couriers.

No

Chinese ruler has done anything more useor remarkable than this admirable road

Emperor, which has been
Kaotsou.
after the

shortened into

He named

his dynasty the

Han,

from Loyang to Singanfoo.
his

He

embellished

small state in which he was born.
his reign

Kaotsou began

by a public pro-

new capital with many fine buildings, among which was a large palace, the grandeur of which was intended to correspond
with the extent of his power.

clamation in favor of peace, and deploring
the evils which follow in the train of war.
called

He

upon

his subjects to aid his efforts for

Iheir welfare

by

assisting in the execution of

The reign of Kaotsou was, however, far from being one of unchequered prosperity

30

THE STORY OF THE HAN
Among
his

RUL1:RS.
profitable policy

own

subjects his popularity

great because he

was promoted commerce and
justice.

improved the administration of
also

He
first

encouraged

literature,

and was the

ruler to recognize the claims of Confucius,
at

was to carry on implacable war with their weak and wealthy neighbors. Meha's success was so great that in a single campaign he recovered all the districts taken from the Tartars by the
general Moungtien.

and most

whose tomb he performed an elaborate

He

turned the western

ceremony.

He

thus acquired a reputation

which induced the King of Nanhai
with
.

—a

angle of the Great Wall, and brought
his frontier to the river

down

state

Hoangho.

His light

composed of the southern provinces of China its capital at or near the modern Canton to tender his allegiance. But he was destined to receive many slights and injuries at the hands of a foreign enemy who at this time began a course of active aggression that

cavalry raided past the Chinese capital into
the province of Szchuen, and returned laden

with the spoil of countless

cities.

Rescued by a Maiden.
victory over the

entailed serious consequences for both

China

These successes were crowned by a signal Emperor in person. Kaot-

and Europe.

sou was drawn into an ambuscade in which

A
or

Desert Chieftain.

Reference has been

made to

the

Hiongnou

Hun

tribes, against

whom
In

Tsin Hwangti

built the

Great Wall.
of

the interval be-

tween the death of that ruler and the consolidation

the power

of

Kaotsou,

a

remarkable chief named Meha, or Meta, had
established his

supremacy among the

dis-

united clans of the Mongolian Desert, and

had succeeded in combining for purposes of war the whole fighting force of what had
been a disjointed and barbarous confederacy.

The Chinese
back
ing the

rulers

had succeeded in keeping
from overflowof their country, as

had no chance with their more active adversaries, and to save himself from capture, Kaotsou had no alternative but to take refuge in the town of Pingching, where he was closely beleaguered. It was impossible to defend the town for any length of time, and the capture of Kaotsou seemed inevitable, when recourse was had to a stratagem. The most beautiful Chinese maiden was sent as a present to propitiate th,e conqueror, and Meha, either mollified by the compliment, or deeming that nothing was to be gained by driving the Chinese to desperation, acquiesced in a convention which
his troops

this threatening torrent
fertile plains

while

it

sealed the ignominious defeat of the

much

Chinese,

rescued their sovereign from

his

by sowing dissension among these clans and by bribing one chief to fight another, as by
superior arms.

predicament.

This
cape,

disaster, and his narrow personal seem to have unnerved Kaotsou

esfor

But Meha's success rendered this system of defence no longer possible, and the desert
chieftain,

when

the

Huns resumed

their incursions in

the very year following the Pingching con-

realizing the

opportunity of spoil
his posi-

and conquest, determined to make
tion secure

no steps to oppose them, and contented himself with denouncing in
vention, he took
his palace

prise

had

end to

by invading China. If the enterthere would have been an the power of Meha, but his rapid sucfailed,

Meha

as " a wicked

and

faithless

man, who had risen to power by the murder
of his father, and one with
treaties carried

whom

oaths and

cess convinced the Hia'ns that their proper

no weight."

Notwithstand-

32

CHINA: PAST
with

AND PRESENT.
the public dissatisfaction warned her that she

ing this opinion, Kaotsou proceeded to negotiate

Meha

as an equal,

barbarian prince his
riage

own daughter

as

the price of his
attacks

and gave this in marabstaining from

on the Empire. Never, wrote a historian, " was so great a shame
further

on the Middle Kingdom, which then lost its dignity and honor." Meha observed this peace during the life of Kaotsou, who found that his reputation was much diminished by his coming to terms with his uncivilized opponent, but although
inflicted

was going too far. She then adopted a supposititious child as her grandson, and governed as regent in his name. The mother of this youth seems to have made inconvenient demands on the Empress, who promptly put her out of the way, and when the son showed a disposition to resent this action, she caused him to be She again ruled without a puppet poisoned. Emperor, hoping to retain power by placing
her relatives in the principal offices
dissatisfaction
;

but the

several of his generals rebelled, until
said that "the very

it

was

had now reached an acute
her.
It

name of

revolt inspired

point,

and threatened to destroy

may

Kaotsou with apprehension," he succeeded in overcoming them all without serious difficulty. his
life,

be doubted whether she would have surmounted these difficulties and dangers, when
death suddenly cut short her adventurous
career.

His
for

troubles

probably

shortened

three,

he died when he was only fiftyleaving the crown to his son Hoeiti,
his

The popular legend
apparitions of her

is

that this Chinese

and injunctions to

widow, Liuchi, as to

Lucrezia Borgia died of fright at seeing the

the conduct of the administration.

many

victims,

and there

A
The

can be no doubt that her crimes did not con-

Wicked Empress,
is

duce

to
in

make woman government more
China.

brief reign of Hoeiti

only remark-

popular

and terrible acts of his mother, the Empress Liuchi, who is the first woman mentioned in Chinese history as taking a supreme part in public affairs. Another of Kaotsou's widows aspired to the throne for her son, and the chief direction
able for the rigor
for herself.

Better Government.
It

says

much

for

the

excellence

of

Kaotsou's work, and for the hold the
that

Han

family had obtained on the Chinese people,

Liuchi nipped their plotting in

when it became necessary to select an Emperor after the death of Liuchi the choice
Tai,

the

bud by poisoning both of them. She marked out those who differed from her, or who resented her taking the most prominent
be removed from her path by any means. At a banquet she endeavored to poison one
of the greatest princes of the Empire, but her plot was detected and baffled by her son.
It is,

should have fallen unanimously on the Prince
of

who was

the illegitimate son of

Kaotsou.
the

part in public ceremonies, as her enemies, to

On mounting the throne, he took name of Wenti. He began his reign by
and by appointing able and

remitting taxes

honest governors and judges.
that
all

He

ordered
with

old

men should be provided
and wine, besides
silk

corn, meat,
for their

and cotton

perhaps, not surprising that Hoeiti did

garments.

not

long after this episode, and then Liuchi ruled in her own name, and without
live

his ministers,

At the suggestion of who were alive to the dangers

filling

up the vacancy on the throne,

until

of a disputed succession, he proclaimed his eldest son heir to the throne. He purified

Z O M

C3

o

o H o
o O « <! K Q < o H

Pi

33

34

CHINA: PAST
by declaring

AND PRESENT.
peace.

the administration of justice
that prince

ject

and peasant must be equally subhe abolished the too common punishment of mutilation, and had
to

Kua, a general who had commanded on the frontier, and who knew the

Wang

the law;

of warfare, represented that success would be certain, and at last gained the

Hun mode
Emperor's

the satisfaction of seeing crime reduced to
»

ear.

such low proportions in the Empire that the
contained only

Vouti decided on war, and raised a large

/jails

400

prisoners.

army for the purpose.
auspicious.

But the

result

was not

Wenti was a strong advocate of peace, which was, indeed, necessary to China, as it

Wang Kua

failed to bring the

Huns

to an engagement,

and the campaign

had not recovered from the
last

effects

of the

Hun invasion.

He

succeeded by diploat

macy in inducing the Prince had shown a disposition to
thus averted a
civil

Canton,

who

assert his inde-

which was to produce such great results ended ingloriously. The unlucky general who had promised so much anticipated his master's displeasure by committing suicide.
Unfortunately for himself, his idea of engaging in a mortal struggle with the Tartars

pendence, to recognize his authority, and
war.

gained ground, and became in time the fixed

Purchasing Peace.
In his relations with the Huns,

policy of China.

among
Annexing a Province.
Notwithstanding this check, the authority
of Vouti continued to expand.

whom
his

the authority of

Meha had

passed to

son Lao Chang, he strove to preserve the

peace, giving that chief one of his daughters
in marriage,

He
in

annexed
size

and showing moderation in face of much provocation. When war was forced

Szchuen, a province exceeding
population most

and

upon him by
success

their raids
its

he did everything
terrors,

he could to mitigate

but the

ill

European states, and he received from the ruler of Manchuria a formal tender of submission. In the last years
of his reign the irrepressible

of his troops in their encounters

Hun

question

with the Tartars broke his confidence, and

again

he died prematurely after a reign of twentythree years, which was remarkable as witnessing the consolidation of the Hans.

The

good work of Wenti was continued during
the peaceful reign of sixteen years of his son
Kingti.

and the episode of the flight of the Yuchi from Kansuh affords a break in the monotony of the struggle, and is the first instance of that western movement which brought the tribes of the Gobi desert into Europe. The Yuchi

came up

for discussion,

are believed to have been allied with the Jats

The next Emperor was
son of Kingtr,

Vouti, a younger
his earliest con-

of India,

and there

is little

or no doubt that

and one of

the Sacae, or Scythians, were their descendants.

quests was to add the difficult and inaccessible

province of Fuhkien

to the

Empire.

They occupied a strip of territory in Kansuh from Shachow to Lanchefoo, and
suffering much at the hands of the Huns under Meha, they resolved to seek a fresh home in the unknown regions of West-

He
his

also endeavored to propitiate the
their chief

Huns

after

by giving

one of the princesses of family as a wife, but the opinion was
it

gaining ground that

would be

better to

ern Asia.

engage
national

in

a war for the overthrow of the
to purchase a hollow

The Emperor Vouti wished
back, and he sent an envoy

to bring

them

enemy than

named Chang

THE STORY OF THE HAN RULERS.
them to return. That officer iiscovered them in the Oxus region, but all jiis arguments failed to incline them to leave a quarter in which they had recovered power and prosperity. Powerless against the Huns, they had more than held their own against the Parthians and the Greek kingdom of Bactria. They retained their predominant position in what is now Bokhara and Balkh, until they were gathered up by the Huns in their western march, and hurled, in conjunc-

35
for the

Keen

to induce

might have proved successful but
mistake of entrusting the

command

to an in-

competent general.
In an ill-advised moment,
brother-in-law,

he gave

his

Li

Kwangli, the

supreme

direction of the war.
tailed

His incompetence enLi

a succession of disasters, and the only

redeeming point amid them was that
incapable

Kwangli was taken prisoner and rendered
of further mischief.
this general,

Liling,

the

grandson of

was entrusted with
first,

tion with them,

on the borders of the

Roman

a fresh army to retrieve the fortunes of the

Empire.

war

;

but, although successful at

he was

Meantime, the war with the Huns themselves entered

out-mancEuvred, and reduced to the unpleasant pass of surrendering to the enemy.

upon a new phase.

A general

named Wei Tsing

obtained a signal victory

over them, capturing 15,000 prisoners and
the spoil of the Tartar camp.

Death of a Great Ruler.
Both Li Kwangli and Liling adapted themto circumstances, and took 'service under the Tartar chief. As this conduct obselves

This success

restored long-lost confidence to the Chinese
troops,

and

it

was followed by several other

victories.

One Chinese expedition, composed
of cavalry,

tained the approval of the historian Ssematsien,
it is

marched through the Hun country to Soponomo on the Tian Shan, carrying everything before it and returning laden with spoil, including some
entirely

clear that our views of

such a pro-

ceeding would not be in harmony with the
opinion in China of that day.

The long war
for half a

which Vouti waged with the Huns
in a

of the golden images of the

Hun

religion.

century, and which was certainly carried on

The Tartar
last

King.

more honorable and successful manner than any previous portion of that historic
struggle, closed with discomfiture and defeat, which dashed to the ground the Emperor's hopes of a complete triumph over the most

Encouraged by these successes, Vouti at took the field in person, and sent a formal summons to the Tartar King to make His reply was to his submission to China.
imprison the bearer of the message, and to
defy the

formidable national enemy.
After a reign of fifty-four years, which must

Emperor

to

do

his worst.

This

be pronounced glorious, Vouti
greater troubles

died, amidst

boldness had the effect of deterring the
jror
.1

Emhis

and

anxieties than

any that

from

his enterprise.

He employed

oops in conquering

Yunnan and Leaoutung
not

had beset him during his long was unquestionably a great ruler.
several provinces to his Empire,
cess

reign.

He He added

instead of in
'iuns.

waging another war with the

But he had only postponed,
all, this

and the suche met with over the Huns was far from

abandoned, his intention of overthrowing,
once and for

being inconsiderable.

He was

a

Nimrod

most troublesome and

among

the Chinese, and his principal enjoywildest animals with-

formidable national enemy.

He

raised

an

enormous

force

for

the campaign,

which

ment was to chase the out any attendants.

36
Like

CHINA: PAST
many
other Chinese princes, Vouti
believe in the
life,

AND PRESENT.
tunate one, and

"Ho Kwang
As

gave

all

his

was prone to
prolonging

possibility

of

care to perfecting the

new Emperor

in the

human

or,

as the Chinese

science of government."

a knowledge

put

it,

in the

draught of immortality.

In
is

connection with this weakness an anecdote
preserved that will bear
offered the
telling.

of his connection with the Imperial family, had been carefully kept from him, Siuenti

A magician
it

Emperor a

glass containing the
life,

was brought from a very humble sphere to direct the destinies of the Chinese, and his
greater energy

pretended

elixir

of eternal

and Vouti was

and more practical

disposition

it when a courtier snatched from his hand and drained the goblet. The

about to drink

were probably due to his not having been bred in the enervating atmosphere of a palace.

enraged monarch ordered him to prepare for
instant death, but the ready courtier at once
replied, "

Compelled to Poison Themselves.
He, too, was brought at an early stage of
his career face to face with the Tartar question,

How can

I

be executed since

I

have

drunk the draught of immortality ? " To so convincing an argument no reply was possible, and Vouti lived to a considerable age
without the aid of magicians or quack medicines.

and he had what may be pronounced a
sent several armies under

unique experience in his wars with them.

He

of reputation to

commanders wage war on them, and the

generals duly returned, reporting decisive and

An Emperor
Of him
left

Eight Years Old. be said that he added

easily obtained victories.

The

truth soon

also

it

may

leaked out.
nary.

The

victories

were quite imagi-

to the stability of the

Han

dynasty, and he

The
by

generals

the throne to Chaoti, the youngest of his

face the Tartars,

sons, a child of eight, for
his

whom he appointed

option

their

had never ventured to and they were given no enraged and disappointed

two most experienced ministers to act as governors. As these ministers were true to and
several

master but to poison themselves.

Other generals were appointed, and the
Tartars were induced to sue for peace, partly

their duty, the interregnum did not affect the

fortunes of the State adversely,

from fear of the Chinese, and partly because
they were disunited
several

claimants to the throne paid for their ambition with their lives.

among themselves. Such
for justice that

The

reign of Chaoti

was the reputation of Siuenti
of the Tartar

was prosperous and successful, but, unfortunately, he died at the early age of thirty-one, and without leaving an heir. After some hesitation, Chaoti's uncle Liucho was proclaimed Emperor, but he proved to be a boor with low tastes, whose sole idea of power was the license to indulge
in coarse

chiefs

carried their

grievances to the foot of his throne, and his

army became known
tice." tries

as "the troops of jus-

It is said that all

the tribes and coun-

of Central Asia as far west as the Cas-

pian sent

him

tribute,

and to celebrate the

event he built a kiln or pavilion, in which

amusements.

The

chief minister.

Ho Kwang,
bility

took upon himself the responsi-

he placed statues of all the generals who had contributed towards his triumph.

of deposing him, and also of placing on

Only one

incident

marred the

tranquility

the throne Siuenti,

who was the great-grandThe
choice was a for-

of Siuenti's reign.

The

great statesman,

Ho
as

son, or, according to another account, the

Kwang, had sunk

quietly into private

life

grandson, of Vouti.

soon as he found the Emperor capable of

THE STORY OF THE HAN RULERS.
governing for himself, but his wife Hohien
out
its

37
fate of his successors.

influence

on the

was more ambitious and

less satisfied

with

He had

disgraced and dismissed from the

her position, although she had effected a

service an official

named Wang Mang, who
influence under

marriage between her daughter and Siuenti.

had attained great power and
Chingti.

This lady was only one of the queens of the
ruler,

The ambition
fatal

of this individual

and not the Empress.

Hohien, to
well.

proved
in

to

the dynasty.

On

Gaiti's

further her ends, determined to poison the

death he emerged from his retirement, and
conjunction with that prince's

Empress, and succeeded only too
guilt

Her

mother,

she employed, but that

would have been divulged by the doctor Ho Kwang, by an

seized the government.

exercise of his authority, prevented the application of torture to
prison.

Crime

to

Gain the Throne.

him when thrown

into

This narrow escape from detection did not

They placed a child, grandson of Yuenti, on the throne, and they gave him the name of Pingti, or the Peaceful Emperor, but he
never governed.
Before Pingti was fourteen,

keep Hohien from crime.
faction of seeing her

She had the

satis-

daughter proclaimed

Wang Mang

resolved to get rid of him, and

Empress, but her gratification was diminished

being selected as heir to the throne.

by the son of the murdered Hiuchi Hohien

he gave him the poisoned cup with his own hands. This was not the only, or perhaps
the worst, crime that
trated

Wang Mang,

perpefor

resolved to poison this prince, but her design

to
to

gain

the throne.

Pressed

was discovered, and she and all the members of her family were ordered to take poison. The minister. Ho Kwang, had taken no part
in these plots, which,

money
princes

pay
of

his troops,

he committed the
graves of the of the jewels

sacrilege

stripping

the

of the

Han

family

however, injured his

reputation,
pavilion

and his statue in the Imperial was left without a name.

A

Head Hung on

the Walls.

deposited in them. One more puppet prince was placed on the throne, but he was soon got rid of, and Wang Mang proclaimed himself Emperor. He also decreed that the Han dynasty was extinct, and that his family should

Siuenti did not long survive these events,

be known as the Sin.

and Yuenti, the son of Hiuchi, became
peror.

Em-

Wang Mang
capable

the usurper was certainly a

His reign of sixteen years presents
of interest beyond the
chief. Chichi,

administrator,

but in seizing the

no

features

signal

throne he had attempted a task to which he

overthrow of the Tartar

whose

was unequal.

As

long as he was minister

head was

sent

by

the victorious general to

or regent, respect and regard for the
family prevented
his tyranny,

be hung on the walls of Singan.
succeeded by his son Chingti,
twenty-six years, and

Yuenti was

who

reigned

Han many from revolting against but when he seized the throne

who

gained the repu-

tation of a Chinese Vitellius.
Gaiti,

His nephew,

he became the mark of popular indignation and official jealousy. The Huns resumed
their incursions, and, curiously

who was

the next Emperor, showed

enough, put

himself an able and well-intentioned prince,

forward a proclamation demanding the restoration of the

but his reign of six years was too brief to
allow of any permanent
plished.

Hans.

work being accomOne measure of his was not with-

Internal enemies sprang up

on every

side,

and

Wang Mang's

attempt to

terrify

them by

38
severity

CHINA: PAST

AND

PRESENT.

and wholesale executions only aggravated the situation. It became clear that the struggle was to be one to the death, but this fact did not assist Wang Mang, who saw his
resources gradually reduced, and his enemies more confident as the contest continued.

Liu Hiuen, was placed on the throne, and the capital was removed fi-om Singan to

Loyang, or Honan.
been

Nothing could have

more popular

among

the

Chinese

people than the restoration of the Hans. It is said that the old men cried for joy

After twelve years'

fighting,

Wang Mang

when they saw the banner of the Hans
again waving over the palace and in the But Liu Hiuen was not a good ruler, field.

was besieged at Singan. The city was soon carried by storm, and Wang Mang retired to

SALE OF PRAYERS IN A CHINESE TEMPLE.
the palace to put an end to his existence.

and there might have been reason to
the change
if

regret

But

his

heart failed him, and he was cut
foe.

he had not wisely

left

the con-

down by the

His

last

exclamation and

duct of

affairs

to his able cousin, Liu Sieou.

the dirge of his short-lived dynasty, which is denied a place in Chinese history, was, " If

At

last

the

army

declared that Liu Sieou

should be Emperor, and when Liu Hiuen
attempted to form a faction of his

Heaven had given me courage, what could " the family of the Hans have done ?

own he

The

eldest of the surviving

Han

princes,

was murdered by Fanchong, the leader of a confederacy known as the Crimson Eye-

THE STORY OF THE HAN RULERS.
brows, on whose co-operation he counted.

39

the part of the Chinese ruler to bring his

The Crimson Eyebrows were
had adopted when
test against the
first first

so

called

from the distinguishing mark which they
organized as a pro-

tyranny of

Wang Mang. At
Emall

they were patriots, but they soon bebrigands.

came
peror,

After murdering the
their leader,

The occupant of the Dragon Throne could not sit down tamely under a defeat inflicted by a woman, and an experienced general named Mayuen was sent to punish the Queen of Kaochi. The Boadicea of Annam made a valiant
neighbor to her senses.
to purchase peace

Fanchong,

threw off
it

disguise,

and

seizing Singan, gave

over to

his followers to plunder.

Liu Sieou, on be-

coming Emperor, took the style of Kwang first task was to overthrow the Crimson Eyebrows, who had become a public enemy. He entrusted the command of the army he raised for this purpose to Fongy, who justified his reputation as the most skilful Chinese general of his day by gaining several victories over a more numerous adversary. Within two years Kwang Vouti had the satisfaction of breaking up the formidable faction known as the Crimson Eyebrows, and of holding its leader Fanchong as a prisoner in his capital.
Vouti, and his

was overthrown, and glad by making the humblest submission. The same general more than held his own on the northern and northwest
defence, but she

frontiers.

When Kwang
a
brilliant

Vouti

died,

in

A. D.

57, after

reign of thirty-

three years, he

Han

dynasty, and he

had firmly established the left behind him the

reputation of being both a brave and a just
prince.

A

Prosperous Reign.

His son and successor, Mingti, was not unworthy of his father. His acts were characterized by wisdom and clemency, and the
country enjoyed a large measure of peace

through the policy of Mingti and
Constant Wars.

his father.

A
many more

general

Kwang
who had
His

Vouti was engaged

for

haps the
able

named Panchow, who was pergreatest military commander China

years in subduing the numerous potentates

ever produced, began his long and remarkcareer in this reign, and, without the
effort,

repudiated the Imperial authority.

efforts

were

invariably

crowned with

semblance of an
order,

kept the

Huns

in

success, but he acquired so great a distaste

and maintained the Imperial authority

war that it is said when his son asked him to explain how an army was set in But the battle array he refused to reply. love of peace will not avert war when a
for

over them.

Among

other great and import-

ant works, Mingti constructed a dyke, thirty
miles long, for the relief of the

Hoangho,
writer,

and the French missionary and
in repair there

Du

State has turbulent or ambitious neighbors

Halde, states that so long as this was kept

who are resolved to appeal to arms, and so Kwang Vouti was engaged in almost constant hostilities to the

were no floods.
event of Mingti 's

The most remarkable
tion of

end of his days.

reign was undoubtedly the official introduc-

Chingtse,

the

may be
defied

identified

Queen of Kaochi, which with the modern Annam,
first

Buddhism

into China.

Some knowl-

the Chinese, and defeated the
sent to

edge of the great Indian religion and of the teacher Sakya Muni seemed to have reached
China through either Tibet,
ably,
or,

army

bring her to reason.
still

This

more prob-

reverse necessitated a

greater effort on

Burma, but

it

was not

until Mingti, in

40
consequence
of

CHINA: PAST
a

AND PRESENT.
formed an alliance with the Sienpi tribes of Manchuria, who were probably the ancestors of the present Manchus, and thus arranged for a flank attack on the Huns. This systematic attack was crowned with
success.

dream, sent envoys to
its

India to study Buddhism, that

doctrine
direct

became known
progress,

Under the patronage of the Emperor it made
in

China.

rapid

and although never unreservedly popular, it has held its ground ever since its
!

The

pressure

brought

against

introduction in the

first

century of our era,

and

is

now

inextricably intertwined with the

religion

of the Chinese state and people.

Mingti died after a successful reign of eighteen years in 75 A. D.

His son, Changti,
mother, Machi,
the

with the aid

of

his

daughter of the general Mayuen, enjoyed a
peaceful reign of thirteen years, and died at

an

early

age lamented by

his

sorrowing

people.

The Huns Conquered.
After Changti

came

his

son Hoti,

who was
a

them compelled the Hiongnou to give way, and as they were ousted from their possesIn sions, to seek fresh homes further west. this they were, no doubt, stimulated by the example of their old opponents, the Yuchi, but Panchow's energy supplied a still more He pursued them convincing argument. wherever they went, across the Gobi desert and beyond the Tian Shan range, taking up a strong position at modern Kuldja and Kashgar, sending his expeditions on to the Pamir, and preparing to complete his triumph by the invasion of the countries of
the

only ten at the time of his accession, and

Oxus and

Jaxartes.
Brilliant

who

reigned for seventeen years.

He was
prince,

virtuous
instituted

and well-intentioned

who

A
When
pleted this

Campaign.
a youth, he com-

many internal
new

reforms, and during

Hoti was

still

his reign a

writing-paper was invented,

programme by overrunning the

which

is

supposed to have been identical

region as far as the Caspian, which was prob-

with the papyrus of Egypt.

ably at that time connected with the Aral,

But the reign of Hoti is rendered illustrious by the remarkable military achievements of Panchow. The success of that
general in his operations with the

and

it

may be supposed
It is

that

Khiva marked

the limit of the Chinese general's triumphant
progress.

affirmed with

more or

less

Huns has
at
last

show of
the

truth that he

came

into contact with

already been

referred

to,

and he

Roman Empire
it,

or the great Thsin, as

formed a deliberate plan

for driving

away from the Chinese

frontier.

them Although
was long

the Chinese called
establish

and that he wished to
it.

commercial relations with
this

But,

he enjoyed the confidence of

his successive

however uncertain

may

be, there can be

sovereigns, the Imperial sanction

withheld from this vast scheme, but during
the
life

of Changti he began to put in opera-

no doubt that he inflicted a most material injury on Rome, for before his legions fled the Huns, who, less, than four centuries later,
debased the majesty of the Imperial City, and whose leader, Attila, may have been a
descendant of that Meha, at whose hands
the Chinese suffered so severely.
After this brilliant and memorable

tion measures for the realization of this project that

were only matured under Hoti.
special
tribes

He

raised

and trained a

army

for frontier

war.

He

enlisted

served the

who had nerer Emperor before, and who were
for desert

specially qualified

warfare.

He

Panchow returned

to China,

war where he died

O U
1-1

EPi

I—

< D H

<

42

CHINA: PAST
With him
of the
dis-

AND

PRESENT.
The
battle is chiefly

at the great age of eighty.

ness on the frontier, and the Sienpi were

appeared

the

good

fortune
fell

Han

again defeated.

mem-

dynasty, and misfortunes

rapidly on the

orable because the Sienpi
frighten the Chinese general

endeavored to

family that had governed China so long and

by threatening
a prisoner
in

so well.

Hoti's infant son lived only a few

to kill his mother,
their hands, if

who was

months, and then his brother Ganti became

Emperor.

The

real

power

rested in

the
ele-

hands of the widow of Hoti,

who was

he attacked. Not deterred by this menace, Chow Pow attacked the enemy, and gained a decisive*
victory, but at the cost of his mother's
life,

vated to the post of Regent.

Ganti was

succeeded in A. D. 124 by his son Chunti,
in

which so affected him that he died of
shortly afterwards.
sions rose in the

grief

whose time

several

rebellions occurred,

After

some time
Pienti

dissen-

threatening the extinction of the dynasty.

Han

family,

brothers claimed the throne.

and two half became

Ambitious Schemes.
Several children were then elevated to the
throne, and at last an ambitious noble

Emperor by the

skilful

support of his uncle.

General Hotsin, while his rival Hienti en-

named

joyed the support of the eunuchs.

A deadly

Leangki, whose
presses,
affairs.

was one of the Emacquired the supreme direction of
sister

feud ensued between the two parties, which

was aggravated by the murder of Hotsin,

He

gave a great deal of trouble,

who

rashly entered the palace without an

but at

last,

finding that his ambitious schemes

escort.

His

soldiers

avenged

his

death,

did not prosper, he took poison, thus antici-

carrying the palace

by storm, and

putting

pating a decree passed for his execution.

10,000 eunuchs to the sword.

Hwanti, the Emperor

who had

the courage

to punish this powerful noble,

was the

last

End
After this

of a

Famous Dynasty.

able ruler of the Hans.

His reign was, on
the place of
the

the last Emperors possessed

the whole, a brilliant one, and the Sienpi
tribes,

who had

taken

Hiognou, were,

after

one arduous campaign,
of defeat

name of Emperor. The practical authority was disputed among several generals, of whom Tsow Tsow was the most
only the
distinguished
his

defeated in a pitched battle.

were on
general,

the verge

The Chinese when their
to the front,

and

successful;

and he and
In
ruler, re-

son Tsowpi

founded a dynasty.

Twan Kang, rushed

A. D. 220

Hienti, the last
life

Han

"Recall to your minds how you have beaten these same opponents, and teach them again to-day that in you they have their masters."
often

exclaiming:

tired into private

as Prince of Chanyang,

before

thus bringing to an end the famous

Han

dynasty, which had governed China for 475
years.

After Hwanti's death the decline of the

Hans was
ruler

rapid.

They produced no

other

worthy of the throne.

In the palace

Among the families that have reigned in China none have obtained as high a place in popular esteem as the Hans. They rendered excellent work in consolidating the

,

the eunuchs, always numerous at the Chinese Court, obtained the upper hand, and

Empire and

in carrying

out what

may be
Yun-

appointed their

own

creatures to the great

called the Imperial mission of China.

governing posts.
sion at the capital

Fortunately this dissen-

was not attended by weak-

nan and Leaoutung were made provinces for the first time. Cochin China became a vas-

THE STORY OF THE HAN RULERS.
sal state.
far as the

43
to retain the throne

The

writ of the

Pamir.

Emperor ran The wealth and trade
of the

as

this,

and
less

it

managed

of

when

favored rulers would have ex-

the country increased with the progress of
its

piated their mistakes and shortcomings

by

armies.

Some

greatest public

the loss of the Empire.

works, in the shape of roads, bridges, canals.

support of the people, the

With the strong Hans overcame

period,

and aqueducts, were constructed during this and still remain to testify to the glory of the Hans.

and even the natural and when they made their process of decay final exit from history it was in a graceful
innumerable
difficulties,
;

As

has been seen, the Hans produced
rulers.

manner, and without the execration of the
masses, which generally attends the
fall

several great

Their fame was not

of

the creation of one

man

alone,

and as a
its

greatness and the loss of sovereign authority.

consequence the dynasty enjoyed a length-

That

this feeling retains its force is

shown
still

in

ened existence equalled by few of
cessors or successors.

prede-

the pride with which the Chinese
claim themselves to be the sons of

pro-

No

ruling family

was

Han and

ever more popular with the Chinese than

glory in their ancestry.

IMAGE OF BUDDHA.

CHAPTER

III.

THE MONGOL CONQUEST OF CHINA.

THE Wang

ignominious failure of the usurper

respite

was short and

it

was granted.

But

Mang

to found a dynasty-

the disappointment of the besieger, already

was too recent to encourage anyone to take upon himself the heavy charge of administering the whole of the Han Empire, and so the state was split up into three principalities, and the period is

counting on success, was great

when a few

days

later

repaired, that fresh defences
vised,

he saw that the breaches had been had been improin better condi-

and that Sinching was

tion than ever to withstand a seige.

known from this fact prince, a member of
the principality of
provinces

as the Sankoue.

One

On

sending to inquire the meaning of

the late ruling family,

these preparations,

Changte, gave the

fol-

held possession of Szchuen, which was called

lowing reply
to

:

"

I

am preparing my tomb and
ruins of Sinching.''

Chow.

were

goverened

The southern by a general

bury myself

in the

Of such

gallantry

named Sunkiuen, and called Ou. The central and northern provinces, containing the greatest population

cine strife

and resource the interneof the Sankoue period presents few
the direction
of the

instances, but the progress of the struggle
steadily

and resources,

pointed in

formed the principality of Wei, subject to

triumph of Wei.
Period of United Government.

Tsow Tsow. struggle supremacy very soon began between these princes, and the balance of success gradually declared itself in favor of Wei. It would serve no useful purpose to enumerate the battles which marked this struggle, yet one deed of heroism deserves mention,
Tsowpi, the son of
for

A

A

long period of dissension prevailed

in

China.
dynasty,

Then came the powerful Tang A. D. 617, which succeeded in
the
unity

largely restoring

of the nation.

A

termination was
division

at last

reached to the
that

the

defence

of

Sinching by Changte, an

internal

and weakness
years.

had

officer of the Prince of

Wei.

The

strength

lasted for

more than 750

of the place was insignificant, and, after a
siege of ninety days, several breaches

The
ground
and

student reaches at this point firmer
in the history of

had

China as an Empire,

been

made

in

the

walls.

In this

strait

his interest in the subject

must assume a

Changte sent a message to the besieging general that he would surrender on the hundredth day
if

more definite form on coming to the beginning of that period of united government and
settled authority

a cessation of hostilities were

which has been established

granted, " as

it

was a law among the princes
which

of

Wei

that the governor of a place

during which no more than four separate families have held possession of the throne.

for nearly 1,000 years,

held out for a hundred days and then surrendered,

with no prospect of

relief

visible,

should not be considered as guilty."

The

After the rival dynasties of the Sungs and Kins rose to supremacy, the Chinese were

44

THE MONGOL CONQUEST OF CHINA.
subjugated by a race more powerful than
themselves.

45
still

more than

this,

he would

have done

We must consider the origin and the growth of the power of the Mongols, who were certainly the most remarkable race of
conquerors Asia, or perhaps the whole world,
ever produced.

much to justify his memory being preserved among a free and independent people. But
he seems to have
pursue an active
incited his followers

to to

and

temperate

life,

remain warriors rather than to become rich
lazy citizens. He wrapped counsel in the exhortation, " What

and

up
is ?

this

The home
signifies

of the Mongols, whose

name
of

the use
Is
?

"brave men," was

in the strip

of embarrassing ourselves with wealth not the fate of

territory
rivers,

between the Onon and Kerulon
tributaries or

men

decreed by Heaven

which are both

upper

He sowed
ness,

the seed of future

Mongol

great-

courses of the

Amour.

They first appeared

and the headship of

his clan

remained

as a separate clan or tribe in the ninth century,
for

vested in his family.

when they

attracted special attention

their

physical

strength

and courage
with the
that
it

Overthrown
passed to Kabul

in Battle.

during one of China's
children of the desert,

many wars
and

In due order of succession the chiefship

was on

Khan, who

in

the year

occasion they gained the appellation under

which they became famous.

113s began to encroach on the dominion of Hola, the Kin Emperor. He seems to have

been induced to commit

this act of hostility

The Head
The

of the Clan.

by a prophecy,
tribe is

to the

effect that his children

earlier history of the

Mongol

should be emperors, and also by discourteous
treatment received on the occasion of his
visit

obscure, and baffles investigation, but there

seems no reason to doubt their affinity to the Hiongnou, with whose royal house

to the court of Oukimai.

Whatever the
the

cause of umbrage Kabul

Khan made

Genghis himself claimed blood relationship.
If
this

Kins pay dearly for their arrogance or shortsighted policy.

claim be

admitted,

Genghis

and

Hola

sent an

army under

Attila,

who were
same

the two specially typical

one of his best generals, Hushahu, to bring
the

Scourges of God, must be considered
bers of the
is

mem-

Mongol
of his

chief to reason, but the inacces-

race,

and

their probability

sibility

home

stood him in good stead.
its

certainly strengthened

by the

close resem-

The Kin army
retreat
it

suffered greatly in

futile
its

blance in their methods of carrying on war.

attempt to cross the desert, and during

Budantsar

is

the

first

chief of the house of

was

harassed

by the pursuing
to

Genghis whose person and achievements are more than mythical. Ho selected as the

Mongols.

When

the Kin

army endeavored
its

make

abode of

his race the territory

between the
fertile in

a stand against

pursuers,

it

suffered a

Onon and
itself,

the Kerulou, a region

crushing overthrow in a battle at Hailing,

and well protected by those

rivers

and on the Kins sending a larger force
against the
better

against attack.
It was also so well placed as to be beyond the extreme limit of any triumphant pro-

Mongols in 1 1 39, fortune. Kabul Khan,

it

had no
the

after

second success, caused himself to be proclaimed Great Emperor of the

gress of the armies of the Chinese emperor.
If

Mongols.

Budantsar

had

accomplished

nothing

His success in war, and his ambition, which

46

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
woman's
Yissugei,
son.'

rested satisfied with no secondary position,

yart
'

was

pitched.
will

Then
she was

said

indicated the path on which the

proceeded to

the

acquisition

of

Mongols supreme

This

woman
{i.

bear a valiant
the

He

discovered

that
e.,

power and a paramount
standards.

military influence

whithersoever they carried their

name and

damsel Ogelen Eke nations), and that she was the wife of Yeke
Yilatu,

the mother of

chief of

a Tartar

tribe.

Yissugei

carried her off

and made her

his wife."

Union of Warlike Races.

The work begun by Kabul was
too,

well con-

Birth of the "Valiant Son."

tinued by his son Kutula, or Kablai.

He,

Immediately
jin,

after his

overthrow of Temu-

was a great

warrior,

whose deeds of
of

chief

of

one of the principal Tartar

prowess aroused as
the

much enthusiasm among
those

tribes,

Yissugei learned that the promised

Mongols
in

as

Coeur-de-Lion
Plantagenets.

evoked

the

days

of the

The struggle with the Kins was rendered more bitter by the execution of several
Mongols of importance, who happened to
fall

into

the hands the

of

the Kins.

When

Kutula died

chiefship

passed to his

nephew, Yissugei,

who

greatly extended the

influence aud power of his family among the tribes neighboring to the Mongol home. Many of these, and even some Chinese,

was about to be born, and in he gave him the name of Temujin, which was the proper name of The village or encampthe great Genghis. future conqueror first saw ment in which the the light of day still bears the old Mongol name, Dilun Boldak, on the banks of the Onon. When Yissugei died, Temujin, or Genghis, was only thirteen, and his clan of 40,000 families refused to recognize him as
honor of
his victory

" valiant son "

their

leader.

At a meeting

of the tribe
in his

joined the military organization of the domi-

Genghis entreated them with tears
eyes to stand

nant
small

tribe,

so that what was of
vast
strictly

originally

a

force

limited

numbers,
con-

became

a

and. ever-increasing

by the son of their former chief, but the majority of them mocked at him, exclaiming, "The deepest wells are
sometimes dry, and the hardest stone
sometimes broken,
is

federacy of the most warlike and aggressive
races of the Chinese northern frontier.

Im-

why

should

we

cling to

work in the development of Mongol power undoubtedly was, his chief historical interest is derived from the fact that he was the father of Genghis Khan. There are several interesting fables in connection with the birth of Genghis, which
portant as Yissugei's

thee?" Genghis owed to the heroic attitude of his mother, who flung abroad the cow-tailed
banner of his
authority
race, the acceptance of

his

by about

half the warriors

who

had obeyed

his father.
it

The great advantage
gave Genghis time to

of this step was that

event

may

be safely assigned to the year

grow up
his

to be a warrior as

famous as any of
certainly averted

1

162 A. D.
"

One

of these reads as follows:

predecessors,

and
easily

it

One day

Yissugei was hunting in com-

what might have

pany with

his brothers,

and was following

the tracks of a white hare in the snow.

They
fol-

become the irretrievable disintegration of the Mongol alliance. The youth of Genghis was passed in one
ceaseless struggle to regain the
birthright.

struck upon the track of a wagon, and

whole of

his

lowing

it

up came

to

a

spot where

a

His most formidable enemy was

48

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
chief of the Juriats,

Chamuka,

and

for a

long

not realize his expectations.

Wang Khan

time he had all the worst of the struggle, being

deserted Genghis v/hile engaged in a joint

taken prisoner on one occasion, and under-

campaign against the Naimans, but he was
the
principal
sufifererer

going marked indignity.

On making
effort,

his

by
In

his

treachery,
inflicted

escape he had rallied his remaining followers

for the

enemy pursued
upon

his force,
it.

and

round him
his

for a

final

advice of his mother Ogelen Eke,
principal

and on the who was
thirteen

a heavy defeat

fact,

he was

only rescued from destruction by the timely
aid of the

adviser
his

and staunchest supforces into

man he had

betrayed.
this inci-

porter,

he divided

But

far

from inspiring gratitude,

regiments of i,ooo

men

each,

and confined

dent inflamed the resentment of

Wang Khan,

his attention to the defence of his

own

terri-

who, throwing off the cloak of simulated
friendship, declared publicly that either the

tory.

Kerait or the

Unexpected Victory.

the great steppe, as there was not
both.

Mongol must be supreme on room for
superiority in numbers
first

Chamuka,

led

away by what he deemed

Such was the

the weakness of his adversary, attacked him

of the Kerait, that in the

battle of this

on the Onon with as he considered the overwhelming force of 30,000 men but the re;

long and keenly-contested struggle,

Wang

Khan
the

defeated Temujin near Ourga, where

sult

dispelled

his

hopes of conquest, for

Genghis gained a decisive victory.

Then
of
the

was furnished a
like success."

striking

instance

mounds that cover the slain are still shown to the curious or skeptical visitor. After this serious, and in some degree unex-

truth of the saying that "nothing succeeds

pected reverse, the fortunes of Genghis sank
to the lowest ebb.
rible
straits,

The

despised Temujin,

who

was thought to be unworthy of the post of ruling the Mongols, was lauded to the skies, and the tribes declared with one voice, "Temujin alone is generous and worthy of
ruling a great people."

He was reduced to terand had to move his camp rapidly from one spot to another.
Put

Him

to Death.

At

this

time also he

A

small section of his followers, mindful
still

began to show the qualities of a statesman and diplomatist. He formed in 1 194 a temporary alliance with the Kin emperor, Madacou, and the richness of his reward seems to
have excited his cupidity, while his experience of the Kin army went to prove that they were not so formidable as had been
imagined.

of his past success and prowess,
to him,

clung

and by a sudden and daring coup he changed the whole aspect of the contest.

He

surprised

Wang Khan

in

his

camp

at

night,

and overwhelmed him and

his forces.

Wang Khan
tality,

escaped to his old foes, the Naimans, who, disregarding the laws of hospi-

put him to death.
signified

The
less

death

of

The

discomfiture of

Chamuka has been

Wang Khan

nothing

than the

he had not abandoned the hope of success, and when he succeeded in
referred to, but

wholesale defection of the Kerait
joined Genghis to the last man.
his

tribe,

which

detaching the Kerait chief
the Mongols, to

Wang Khan

from
ties

Then Gengturned westwards to settle the question

whom

he was bound by

of gratitude, he fancied that he again held victory in his gi'asp. But the intrigue did

of supremacy with the Naimans, both hostile and defiant.

who were

The Naiman

chief shared the opinion of

THE MONGOL CONQUEST OF CHINA.
Wang
Khan, that there could not be two
to

49
of

represent the sound

masters on the Tian Shan, and with that

heaven." the
first

At

this

"the bird of assemblage, which was
at the

vigorous illustration which has never been wanting to these illiterate tribes, he wrote,

of a long succession

councils

summoned

of Mongol same place on

"There cannot be two suns in the sky, two swords in one sheath, two eyes in one eyepit, or two kings in one empire." Both sides

critical occasions, it

that the
richer

was supposed and agreed war should be carried on with the and less warlike races of the south.

made strenuous
the
field.

efforts

for

the fray,

and

brought every fighting man they could into

Rewards and Decorations.

The
in

was fought

war the heart of Jungaria, and
decisive battle of the

Among
zeal

soldiers

it

is

necessary to pre-

serve the spirit of pre-eminence and warlike

the star of Genghis rose in the ascendant.

by granting rewards and
realized

decorations.

The Naimans fought long and well, but they were borne down by the heavier armed
Mongols, and their desperate resistance only added to their loss. Their chief died of his
wounds, and the triumph of Genghis was rendered complete by the capture of his old
enemy, Chamuka.

Genghis
matter,

the

importance

of

this

and

instituted the order of

Baturu or

Bahadur, meaning warrior.
his

He

also

made

two leading generals Muhula and Porshu princes, one to sit on his right hand and the other on his left. He addressed them before
council in the following words:

—"It

is

to

you
Nine White Yak-Tails.

that I

owe

my

empire.

You

are

and

have been to
office

me

as the shafts of a carriage

As Genghis had sworn
ship with

the oath of friend-

or the arms to a

man's body."
all

Seals of

Chamuka, he would not slay him, but he handed him over to a relative, who promptly exacted the rough revenge his past hostility and treachery seemed to call for.

were also granted to

the

officials,

so

that their authority might be the

more
his

evi-

dent and the more honored.
In A. D.

1207 Genghis began

war

On
who

his

way back from

this

campaign the

with the state of Hia, which he had deter-

Mongol

chief attacked the Prince of Hia,

mined to crush
China.

as the preliminary invasion of

Kansuh and Tangut, and thus began the third war he waged for the
reigned over
extension of his power.
serious proportions

In that year he

contented himself

with the capture of Wuhlahai, one of the

Before this assumed

border fortresses of that principality, and in
the following year he established his control

he summoned a Grand
at his

Council

or Kuriltai,

camp on

the

over the tribes of the desert more
gaining

fully,

thus

Onon, and then erected outside
royal
taiils.

his tent the

Mongol banner of the nine white yak-

was on this occasion that Temujin took, and was proclaimed among the Mongol
It

chiefs

by,

the

highly exalted

name of

Genghis Khan, which means Very Mighty

Khan.

The Chinese
writeriS

character for the

name

and Naiman auxiliaries. In 1 209 he resumed the war with Hia. in a determined spirit, and placed, himself in person at the head of all his forces. Although the Hia ruler prepared as well as he could for the struggle, he was really unnerved by the magnitude of the danger he had to face. His army was overthrown, his
Kirghiz
best generals were taken prisoners, and he

many

signifies " Perfect Warrior,"

European
4

and the earlier afiSrm that it is supposed

himself had no resource

left

but to throw

50
himself

CHINA: PAST
on the consideration of Genghis.

AND

PRESENT.
War had
bescience.

before the time of Genghis.

For good reasons the Mongol conqueror was lenient. He married one of the daughters of the king, and he took him into subsidiary alliance with himself.

come a

But the Mongols carried the teaching of the past to a further point than any of the
former
or

contemporary

Chinese

com-

Hia power, which was very considerable, and prepared
did Genghis absorb the
to enrol
it

Thus

manders, indeed, than any in the whole

world had done
they effected
able in
itself,

with

all his

the Kin empire.

own resources against The Mongols owed their

and the revolution which in tactics was not less remarkand did not leave a smaller im;

A CHINESE BRIDGE.
military success to their admirable discipline

pression

upon the age, than the improvein military science

and to

their close study of the art of war.

ments made

by Frederick
in Asia

Their military supremacy arose from their
superiority
in
all

the Great and Napoleon did in their day.

essentials

as

a fighting

The Mongol played
the part which the

power to their neighbors. Much of their knowledge was borrowed from China, where
the art of
disciplining a large
it

in a large way Normans on a

smaller
land-

scale played in Europe.

Although the

army and
centuries

mancEuvring

in the field

had been brought

to a high state of perfection

many

triumph have almost wholly vanished, they were for two centuries the dominant caste in most of the states of Asia.
their

marks of

THE MONGOL CONQUEST OF CHINA.
Having thus prepared the way for a larger
enterprise,
it

61

only remained to find a plaus-

ible pretext for attacking the Kins, the other

and generally responded to, and it was at the head of an enormous force that Genghis set out in March, 1 2 1 1 to effect the con,

dynasty, ruling in southern China.

With or

quest of China.

The Mongol army was

led

without a pretext Genghis would no doubt

have made war, but even the ruthless Mongol
sometimes showed a regard for appearances.

by Genghis in person, and under him his four sons and his most famous general, Chepe Noyan, held commands.
Ravages of War.
plan of campaign of the Mongol was as simple as it was bold. From his camp at Karakoram, on the Kerulon, he marched in a straight line through Kuku Khoten and the Ongut country to Taitong, securing an unopposed passage through the Great Wall, by the defection of the Ongut tribe. The Kins were unprepared for this sudden and vigorous assault directed on their weakest spot, and successfully executed before their army could reach the scene. Duping the two years that the forces of Genghis kept the field on this occasion, they devasruler

Many
a

years before the Kins

had sent

as

envoy to the Mongol encampment Conghei,

member

of their ruling house, and his mis-

The

had been not only unsuccessful, but had led to a personal antipathy between the two men. In the course of time Conghei succeeded Madacou as emperor of the Kins, and when a Kin messenger brought intellision

gence of

this event to

Genghis, the

Mongol
upon

ruler turned towards the south, spat

the ground, and said, "

I

thought that your

sovereigns were of the race of the gods, but

do you suppose that I am going to do " homage to such an imbecile as that ?
All the Tribes Rallied,
affront rankled in the mind of Chonand while Genghis was engaged with Hia, he sent troops to attack the Mongol outposts. Chonghei thus placed himself in the

tated the greater portion of the three northern

The

provinces of Shensi, Shansi, and Pechihli.

chei,

But the border fortress of Taitong and the Kin capital, Tungking, successfully resisted
all

the assaults of the Mongols, and

when

wrong, and gave Genghis
claring that the Kins

justification for de-

Genghis received a serious wound at the
former place, he reluctantly ordered the retreat of his

and not he began the war. The reputation of the Golden dynasty, although not as great as it once was, still stood sufficienty high to make the most
adventurous of desert chiefs wary in attacking
it.

army, laden with an immense

Genghis had already secured the

co-operation of the ruler of
prise,

Hia in his enterand he next concluded an alliance

with Yeliu Liuko, chief of the Khitans,

who

were again manifesting discontent with the
Kins.

still little advanced in main task of conquering China. The success of Khitan Yeliu Liuko had not been less considerable, and he was proclaimed King of Leaou as a vassal of the Mongols. The planting of this ally on the very threshold of Chinese power facilitated the subsequent enterprises of the Mongols against the Kins, and represented the most important

quantity of spoil, but
its

Genghis

finally circulated

a proclamation

result of this war.

among

all

the desert tribes, calling upon

In 121 3 Genghis again invaded the Kin
dominions, but his success was not very
striking,

them to join him in his attack upon the common enemy. This appeal was heartily

and

in several

engagements of no

52

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
met

very great importance the Kin arms
with

some

success.

The most important

events of the year were, however, the depo-

Kin Emperor implied an unwarrantable suspicion of his intentions, and he sent his army across the frontier to recommence his humiliation.

and murder of Chonghei, the murder who had won a battle against the Mongols, and the proclamation of Utubu as Emperor. The change of sovereign brought no change of fortune to the unlucky Kins. Utubu was only able
sition

of a Kin general, Hushahu,

On

this occasion

a Kin general deserted to

them, and thenceforward large bodies of the
the Mongols,

Chinese of the north attached themselves to who were steadily acquiring a
mili-

unique reputation for power as well as
tary prowess.

to find safety behind the walls of his capital,

The

great event of this war

and he was delighted when Genghis wrote him the following letter: "Seeing your
wretched condition and

my

exalted fortune,
will

what may your opinion be now of the of heaven with regard to myself? At

was the siege of Yenking on the site of which now stands the capital Pekin the defence of which had been entrusted to the Prince Imperial, but Utubu, more anxious

this

for his son's safety
state,

than the interests of the

moment

I

am

desirous to return to Tartary,

ordered him to return to Kaifong.

The

but could you allow
presents
"

my soldiers

to take their

governor of Yenking offered a stout
ance to the Mongols, and
that

resist-

departure without appeasing their anger with
?

when he found he could not hold out, he retired to the temple of the city and poisoned himself. His
was to write a letter to Utubu beglisten no more to the pernicious advice of the man who had induced him to murder Hushahu.
last act

An Inhuman

Massacre.

In reply, Utubu sent Genghis a princess
of a family as a wife, and also " 500 youths,
the

ging him to

same number of

girls,

3000 horses, and

a vast quantity of precious articles."

Then

Genghis retired once more to Karakoram,
but on his march he stained his by massacring all his prisoners
reputation

On
The capture

to Central China.

of Yenking, where Genghis

the

first

obtained a large supply of war materials, as
well as vast booty, opened the road to Central

gross act of inhumanity he committed during
his

Chinese wars.
the Mongols retreating,

China.

When Utubu saw

as the celebrated

he thought to provide against the most serious consequences of their return by removing
his

nects Shensi

The Mongols advanced as far Tunkwan pass, which conand Honan, but when their gen-

capital to

frontier,

a greater distance from the and with this object he transferred

eral, Samuka, saw how formidable it was, and how strong were the Kin defences and garrison, he declined to attack it, and, mak-

his residence to Kaifong.
his advisers

The

majority of

ing a detour through very

difficult

country,
little

were against

this change, as

a

he marched on Kaifong, where Utubu
expected him.
their

retirement could not but shake public confi-

The Mongols had

to

make

dence.

It

had another consequence, which

own

road,

and they crossed

several

they

may
its

was

not have contemplated, and that providing Genghis with an excuse for

renewing his attack on China.

The Mongol

at once complained that the action of the

by improvised "bridges made of spears and the branches of trees bound together by strong chains." But the Mongol force was too small to accomplish any
ravines

CHINESE DANCING GIRL WITH SMALL FEET

54

CHINA: PAST
Samuka
destruction.

AND PRESENT.
of Khwaresm and the other great Western Asia. Muhula more than justified the
rulers of

great result, and the impetuosity of

was nearly leading to his prompt retreat, and the fact that the Hoangho was frozen over, enabled him to extricate his army after much fatigue and reduced in
numbers, from
its

A

selection

and confidence of his sovereign.
1

In the year

2 18—19 he invaded

awkward

position.

of the Kin commanders,

Honan, defeated the best and not merely

overran, but retained possession of the places

Sudden Successes.

The retreat of the Mongols inspired Utubu with sufficient confidence to induce him to attack Yeliu Liuko in Leaoutung,
and the success of this enterprise imparted a gleam of sunshine and credit to the expiring cause of the Kins. Yelin Liuko was driven from his newly-created kingdom, but Genghis

he occupied in the Kin dominions. The difficulties of Utubu were aggravated by an attack from Ningtsong the Sung Emperor,

who refused any

longer to pay tribute to the

Kins as they were evidently unable to enforce the claim, and the Kin armies were equally
unfortunate against their southern opponents
as their northern.
to

hastened to the assistance of his ally by
all

negotiate

Then Utubu endeavored terms with Muhula for the

sending Muhula, the greatest of
erals, at

his

gen-

retreat of his

army, but the only conditions
general would accept were the

the head of a large

Leaoutung.
remarkable.

His success

army to recover was rapid and
speedily overhis

the

Mongol

surrender of the Kin ruler and his resignation of the Imperial title in
principality of

The Kinj were
the

exchange

for the

thrown, Yeliu
authority,

Liuko was restored to
neighboring

Honan.
his

and

King of

Corea, impressed by the magnitude of the

Had

Eye on

India.

Mongol

success, hastened

to

acknowledge

Utubu, low as he had sunk, declined to
abase himself further and to purchase
life

himself the vassal of Genghis.

at

The most important
the control of
all

result of this

cam-

the loss of his dignity.
of

The sudden

death

paign was that Genghis entrusted to Muhula
military arrangemeats for

Muhula gained a

brief respite for the dis-

tressed Chinese potentate, but the advantage

the conquest of China.

He

is

reported to

have said to his lieutenant: "North of the
Taihing mountains
I

am

supreme, but

all

the

regions to the south I commend to the care of Muhula," and he " also presented him with a

and a banner with nine scalops. As he handed him this last emblem of authority,
chariot

was not of any permanent significance, first of all because the Kins were too exhausted by their long struggle, and, secondly, because Genghis hastened to place himself at the head of his army. The news of the death of Muhula reached him when he was encamped on the frontier of India and preparing to add
the conquest of that country to his

he spoke to

his generals, saying,

'

Let

this
let

many

banner be an embelm of sovereignty, and
the orders issued from under
it

other triumphs in Central and Western Asia.

be obeyed as

my

own.' "

The

principal reason for entrust-

ing the conquest of China to a special force

He at once came to the conclusion that he must return to set his house in order at home, and to prevent all the results of
Muhula's remarkable triumphs being
lost.

and commander, was that Genghis wished to devote the whole of his personal attention to
the prosecution of his

new war with the King

China proved a benefit for India, and possibly for
for

What

was

a

disadvantage

THE MONGOL CONQUEST OF CHINA.
Europe, as there
further the
is

55

no saying how much
encroachment
if

by

this

phenomenon

that on his death-bed he that hence-

Mongol

might

expressed "the

earnest desire

have extended westward,

the direction of

forth the lives of our enemies shall not be

Genghis had not been withdrawn.
to the Kerulon, across the

While
river

unnecessarily sacrified. "
this

The

expression of

Genghis was hastening from the Cabul

wish undoubtedly tended to mitigate the

Hindoo Koosh and Tian Shang ranges, Utubu died, and

terrors of

war

as carried on

by the Mongols

Ninkiassu reigned in his stead.

How He
The immediate
fashion,

Died.

One of the first consequences of the death of Muhula was that the young King of Hia,
believing that the fortunes

successors of Genghis con-

ducted their campaigns after a more

of the Mongols

and

it

was not

until

humane Timour revived

would then wane, and
a position of greater

that he might obtain

the early

power and independence, threw off his allegiance, and adopted hostile measures against them. The prompt
return of Genghis nipped this plan in the

nents

felt

Mongol massacres that their oppothere was no chance in appealing
Various

to the

humanity of the Mongols.

accounts have been published of the cause
of Genghis's death,

was made quite evident that the conquest of Hia was essential to the success of any permanent annexation of Chinese territory, and as its prince could dispose of an army which he boasted numbered half-a-million of men, it is not surprising to find that he took a whole year in perfecting his
bud, but
it

ing

it

to violence,

some authorities ascribeither by an arrow, light-

ning or drowning, and others to natural
causes.

The

event seems to have unques-

tionably happened in his

camp on the borAugust, 1227, when ders of Shansi on 27th he was about 65 years of age, during more
fifty

than

of which he had enjoyed supreme

arrangements for so grave a contest.
Battle on Ice.

command of his own tribe. The area of the undertakings conducted
under his eye was more vast and included a
greater

The war began in 1225 and two years. The success of
army was
decisive

continued for
the

number of

countries

than was the

and

Mongol unqualified. The
in

case with any other conqueror.
try

Not a coun-

Hias were defeated in several battles, and

one of them fought upon the frozen waters of the Hoangho, when Genghis broke the
ice

Euxine to the China Sea escaped the tramp of the Mongol horsemen, and if we include the achievements of
from the
his

immediate

successors,

the conquest of

by means of

his engines, the

Hia army

Russia, Poland and Hungary, the plundering

was almost annihilated. The King Leseen was deposed, and Hia became a Mongol
province.

of Bulgaria,

Roumania and
and
its

Bosnia, the final

subjection of China
aries

southern tribut-

war

was immediately after this successful was seized with his fatal illness. Signs had been seen in the heavens which the Mongol astrologers said indicated
It

that Genghis

must be added to complete the tale of Mongol triumph. The sphere of Mongol influence extended beyond this large portion
of the earth's surface, just as the conse-

quence of an explosion cannot be

restricted

the near approach of his death.
planets
west,

The

five

to the immediate scene of the disaster. If

we

had appeared together in the southand so much impressed was Genghis

may
his

include the remarkable achievements of

descendant Baber, and of that prince's

56
decendant Akbar,
later,

CHINA: PAST
in

AND PRESENT.
of Asiatic history have been treated, the

India three

centuries

not a country in Asia enjoyed
effect

immun-

name

of Genghis preserves

its

magic

spell.

ity

from the

of their successes.

It is still

a

name to

conjure with when

record-

Perhaps the most important result of their
great outpouring into Western Asia, which
certainly

ing the great revolutions of a period which

was the

arrest of the

Mahomedan

beheld the death of the old system in China, and the advent in that country of a newer

career in Central Asia,

and the diversion of
is

the current of the

fanatical propagators of

the Prophet's creed against Europe,

not

yet as fully recognized as

it

should, be.

The

and more vigorous government which, slowly acquiring shape in the hands of Kublai and a more national form under the Mings, has attained the pinnacle of its utility and strength
under the influence of the great Emperors of
the

doubt has been already -expressed whether
the Mongols would ever have risen to higher

Manchu

dynasty.

But great as
it

is is

the
pro-

rank than that of a

nomad

tribe

but for the

reputation Genghis has acquired

appearance of Genghis.

Leaving that sup-

bably short of his merits.
as a relentless

He is remembered
conquerer, a

position in the category of other interesting

and

irresistible

but

problematical conjectures,
that Genghis
all

it

may

be

human

scourge; but he was

much

more.

asserted

represented in their

highest forms

the qualities which entitled

one of the greatest instruments of destiny, one of the most remarkable moulders
of the fate of nations to be
history of the world.

He was

his race to exercise

governing authority.

met with
still

in the

His name

over-

The Mongol Napoleon.

shadows Asia with
be ques-

its

fame and the tribute of

He

was, moreover, a military genius of
first

our admiration cannot be denied.

the very

order,

and

it

may

tioned whether either Caesar or Napoleon can

The
The death
Kins.

Struggle Continues.
of Genghis did not seriously

commanders be placed on a par with him. Even the Chinese said that he led his armies like a God. The manner in which he moved large bodies of men over vast disas

retard the progress of the

He

expressed the

should be carried on in
less vindictive

war against the wish that war a more humane and

tances without an apparent effort, the judg-

manner, but he did not advo-

ment he showed
wars
the
his strategy in
alert,

in the

conduct of several

cate there being

in countries far apart

from each other,

of any of his enterprises.
cessor Ogotai

no war or the abandonment His son and sucspecially charged

unknown

regions, always

on
or

was indeed

yet never allowing hesitation

to bring the conquest of

China to a speedy

over-caution to interfere with his enterprise,

the sieges which he brought to a successful
termination, his brilliant victories, a succession of

the

"suns of Austerlitz,"
offer

all

combined

The weakness of Mongol confederacy was the delay connected with the proclamation of a new Khan and the necessity of summoning to a Grand
and victorious conclusion.
Council
race,
all

make up
if,

the picture of a career to which

the princes and generals of the
it

Europe can
son with
it.

nothing that will surpass,

although

entailed the suspension

and

indeed, she has anything to bear compari-

often the

abandonment of great

enterprises.

The death
China.

of Genghis saved India but not
his last instructions
for attacking

After the lapse of centuries, and in spite of
the indifference with which the great figures

Almost

were

to

draw up the plan

and turning

THE MONGOL CONQUEST OF CHINA.
the great fortress of

67
10,000 of

Tunkwan, which had
defence for

engaged
them.
battle

in

the task, and slew the main Kin

provided such an

efficient

on the north, and

in 1230,

Honan Ogotai who had

When

before the town of

army accepted Yuchow, it was
its

already partitioned the territory taken from
the Kins into ten departments, took the field
in

signally defeated, with the loss of three of
principal generals,

and Ninkiassu

fled

from

person, giving a joint

command

to his

Kaifong to a place more removed from the
scene of war. of Kaifong

brother Tuli, under

whom

served the experi-

enced generals Yeliu Chutsia, Antchar, and
Subutai.

—an immense
it is

The

garrison and townspeople
city with walls

36

At

first

the Mongols met with no

miles in circumference, and a population dur-

great success, and the Kins, encouraged

by a
to

ing the siege

said of 1,400,000 families,

momentary gleam of
reject the

victory, ventured

or nearly seven million

people

offered a

terms offered by Ogotai and to

stubborn resistance to the
the most daring of

Mongols,

who

insult his envoy.

The only important
1

fight-

entrusted the conduct of the attack to Subutai,

ing during the years

230-1 occurred round

Fongsian, which

after

a

long siege

sur-

rendered to Antchar, and when the campaign
closed the Kins presented a bold, front to the

Mongols and still hoped and dominions.
Attacked on

to retain their

power

commanders. most formidable engines, catapults hurling immense stones, and mortars ejecting explosives and combustibles, but twelve months elapsed before the walls were shuttered and the
all their

The Mongols employed

their

Two

courage and provisions
Sides.

of

the defenders
at

exhausted.
discretion,

Then Kaifong surrendered

In 1232 the Mongols increased their armies
the field, and attacked the Kins from the two sides. Ogotai led the main force against Honan, while Tuli, marching through Shensi
in

and Subutai wished to massacre But fortunately the whole of the population. for the Chinese Yeliu Chutsai was a more humane and a more influential general, and
under his advice Ogotai rejected the cruel
proposal.

into Szchuen, assailed
flank.

them on

their western

The

difficulties

encountered by Tuli

on

this

march, when he had to make his own

roads, were such, that he entered the
territories

Kin
for fate to

The Brave
At this moment, when
it

Kins.

with a

much reduced and exhausted
forces gained

seemed impossible
in store

army.

The Kin
it,

some advan-

have any worse experience

tage over

but by either a feigned or a

for the unfortunate Kins, their old

enemies

forced retreat, Tuli succeeded in baffling their
pursuit,

the Sungs

declared war upon them, and

and

in effecting

a junction with his
better

placed a large
their

brother Ogotai,
fortune.
his
line

who had met with

Tuli

destroyed everything along

of

army in the field under the Mongkong. The relics the Kin army under their sovereign Ninbest general,

of march, and his massacres and

kiassu, took shelter in Tsaichau,

where they

sacks revived the worst traditions of
ferocity.

Mongol

were closely besieged by the Mongols on one side and the Sungs on the other. Driven
thus into a comer, the Kins fought with the

In these straits the Kins endeavored to
flood

the

country round their

capital,

to

courage of despair, and long held out against
the combined efforts of their enemies.
last

which the Mongols had now advanced, but
the Mongols
fell

At

upon the workmen while

Ninkiassu saw the struggle could not be

58

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
cation at the misfortunes of his old oppooen^.
life

prolonged, and he prepared himself to end
his

and career
the

in a

manner worthy of the
into the city,

The

nearer the Mongols came, and the worse

race from which he sprang.

the plight to which the

When

enemy broke

and
his

the more did he rejoice.
the violation of
his flank

Kms were reduced, He forgave Tuli

he 'heard the stormers at the gate of
palace, he retired to an upper
set fire to the building.
erals,

Sung

territory, necessary for

chamber and
of his gen-

Many

and even of

his soldiers, followed his

example, preferring to end their
rather than to

existence
their

Honan, and when the knell of the Kins sounded at the fall of Kaifong, he hastened to help in striking the final blow at them, and to participate, as he hoped,
attack on
in the distribution

add to the triumph of

of the plunder.

By

this

Mongol and Sung opponents.
to

Thus came

time

Litsong

had

succeeded

his

cousin
it

1234 the famous dynasty of the Kins, who under nine Emperors had ruled Northern China for 118 years, and whose power and military capacity may best be
an end
in

Ningtsong as ruler of the Sungs, and
said

is

he received from Tsaichau the armor and personal spoils of Ninkiassu,
that

which he had the
in the

satisfaction of ofiering

up

gauged by the
gols for

fact that without a single ally

temple of his ancestors.

they held out against the all-powerful

Mon-

more than a quarter of a

century.

Saw

his Mistake.

Ninkiassu, the last of their rulers, was not
able to sustain the burden of their authority,

but he at least showed himself equal to ending
it

in

a worthy and appropriately dramatic

manner.

Warnings not Heeded.
Sungs had completed the discomfiture of the Kins, and had brought to their own borders the terrible peril which had beset every other state in Asia, and which had
folly of the

The

But when he requested the Mongols to comply with the more important part of the convention, by which the Sung forces had joined the Mongols before Tsaichau, and to evacuate the province of Honan, he experienced a rude awakening from his dream that the overthrow of the Kins would redound to his advantage, and he soon realized what value the Mongols attached to his alliance.

The military capacity of Mongkong inspired the Sung ruler with confidence, and he called
upon the Mongols to execute
or to prepare for war.
their promises,
garri-

in

almost every case entailed

destruction.

How
same
able

could the Sungs expect to avoid the
fate,

The Mongol

or to propitiate the most implac-

sons

made no movement
of Honan,
if
it

of retreat, and the

and insatiable of conquering races? They had done this to a large extent with
their

utmost that Litsong was offered was a portion

could be practically

eyes

open.

More than once
Kin

in the

divided.

The
it,

proposition

was

probably

early stages of the struggle the

rulers

meant

ironically,

but at

all

events Litsong
to take by

had sent envoys to beg their alliance, and to warn them that if they did not help in keeping out the Mongols, their time would come to be assailed and to share in the common
ruin.

rejected

and sent Mongkong
forces

force possesion of the disputed province.

The Mongol
reverses.

on the spot were fewer

than the Chinese, and they met with some

But Ningtsong did not pay heed warning, and scarcely concealed his

to the
gratifi-

But the hope of the Sungs that the fortune of war would declare in their favor was soon destroyed by the vast pre-

THE GIANT CHANG.

59

60

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
held at Karakoram, declared that

parations of the Mongols, who, at a special
kuriltai,

the conquest of China

was

to
left

Then

Litsong's confidence

be completed. him, and he

dimmed, however, by the death of Kuchu, the son and proclaimed heir of Ogotai. This event, entailing no inconsiderable doubt
and long-continued disputes as to the succession, was followed by the withdrawal of the Mongol forces from Sung territory, and
during the last six years of his
the indulgence of his gluttony.
life

sent an appeal for peace to the Mongols,

giving up

all

claim to Honan, and only askin

ing to be
his

left

undisturbed possession of
It

Ogotai

original

dominions.

was too

late.

abstained from war, and gave himself up to

The Mongols had passed
and that the
be destroyed.
last

their decree that

He

built a

the Sungs were to be treated like the Kins,

great palace at Karakoram, where his ances-

Chinese government was to

had been content to live in a tent, and he entrusted the government of the old Kin
tors

dominions to Yeliu Chutsai,

who

acquired

An Army

of Half a Million.

great popularity

among

the Chinese for his

In 1235, the year following the immolation of Ninkiassu, the

clemency and regard

for their customs.
Grief.

Mongols placed half a
purpose of
divi-

milHon

men

in the field for the

Died of
of taxation, and
kina,

destroying the

Sung power, and Ogotai

Yeliu Chutsai adopted the Chinese

mode

ded them into three armies, which were to
attack
sides.
difficult

when

Ogotai's widow, Tura-

Litsong's

kingdom from as many The Mongol ruler entrusted the most
task to his son Kutan,

who acted as Regent after her husband's
him
is

death, ordered

to alter his system and

who

invaded

to farm out the revenues, he sent in his resignation,

the inaccessible and vast province of Szchuen,
at the

and

it

said, died

of grief shortly

head of one of these armies.
its

Not-

afterwards.

Ogotai was one of the most
of all the

withstanding

natural capacity for offering

humane and amiable

an advantageous defence, the Chinese turned
their opportunities to

and Yeliu Chutsai imitated
said " he

Mongol rulers, his master. Of
rare dis-

poor account, and the
or no resistance.

the latter the Chinese contemporary writers

Mongols succeeded
tier

in capturing all its fronlittle

was distinguished by a

fortresses,

with

interestedness.

Of a very broad

intellect,

he

The shortcomings of
annalists

the defence can be in-

ferred from the circumstances of the Chinese

making

special

mention of one

governor having had the courage to die at
his post.

For some reason not clearly stated the Mongols did not attempt to retain possession of Szchuen on this occasion. They withdrew when they were in successful occupation of the northern half of the province,

was able, without injustice and without wronging a single person, to amass vast treasures, and to enrich his family, but all his care and labors had for their sole object the advantage and glory of his masters. Wise and calculating in his plans, he did little of which he had any reason to repent." During the five years following the death of Ogotai, the Mongols were absorbed in the
should be their next Great was only after a warm and protracted discussion, which threatened to entail the disruption of Mongol power, and the
question

when

it

mercy.

and seemed as if the other lay at their In the two dual provinces of Kiang-

who
it

Kahn, and

nan and Houkwang, the other Mongol armies met with considerable success, which was

revelation of

many

rivalries

among

the de-

CHINESE OFFICIAL READING AN IMPERIAL EDICT CONCERNING THE INSURRECTION AT THE RESIDENCE OF A PROVINCIAL GOVERNOR

INVOKING THE- CHINESE OOD OF

WAR AT THE GATE OF

HIS SHRINE

BOMBS AND FIRECRACKERS ARE FIRED OFF, PRAYERS ARE MADE, AND THE DIN AND NOISE ARE SUPPOSED TO APPEASE THE OFFENDED DEITY. THE SHRINE DESERTED IN PEACE, IS THRONGED IN TIME OF WAR

THE MONGOL CONQUEST OF CHINA.
scendants of Genghis, that

61
his death,

Kuyuk, the

eldest

from the family disputes following
peace for

son of Ogotai, was proclaimed

Emperor.
all

more

than

fifteen

years.

The

At

the kuriltai held for this purpose,

the

great

Mongol

leaders were present, including

Batu, the conqueror of Hungary, and after
the

this tranquility was almost nulby the death of Mongkong, a general whose reputation may have been easily

advantage of
lified

Mongol

chiefs

had agreed as to

their

gained, but

who

certainly enjoyed the confi-

the captive kings, Yaroslaf of Russia, and David of Georgia, paid homage to their
chief,

dence of his soldiers, and

who was thought
commander

by his countrymen
of his day.

to be the best

conqueror.

We
sent

who was

owe to the monk Carpino, by the Pope to convert the

When
frontier,

the Chinese

Emperor Litsong saw
lost the

Mongol, a graphic account of one of the most brilliant ceremonies to be met with in the whole course of Mongol history.
Pushing Forward the Conquest.

the storm again approaching his northern

he found that he had

main

support of his power, and that his military
resources were inferior to those of his enemy.

He had
false

allowed himself to be lulled into a

Kuyuk, whose principal act of sovereignty was to issue a seal having this inscription " God in Heaven and Kuyuk on earth by the power of God the ruler of all men," had given the Sungs one respite, and his early death procured them Kuyuk died in 1248, and his another. cousin Mangu, the son of Tuh, was appointed his successor. By this time the Mongol chiefs of the family of Genghis in Western
selecting
: ;

The delay in

sense of security

by the long

inaction of

the Mongols, and although he seems to have

been an amiable prince, and a typical Chinese
ruler,

honoring the descendants of Confucius
title

with the hereditary

of Duke, which
is

still

remains in that family, and
of
its

the only

title

kind in China, and encouraging the

literary classes of his country,

he was a bad

sovereign to be entrusted with the task of

defending his realm and people against a bold

Asia were practically independent of the
nominal Great Khan, and governed their
states in

and determined enemy.

complete sovereignty, and waged
in

A

Wise

Policy.

war without reference to Karakoram. This change left the Mongols in their original home on the Amour absolutely free to devote
all their

Kublai prepared

the. way for his

campaigns

Southern China by following a very wise

and

moderate

policy in

Northern

China
carried

attention to the final overthrow of

similar to that

begun by Muhula, and
effect

the Sungs, and

Mangu

declared that he

out with

greater

by Yeliu

Chutsai.

would know no

rest until

he had

finally sub-

He had

enjoyed the advantage of a Chinese

jected the last of the Chinese ruhng families.

In this resolution

Mangu

received the hearty

support of his younger, but
[Cublai, to
in

more able brother,

by an able tutor named Yabchu, who became the prince's private secretary and mentor in all Chinese matters.
education, imparted

whom was

entrusted the direction

At

his

instigation,

or,

at

least,

with his

the field of the armies sent to complete the

conquest of China.

Kublai received this charge in 1251, so that the Sungs had enjoyed, first through the
pacific disposition of Ogotai, and, secondly,

hand the restoration of the southern portion of Honan, which had been devastated during the wars, and he succeeded in bringing back its popuco-operation, Kublai took in
lation

and prosperity to that great province

62

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
long,

of Central China and retrieving the misfor-

and soon Kublai was

in

a position to
Uriangkadai

tunes of past years.

return to his

own

state, leaving

He

thus secured a base for his operations

with a considerable garrison in charge of

close to the

Sung

frontier,

while he attached

to his person a large section of the Chinese
nation.

That general, believing that his position would be improved by his resorting
to
his

Yunnan.

There never was any concealment
ofificials

an active

offensive, carried the standard of

that this patronage of Chinese

and

race against the

many
and

turbulent tribes in

these measures for the amelioration of
millions of Chinese subjects,

many

were the well

whose king,

calculated preliminaries

to the invasion of

Burmah, one campaign, was glad to recognize the supremacy of the Mongols.
his

neighborhood,
after

invaded

Southern China, and the extinction of the

The

success and the boldness, which
this

may
cam-

Sung

dynasty.

have been considered temerity, of
paign, raised

A
If

up enemies to Kublai

at the

Bold Campaign.

court of Karakoram, and the mind of his

Kublai had succeeded in obtaining a

brother

wise adviser in Yaochu, he was not less fortunate in procuring a great general in the

Mangu was poisoned against him by many who declared that Kublai aspired to
These designs so
1257 Mangu
his
finally

complete independence.
far

person of Uriangkadai, the son of Subutai,

succeeded, that in
all

and his remarkable and unvarying successes were largely due to the efforts of those two

men

in the cabinet

and the

field.

The

plan

of campaign, drawn up with great care and

commands, and ordered him to proceed to Karakoram. At this harsh and unmerited treatment Kublai showed himself inclined to rebel and dispute
deprived Kublai of
his brother's authority.

forethought by the prince and his lieutenant,

If

he had done

this,

had the double merit of being both bold and original. Its main purpose was not one that
the

although the provocation was great, he would

Sung

generals would be likely to divine.

have confirmed the charges of his accusers, and a war would have broken out among the

It was determined to make a flank march round the Sung dominions, and to occupy

Mongols, which would probably have
their

rent

power

in twain in

Eastern Asia.

what

placing an

the province of Yunnan, and by army in the rear of their kingdom, to attack them eventually from two sides. At this time Yunnan formed an independent
is

now

Proved his Innocence.
But fortunately Yaochu was
give prudent advice, and, after
tion,

at

hand

to

much

hesita-

state,

and

its

ruler,

from

his position

behind

Kublai yielded to the impressive exhorof
his

the

must have fancied himself secure against any attack by the Mongols. He was destined to a rude awakening. Kublai and Uriangkadai, marching across Szchuen and crossing the Kinchakiang, or
territory,

Sung

tations
minister.

experienced and sagacious
reported to have addressed

He
in

is

Kublai

the following

terms:

"Prince!

You

are the brother of the Emperor, but you

are not the less his subject.

You

cannot,
his

"river

of golden sand," which forms the upper course of the Great River, on rafts,
frontier

without committing a crime, question
decisions, and, moreover, if
so,
it

burst into Yunnan, speedily vanquished the
garrisons,

would only

result in placing

you were to do you in a

capital, Talifoo.

and laid siege to the That town did not hold out

more dangerous predicament, out of whicli you could hardly succeed in extricating your-

THE MONGOL CONQUEST OF CHINA.
you are so far distant from the capital where your enemies seek to injure you. My advice is that you should send your family to Mangu, and by this step you will justify yourself and remove any suspicions there may
self,

63

as

any aid could have reached it from the north. Once Mangu had formed his resolution the rapidity of his movements
before
left

army long

the

Sungs

little

or no chance of attack-

ing Uriangkadai.

be."

Kublai adopted
succeeded

this

wise course, and pro1257,

A

Council of

War.

ceeded in person to Karakoram, where he
in

This campaign began in the winter of

proving his innocence and
his

in

when the

troops were able to cross

discomfiting

enemies.

It

is

said

that

the frozen waters of the Hoangho, and the

Mangu was

so affected at the mere sight of

his brother that

he

at

once forgave him with-

immense Mongol army was divided into three bodies, while Uriangkadai was ordered
to

out waiting for an explanation and reinstated

march north and
first

effect

a junction with his

him in
tion

all his offices.

To

ratify this reconcilia-

old chief Kublai in Szchuen.
fighting of the

The

principal

Mangu proclaimed that he would take

the

year occurred in this part hastened there with

and that Kublai should hold joint command with himself When he formed this resolution to proceed to China in
field in person,

of China, and

Mengu

another of his armies.

The Sung

garrison

was

large,

person, he appointed his next brother, Arik-

fortitude.

The

and showed great courage and difficulty of the country and
several of
their fortresses
after
efforts,

buka, to act as his lieutenant in Mongolia.
It is

the strength of

necessary to recollect this arrangement
died during the campaign, and
it

seconded their
fighting the

and
felt

two years'

as

Mangu

Mongols

so doubtful of suc-

led to the separation of the Chinese empire

cess that they held a council of

war to decide

and the Mongolian, which were divided
that event between Kublai

after

whether they should retreat or continue to
prosecute the struggle.
It

and Arikbuka.

has been said that councils of war do

Rapid Movements.

not

come

to bold resolutions, but this
it

must

Mangu

did not

come

to his resolution to

have been an exception, as
retreat,
effort to

decided not to

prosecute the war with the Sungs any too
soon, for Uriangkadai was beginning to find
his

and to make one more determined

overcome the Chinese.
1259 began with
fortress,

The cam-

isolated position not free

from danger.

paign

of

the siege of

skilfully as

Large as the army of that general was, and he had endeavored to improve

his position

by strengthening the

fortresses
tribes

and recruiting from the warlike
* ened

of

by a valiant whose aid a Chinese army under Luwenti was hastening. The governor, Wangkien, offered a
held
garrison and commander, and to
stout resistance,

Hochau, a strong

Yunnan, Uriangkadai found himself threat-

and Luwenti succeeded
fall

in

by

the collected armies of the Sungs,

harassing the besiegers, but the
fortress

of the

who
with

occupied Szchuen with a large garrison

appeared assured, when a new and

and menaced the daring Mongol general There the whole of their power.
seems eveiy reason to believe that
if

the

Sungs had acted with only ordinary promptitude they might have destroyed this Mongol

more formidable defender arrived in the form The Mongol camp was ravaged by this foe, Mangu himself died of the disease, and those of the Mongols who escaped beat a hasty and disorderly retreat
of dysentery.

64
back to the north.

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
Once more the Sungs
Arikbuka his full pardon, he rein him in his rank of prince, and he left him virtually supreme amongst the Mongol
sent
stated
tribes.

He

obtained a brief respite.

The death
putes and
family.
heir,

of

strife

Mangu threatened fresh disamong the Mongol royal
his

He
to

retraced his steps to Pekin, fully

Kublai was

brother's

lawful

resolved
reality,

become Chinese Emperor

in

but Arikbuka, the youngest of the

but prepared to waive his rights as

was in possession of Karakoram, He and supreme throughout Mongolia. was hostile to Kublai, and disposed to assert all his rights and to make the most of his
brothers,
opportunities.

of the

Mongol Khan. Mongol

Mangu Khan was
rulers

the

last

recognized in

whose authority was both the east and the west,

and

his successor, Kublai, seeing that jts old

A
No
Great

Generous Conqueror.

had departed, was fain to estabon a new basis in the fertile, ancient, and wide-stretching dominions of China.
significance
lish his

Khan
at

where save

could be proclaimed anyKarakoram, and Arikbuka
his

Before Kublai composed the difficulty with

would not allow

brother to gain that

place, the cradle of their race

and dynasty,
difficulty

Arikbuka he had resumed his operations against the Sungs, and even before Mangu's death he had succeded in establishing some
posts south of the Yangtsekiang, in the impassability of
lieved.

unless he could do so

by

force of arms.

Kublai attempted to solve the

by

holding a grand council near his favorite
city of

which the Chinese fondly beDuring the year of 1260 he laid

Cambaluc, the modern Pekin, and
his

siege to

he sent forth
recognize one

proclamation to the

Mon-

but he
fortress

failed to

Wochow, the modern Wouchang, make any impression on the
this occasion,

gols as their Khan.

But they refused to
not elected in the
;

on

and he agreed

to

who was
defied

the truce which Litsong proposed.

orthodox fashion at Karakoram

and Arik-

buka not merely

Kublai, but sum-

Terms

of the Treaty.

moned

his

own

kuriltai at

Karakoram, where
in

By

the terms of this agreement Litsong
vassal, just

he was proclaimed Khakhan
formal manner and with
ceremonies.
all

the most

acknowledged himself a Mongol
as his ancestors

the accustomed

popular

among

Arikbuka was undoubtedly the Mongols, while Kublai,
far greater
it.

who was

regarded as half a Chinese on

account of his education, had a

reputation south of the wall than north of

Kublai could not tolerate the open

defi-

ance of his kuthority, and the contempt

had subjected themselves to to the Kins, paid a large tribute, and forbade his generals anywhere to attack the Mongols. The last stipulation was partly broken by an attack on the rear of Uriangkadai's corps, but no serious results followed, for Kublai was well satisfied with the manner in which the campaign terminated, as there is no
doubt that
his

shown koram

for

what was
in

his birthright,

by Arik-

advance across the Yangtse

buka; and
at

1261 he advanced upon Kara-

kiang had been precipitate, and he

may

have

the head of a large army.
sufficed

A

thought himself lucky to escape with the
appearance of success and the conclusion of
tion gained
It was wdth the reputaby his nominal success, and by having made the Sungs his tributaries, that

single battle

to

dispose

of Arik-

buka's pretensions, and that prince was glad
to find a place of refuge

a gratifying treaty.

among

the Kirghiz.

Kublai proved himself a generous enemy.

<
W
(J

t4

M

W Z W H U W H

65

66

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
settle

Kublai hastened northwards to
rivahy with Arikbuka.

his

out the magnitude of his power and dilated

Having accomplished that complete success he decided to put an end
object

with

to the

Sung

dynasty.

The Chinese Emhad given

on the extent of the Mongol conquests. Half by flattery and half by menace Kublai brought the Corean court to reason, and Wangtien again entered into bonds of alliance with Cambaluc and renewed his old
oaths of friendship.

peror, acting with strange fatuity,
fi-esh

cause of umbrage, and had provoked a
petty acts of discourtesy, cul-

war by many

minating in the murder of the envoys of
Kublia, sent to notify his proclamation as

Change of Rulers,
In
1

263 Kublai issued

his proclamation of

Great

Khan

of the Mongols.

Probably the

war, calling on
their troops, to

his generals

"to assemble

ruler could not have averted war if he had shown the greatest forbearance and humility, but this cruel and inexcusable act precipitated the crisis and the extinction of If there was any his attenuated authority.

Sung

sharpen their swords and

their pikes,

and to prepare their bows and arrows," for he intended to attack the Sungs by land and sea. The treason of a Chinese
general in his service

named Litan

served to

delay in the movements of Kublai for the

delay the opening of the campaign for a few

purpose of exacting reparation for this outrage,
it

weeks, but this incident was of no importance, as

was due

to his

first

having to arrange

Litan was
Brief as

soon overthrown and

a

difficulty that

had

arisen in his relations

executed.

with the King of Corea.

That potentate had

long preserved the peace with his Mongol
neighbors, and perhaps he would have re-

mained a friend without any interruption, had not the Mongols done something which was construed as an infraction of Corean liberty.
Uprising of the Coreans.

was the interval, it was marked by one striking and important event the death of Litsong, who was succeeded by his nephew, Chowki, called the Emperor Toutsong. Litsong was not a wise ruler, but compared with many of his successors, he might be more accurately styled unfortunate than incompetent.

Toutsong, and his weak
minister,

and arrogant

The Corean

love of independence took fire

Kiasseto,

hastened to show that

at the threatened diminution of their rights,

there were greater heights of folly than any
to

they rose en masse
try,

in defence of their

coun-

which he had attained.

Acting on the
general,
well

and even the king, Wangtien, who had
rulers,
alli-

advice of a renegade

Sung

been well disposed to the Mongol

acquainted with the defences

of Southern

declared that he could not continue the

China, Kublai altered his proposed attack,

ance, and placed himself at the head of his

and prepared

for crossing the

Yangtsekiang
its tribu-

people.

Seeing himself thus menaced with
difficult

by

first

making himself supreme on

a costly war in a

country on the

tary, the

Han

river.

His

eariier attack

on

eve of a more necessary and hopeful contest,

Wouchang, and

his

compulsory retirement

Kublai resorted to diplomacy.

He addressed
dis-

Wangtien
claimed
all

in

complimentary terms and

intention of injuring the Coreans

from that place had taught him the evil of making a premature attack. His object remained the same, but instead of marching
direct to
it

with

whom

he wished to maintain friendly

across the Yangtsekiang he took

relations,

but at the same time he pointed

the advice of the

Sung

general,

and attacked

THE MONGOL CONQUEST OF CHINA.
the fortress of Sianyang on the

67
It

Han

river,

clusion to relieve

it

at all hazards.

was

with the object of making himself supreme

evident that the

crisis

had

arrived.

on that stream, and wresting from the Sungs
the last first-class fortress they possessed in

The campaign
heroic

episode—

of

1270 began

with a

^the

successful despatch of

the northwest.

provisions into the besieged town, under the
all

By

the time

these preliminaries were
feiirly

completed and the Mongol army had
taken the
field
it

was

1

268, and Kublai sent

60,000 of

his best troops, with

a large num-

ber of auxiliaries, to lay siege to Sianyang,

which was held by a large garrison and a The Mongol lines were resolute governor.

of two Chinese officers named Changkoua and Changchun, whose names deserve to be long remembered for their heroism. The flotilla was divided into two bodies, one composed of the fighting, the other of the storeships. The Mongols had made every preparation to blockade the
direction
river,

drawn up round the town, and also

its

neigh-

but the suddenness and vigor of the
first,

bor of Fanching, situated on the opposite

Chinese attack surprised them, and, at
the Chinese had the best of the day.

bank of the river, with which communication was maintained by several bridges, and the Mongols built a large fleet of fifty war junks, with which they closed the Han river and effectually prevented any aid being sent up it
from

But

soon the Mongols recovered, and from their
superior position threatened to

overwhelm
In
this

the

assailing

Chinese squadron.

perilous
self to

moment Changchun, devoting himin

Hankow

or

Wouchang.

death

the interest of his country,

A

collected all his war-junks,

and making a

Long

Siege.

desperate attack on the Mongols, succeeded
in

Liuwen Hoan, the commandant of Sianyang, was a brave man, and he commanded a numerous garrison and possessed supplies, He as he said, to stand a ten years' siege. repulsed all the assaults of the enemy, and,
undaunted by
threats of the
his isolation,

obtaining sufficient time to enable the

storeships under

up to Sianyang.
as
to

Changkoua to pass safely The life of so great a hero

replied to

the

Changchun was, however, a heavy price pay for the temporary relief of Sianyang, which was more closely besieged than ever
after

Mongols to give him no quarter if he persisted in holding out, by boasting that he would hang their traitor general in The threats and chains before his sovereign.
vaunts of the combatants did not bring the

the arrival of Kublai in person.

All

Were

Destroyed.

The
spirit

any nearer to an end. The utmost Mongols could achieve was to preent any provisions or reinforcements being thrown into the town. But on the fortress Things had itself they made no impression. gone on like this for three years, and the
siege

his

Changchun roused a of worthy emulation in the bosom of comrade, Changkoua, who having
heroic deed of

that the

thrown the needed supplies into Sianyang was no longer wanted in that beleagured
city.

He

determined to cut his

way back

with such forces as he could collect, and to

take a part in the operations in progress for

had begun to languish, Kublai determined to make a supreme when effort to carry the place, and at the same moment the Sung minister came to the coninterest in the siege

At the head of the few remaining war-junks he succeeded in breaking his way through the chains and
the relief of the town.

other barriers

by which the Mongols sought

68

CHINA: PAST
it

AND PRESENT.
lamentations,

to close the river, and for a brief space

seemed
alert.

as

if

he would evade or vanquish

and buried beside that of Changchun, whose corpse had been rescued
river.
affair

such of the Mongol ships as were on the

from the

But the Mongols kept good watch, and as Changkoua refused to surrender he

After this

the Mongols pushed the

siege with greater vigor,

and instead of con-

A MOVABLE COOK-SHOP.
and
last

his

small band were destroyed to the

centrating

their efforts

on

Sianyang they

man.

attacked both that fortress

and Fanching

After the brief struggle was ended the

from

all

sides.

The Mongol commander,
for engineers trained in

Sianyang, where

Mongols sent the body of Changkoua into it was received with loud

Alihaya, sent to Persia, where the Mongols

were also supreme,

CHINESE STUDENT OF YUNNAN PROVINCE

THE MONGOL CONQUEST OF CHINA.
the

69

working of mangonels

or

catapults,

accepted the magnanimous terms of his conqueror,

engines capable of throwing stones of i6oIbs.

and become as

loyal a lieutenant of

weight with precision for a considerable

Kublai as he had shown himself to be of the

distance.

By

their aid the bridges across
first

Sung Toutsong.

The death

of that ruler
real

the river were

destroyed, and then the

followed soon afterwards, but as the

walls of Sianyang were so severely

damaged

that an assault appeared to be feasible.

power had been in the hands of the Minister Kiassetao, no change took place in the policy or fortunes of the Sung kingdom.

Letter from the Mongol Emperor.

At
general
tion

this

moment Kublai succeeded

in

But Fanching had suffered still more from the Mongol bombardment, and Alhaya,
therefore,

obtaining the services of Bayan, a

Mongol

who had

acquired a great reputaPersia.

attacked

it

first.

The

garrison

under Khulagu in
signifies the

Bayan, whose

offered a determined resistance,

and the fight-

name

noble or the brave, and

ing was continued in the streets.

man

of the garrison escaped, and

Not a when the
that

who was

slaughter was over the

Mongols found

popularly known as Bayan of the Hundred Eyes, because he was supposed to see everything, was one of the greatest military leaders of his age

they had only acquired possession of a mass

and

race.

He was
interesting

But they had obtained the key to Sianyang, the weakest flank of which had been protected by Fanching, and the Chinese garrison was so discouraged that Liuwen Hoan, despairing of relief, agreed to accept Those terms the terms offered by Kublai. were expressed in the following noble letter from the Mongol Emperor "The generous defence you have made during five years covers you with glory. It
of ruins.
is

entrusted with the

command

of the main

army, and under him served,
to state,

it is

Liuwen Hoan. Several towns were captured after more or less resistence, and Bayan bore down with all his force on the triple cities of Hankow, Wouchang and Hanyang. Bayan concentrated all his efforts on the capture of Hanyang, while the Mongol navy under Artchu compelled the
Chinese
of
fleet

to take refuge under the walls

the duty of every faithful subject to serve

Wouchang.

None of these towns

offered

his prince at the

expense of his

life,

but in

a very stubborn resistance, and Bayan had
the satisfaction of receiving their surrender

the straits to which

you are reduced, your
it

strength exhausted, deprived of succor and

one

after

another.

Leaving Alihaya with

without hope of receiving any, would
reasonable to sacrifice the lives of so

be

many
come

brave
in

men

out of sheer obstinacy?
us and no

Submit

40,000 men to guard these places Bayan marched with the rest of his forces on the Sung capital, Lingan or Hangchow, the celebrated Kincsay of mediaeval travellers.

good
is

faith to

harm
still

shall

to you. that

We

promise you

more; and
of you with

to provide each

and

all

The
The
carried with

National Defence.

honorable employment.

You

shall

have no

retreating fleet

grounds of discontent,
It will

for that

we pledge
Liuwen

them

fear of the

and army of the Sungs Mongols, and
of their

you our Imperial word."
not excite surprise that

the ever-increasing representation

extraordinary power and irresistible arms.

Hoan, who had been practically speaking deserted by his own sovereign, should have

In this juncture public

opinion compelled

Kiassetao to take the lead, and he called

70
upon
all

CHINA: PAST
the subjects of the

AND
duty.

PRESENT.
Kiassetao
at

Sung

to contri-

attempted to

resist

the

bute arms and
national

money
But
this

for the
his

purpose of

defence.

tence in

directing
it

own incompenational movement
its

Kien Kang, the modern Nankin, but after £in engagement on land and water the Sungs were driven back, and their
fleet

Mongol advance

deprived

of half its force and of

natural

only escaped destruction by retiring prethe
sea.

chances of success.
rapid.

Bayan's advance was
their gates in

cipitately to

After this

success

Many towns opened

Nankin
although

surrendered
its

without

resistance,

terror or admiration of his name,

and Liu-

governor was a valiant and ap-

wen Hoan was frequently present to assure them that Kublai was the most generous of
masters, and that there

parently a capable

man.

He

suicide sooner than surrender,
his papers
after
it

committed and among

was no wiser course

was found a plan of campaign, Sungs possessed a man
If
it

than to surrender to his generals.

perusing which Bayan exclaimed, "Is

possible that the

"A

Little

Too

Late."

capable of giving such prudent counsel ?

The Mongol

forces at last reached the
capital

they had paid heed to
reached this spot ?"

should

we

ever have

neighborhood of the Sung
Kiassetao had succeeded in

where

collecting an

After this success Bayan press^ed on with
increased rather than diminished energir, and

army of 130,000 men, but many of them
were
ill-trained,

and the splendor of the
equivalent
for the

the

Sung Emperor and

his

court fled

frnro

camp provided a poor

the capital.

Kublai showed an inclination to

want of arms and discipline among the men. Kiassetao seems to have been ignorant of
the danger of his position, for he sent an

temporize and to negotiate, but Bayan would! not brook any delay.

even for a

" To relax your grip moment on an enemy whom you

arrogant
stating

summons

to the

also that he

Mongols to retire, would grant a peace

have held by the throat for a hundred years would only be to give him time to recover
his breath, to restore his forces,

based on the Yangtsekiang as a boundary. Bayan's simple reply to this notice was " If
:

and

in the

end to cause us

an. infinity

of trouble."

you had

really

aimed
that

at peace,

you would

have made
the Kiang.
it,

this proposition before

we crossed
you
sin-

Repulsed with Heavy Loss.

Now
little
it,

we

are the masters of
Still
if

it

is

a

too

late.

cerely desire

come and

see

me

in person,

and we
tions."

will

discuss

the necessary condilieutenants

Very few of the Sung

The Sung fortunes showed some slight symptoms of improving when Kiassetao wa-s disgraced, and a more competent general was found in the person of Chang Chikia. But the Mongols never abated the vigor of
their attack or relaxed in their efforts to cut

and even the isolated cases of devotion were confined to the official class who were more loyal than the mass of the people.

offered a protracted resistance,

off all possibility to succor
capital.

from the Sung

Chikia hoped to improve the position of his side by resuming
the offensive he was destined to rude disap-

When Chang

Chao Maofa and

his wife

Yongchi put an

end to their existence sooner than give up their charge at Chichow, but the garrison
accepted the terms of the Mongols without

position of the

compunction and without thinking of their

Making an attack on the strong Mongols at Nankin he was repulsed with heavy loss. The Sung fleet was almost annihilated and 700 war-junks
pointment.

72
were taken by the
again on the water.

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
victors.

After this the

life

;

it is

just to thank

him

for

it

and to pay

Chinese never dared io face the Mongols

The victory was due

to

the courage and capacity of Artchu.

Bayan now returned from a campaign in Mongolia to resume the chief conduct of the war, and he signalized his return by the capture of

Changchow.

At this town he

is

said

to have sanctioned a massacre of the Chi-

him homage." Bayan made a triumphal entry into the city, while the Emperor Kongtsong was sent The majority of the Sung off to Pekin. courtiers and soldiers came to terms with Bayan, but a few of the more desperate or faithful endeavored to uphold the Sung cause in Southern China under the general, Chang
ported

nese troops, but the facts are veiled in uncer-

and Marco Polo declares that this was only done after the Chinese had treacherously cut up the Mongol garrison. Alarmed by the fall of Changchow the Sung
tainty;

Two of the Sung princes were supby this commander and one was proclaimed by the empty title of emperor.
Chikia.

Capricious fortune rallied to their side for a
brief space,

and some of the Mongol detach-

ministers again sued for peace, sending an

imploring
is

letter to this

effect

:

"

Our

ruler

ments which had advanced too far or with undue precipitancy were cut up and destroyed.

young and cannot be held

responsible for

the differences that
peoples.

have arisen between the
Capture of Canton.

Kiassetao the guilty one has been

punished; give us peace and
better friends in the future."

we

shall

be

The Mongols seem
Chikia's efforts

to have thought that

the war was over, and the success of Chang

may

have been due to
his

their

The

Surrender.

negligence rather

than to

vigor.

As
the

Bayan's reply was severe and uncompro" The age of your prince has mising.
nothing to do with the question between us.

soon as they realized that there remained a
flickering

flame of of the

opposition

among

The war must go on
Furthur argument
of the
is

to

its

legitimate end.

useless."

The
this

defences

Sung

capital

were by

time re-

Sungs they sent two armies, one into Kwantung and the other into Fuhkien, and their fleet against Chang Chikia. Desperate as was his position, that
supporters
officer
still

moved, and the unfortunate upholders of that dynasty had no option save to come to
terms
with
the

exclaimed, " If heaven has not

resolved to overthrow the Sungs, do you
think that even

Mongols.

Marco

Polo

now

it

cannot restore

their

most opulent city of the world, but it was in no position to stand a siege. The Empress-Regent acting
for

describes Kincsay as the

ruined throne?" but his hopes were dashed
to the ground

by the capture of Canton, and
died and then

the expulsion of all his forces from the mainland.

her son sent in her submission to Bayan,

One puppet emperor

and agreed to proceed to the court of the She abdicated for herself and conqueror.
family
all

Chang proclaimed another
last

as Tiping.

The

supporters of the cause took refuge on

the pretensions of their rank, and

she accepted the favors of the Mongol with

due humility, saying, " The Son of Heaven (thus giving Kublai the correct Imperial
.style)

grants

you the favor of sparing your

the island of Tai in the Canton estuary, where they hoped to maintain their position. The position was strong and the garrison was numerous but the Mongols were not to be frightened by appearances. Their fleet
;

THE MONGOL CONQUEST OF CHINA.
bore down on the
last

73

Sung stronghold with

absolute confidence, and, although the Chi-

nese resisted for three days and showed great
gallantry,

they were overwhelmed by the

superior engines as well as the numbers of

the Mongols.

Thus was the conquest of China by the Mongols completed. Afl:er half a century of warfare the kingdom of the Sungs shared the same fate as its old rival the Kin, and Kublai had the personal satisfaction of completing the work begun by his grandfather

Chang Chikia with a few

ships succeeded

m

escaping from the fray, but the emperor's

vessel

was

less fortunate,

and finding that
emperor

Of all the Mongol triumphs it was the longest in being attained. The Chinese of the north and of
Genghis seventy years before.
the south resisted with extraordinary powers
of endurance the whole force of the greatest

escape was impossible, Lousionfoo, one of
the last
in his

Sung

ministers, seized the

arms and jumped overboard with him. died Tiping, the last Chinese Emperor Thus of the Sungs, and with him expired that illfated dynasty. Chang Chikia renewed the
struggle with aid received from Tonquin, but

conquering race Asia ever saw.
not skilled in

They were
were
out

war and

their generals

generally incompetent, but they held

with desperate courage and obstinacy long
after other races

would have given

in.
fail

when he was

leading a forlorn hope against

The

student of history will not

to see

Canton he was caught in a typhoon and he and his ships were wrecked. His invocation to heaven, " I have done everything I could to sustain on the throne the Sung dynasty. When one prince died I caused another to
be proclaimed emperor.
ished,

in these facts striking

testimony of the extraChina,

ordinary resources of

and of the
inert

capacity of resistance to

even a vigorous
its

conqueror possessed by

masses.

He

also has pershall I

and

I

still

live

!

Oh, heaven,
if I

be acting against thy desires
place a

sought to

new prince of this family on the throne ?" sounded the dirge of the race he
had served so
well.

Even the Mongols did not conquer until they had obtained the aid of a large section of the Chinese nation, or before Kublai had shown that he intended to prove himself a worthy Emperor of China and not merely a great Khan of the Mongol Hordes, a barbarous conqueror and not a wise
ruler.

CHAPTER

IV.

THE FIRST MANCHU RULER.

THE
the
1

history of China from this time

vation of circumstances, greatly increases

thei

on presents a succession of wars and conquests, and rising and
falling

wonder with which the Manchu conquest must ever be regarded. But the most significant feature of the
it

dynasties.
to the

The
first

Mongol
this in

Manchu conquest

is

that

dynasty gave

way

Ming, and

provides a durable proof of the possibility

turn went into decline.

In the

half of

of China being conquered

7th century the country was conquered
established the present

determined body of men.

by a small but Once Wou Sankin doubt.

by the Manchus who

wei had opened the door to the foreigner, the

reigning Tsin dynasty.

end proved easy, and was never

How
fifty

a small Tartar tribe succeeded after
of war in imposing
its

The Chinese were subjugated with
undiminished
silent process
vitality

extraor-

years

yoke on

dinary ease, and the only testimony to their

the skeptical, freedom-loving, and intensely
national millions of China will always remain

has been the quiet and

by which the conquerors have

one of the enigmas of history.
genius of

The

military

been compelled to assimilate themselves to
the conquered.

Wou

Sankwei, the widely prevalent
the people, and the effete-

dissensions

among

ness of the reigning house on the one hand,

Lives and Property Respected.
While the Manchu generals and arnues
were establishing their power
in southern

political

and the superior discipline, sagacity, and knowledge of the Tartars on the other, are some of the principal causes of the

China the young Emperor Chuntche, under
the direction of his prudent uncle, the regent

Manchu
But
in

success that at once suggest them-

selves to the mind.

no other case has a people, boldly resisting to the end and cheered by occasional flashes of victory, been subjected after more than a whole generation of war, with a despised an
truly insignificant

durable form in which the

enemy in the Manchus trod the

was setting up at Pekin the power of a ruling dynasty. In doing so little or no opposition was experienced at the hands of the Chinese, who showed that they longed once more for a settled government; and this acquiescence on the part of the Chinese people in their authority no
central

Ama Wang,

Chinese under their heel, and secured for
themselves

doubt induced the Manchu leaders to adopt
a far more conciliatory and lenient policy)

and honor accruing to the governing class in one of the richest and largest empires under the sun.
all

the perquisites

towards the Chinese than would otherwise

have
all

been

the

case.

Ama Wang

gave
of

The Chinese were made
bitterness of subjection

to feel

all

the

special orders that the lives

and property

by the imposition of

who

surrendered to his lieutenants should

a hated badge of servitude, and that they proved unable to succeed under this aggra-

be scrupulously respected. This moderation was only departed from

74

THE FIRST MANCHU RULER.
in the
after

75
at this outrage, of

case of

some

rebels in Shensi,

who,

The Chinese were shocked
and clamored
its

accepting,

repudiated

the

Manchu

for the

prompt punishment

authority,

and

laid close siege to the chief

town of Singan, which held a garrison of only 3,000 Manchus. The commandant wished to make his position secure by massacring the Chinese of the town, but he was deterred from taking this extreme step by the representations of a Chinese officer, who, binding himself for the good faith of his countrymen, induced him to enrol them in
the ranks
faithful

The governor, Kiangtsai, supported the demand of the citizens, but, unfortunately, the Manchu prince was indifferent to the Chinese indignation, and made light of his comrades' conduct. Then the
perpetrators.

Chinese resolved to enact a terrible vengeance, and

Kiangtsai organized a movein

ment to massacre every Manchu
place.
letter,

the

He

carried out his intention to the

of the garrison.

They proved

and the Manchu prince was the only

and rendered excellent service in the and when a relieving Manchu army came from Pekin the rebels were quickly scattered and pursued with unflagging bittersiege;

one to escape, thanks to the swiftness of his
horse.

Became a
The
inevitable

Rebel.
this act

ness to their remotest hiding places.

consequence of

A
In

Bride Carried

Off.

vant into a rebel.
of

the

adjoining

province

Shansi

was that Kiangtsai passed from a loyal serAma Wang might have condoned his offence out of consideration
but Kiangtsai, thinking
of his

another insurrection temporarily upset

Man-

for the provocation,

chu authority, but

it

was brought about by
In 1649
principal

own

safety,

decided that there was no

an outrage of a Manchu prince.

course open to him save to pose as the

Ama Wang
first

sent an

embassy to the

khan of the Mongols, with
object of the

whom

it

was the

Manchus

to maintain the

He seems to have done everything that prudence suggested to strengthen his position, and he showed the
enemy of the Manchu.
grasp of a statesman

closest friendly relations, in order to arrange

when he turned

to the

a marriage between Chuntche and a
princess.

Mongol

The mission was
prince,

entrusted to a
his residence
still

Manchu

who took up
a place

Mongols and sought to obtain their alliance by begging them to restore the Empire, and to assert their national superority over
the Manchus.
to be

at Taitong, in Shansi,

held by a

His policy at
successful,

first

promised

Chinese garrison under an officer named
Kiangtsai.

signally

as

the

Mongol

The Manchu

prince

and

his

chief entered into his plans

and promised to
proved shortbetween

attendants behaved in

a most arrogant and

render him

all

the aid in his power.
this score

overbearing manner, and at last their conduct

But
at

his

hopes on

culminated in an outrage which roused the
indignation

lived, for

Ama Wang,

realizing the situation
alliance

of the Chinese populace, and
of the most influen-

a glance, nipped the

converted a loyal city into a hostile centre.

Kiangtsai and the Mongols in the

bud by

The daughter of one
tial citizens

sending a special embassy with exceptionally costly gifts to the

of Taitong

the streets in

was being led through honor of her wedding day when
broke

cupidity of

Mongol camp. The the Mongols prevailed, and they

several of the ambassador's associates
into the procession

repudiated with scant ceremony the convention they

and

carried off the bride.

had just concluded with Kiangtsai.

76

CHINA: PAST
all sides

AND PRESENT.
exceeded 100,000 men, and Kiangtsai was
as eager to force on a battle as

Then the Manchus bore down from

on Kiangstai, who had assumed the title of Prince of Han. He had gathered round him such a considerable force that he did
not hesitate to march out to meet the Manchus, and he trusted for victory to a skilfully-devised artifice as

Ama Wang

was to avoid it. During two months there was much manoeuvring and counter-manoeuvring, and at
last Kiangtsai,

apprehensive of losing Taihis

much

as to superior

tong and finding
into that

supphes

failing, retired

numbers.

He

sent forward, under a small

place,

flattering

himself that an

guard, a number of wagons containing canisters

enemy who

feared to attack

of gun-powder, and

when

the Tartar

cavalry saw this baggage train approaching
it was a valuand pounced down upon it. The Chinese guard having fired the train took to flight, and the Manchus lost many men in the ensuing explosion, but the most serious consequence was that it threw the whole Manchu army into confusion, and thus

they at once concluded that
able prize,

would never venture to ress. But the object of Ama Wang was accomplished, and he proceeded to invest Then Kiangtsai the place on all sides. realized his error, and saw that he had no
alternative

him in the open assail him in a fort-

between fighting at a disadvanhis

tage to

cut

way

out and remaining

besieged until the want of supplies should

enabled Kiangtsai to attack
vantage, and to overthrow
it

it

at a

disad-

compel him to surrender. He chose the more valiant course, and haranguing his

with a loss of

15,000

men.

In a second battle he confirst,

firmed the verdict of the

and

it

is

almost unnecessary to add that the reputation of Kiangtsai

words he led them out "I will not to assault the Manchua lines. lose a moment in exposing to you the danger which threatens us, it must be evident to
in the following

men

and that the
throne.
If

was raised to a high point, Manchus trembled on the the Mongols had only joined

yourselves.

Your
it

valor alone can avail to

secure safety for
impossible, but

us

all.

Success
great

is

not

will require a

effort

him,

it is

impossible to say what might not

of valor on your part.
fight after all ?

Whom
defeats,

have we to

have happened.

Men

already weakened and

discouraged

by two
to

and who so
failed.
is

Takes the Field
So grave
these
defeats

in Person.

much
to

feared a third battle that all our efforts

did the possible consequences of

bring

them
If

an engagement
perish, let
it

appear

that

Ama Wang

The

part which alone remains for us

not

decided to take the

field in

person, and to

doubtful.

we must
Is

it

be with
sell

proceed against Kiangtsai with the very best troops he could collect. Matters had
reached such a pass that,
ing would
delay.
if

arms
our

in

our hands.
brave

not better to
fall

lives like

men

than to

inglori-

a general insur-

ously under the steel of the Tartars?"

rection were to be averted, the Taitong ris-

have to be put down without
resolved
to
strike

A

Terrible Onslaught.

Ama Wang
tactics in front of

Such was the impetuosity of the Chinese
onslaught that after four hours' fighting the

promptly, yet he had the prudence to adopt

Fabian
in

an opponent whose
armies each

Manchus

were

driven

from

their

first

confidence had been raised by two successes
the
field.

entrenchments.

The Chinese were

as

much

The opposing

elated as their adversaries

were depressed by

o
CO

u o
ca
;2!

o

,7f

78
this initial success,

CHINA: PAST
and counted on
victory.
for-

AND PRESENT.
monster have
appeased by
rarely, if ever,

been surpassed.

A single incident served to
tune of the day.
at the

change the

His rage or appetite for destruction was not

Kiangtsai placed himself

human

sacrifices.

He made

head of his men to lead them to the

equal war on the objects of nature and the

attack of the remaining

Manchu

positions

when he was struck in the head by an arrow. The death of their leader created a panic among the Chinese troops, who,
abandoning
all

they had won, fled in

irre-

back to Taitong, where they were more closely beleaguered than
trievable confusion

works of man. He destroyed cities, levelled forests, and overthrew all the public monuments that embeUished his province. In the midst of his excesses he was told that a Manchu army had crossed the frontier, but he resolved to crown his inhuman career by
a deed unparalleled in the records of
tory,
his-

before

by the Manchus.

The

discouraged

and what

is

more

extraordinary, he suc-

and disorganized Chinese offered but a feeble resistance, and in a very short time the Manchus were masters of Taitong; and the most formidable Chinese gathering which had, up to that time, threatened the new dynasty was broken up. The Taitong insurgents acquired
all

ceeded in inducing his followers to execute
his
all

commands.
the

His project was to massacre
in

women

attendance on his army,

and

his motives can

only be described

in his

own words.
Murder by the Wholesale.

their

strength from the

personal genius and ascendancy of Kiangtsai,

"The

province of Szchuen

is

no more
desert.
1

and with
"

his death

they collapsed.

than a mass of ruins and a vast

have wished to signalize

my vengeance,

and

King of the West."

In the province of Szchuen a Chinese
leader of very different character and capacity
tion.
ality,

same time to detach you from the wealth which it offered, in order that your
at the

ardor for the conquest of the Empire, which
I

from Kiangtsai

set

up an administra-

have sttU every hope of
flag.

attaining, should

He

distinguished himself

by

his brut-

not

The

execution of

my

project

is

and although he procliiimed himself
or

easy, but one obstacle

which might prevent
is

Si

Wang,

King of the West, he was exe-

or delay the conquest, I meditate, disturbs

jects.

by those who were nominally his subAmong the most heinous of his crimes was his invitation to literary men to come to his capital for employment, and when they had assembled to the number of 30,000, to order them to be massacred. He dealt in a similar manner with 3,000 of his courtiers, because one of them happened to
crated

my

mind.

An

effeminate heart
;

not well

suited to great enteiprises

the only passion
All of

heroes should cherish

is

that glory.

you have yju have

wives, and the greater
several in

number of company. These your

women

can only prove a source of embarin

rassment

camp, and especially during
other
expeditions

marches
celerity of

or

demanding

omit

a

portion

of

his

full

titles.

His

excesses

culminated in the massacre of Chentu, when 600,000 innocent persons are said to have perished.

movement. Have you any apprehension lest you should not find elsewhere wives as charming and as accomplished? In
a very short time
will
I

promise you others who
congratulate

Even allowing
tion of

for the

eastern exaggerathis

give us every reason to

numbers, the crimes of

inhuman

ourselves for having

made

the sacrifice which

THE FIRST MANCHU RULER.
I

79
itself

propose to you.

Let

us, therefore, get rid

everything before them, and that city
at last

of the embarrassment which these

cause us.
to

I feel

that the only
this

women way for me
by
setting

was captured,

after

stubborn resistance.
to pillage,

what passed for a Canton was given over
for ten

persuade you in

matter

is

and the sack continued
into

you

an

example.
I

To-morrow,

without

days.

The Ming

pretender fled to Yunnan,

further delay,

will lead

my

wives to the
all present,

and afterwards

Burmah, where he enyears.

public parade.

See that you are

joyed shelter for seven

At
had

this

penalties, the order to

and cause to be published, under most severe all your soldiers to assemble there at the same time, each accom-

moment
regent,
full

of success
died.

Ama Wang,
last

the wise

His

years

been

of anxiety from the dangers that had

panied

by

his

wives.

The

treatment

I

accord to mine shall be the general law.

Killed

by an Arrow.

When

the assembly took place Si

Wang
It

slew his wives, and his followers, seized with

an extreme frenzy, followed
is

his

example.

said that as

many

as 400,000

women were
by

slain that

day, and Si

Wang,

intoxicated

Manchus, but he enough to see it much allayed, and the most serious perils removed. He gave all his time and energy to improving his nephew in the work of government, and to looking after his interests. Towards the Chinese he assumed an attitude of moderation, and even of studied conciliation, which produced a beneficial effect on the public
arisen in the path of the
lived long

his success in inducing his followers to exe-

mind.

To

this attitude,

as well as to the

inhuman behests, believed that he had nothing to fear at the hands of the Manchus. But he was soon undeceived, for in one of the earliest affairs at the outposts he was killed by an arrow. His power at once crumbled under the away, and Szchuen passed authority of the Manchus. The conquest of Szchuen paved the way for the recovery of the position that had been lost in Southern China, and close seige was laid to the city of Canton, where the
cute his

successful measures of his government,

must

be attributed the success he experienced in
tranquillizing the country.
first

He

was not the

nor the

last

of

the great rulers and

statesmen which the present imperial family
of China has produced in the last three centuries.

Choosing an Emperor.

Some

of the elder princes of the

Manchu

family attempted to succeed to his position,

Chinese leaders had collected

all their forces.

but the principal ministers and courtiers combined together and insisted that the Emperor

The

Manchus adopted the astute course of

giving the highest nominal

commands

to

and consequently many of their countrymen surrendered to them more readily than if they had been foreigners.
Chinese,

self,

Chuntche was old enough to rale for himand that they would not recognize any
This extreme step settled the and Chuntche assumed the reins of

other master.
question,

One
the

officer,

named Kiuchessa, who

is

said to

government.
tion to

He

at

once devoted
reforms.

his attenIt
is

have been a Christian, remained faithful to Ming prince of Southern China until his

administrative

said

execution, and he refused to accept a pardon
as the price of his apostacy.

had begun to sway the public examinations, and that Chuntche issued a
that corruption
special edict, enjoining the examiners to give
fair

Outside

Canton

the

Manchus

carried

awards and to maintain the purity of the

80
service.

CHINA: PAST

AND

PRESENT.

But several examiners had to be executed and others banished beyond the Wall before matters were placed on a satisfactory basis.

prostration

forehead

by beating the ground with the the Dutch merchants, who were
freely,

sent as envoys, were admitted to audience,

He
in

also adopted the astro-

but although they bribed
favor they obtained
tribute
at

the only

nomical system

force in Europe,

and he

was the
intervals,

right to present

appointed the priest

Adam

Schaal head of

stated

which was a
restricted their
»

the Mathematical Board at Pekin.

doubtful gain.
visit

The Emperor
to

most important work was the institution of the Grand Council, which still exists, and which is the supreme power under the Emperor of the country. It is composed of only four members two Manchus and two Chinese who alone pos-

But

his

to once in every eight years, and then

they

were

not

exceed

one

hundred,

persons, of

whom

only twenty might pro-

ceed to the capital.

An
The most

Official

from

Siberia.

sess the privilege of personal audience with

interesting circumstance in conis

Emperor whenever they may demand it. They are far higher in rank than any member of the Six Tribunals or the Board of Censors, whose wide liberty of expression is limited
the
to written memorials.

nection with this embassy

that

it

provided

Nieuhoff, the secretary, to the envoys, with

the material for a description of Pekin at a

time when
effects

As

this act

gave the Chinese an equal

place with the

of the Empire

and

explains,

in the highest body was exceedingly welcome, among other causes, the popuit

Manchus

larity

and

stability of the

Manchu

dynasty.

had not recovered from the we have described. The conquest of Siberia by the Cossack Irmak had brought the Russians into immediate contact with the Chinese, and it was held desirable to establish some sort of diplomatic relations with them. An officer was accordit

of the wars

When

allotting

Chuntche

his place

among

ingly sent from Siberia to Pekin, but as he
persistently refused to perform the Kotao, he

the founders of

Manchu

greatness allowance

and far-reaching measure, the consequences of which cannot be accurately gauged.
for this wise

must be made

was denied audience, and returned without

The commencement of diplomatic relations between Russia and China was therefore postponed to
having accomplished anything.
a later day.

Embassies from Europe.
Another interesting event in the reign of Chuntche, was the arrival at Pekin of more than one embassy from European States. The Dutch and the Russians can equally claim the honor of having had an envoy
resident in the Chinese capital during

With

Tibet,

Chuntche succeeded
their

in estab-

lishing relations of a specially cordial nature,

which preserve
time.

force to

the present

In 1653 ^^ received a

visit

from the

the

year
result

1656,

but

in neither case

could the

Grand Lama of Lhasa, and he conferred upon him the title of Dalai, or Ocean Lama, because his knowledge was as deep and profound as the ocean.
tie

be described as altogether satisfactory.

It

says

much

for the

After

some delay and difficulty and on making the required concessions to the dignity of the Emperor which means the

influence of China, and the durability of the

thus established, that the supreme
ever since

Lama
this

of Lhasa, has been generally
title
its

known by

performance of the Kotao, or making the

being conferred on him.

THE FIRST MANCHU RULER.
During the
last

81

years

of the

reign

of

Kpshinga's dreams of posing as a national
deliverer. After this episode he could only hope to be powerful as a rover of the sea,

Chuntche, the growth of the naval power of Koshinga, son of Ching Chelong, attracted
considerable attention.

When

Canton

fell,

and the head of a
so bad that

piratical confederacy.

many Chinese escaped in their junks, and as the Manchus had no fleet they were unable
to

In 166 1, the health of Chuntche became
that his end
it was evident to his courtiers was drawing near, although he more than thirty years of age.

follow

the fugitives, and the Chinese
daring and activity of Koshinga
his

derived fresh confidence from this security at
sea.

was

little

The

Authorities differ as to the precise cause of

became the solace and admiration of
countrymen.

He
river

first

established his head-

quarters on the island of Tsong-ming, at the

mouth of the
coast,

Yangtsekiang, and had he

been content with operations along the sea-

was small-pox, but the more general version was that it was grief at the death of his favorite Probably his domestic wife and infant son. affliction aggravated his malady, and nullified
his death.

Philippe Couplet says that

it

he might have enjoyed immunity from attack, and an indefinite scope for plunder
for

the efforts of his physicians.

On

his death-

bed he selected as
of his sons,
as

his successor the

second

many

years.

But

his ambition led

him

to take

an exaggerated view of his power,

became famous the Emperor Kanghi, and the choice
afterwards
reign

who

and,
all

by attempting too much, he jeopardized he had gained, and finally curtailed his

proved an exceedingly fortunate one.

The
of

of

Chuntche was specially

sphere of enterprise.

remarkable as witnessing the consolidation

Manchu

authority, the introduction of the

The Opportunity

Lost.

Chinese to a share in the administration, and
the adoption of a policy of increased moderation towards the subject people.
far well-

In 1656, he sailed up the river to attack

Nankin, and his enterprise was so
timed that the

Manchu

garrison was then

very weak, and the chances of a popular

Engraved on Iron Tablets.

were also at their highest But he seems to have relied for succes mainly on the latter contingency, and in the desire to spare his men, he postponed his attack until the favorable opportunity had
rising in his favor
point.

When Kanghi was placed on the throne he was only eight years old, and the administration was consequently entrusted to four of the chief and most experienced officials. These co-regents devoted themselves to their
duty with energy and intelligence.
first

passed away, and the
strongly reinforced,

Manchu

garrison being

Their

the townspeople were

act

was

to

impeach

the

principal

both afraid to revolt, and Koshinga to deliver his attack. When at last he nerved himself
to assault the place, the
his

eunuchs

who had

acquired power under

Chuntche, and to issue a decree prohibiting
the employment of any of that unfortunate
class in the public service.

Manchus

anticipated

intention
his

upon
slain,

cessful.

by delivering a night attack camp, which was completely sucThree thousand of his best men were

This law was
rulers

engraved on iron tablets weighing more than
1,000 pounds, and the
ever
since

Manchu

have

and Koshinga and the remainder were
repulse
at

remained

faithful to

the pledge

only too glad to seek shelter in their ships.

taken by these
of the

Manchu

regents in the

name

The
6

Nankin

destroyed

all

young Emperor Kanghi.

82

CHINA: PAST
The very
first

AND PRESENT.
to carry out this plan,

year of Kanghi's reign wit-

Koshinga had to

oust,

nessed the zenith and the fall of the power of of Koshinga. After the failure of his attack

not the aboriginal tribes

who

held most of

the interior of the island, but the Dutch
traders

on Nankin, Koshinga fixed his designs on

who had

seized

most of the ports and

SENDING PRAYERS TO HEAVEN BY BURNING THEM.
the island of Formosa, which offered, as it seemed, the best vantage ground for a naval

had

fortified

them.

Koshinga found

willing
fled

allies in

the Chinese emigrants

who had
They

confederacy such as he controlled.

In order

from the mainl2md to Formosa.

rose

THE FIRST MANCHU RULER.
up against the Dutch, and before they were subdued the warlike aboriginal tribes had to be recruited against them.
Christian priests,

83

popular ignorance and fanaticism, against the

who had

obtained various

posts under the Chinese government.

They
as

But the Dutch, who had been on the
island for 3 5 years, flattered themselves that

had not not been very
propagators
of
religion,

successful

the

but

they

had

they could hold their own, and that
not

it

might

undoubtedly rendered the Chinese valuable

be

impossible

to

live

on

friendly

terms with Koshinga.
acquired their place in

They themselves had Formosa by the retire-

ment of the Japanese from Taiwan, in 1624, when the Dutch, driven away by the Portuguese from Macao, sought a fresh site for
their

proposed settlement

in the

Pescadore
to have

and men of science. The Emperor Chuntche had treated them with marked consideration, and there was little to cause surprise in this favor being resented by the Chinese officials, and in their intriguing discredit and injure the to foreigners whose knowledge was declared to
service

as

mathematicians

group, and eventually established themselves
at Fort Zealand.

be superior to their own.

They formulated
which was
to
refute.

The Dutch seem

a charge against them of "propagating a false

been lulled into a sense of
to have believed that

false security

by

and monstrous
understood and

religion,"
difficult

easily

their success over the Chinese settlers,

and

The

Koshinga was not as

Abbe Schaal was deposed from the
ship of the Mathematical Board,
into prison.

President-

formidable as he was considered to be.

and cast

End

of a

Remarkable Career.

Koshinga did not strike until all his plans were completed, and then he laid siege to
Fort Zealand.

A Narrow

Escape.

The Dutch fought

well, but

The other Europeans were also incarcerated. They were all tried on a common charge, and,
the case being taken as proved,
to a
all

they were overpowdered, and lost their possessions,
turer.

condemned
for the

which passed to the Chinese advenKoshinga assumed the style of King
In the year after this conquest he

common death. The only respite granted

between sentence and execution was

of Formosa, but he did not long survive this
triumph.
died of a

purpose of discovering some specially cruel

mode of execution
tian,

that might be

commensu-

malady which was aggravated by

rate to the offence, not

merely of being a Christhat were the pre-

resentment at the insubordination of his eldest

but of holding

offices,

and thus terminated his remarkable career when he was no more than thirtyson,
eight.

scriptive right of the followers of Confucius.

The Chinese province of Formosa
its

The delay thus obtained enabled one regents, named Sony, and a man
save these victims of ignorance.

of the

of an

endured for another twenty years, but
,

enlightened and noble mind, to take steps to

spirit

and

formidableness

departed

with

Supported
in

Koshinga.

In his relations with the English

by the mother of Kanghi, he succeeded
of
the
iniquitous

and Dutch merchants he showed all the prejudice and narrow-mindedness of his countrymen.

gaining his point, and in obtaining a reversal

sentence

of

ignorant
late to

jealously, but the reprieve

came too

One of the

earliest incidents in

the reign

save the

life

of the

Abbe Schaal, who

escaped

of Kanghi was an agitation got up

of the most bigoted courtiers,

by some and fanned by

the public executioner, only to perish from
the consequences of his sufferings in prison.

84
Unfortunately,
after this for

CHINA: PAST
Sony
did

not

live

long

AND PRESENT. A verdict of guilty was
his family suffered for treason.

returned,

and he and

his

country to profit by his
it

the supreme punishment

clemency, or to display
the government.
dents that the the
first

in other acts of
inci-

This act of vigor inaugurated
to the end.

It

was during these

the reign of Kanghi, and the same resolution

young Emperor Kanghi gave

and courage characterized

it

indication of his capacity to judge

In this early assertion of sovereign power,
as in

important matters for himself, by deciding
after

much

else, it will

be seen that Kanghi

personal examination that the astro-

bore a striking resemblance to his great contemporary, Louis the Fourteenth of France.

nomical system of Europe was superior to
that

of China,

and by appointing Father

Verbiest to succeed the

Abbe

Schaal.

Kwei Wang Taken
The
interest

Prisoner.

The death

of the regent

Sony threatened

of the period

now

passes

not merely disorders within the supreme
administration,

but
of

an interruption of the
the

from the scenes at court to the camp of Wou Sankwei, who, twenty years earlier, had
introduced the
the

good

work

government

itself.

Kanghi, with, no doubt, the support of his
mother, solved the
difficulty

Manchus into China. During Manchu campaign in Southern China he
frontier, grad-

by assuming
although he

had kept peace on the western
ually extending
into

the personal direction of

affairs,

was then only fourteen years of age. Such a bold step undoubtedly betokened no ordinary vigor on the part of a youth, and its
complete success reflected
still

his authority from Shensi Szchuen and thence over Yunnan. When

further credit

upon him.

He

seems to have been specially

impelled to take this step

by

his disapproval

of the tryannical and overbearing conduct of

another of his regents, Baturu Kong,

who

prince, Kwei Wang, who had fled Burmah, returned with the support of the King of that country to make another bid for the throne, he found himself confronted by all the power and resources of Wou Sankwei, who was still as loyal a servant of the Manchu Emperor as when he

the

Ming

into

had only been kept
influence of Sony,
self

in

check by the equal

carried

his

ensigns

against

Li Tseching.

and who promised him-

Kwei

Wang

does not appear to have ex-

on

his rival's death a course of unbridled

pected opposition from
in the first

Wou

Sankwei, and

power.

encounter he was overthrown and

taken prisoner.

The Regency Dissolved. Baturu Kong had taken the most

promi-

suspicion at the

The conqueror, who was already under Manchu Court, and whom
ally,

nent part in the agitation against the Christians, and the success of his schemes would

every Chinese rebel persisted in regarding as
a natural

now

hesitated as to

how he

have

undoing of much of the good work accomplished during the first
signified the

should treat these important prisoners. Kwei

Wang
were

and

his son

—the
led

last

of the Mings
to

twenty years of Manchu power.
lance and resolution of the

The

vigi-

eventually
it

forth

execution,
less

young Emperor
imperial decree

although

should be stated that a

thwarted his plans.

By an

authentic report affirms they were allowed to

the regency was dissolved, and
indicted
3ufficient

Kong was on twelve separate charges, each to receive the punishment of death.

Having made use of Sankwei, and obtained as they thought the full value of his services, the Manchus
strangle themselves.

Wou

HEADS OF CRIMINALS DISPLAYED FOR A WARNING.
85

86

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
and he accordingly sent
invitation to visit

sought to treat him with indifference and to throw him into the shade. But the splendor
of his
fer

Wou

Sankwei an

work was such
title of

that they
Prince,

on him the

had to conand to make
an extraorhis

him at Pekin. This was in 1 67 1, when Kanghi had reached the age of eighteen. There was nothing unreasonable in this request, for

him Viceroy of Yunnan and the adjacent
territories.

Wou
the

Sankwei had
accession of

He

exerted such

not visited Pekin

since

dinary influence over the Chinese subjects
that they speedily settled

Kanghi, and any tender of allegiance had

down under

been made by deputy.
It

authority; revenue and trade increased, and

was the practice of the time that

all

the

the

Manchu

authority

was maintained with-

great governors should have a son or other

out a Tartar garrison, for

Wou

Sankwei's

near relative at the

Manchu Court

as a hostof

army was composed
and
its

exclusively of Chinese,

age

for their

good conduct, and a son

nucleus was formed by his old garri-

Wou

son of Ningyuen and Shanhaikwan.

A
There
is

Sankwei resided in this character at He had been treated with special honor by the Manchu rulers, and was marPekin.
ried to a half sister of the

Cunning

Plot.
for saying that

Emperor Kanghi.

no certain reason

He

received the

title

of a Royal Duke, and

Wou

Sankwei nursed any scheme of per-

sonal aggrandizement, but the measures he

took and the reforms he instituted were calculated to

make

his authority

to

become
control.

gradually independent of

Manchu

For a time the Manchu Government supits apprehensions on account of this powerful satrap, by the argument that in a
pressed

was admitted into the intimate life of the Palace. When he heard of the invitation to his father he sent ofif a message to him, warning him of the disfavor into which he had fallen, and advising him not to come to Pekin. The advice, although prompted by affection, was not good, but Wou Sankwei
took
it,

and excused himself from going
his

to

few years his death

in

the course of nature

court on the ground that he was very

old,

must relieve it from this peril, but Wou Sankwei lived on and showed no signs of
paying the
it

and that
in peace.

only wish was to end his days
also deputed his son to tender

He

common

debt of humanity.

Then

his allegiance to the

Emperor and
name.

to per-

seemed

to

Kanghi that

Wou

Sankwei was

form the Kotao

in his

gradually establishing the solid foundation of

a formidable and independent power.

The

The Old Man's Answer.
But Kanghi was not to be put
way, and he sent two trusted
off in this
officials

Manchu generals and ministers had always been jealous of the greater fame of Wou Sankwei. When they saw that Kanghi
wanted an excuse to
fall

to

Wou

Sankwei to represent that he must comply
with the exact terms of his command, and
to point out the grave consequences of his
refusing.

foul of him, they

carried every tale of alleged self-assertion

on

the part of the Chinese Viceroy to the Imperial ears,

There

is

no doubt
observe

that they were

and represented that
its stability.

his

power

also

instructed

to

how

far

Wou

dwarfed the dignity of the

Manchu throne
some
de-

and threatened

Sankwei was borne down by age, and what was the extent of his military power. The
envoys were received with every courtesy

At

last

Kanghi resolved

to take

cisive step to bring the question to

a climax,

and

befitting honor,

but

when they

repeated

THE FIRST MANCHU RULER.
Kanghi's categorical demand to come to Pekin on penalty of being otherwise treated
as a rebel, he broke loose from the restraint

87

hope of

liberty,

proved very ready tools to

he had long placed upon himself, and there
in the

and then repudiated the Manchu authority most indignant and irrevocable terms,
least,

his designs. They bound themselves together by a solemn oath to be true to one another, and all the preparations were made to massacre the Manchus on the occasion of the

New

Year's Festival.
is

which, at

exposed the hoUowness of
he
felt

This

the grand religious and social cere
It

his statement that

the weight of years

mony
first

of the Chinese.
first

takes place on the
falls in
is

and thought only of making a peaceful end. His rely to the envoys of Kanghi was as
follows
I
:

day of the

moon, which
All business

our

month of February.
state of
prevails.

stopped,

"

Do
of

they think at the Court that

the tribunals are closed for ten days, and a

am

so blind as not to see the motive in order

high

festival

resembling the Carnival

this

summons?
if

I

shall, indeed,

The

conspirators resolved to take

present myself there

you continue

to press

advantage of

this public holiday,
it

and of the

head of twice forty be thousand men. You may go on before, but I hope to follow you very shortly with such a force as will speedily remind those in power of the debt they owe me." Thus did the
it

me, but

will

at the

excitement accompanying

to carry out their

scheme, and the Manchus appear to have

been

in

total

ignorance until the eleventh
for their destruction.

hour of the plot
discovery of the

The

conspiracy bears

a close

Sankwei cast off his allegiance to the Manchus, and enter upon a war which aimed at the subversion of their authority.
great

Wou

resemblance to that of the Gunpowder Plot.

A

Chinese slave, wishing to save his master,

gave him notice of the danger, and this

A
mander,

Manchu
Daring Conspiracy.

officer at

once informed Kanghi of

the conspiracy.

Such was the reputation of this great comto whose ability and military prowess the Manchus unquestionably were
indebted for their conquest of the empire,
that a large part of southern China at once

Arrested and Executed.
Sankwei and the other conspirators were immediately arrested and
executed without delay.

The son of

Wou

The Manchus thus
annihilation,

admitted his authority, and from Szchuen to
the warlike province of

escaped by the merest accident from a danger

Hunan

his lieutenants

which threatened them with
Kanghi, having succeeded

and

were able to collect

all

the fighting resources

in getting rid of

of the State, and to array the levies of those

the son, concentrated his power and attention

provinces in the field for the approaching
contest with Kanghi.

on the more
the father.

difficult

task of grappling with

While
at Pekin

Wou

Sankwei was making these

extensive preparations in the south, his son

But the power and reputation of Wou Sankwei were so formidable that Kanghi
resolved to proceed with great caution, and

had devised an ingenious and daring Manchus and the destruction of the dynasty. He engaged in his scheme the large body of Chinese slaves who had been placed in servitude under their
plot for the massacre of the

Emperor began his measures of offence by issuing an edict ordering the disbandment of all the native armies maintained by the
the

Chinese

Viceroys,

besides

Wou
to

Sankwei.
all

Tartar conquerors, and these, incited

by the

The

object of this edict

was

make

the

88

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
full

governors of Chinese race to show their
hands, and Kanghi learnt the

measure of

where the governor and Ching had reduced themselves to a state of exhaustion by a

the hostility he had to cope with

by every
in their

governor from the sea coast of Fuhkien to

Canton defying him, and throwing
lot

with

Wou

Sankwei.

The

piratical con-

federacy of Formosa, where Ching, the son

by personal jealousy, not From Fuhkien his successful patriotism. lieutenants passed into Kwantung, and the Chinese, seeing that the Manchus were not sunk as low as had been thought, abandoned
contest inspired
all resistance,

of Koshinga, had succeeded to his authority,
also joined in with

and again recognized the Tar-

what may be called the national party, but its alliance proved of little
as

tar authority.

The Manchus

did not dare

to punish the rebels except in rare instances,

value,

Ching, at an early period, took

and, therefore, the recovery of Canton was

umbrage at his reception by a Chinese official, and returned to his island home.

unaccompanied by any scenes

of blood.

A

But a garrison of Manchus was placed in each town of importance, and it was by
Kanghi's order that a walled town, or " Tartar city,"

Cavalry Raid.

But the most formidable danger to the young Manchu ruler came from an
unexpected quarter.
his

was built within each city for the accommodation and security of the dominant
race.

The Mongols,
were

seeing

embarrassment, and believing that the
of

hours

the

dynasty

numbered,
hi

The Old Warrior

Defeated.

resolved to take advantage of the occasion
to

push

their claims.

Satchar, chief of one

But notwithstanding these successes Kangmade little or no progress against the

of the Banners, issued a proclamation, calling
his

race to his side, and declaring his intento

main force of Wou Sankwei, whose supremacy was undisputed throughout the whole of south-west China.
It

tention

China at the head of seemed hardly possible for Kanghi to extricate himself from his many With great quickness of percepdangers. tion Kanghi saw that the most pressing danger was that from the Mongols, and he sent the whole of his northern garrisons to
invade
It

was not

until

100,000 men.

1677 that Kanghi ventured to move his armies against Wou Sankwei in person.

Although he obtained no
the field the divisions

signal success in

among
that he

the

Chinese
satis-

commanders were such
faction

had the

attack Satchar before the

Mongol

clans could

them to evacuate Hunan, and when Wou Sankwei took his
of

compelling

have gathered to his assistance.

The Man-

chu cavalry, by a rapid march, surprised Satchar in his camp, and carried him and
his

backwards the sun of his fortunes began to set. Calamity rapidly followed
first

step

calamity.

Wou

Sankwei had not known

family off as prisoners to Pekin.

capture of their chief discouraged the

The Monfrom

the meaning of defeat in his long career of
fifty

years, but now, in his old age, he saw
affairs

gols and interrupted their plans for invading

his

in

inextricable

confusion.

His

Kanghi thus obtained a what seemed his greatest peril.
China.

respite

adherents deserted him,

many

rebel officers

Then he turned
with

his

attention to

dealing

sought to come to terms with the Manchus, and Kanghi's armies gradually converged on

Wou

Sankwei, and the

first effort

of his

Wou

Sankwei from the east and the north.
of

armies resulted in the recovery of Fuhkien,

Driven out

Szchuen,

Wou

Sankwei

THE FIRST MANCHU RULER.
endeavored to make a stand
in

89
left

Yunnan.

He

arrangement he would have
conspicuous loyalty and
in

a

name

for

certainly succeeded in prolonging the struggle

political consistency

down to the year 1679, when his death put a sudden end to the contest, and relieved
Kanghi from much anxiety, for although the success of the Manchus was no longer
uncertain,

the service of the great race, which he

the

military

skill

of

the

old

Chinese warrior might have indefinitely pro-

longed the war.
to be

Wou

Sankwei was one of

had been mainly instrumental in placing over China. But even as events turned out he was one of the most remarkable personages the Chinese race ever produced, and his military career shows that they are capable of producing great generals and brave
soldiers.

the most conspicuous, and attractive figures

met with in the long course of Chinese history, and his career covered one of the most critical periods in the modern existence
of that empire.

The Uprising Ended.
The death
of

Wou

Sankwei

signified the

overthrow of the Chinese uprising which had
Brilliant Career.
first
still growing power of the Manchu under its youthful Emperor Kanghi. Wou Shufan the grandson of that prince endeavored to carry on the

threatened to extinguish the

A
From

the time of his

distinguishing

himself in the defence of Ningyuen until he
died, half a century later, as Prince of

Yun-

task of holding
territory,

Yunnan

as an independent

nan, he occupied the very foremost place in

but by the year 168 1 his posses-

the minds of his fellow-countrymen.
part he had taken,
first

The
into

sions were reduced to the town of Yunnanfoo,

in

keeping out the

Manchus, and then

in introducing

them

where he was closely besieged by the Manchu forces. Although the Chinese fought
valiantly,
ties,

the State, reflected equal credit on his ability

and

his patriotism.

In requesting the

Man-

they were soon reduced to extremiand the Manchus carried the place by

chus to crush the robber Li and to take the
throne which the
fall

of the Mings had ren-

dered vacant, he was actuated by the purest
motives. There was only a choice of evils, and he selected that which seemed the less.

The garrison were massacred to the man, and Wou Shufan only avoided a worse fate by committing suicide. The
storm.
last

Manchus not

satisfied

with his death, sent his

He

gave the empire to a foreign ruler of
but he saved
it

intelligence,

from an unscru-

pulous robber.

He

played the part of king-

head to Pekin to be placed on its principal gate in triumph, and the body of Wou Sankwei himself was exhumed so that his ashes might be scattered in each of the eighteen
provinces of China as a warning to traitors.

maker to the family of Noorhachu, and the magnitude of their obligations to him could not be denied. They were not as grateful £is he may have expected, and they looked askance at his military power and influence
over his countrymen.

Probably he
treated,

felt that he had not been well and chagrin undoubtedly induced

most redoubtable resorted to more severe measures against those who had surrendered in Fuhkien and Kwantung, and many insurgent chiefs who had surrendered, and enjoyed a brief respite, ended their lives
their

Having crushed

antagonist, the

Manchus

under the knife of the executioner.

The

him to reject Kanghi's request to proceed to
Pekin.
If

Manchu

soldiers are said to

have been given

he had only acceded to

that

spoil to the

extent of nearly two millions

90
sterling,

CHINA: PAST
and the war which witnessed the
of

AND

PRESENT.
far

became so
citizens.

as in

them lay

respectable

final assertion

Manchu power over
it

the

Chinese was essentially popular with the
soldiers

who

carried

on

to a victorious

conclusion.
final

A

very short time after the

The overthrow of Wou Sankwei and the conquest of Formosa completed what may be called the pacification of China by the
Manchus.

overthrow of

Wou

Sankwei and

his

From

that period to the Taeping

family, the Chinese regime in

Formosa was

rebellion, or for nearly 200 years, there was

brought to an end.
Kanghi, having collected a fleet, and concluded a convention with the Dutch, deter-

no

internal insurrection

on a large

scale.

mined on the invasion and conquest of Formosa. In the midst of these preparations Ching, the son of Koshinga died, and, no doubt, the plans of Kanghi were facilitated

Manchus stained their conclusive triumph by few excesses, and Kanghi 's moderation was scarcely inferior to The family of that of his father, Chuntche.

On

the whole the

Wou
more

Sankwei seems to have been rooted out
for the personal attempt of the

son

at

by the confusion
chu
fleet seized

that followed.

The ManMan-

Pekin than for the bold ambition of the
potentate himself.

Ponghu, the principal island
It is said

The
its

family of Koshinga

of the Pescadore group and thence the

was spared, and
received

principal representative
earl.

chus threw a force into Formosa.
that they were helped

the patent of an

Thus, by
of severity

by a high tide, and by

a

policy judiciously combined

the superstition of the islanders, who exclaimed, " The first Wang (Koshinga), got
possession of Taiwan

and moderation, did Kanghi make himself
supreme, and complete the work of his race.

by a high tide. The It is fleet now comes in the same manner. Formosa accepted the the will of Heaven." supremacy of the Manchus without further ado. Those of the islanders who had ever
recognized the authority of any government,

Whatever troubles may have beset the government in the last 220 years it will be justifiable to speak of the Manchus and the
Tatsing dynasty as the legitimate authorities
in China,

and

instead of foreign adventures,

as the national

and recognized
their great prize.

rulers of the

accepted that of the Emperor Kanghi, shaved
their

Middle Kingdom.

They gained an empire

heads

in

token of submission, and

and have kept

CHAPTER

V.

THE TAEPINQ REBELLION AND STORY OF
"CHINESE GORDON."

THAT
lies

part of Chinese history which
within

tices in

order to acquire a popular reputation

the present
all

century,
readers

has a special interest to
the throne, confronted

and a following among the masses. Tien Wang announced his decision to
seize the throne
in the

The year 1850 found Hienfung on
by
old abuses in the
administration of the government and great
national
discontent.

by

issuing a proclamation,

course of which he declared that he
" the Divine

had received

commission to ex-

During

this

year an

abundant harvest and voluntary contributions served to remove the worst features of the But these prevailing scarcity and suffering.
temporary and local measures could not improve a situation that was radically bad, or allay a volume of popular disaffection
that

terminate the Manchus, and to possess the Empire as its true sovereign " and, as it
;

was rapidly developing

into unconcealed

rebellion.

The storm

at length burst

under the TaeThis individual

ping leader, Tien

Wang.
origin

had a very common
an
his
inferior

and sprang from

race.

Hung-tsuien

own name
race

—was

—such was

was also at this time that his followers became commonly known as Taepings, it may be noted that the origin of this name is somewhat obscure. According to the most plausible explanation it is derived from the small town of that name, situated in the southwest corner of the province of Kwangsi, where the rebel movement seems to have commenced. Another derivation gives it as the style of the dynasty which Tien Wang hoped to found, and its meaning as " Universal peace."

the son of a small

farmer near Canton, and was a hakka, a
despised

of tramps

who

bear some

A
Tien
force,

Daring Chieftain.
was a man of great native

resemblance to the gypsies.

He

seems to

Wang

have passed
credit,

all

his examinations with special

very resolute and daring, and gather-

but the prejudice on account of his

ing to himself a large number of discontented spirits
finally

birth prevented his obtaining

any employ-

he

gained

some

successes,

ment in the civil service of his country. He was therefore a disappointed aspirant to ofiSce, and it is not surprising that he became an enemy of the constituted authorities and
the government.

leading his

rebellious

followers

to

Nankin, where they maintained themselves
with some difficulty against two
Imperial

armies raised by the loyal efforts of the
inhabitants of the central provinces.

As he
its

could not be the

This

servant of the state he set himself the ambitious task of being

master, and with this
religious prac-

object in view

he resorted to

and there is no doubt that if the Government had avoided a conflict with the Europeans, and concenat the beginning of 1857,

was

91

92
trated
its

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
efforts

and power on the

contest,

with the Taeping rebels they would have
speedily annihilated the tottering fabric of

he was defeated in a vigorous attempt to cut his way through a far larger Imperial Such, however, was his reputatiori force.
that the Imperial sent

Tien Wang's authority.
four years secured
central

But the

respite of

commanders before Nankin

by the

attention of the

many

of their

men

to assist the officers

government being monopolized by the foreign question enabled the Taepings to
consolidate
their

operating against him,
seizing the opportunity,

and Chung Wang, made his way by

fighting forces,

augment their and present a more formidposition,

forced marches back to Nankin, overcoming

such resistance as the enfeebled besiegers

able front to the Imperial authorities.

were able to

offer.

The whole

of the year

Prompt Action Required.

1859 was passed in practical inaction, but at its close the Taepings only retained possesstyled

When
the

Prince

Kung, who may be
from

sion of four towns, besides Nankin, on the

Chinese Premier, learned
full

Lord

Yangtse.

Elgin the

extent of the success of the

on the Yangtse, of which the Pekin seemed to possess a very imperfect and inaccurate knowlege, the
Taepings
officials at

A
It

Remarkable Campaign.

Manchu
vital

authorities
for

realized

that

it

was a
their

question

them
their

to

reassert

authority

without

further

delay,

but

on
into

beginning to put
tion of the
ally

new

resolve

became necessary for Chung Wang to sally forth and assume the offensive in the rear and on the line of supplies of the beleaguering Imperialists. His main difficulty was in obtaining the consent of Tien Wang, who was at this time given over to
again
religious

practice they soon experienced that the posi-

pursuits or private excesses, and

Taepings
it

in
in

1861 differed materi1857.

from what

was

The course
must be

of events during that period

Chung Wang states that he only consented when he found that he could not stop him. In January, i860, Chung Wang began what
proved to be a very remarkable campaign. He put his men in good humor by distributing a large

briefly

summarized.

In 1858 the

Imperialists under Tseng Kwofan and Chang

Kwoliang renewed the seige of Nankin, but

^
,

was well supplied with provisions, and as the Imperialists were well known to have no intention of delivering an assault, the Taepings did not feel any apprehension. After the investment had continued for nearly a year, Chung Wang, who had now risen to the supreme place among the rebels, insisted on quitting the city before it was completely
as the city

sum of money among them, and he succeeded in eluding the Imperial commanders, and in misleading them as to his
intentions.

While they thought he had gone off to relieve Ganking, he had really hastened

to attack the important city of

Hangchow, and material for carrying on the war might be secured by the victor.
where much
spoil

He

captured the city with

little

or no

loss,

surrounded, with the object of beating up
levies

on March

19, i860, but the Tartar city held

and generally

relieving the pressure

out until relieved

by Chang Kwoliang, who
in
re-

caused by the besiegers.
In this endeavor

hastened from Nankin for the purpose.

he

more than once
good troops

Once again the Imperial Commanders
their anxiety to crush

experienced the unkindness of fortune, for

Chung Wang had

when he had

collected 5,000

duced

their force in front of

Nankin to an

"CHINESE GORDON.'
excessively low condition, and the Taeping
leader, placed in a desperate position, seized

93

the advance of the Taepings, and fought

and

lost three battles before

Chung Wang
force,
it.

the only chance of safety

by hastening from
and
at-

reached Soochow.

That place was too large

Hangchow

to

Nankin

at full speed,

to be successfully defended

by a small
i860

tacking the Imperial

lines.

This battle was

and the Imperialists

hastily

abandoned

fought early in the morning of a cold, snowy

At

this

critical

moment

day
of

—May
000
if

3,

i860

—and

—May,

—Ho
their

resultecf in the loss

Kweitsin, the Viceroy of the

Two

Kiang,

5,

Imperialists,

raising of the siege.

and the compulsory The Taeping cause
this signal

implored the aid of the English and French,

who were

at this

moment completing

might have been resuscitated by
victory

Tien

Wang had

only shown him-

arrangements for the march on Pekin, against these rebels, and the French were so far
favorable to the suggestion that they offered
to render the assistance provided the
lish

self able to act

up to the great part he had

assumed

;

but not merely was he incapable

Eng-

of playing the part of either a warrior or a statesman, but his petty jealousy prevented
his

would combine with them.
Curious Incident.

making use of the undoubted

ability of

his lieutenant

Chung Wang, who,

after the

The

British minister,

Mr. Bruce, however,
is

greatest

and most opportune of

his successes

declined the adventure, which
prising, considering that

not sur-

was forbidden to re-enter Nankin.

England was then

engaged

in serious hostilities with the Chi-

Takes Possession of Soochow.

nese,

but the incident remains unique of a

The energy and

spirit

of

Chung Wang
deter-

country asking another for assistance during
the progress of a bitter and doubtful war.

impelled him to fresh enterprises, and seeing the hopelessness of Tien

Wang, he

The utmost

that Mr.

mined to secure a base of operations for himself, which should enable him to hold
his

issue a notification that

Bruce would do was to Shanghai would not
into the

be allowed to again
insurgent force.

fall

hands of an
solicited

own

in the

warring

strife

of the realm,

The Viceroy who

and perhaps to achieve the triumph of the It cause with which he was associated.
says

the aid was at least consistent.
orialized the

He mem-

Throne, praying that the de-

much

for his military

energy and

skill

that he was able to impart new vigor to the

mands of the Europeans should be promptly granted, and that they should then be employed against the Taepings.

Taeping system, and to sustain on a new
field his position

His memorial
to Pekin

single-handed against the

main

forces of the Empire.

He

determined

was ill-timed. and executed

He was summoned
for his

very prudent advice.
of money,
it

to obtain possession of the important city of

With the possession of Soochow, Chung

Soochow, on the Grand Canal, and not very
far distant

Wang

obtained

fresh

supplies

from Shanghai.
to effect this object he gained

material,

and men, and once more

was

On
was
loss

his

way

impossible to say to what height of success

a great victory over Chang Kwohang,
himself killed
in the battle.

who
the

the Taepings might not attain.

But Chung

As

Wang was
alone;

not

satisfied

with

Soochow
of

ex-Triad

chief possessed great energy, his
for the govern-

he wished

to

gain

possession

was a considerable one

Shanghai.
Unfortunately for the realization of his

ment, but his troops continued to oppose

94
project, the

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
fusion,
stores.

Europeans had determined to defend Shanghai at all hazards, but Chung
believed either that they

and with the

loss of all its

guns and

Wang

would

not,

Encouraged by

this success,

Chung Wang

or that their

army being absent

in the north

then thought the time opportune for attacking Shanghai, and he accordingly marched
against
it,

they had not the power to carry out this
resolve.

The necessity of capturing Shangin the eyes of
its

burning and plundering the

vil-

hai

was rendered the greater
measures against

lages along* the road.
established a

The

Imperialists

had

Chung Wang by
tile

being the base of hoshimself,

and

by a

measure which threatened him with a new
peril.

camp or stockade outside the western gate, and Chung Wang carried this without any difficulty, but when he reached
the walls of the town he found a very
ent opponent in his path.
differ-

The

walls were

Two
hai

Americans

in

the

War.
of Shang-

lined with

English and French troops, and
to enter the

The wealthy Chinese merchants

when the Taepings attempted
city

had formed a kind of patriotic association, and provided the funds for raising a European contingent. Two Americans, Ward and Burgevine, were taken into their pay, and in July, 1 860, they, having raised a force of 100 Europeans and 200 Manilla men, began operations with an attack on Sunkiang, a large walled town about twenty miles from Shanghai. This first attack was repulsed with some loss, but Ward, afraid of losing the large reward he was promised for its capture, renewed the attack, and with better success, for he gained possession of a gate, and held it until the whole Imperial army had come up and
stormed the town.
After this success

they were received with a

warm

fire,

which quickly sent them to the rightabout.

Compelled to Retreat.

Chung Wang renewed
ferent points

the attack at

dif-

during the next four or

five

days, but he

was then obliged to

retreat.

Before doing so, however, he sent a boast-

ing message that he had
tion of the French,

come

at the invitatraitors,

who were

and
for
his

would have taken the city but foreigners, as " there was no city which
that he

men could

not storm."

At

this

moment

the

attention of

Chung Wang was

called off to
invest-

Nankin, which the Imperialists were

Ward was

requested to

ing for a sixth time, under

Tseng Kwofan,

was a far stronger place than Sunkiang, and where the Taepings had the benefit of the advice of several Englishmen who had joined them. Ward attacked Tsingpu on August 2, i860, but he was repulsed with heavy loss. He returned
to Shanghai for the purpose of raising another
force

attack Tsingpu, which

who had been
the
off

elevated to the Viceroyalty of

Two

Kiang.

Tien Wang, in despair, sent

an urgent summons to Chung
his assistance,
felt

Wang to

come to

with reluctance he

and although he went that he had no course
matters in great conquite

but to obey.

Chung Wang found
fusion at Nankin,

and two larger guns, and then renewed

and the chief Wangs

the attack. It is impossible to say whether the
place

incapable of following a wise course under

would have held out or

not,

but

after

the

critical

circumstances of the hour.

When

seven days' bombardment

Chung Wang sudin utter con-

they enunciated such ridiculous statements
that Tien

denly appeared to the rescue, and, surprising

Wang,

as the lord of Heaven, had

Ward's

force,

drove

it

away

only to say the word, and there would be

95

96
peace, he curtly

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
to have encouraged

admonished them to buy Having done rice and prepare for a seige. what he could to place Nankin in an efficient state of defence,

Chung Wang

to take

what he hoped would prove a

decisive step.

On

the 14th of January, 1862, the Taep-

Chung Wang hastened
in

ings reached the immediate vicinity of the

back to Soochow to resume active preparations.
It is

unnecessary to describe these

detail;

but although

twice defeated

by a

Chung Wang was Manchu general named
by
rapidity

town and foreign settlement. The surrounding country was concealed by the smoke of the burning villages, which they had ruthlessly

destroyed.

The

foreign

settlement

Paochiaou, he

succeeded,

of
his

movement, in holding his own against more numerous adversaries.

"The Ever

Victorious Army."

In the meantime an important change had

taken place in the situation.

The peace

be-

tween China and the foreign powers compelled a revision of the position at Shanghai.

Admiral Hope

up to Nankin, interviewed the Wangs, and exacted from them a pledge that Shanghai should not be attacked for twelve months, and that the Taepsailed

was crowded with thousands of fugitives, imploring the aid of the Europeans to save Their sufferings, their houses and property. which would at the best have been great, were aggravated by the exceptional severity of the winter. The English garrison of two native regiments and some artillery, even when supported by the volunteers, was far too weak to attempt more than the defence of the place but this it was fortunately able
;

to perform.

Important Capture.

ing forces should not advance within a radius
of thirty
miles

The

rebels,

during the

first

week

after
in

of that place.

In

conse-

their reappearance,
all directions,

plundered and burned

quence
cruiting

of

this

arrangement
but
after

Ward and
re-

threatening even to

make an

Burgevine were compelled to desist from

attack

Europeans

;

a brief interval

of the

river,

on Woosung, the port at the mouth where they were repulsed by the
Sir

they were taken into the Chinese service for
the purpose of drilling Chinese soldiers, a

French.

John Michel arrived

at Shang-

hai with a

small

reinforcement of English

measure from which the most important consequences were to flow, for it proved to be the origin of the Ever Victorious Army.

troops,

and Ward, having succeeded in disciplining two Chinese regiments about one
all,

thousand strong in

sallied forth

from

These preparations were not

far

advanced

Sunkiang
ture

for the

purpose of operating on

when Chung Wang, elated by his capture of Ningpo and Hangchow, resolved to disregard Tien Wang's promise, and make a
second attack on Shanghai, the possession of which he saw to be indispensable if his cause was to attain any brilliant triumph. He
issued a proclamation that " the hour of the

the rear of the Taeping forces.
of Quanfuling,

Ward's

cap-

with several hundred
in the

rebel boats
river,

which were frozen up

that

Manchus had come! Shanghai is a little place, and we have nothing to fear from it.

have warned the Taepings was nearly time for them to letire. However, they did not act as prudence would have dictated, and, during the whole of February their raids continued round
should
it

,

Shanghai.

The suburbs

suffered from their

We

must take Shanghai to complete our dominions." The death of Hienfung seems

attacks, the foreign factories

and boats were

not secure, and several outrages on the per-

'CHINESE GORDON."
sons of foreigners remained unatoncd
It
for.

97

seven hundred were killed, and three hun-

any longer. their The English and French comenormities. manders came to the determination to attack was impossible to
tolerate

dred were taken prisoners
the most resolute bravery.

after fighting

with

The

favorable opinion formed of the

Ever

the rebels, to enforce the original agreement

Victorious

Army by

the action at Kachiaou

with Tien

Wang, and

to clear the country

round Shanghai of the presence of the Taepings for the space of thirty miles.

was confirmed by the more serious affair at Tseedong; and Mr. Bruce at Pekin brought it under the favorable notice of Prince Kung and the Chinese Government. Having taken
these hostile steps against the rebels,
sarily followed that
it

Guns on the Walls.

neces-

On
force

the 2

1

St

of February, therefore, a joint
sailors

no advantage would ac-

composed of 336 English
Ward's
contingent,

and

crue from any further hesitation with regard
to allowing Europeans to enter the Imperial
service for the purpose of opposing them.

marines, 160 French seamen, and

from

600 men accompanied by

their respective

commanders, with Admiral Hope in chief charge, advanced upon the village of Kachiaou, where the Taepings had strengthened their position, and placed
guns on the walls.
After a sharp engage-

Ward was

ment the place was stormed. Ward's men leading the attack with Burgevine at their
head.
great

and allowed to purchase weapons and to engage officers. An Englishman contracted to convey nine thousand of the troops who had stormed Ganking from the Yangtse to Shanghai. These men were Honan braves, who had
officially

recognized,

seen considerable service in the interior of

The
to

drilled

Chinese behaved
the Taepings

with

China, and

it

was proposed that they should

steadiness,

but

were
defeat.

garrison the towns of Kiangsu accordingly
as they were taken from the rebels.

not

be dismayed

by a
their

single

They even resumed
Europeans.

attacks

on the Repulsed with Heavy Loss,
himself

On one
was

occasion Admiral

Hope

The

arrival

of General

Staveley

from

compelled to retire before their superior

Tientsin at the end of March, with portions

numbers, and to
assistance.

summon

fresh troops to his

of two English regiments (the 3 ist and 67th)

The

reinforcements consisted of
forces,
it

put a new face on
the time was at
sible to carry

affiiirs,

450 Europeans and 700 of Ward's
besides seven howitzers.

hand when

and showed that it would be pos^space of

With these

was

out the threat of clearing the

determined to attack Tseedong, a place of
great strength, surrounded by stone walls and ditches seven feet deep. The Taepings stood to their guns with great spirit, receiving the advancing troops with a very heavy
fire.

country round Shanghai for the
thirty miles.

The

first

place to be attacked towards the

When, however, Ward's

contingent,

making a detour, appeared

in the rear of the

plan was the village of Wongkadza, about twelve miles west of Shanghai. Here the Taepings ofifered only a brief resistance, retiring to some stronger
realization of this

place, they hastily evacuated their positions,

stockades four miles further west.
Staveley, considering that his

General

but the English sailors had carried the walls, and, caught between two fires, they offered a

men had done

enough work

for that day, halted them, in-

stubborn but
7

futile resistance.

More than

tending to renew the attack the next morn-

98
ing.

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
Unfortunately,

Ward was

carried

away

but in the attack the French commander.

"

and attacked this inner hundred of his own men. Admiral Hope accompanied him. The Taepings met them with a tremendous fire, and after several attempts to scale the works they were repulsed with heavy loss. Admiral Hope was wounded in the leg, seven officers were wounded, and seventy men killed and wounded. The attack was repeated in force on the following day, and after some fighting the
his impetuosity,

by

position with

some

five

Admiral Protet, a gallant officer who had been to the front during the whole of these
operations,

heartened
at

was shot dead. The rebels, disby these successive defeats, rallied Cholin, where they prepared to make a

final stand.

The
it

allied force attacked

Cholin

on the 20th of May, and an English detach-

ment

carried

almost at the point of the
this

bayonet.

With
to

achievement the operatroops
for a

tions of the English

came

for the

moment

an end,

disaster to

the

Taepings evacuated their stockades.
next place attacked

The
of

imperial arms in their rear necessitated their

was

the

village

turning their attention to a different quarter.

Tsipoo; and, notwithstanding their strong

earthworks and three wide ditches, the rebels

A
The

Cunning Stratagem.

were driven out
determined
to

in a

few hours.

It

was then

troops

summoned from Ganking had
number of
five

attack

Kahding, Tsingpu,
at

at last arrived to the

or six

Nanjao

and Cholin,

which

places the
in

thousand men

;

and the Furai Sieh, who was

Taepings were known to have mustered
considerable strength.

on the point of being superseded to make room for Li Hung Chang, thought to

Attempt

to

Burn Shanghai.
little resis-

The
tance,

first

place was taken with

and

its

capture was followed by prepa-

rations

for

the attack on Tsingpu, which

were hastened rather than delayed by a desperate attempt to set
plot
fire

to Shanghai.

The

was fortunately discovered in time, and the culprits captured and summarily executed to the number of two hundred. Early in May a strong force was assembled at Sunkiang, and proceeded by boat, on account of
difficulties
fire

employ them before his departure on some enterprise which should redound to his credit and restore his sinking fortunes. The operation was as hazardous as it was ambitious. The resolution he came to was to attack the city and forts of Taitsan, a place northwest of Shanghai, and not very distant from Chung Wang's headquarters at Soochow.

The
1

Imperialist force reached Taitsan

on the
later

2th of

May, but

less

than two days

Chung Wang
of
ten

arrived in person at the
to

head

thousand chosen troops

the

of

locomotion, to Tsingpu.

relieve the garrison.

The

of the guns, in which the expedition

was exceptionally strong, proved most destructive, and two breaches being pronounced
practicable the place

battle ensued on the day following, when, notwithstanding their great superiority
in

A

numbers, the Taepings

failed

to

obtain

The rebels when they found

was carried by assault. fought well and up to the last,
fight

any
his

success. In this extremity

Chung Wang
thousand of
the battle

resorted to a stratagem.

Two

impossible.

The
in the

men shaved

their

heads and pretended to

Chinese troops slew every

man found

desert to the Imperialists.

When

place with arms in his hands.

A

few days later Nanjao was captured.

was renewed at sunrise on the following morning this band threw aside their assumed

FOLLOWING THE DEAD TO THE CEMETERY.

9d

100

CHINA: PAST
ensued.

AND PRESENT.
of the Europeans

character and turned upon the Imperialists.

and the

Imperialists in the

A dreadful slaughter
Shanghai,
five

Of the seven

province of Kiangsu.

thousand Honan braves and the Tartars from
thousand
of this
fell

From

the scene of his successes

Chung

The consequences

on the field. disaster were to

was once more called away by the timidity or peril of Tien Wang, who was

Wang

undo most of the good accomplished byGeneral Staveley and his force. The Imperialists

barely

able

to

maintain

his

position

at

Nankin, but when he hastened off to

assist

were

for the

moment dismayed, and
communications were

the chief of the Taepings he found that he

the

Taepings correspondingly encouraged.
Staveley's

was out of
fear of

favor,

and that the jealousy or
brought about
his

General

his colleagues

threatened, one detachment was cut off, and the general had to abandon his intended plan

temporary disgrace and
after

loss of title. Shortly

Chung Wang's

departure

Ward was

and

retrace his steps to Shanghai.

killed in action

the

command, but

and Burgevine succeeded to it soon became apparent

Discovered Just in Time.

that his relations with the Chinese authori-

Chung Wang then
Sunkiang, where
place

laid regular siege to

Ward was

in person,

and

he very nearly succeeded in carrying the

would not be smooth. General Ching was jealous of the Ever-Victorious Army and wished to have all the credit for himself.
ties

by

escalade.

The attempt was

fortu-

nately discovered by an English
in time,

sailor just

A
Li

Sharp Quarrel.
been appointed

of one hundred men.
tinued to
before

and repulsed with a loss to the rebels The Taepings con-

Hung Chang who had

Futai or Governor of Kiangsu entertained

show great daring and
the
it

activity
;

doubts of the loyalty of this adventurer, and

both Sunkiang and Tsingpu
latter

and

a feud broke out between them at an early
stage of their
relations.

although
defended,

place

was
it.

bravely
wisest

Burgevine was a

became

clear that the

course would be to evacuate

A body of
and

troops was therefore sent from Shanghai to

man of high temper and strong passions, who was disposed to treat his Chinese colleagues with lofty superciliousness, and who
met the wiles of the Futai with peremptory demands to recognize the claims of himself and his band. Nor was this all. Burgevine had designs of his own. Although the project had not taken definite form in his mind for an unsubdued enemy was still in pos-

form a junction with
rison.

Ward

at Sunkiang,

to effect the safe retreat of the

Tsingpu gar-

The

earher proceedings were satisfactorily
all

arranged, but the last act of

was grossly
fire,

mismanaged and

resulted in a catastrophe.

Ward

caused the place to be set on
realizing

session of the greater part of the province

when the Taepings,
done, hastened into

what was being the town, and assailed

the inclination was strong within him to play the
part
;

of

military

dictator

with

the

the retiring garrison.
fusion followed;

A scene of great con-

Chinese

or failing that, to found an inde-

the

many lives were lost, and Commandant who had held it so courageously was taken prisoner. Chung Wang
could therefore appeal to some facts to sup-

pendent authority on some convenient spot
of Celestial territory.

Burgevine's character was described at a
later period as

being that of "a

man

of large

port his contention that he had got the better

promises and few works."

" His popularity

CHINESE LADIES OF THE HIGHER CLASS

'CHINESE GORDON."
was great among a
certain class.

101

He was

take part in the siege of that city.

The ships
conveyance,

extravagant in his generosity, and as long as

were actually prepared

for their

he had anything would divide it with the socalled friends, but never was a man of any administrative or military talent and latterly,
;

and the Taotai Wou, who had first fitted out a fleet against the rebels, was in readiness to accompany Burgevine, when Li and his colleague, as suspicious
pliance as they
his refusal,

through the

irritation

caused by his unhealed

wound and other causes, he was subject to violent paroxysms of anger, which rendered
precarious the safety of any

of Burgevine's comwould have been indignant at changed their plans and counterInstead of carrying

man who

ten-

manded

the expedition.

dered to him advice that might be distasteful.

out this project, therefore, they laid a number
of formal complaints before General Staveley
as to Burgevine's conduct,

He was

extremely sensitive of his dignity,

and held a higher position in Soochow than any foreigner did before." TheFutai anticipated, perhaps,

and requested the

English Government to remove him from his

more than divined

his wishes.

command, and
in his place.

to appoint an English officer

In Burgevine he saw, very shortly after their

coming into contact, not merely a man whom he disliked and distrusted, but one who, if
allowed
to

An Unsafe

Adventurer.

pursue

his

plans unchecked,

end form a greater danger to the Imperial authority than even the Taepings. It is not possible to deny Li's shrewd-

would

in the

The charges against Burgevine did not at this time amount to more than a certain
laxness in regard to the expenditure of the
force,

a disregard for the wishes and predju-

ness in reading the character of the

man

with

whom

he had to

deal.

Government, and the want of tact, or of the desire to conciliate, in
dices of the Chinnese
his

personal relations with the Futai.
all

If

Patriotism of the Merchants.

Burgevine had resigned,
well,

Although Burgevine had succeeded to Ward's command, he had not acquired the intimacy and confidence of the great Chinese merchant, Takee and his colleagues, at Shanghai, which had been the main cause of
his predecessor's influence

would have been but he regarded the position from the

stand-point of the adventurer
that his

who

believes

own

interests

form a supreme law

and are the highest good.
of the Ever-Victorious

As commander Army he was a pernot
voluntarily

and
;

position.

In

sonage to be considered even by foreign
governments.

Ward

they

felt

implicit faith

Burgevine was

He would

comparatively unknown, and where known

surrender the position which alone preserved

only regarded with suspicion.

The

patriotin

him from
decision
it

obscurity.

Having come

to this

ism of the Shanghai merchants consisted
protecting their

was

clear that even the partial

own

possessions.

Having

execution of his plans must draw him into

succeeded in this they began to consider

many

errors of

judgment which could not
conflict.

whether it was necessary to expend any longer the large sums voluntarily raised for
the support of the contingent.

but embitter the

The

reply of the English

commander was

to the effect that personally he could not
interfere,

The

Futai Li, in order to test his obedi-

but that he would refer the matter
as well as to Mr. Bruce at Pekin.

ence, proposed that Burgevine and his

men

to

London

should be sent round by sea to Nankin to

In consequence of the delay thus caused the

102

CHINA: PAST
Nankin was
been charat

AND PRESENT.
turned at this

project of removing the force to

moment

to

Soochow, and

in

revived, and, the steamers having
tered,

Burgevine was requested to bring down

Kiangsu the cause of the Taepings again In February revived through his energy.
a detachment of Holland's force attacked

his force

from Sunkiang and to embark

it

Shanghai.
to

This he expressed his willingness

do on payment of his men who were two months in arrear, and on the settlement of all outstanding claims. Burgevine was supported by his troops. Whatever his dislike to the proposed move, theirs was immeasurably greater.

Fushan, but met with a check, when the news of a serious defeat at Taitsan, where
the former Futai Sieh

had been

defeated,

compelled

its

speedy retreat to Sunkiang.

Li had some reason to believe that Taitsan

They
all

refused to
;

move without

would surrender on the approach of the Imperialists, and he accordingly sent a large
army, including 2,500 of the contingent, to
attack
it.

the payment of

arrears

and on the 2d

of January they even went so far as to openly mutiny.

The
Struck a Mandarin.
ditch
;

affair

assaulting party

was badly managed. The was stopped by a wide
nor ladders arrived.

neither boats

Two
hai,

days later Burgevine went to Shang-

The Taepings

fired furiously

and had an interview with Takee. The meeting was stormy. Burgevine used personal violence towards the Shanghai merchant, whose attitude was at first overbearing, and he returned to his exasperated troops with the money, which he carried off by force. The Futai Li, on hearing of the General assault on Takee, hastened to
Staveley to complain of Burgevine's gross
insubordination in striking a mandarin, which

party, several officers

were

on the exposed killed, and the

men broke
doned
;

into confusion.

The heavy guns

stuck in the soit ground and had to be aban-

and despite the good conduct of the
February).

contingent the Taepings achieved a decisive
success (13th

Chung Wang
had not
in

was able to
recovered

feel

that his old luck

deserted him, and the Taepings of Kiangsu
all

their

former

confidence

themselves and their leader.
inflicted

This disaster

by the law of China was punishable with death. Burgevine was dismissed from the Chinese service, and the notice of this rewith

a rude blow on the confidence of
;

Li and his assistants

and

it

was resolved
had
as-

that nothing should be attempted until the

moval was forwarded by the English General, recommendation to him to give up his
J

English

officer,

at

last appointed,

-

sumed the

active

command.
in

command

without disturbance.

This Burge-

vine did, for the advice of the English general

Gordon
Such was the

Command.
when on

was equivalent to a command, and on the 6th of January, 1863, Burgevine was back
at Shanghai.

position of affairs

24th of March, 1863, Major Gordon took

Captain Holland was then placed in tem-

that

command of the Ever-Victorious Army. At moment it was not merely discouraged
its

porary command, while the answer of the

by

recent reverses, but
its

it

was discontented

Home

Government was awaited to General

Staveley's proposition to entrust the force to

the care of a

young

captain

of engineers,
re-

and when Major Gordon assumed the command at Sunkiang there was some fear of an immediate mutiny.
with
position,

(lamed Charles Gordon,

Chung Wang

The new commander succeeded

in allaying

104
their discontent,

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
evening,
cable,

and believing that active employment was the best cure for insubordination resolved to relieve Chanzu without
delay.

when a breach seemed

to be practi-

and two regiments were ordered to the The rebels showed great courage assault.

The Taepings were
before

pressing

the

and

siege hard

and would probably have cap-

swarming in the breach and pouring a heavy and well-directed fire upon
fortitude,

tured the place

many days when

the troops.

Major Gordon attacked them in their stockades and drove them out with no inconsiderable loss.

The

attack

was momentarily checked;

but while the stormers remained under such
cover as they could find, the shells of two
howitzers were playing over their heads and

The Next Move.
Having thus gained the confidence of his men and the approbation of the Chinese authorities Major Gordon returned to Sunkiang where he employed himself in energetically restoring the discipline of his force,

causing frightful havoc
in the breach.

among

the Taepings

But

for these guns.

Major

Gordon did not think

would have been carried at all; but after some minutes of this firing at such close quarters,
that the place

the rebels began to

show

signs of wavering.

and

in preparing for his

the request of

move which at Li Hung Chang was to be the
next

A

party of troops gained the wall, a fresh

regiment advanced towards the breach, and
the disappearance of the snake flag showed
that the Taeping leaders
fight.

capture of Quinsan.
force

On the 24th of April the

left Sunkiang to attack Quinsan, but it had not proceeded far when its course had to be altered to Taitsan, where, through an

had given up the
it

Taitsan was thus captured, and the
retrieved.

three previous disasters before

act of treachery, a force of 1,500 Imperialists

became necessary to retrieve this disaster without delay, more especially as all hope of taking Quinsan had
had been
annihilated.
It

Gordon's

Difficulties.

On

the 4th of

May

the victorious force

appeared before Quinsan, a place of considerable strength and possessing a formidable
artillery

for the

moment

to

Major Gordon
tion

at

be abandoned. once altered the direc-

directed

by a European.

The

of his march, and joining en route

General Ching,
rapidly as
arrived

who had, on the news, broken
Taitsan,

up his camp before Quinsan, hastened as
possible to

where he
until

town was evidently too strong to be carried by an immediate attack, and Major Gordon's movements were further hampered by the conduct of his own men, who, upon their
arrival at Quinsan, hurried
off"

on the 29th of April.
the
of
attack
to be

Bad weather
deferred

in detachinents

obliged

to

Sunkiang

for the

purpose of disposing of

the

May, when two stockades on the west side were carried, and their defenders compelled to flee, not into the town as they would have wished, but away from it
1st

their spoil.

the

Ammunition had also fallen short, and commander was consequently obliged to return to refit and to rally his men. At
for the

towards Chanzu.
attack

On

the following day, the
side,

Sunkiang worse confusion followed,

was resumed on the north the armed boats proceeded to
place from the creek.

while

assault the

men, or rather the officers, broke out into mutiny on the occasion of Major Gordon
appointing an English oflScer with the rank
of lieutenant-colonel to the control of the

The

firing

continued

from nine

in the

morning

until five in the

"CHINESE GORDON."
commissariat, which had been
neglected.

105

completely
served with
this,

Like a prudent commander Major Gordon
determined to reconnoitre; and, after

The men who had

much

Ward and

Burgevine objected to

and

grumbling on the part of General Ching, he
decided that the most hopeful plan was to
carry

openly refused to obey orders.

Fortunately

the stores and ammunition were collected,

some stockades

situated seven miles

and Major Gordon announced that he would march on the following morning, with or
without the mutineers.

west of the town, and thence assail Quinsan

Those who did not
first

answer to their names at the end of the

on the Soochow side, which was weaker than others. These stockades were at a On the 30th of May village called Chumze.
the the force detailed for his
carry
it

half-march would be dismissed, and he spoke

work proceeded
fifty

to

with the authority of one in complete accord
with the Chinese authorities themselves.

out.

The Hyson and

imperial

gunboats
large

conveyed the land

force,

which

consisted of one regiment,

some guns, and a
offered hardly the
it

Anxious

for the Fray.

body of Imperialists.
rebels at

The
official,

soldiers

obeyed him as a Chinese

The

Chumze
whether

because he had been

made a

tsungofficers

least resistance;

was that they
at the time,
illtreated

ping or brigadier-general, and the
feared to disobey
liked

were dismayed

at the

sudden appearance of

him

as
his

they would have

the enemy, or, as

was stated
in

commanding the source whence they were paid. The mution account of
neers
fell in,

because they considered themselves

by

their

comrades

Quinsan.

The Hyson
fled

and a force of nearly 3,000 men,
anxious
for

vigorously pursued those

who

towards

well-equipped and

the

fray,

Soochow, and completed the
success

effect of this

returned to Quinsan, where General Ching
had, in the meanwhile, kept the rebels closely

by

the capture of a very strong and

well-built fort covering a bridge at

Ta

Edin.

watched from a strong position defended by
several

An
in

Imperialist garrison

was

installed there,

stockades,
steamer.

and supported
Immediately

by the

and the Hyson continued the pursuit to witha mile of Soochow
itself.

Hysan
rival.

after his ar-

Major Gordon moved out his force to attack the stockades which the rebels had These constructed on their right wing.
were strongly
built;

A
The
terribly

Lively Panic.
of

defenders

Quinsan

itself

were

but as soon

as

the

alarmed at the cutting off of their

defenders perceived that the assailants had

communications.

They saw themselves on
uncontrollable

gained their flank they precipitately withdrew
into

the point of being surrounded, and they
yielded
panic.

Quinsan

itself.

General Ching wished
the Eastern Gate,

to

the

impulse of

the attack to be

made on
and

During the

night, after having suffire,

opposite to which he had raised his

own

fered severely

from the Hyson

the garri-

had announced his intention of forcing his way; but a brief inspection showed Major Gordon that that was the strongest point of the town, and that a direct attack upon it could only succeed, if at all, by a very considerable
intrenchments,

by

which

he

son evacuated the place, which might easily

have held out; and General Ching had the
personal satisfaction, on learning from

some

deserters of the flight of the garrison, of lead-

ing his

sacrifice

of men.

men over the eastern walls which he had wished to assault. The importance of Quinsan was reahzed on its capture. Major

106

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
it

Gordon pronounced
chow, and
headquarters
there,

to be the

key of Sooof
its

The change was not
to the force
itself;

acceptable, however,
artillery in parti-

at once resolved to establish his

and the

partly because

cular refused to obey orders,

and threatened

A CHINESE FESTIVAL.
natural advantages, but also and not less on
to shoot their officers.
ever,

Discipline was,

how-

account of

its

enabling him to gradually des-

promptly reasserted by the energy of

troy the evil associations and vicious habits

the commander,
ringleader to

who

ordered the principal
'mc^ the

which the men had contracted

at

Sunkiang.

b" shot

Ever

Victori-

"CHINESE GORDON."
ous
its

107
else " as their colonel.

Army became
new

gradually reconciled to
After the cap-

Tapp or anyone
were promptly

They

position at Quinsan.

reinstated.

ture

of Quinsan there was a cessation of

With

these troops, part of

whom

had only

two months. It was the height of summer and the new troops had to be drilled. The difficulty with
active operations for nearly

just returned to a proper sense of discipline,

Gordon proceeded

to attack

Kahpoo, a place
forts.

on the Grand Canal south of Soochow, where
the rebels held two strongly-built stone

Ching,

who took

all

the credit for the cap-

ture of Quinsan to himself,

was arranged

The force had been strengthened by the
vessel to the Hyson.

addi-

through the mediation of Dr. Macartney,

tion of another steamer, the Firefly, a sister

who had
become

just

left

the English

army

to

Major Gordon arrived

Li's right-hand

man.

before

Kahpoo

on the 27th of July; and the

garrison, evidently talcen

by

surprise,

made

Removal

of a

Commander.

scarcely the least resistance.

The

capture

Two

other circumstances occurred to em-

barrass the

young commander. There were rumors of some meditated movement on

Kahpoo placed Gordon's force between Soochow and Wokong, the next object of attack. At Wokong the rebels were equally
of
unprepared.

the part of Burgevine,

who had

returned

from Pekin with

letters

exculpating him and

who endeavored
spite of

to recover the

command

in

The Place
its

Surrendered.

Li

Hung

Chang, and there was a

further

manifestation of insubordination in

The garrison at Kahpoo, thinking only of own safety, had fled to Soochow, leaving
comrades
at

the force, which, as

Gordon

said,

bore more

their

Wokong unwarned and

to

resemblance to a rabble than the magnificent

their fate.
this place

So
of

heedless were the Taepings at

was popularly supposed to be. The artillery had been cowed by Major Gordon's vigor, but its efficiency remained more doubtit

army

all

danger from the north, that

they had even neglected to occupy a strong
stone fort situated about 1,000 yards north
of the walls.

ful

than could be satisfactory to the general
its

The Taepings attempted too
and the
all their

condition, and also relying most potent arm of his force. He resolved to remove the old commander, and to appoint an English officer, Major

responsible for

late to repair their error,

loss of this

upon

it

as the

fort

caused them that of

other stock-

ades.

Wokong

itself

any

effectual resistance;

was too weak to offer and the garrison on

Tapp,

in his place.

the eve of the assault ordered for the 29th of

On

carrying his determination into effect

July sent out a request for quarter, which

the officers sent in " a round robin," refusing
to accept the

new

officer.

This was on the

25th of July, and the expedition which had been decided upon against Wokong had consequently to set out the following morning

was granted, and the place surrendered without further fighting. Meanwhile an event of far greater importance had happened than
even the capture of these towns, although
they formed the necessary preliminary to
the investment of Soochow.

without a single artillery

officer.

In face of

Burgevine had

the inflexible resolve of the leader, however, the officers repented, and appeared in a
at the

come

to the decision to join the Taepings.

body
and

Disappointed in his hope of receiving the

camp begging

to be taken back,

command, Burgevine remained on
hai,

at

Shang-

expressing their willingness to accept " Major

employing

his time in

watching the vary-

108

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
him
shortly.

ing phases of a campaign in which he longed
to take part,

This

letter

was written

as

and of which he beheved that
due to have the
direction,

it

a blind, and, unfortunately, Major Gordon
attached greater value to Burgevine's worcJ

was only
still

his

but

what decision it behoved him to take. His contempt for all Chinese officials became hatred of the bitterest kind of the Futai, by whom he had been not merely thwarted but overreached, and prehesitating as to

than he did to the precise information of Dr.

Macartney.

He was

too

much

disposed tc
certaii:

think that, as the officer had to a

extent superseded

Burgevine in command,

he was bound to take the most favorable
view of
in his
all his actions,

disposed him to regard with no unfavorable

eye the idea of joining his fortunes with those
of the rebel Taepings.

good

faith.

and to trust implicitly Major Gordon, trusting

to his word,
sible to the

made

himself personally respon-

Chinese authorities for his good
arrest.
laid.

Jealous of Gordon.

faith,

and thus Burgevine escaped
been long
in

To him

in this

frame of mind came some

Burgevine's plans had been deeply

of the dismissed officers and

men
by

of the
declar-

He had
cepted.

correspondence with
ac-

Ward

force appealing to his vanity

the Taepings, and his terms had been

ing that his soldiers remembered him with

He

proclaimed his hostility to the
seizing

and that he had only to hoist his flag for most of his old followers to rally round him. There was little to marvel at if he also was not free from some feeling of jealousy at the success and growing fame of Major Gordon, for whom he simulated a
affection,

Government by
steamers.

one of

their

new

Immediate Danger.

At

this

very

moment Major Gordon came
and he hastened
in order to place his with-

to the decision to resign,

warm
tives

friendship.

The combination
irresistible as

of

mo-

back to Shanghai
Futai.

proved altogether

soon as

drawal from the force in the hands of the

he found that several hundred European adventurers were ready to accompany him
into the ranks of the Taepings,

He

arrived there on the very day

that Burgevine seized the

Kajow steamer

at

and to enfailed to

Sunkiang, and on hearing the news he at

deavor to do for them what they

once withdrew his resignation, which had

perform for the Imperialists.

been made
irregular

partly from irritation
his

at

the

On

the iSth of July, Dr. Macartney wrote

payment of
did

men, and also on
his resignation,

to Major

Gordon

stating that

he had positive

account of the cruelty of General Ching.

information that Burgevine was enlisting
for

men

Not merely

he withdraw

some

enterprise, that

he had already col-

but he hastened back to Quinsan, into which

lected about

300 Europeans, and that he had
far as to

even gone so

choose a special

flag,

he rode on the night of the very same day that had witnessed his departure. The immediate and most pressing danger was from
the possible defection of the force to
leader,
its

a white diamond on a red ground, and containing a black star in the centre of the dia-

old

mond.

On

the 2 1st of the same month

when, with the large stores of
at

artil-

Burgevine wrote to Major Gordon saying that there would be many rumors about
him, but that he was not to believe any
of them, and that he would

lery

and ammunition

Quinsan

in their posits

session, not

even Shanghai, with

very

weak
safe

foreign garrison, could be considered

come and

see

from attack.

CHINESE SOLDIERS ENTERING THE PRINCIPAL GATE AT PEKIN

....jgr-"-...

-^

.>...,<i>t....»^^.

CHINESE IMPERIAL TROOPS OUTSIDE THE GATES OF PEKIN

"CHINESE GORDON."
As
a measure of precaution Major Gorhis

109

don sent some of

heavy guns and stores

back to Taitsan, where the English commander, General Brown, consented to guard
them, while he hastened off to Kahpoo,
threatened both

communications, moved forward to Waiquaidong to support him but when he arrived, he found
to cut off General Ching's lengthy
;

that

the

impatient

mandarin,
his

encouraged

now
and

either

by the news of
still

approach or at the

by the Soochow
arrived at the

force

inaction of the Taepings in

by the foreign adventurers
Burgevine.

acting

under
critical

He
The

most

Soochow, had two miles, so that he was only 1,000 yards distant from

made a

further advance of

moment.

garrison was hard pressed.

the rebel stockades in front of the East Gate.

General Ching had gone back to Shanghai,

Major Gordon had
forced

at this time

been

rein-

and only the presence of the Hyson prevented the rebels, who were well armed and
possessed an efficient artillery, from carrying
the fort

by the Franco-Chinese corps, which had been well disciplined, under the com-

mand
sity

of Captain Bonnefoy, while the neces-

The arrival Gordon with 150 men on board
by a
rush.

of Major
his third

of leaving any strong garrison at Quin-

san had been obviated by the loan of 200

steamer, the Cricket, restored the confidence

Belooches from General Brown's

force.

of the defenders, but there was no doubt that

Burgevine had lost a most favorable opportunity, for if

Effective Fire of the Gimboat.

he had attacked

this place in-

The

rebel position having been carefully

stead of proceeding to
fallen.

Soochow it must have

reconnoitred, both on the east

south. Major

and on the Gordon determined that the first
its

step necessary for

proper beleaguerment
the village of Pata-

Moving on the Rebel Stronghold.
General Ching,

was to
re-

seize

and

fortify

who was
and

a

man

of almost

chiaou, about one mile south of the city wall.

extraordinary energy

restlessness,

The

village,

although stockaded, was evacuresist-

solved to signalize his return to the field

some

striking act

by while Major Gordon was

ated by the garrison after a feeble
ance,

completing his preparations at Quinsan for a
fresh effort.

His headquarters were at the

and an attempt to recover it a few hours later by Mow Wang in person resulted in a rude repulse chiefly on account of the
effective
fire

strong fort of

Ta

Edin, on the creek leading

of

the

Hyson.

Burgevine,

from Quinsan to Soochow, and having the

instead of fighting the battles of the failing

Hyson with him, he determined to make a dash to some point nearer the great rebel stronghold. On the 30th of August he had seized the position of Waiquaidong, where, in three days, he threw up stockades, admirably constructed, and which could not have been carried save by a great effort on the
part of the

cause he had adopted, was traveUing about
the country
:

at

one moment

in the capital

interviewing Tien
at another

Wang

and

his ministers,

going about in disguise even in

the streets of Shanghai.

whole of the Soochow garrison.

But during the weeks when General Ching might have been taken at a disadvantage, and when it was quite possible to
recover
lost,

"Towards the end of September, Major

Gordon,

fearing lest the rebels,

who had now

some of the places which had been he was absent from the scene of military
After the capture of Patachiaou

the supposed advantage of Burgevine's pres-

operations.

ence and advice, might

make some attempt

most of the troops and the steamers that had

110
taken
it

CHINA: PAST
were sent back to Waiquaidong, but
select

AND

PRESENT.
official

Chinese

world, he was loth to lose

Major Gordon remained there with a body of his men and three howitzers.
rebels
loss

or surrender the position which gave him a certain importance.

The

He vacillated between
last

had not resigned themselves to the of Patachiaou, and on the ist of October

a number of suggestions, and the

he

they

made a

regular attempt to recover

it.

They brought the Kajow into action, and, as had found a daring commander in a man named Jones, its assistance proved very considerable. They had also a 32-pounder gun on board a junk, and this enabled them to
it

came to was the most remarkable, at the same time that it revealed more clearly than any other the vain and meretricious character

of the man.

A

Scheme

of Treachery.

In his second interview with Major Gor-

overcome the

fire

of Gordon's howitzers and

also of the Hyson,

which arrived from Wai-

quaidong during the engagement.
withstanding the superiority of their
the rebels hesitated to

But notartillery,

come to

close quarters,

and when Major Gordon and Captain Bonnefoy led a sortie against them at the end of
the day they retired precipitately.
^A^ishes to Surrender.

don he proposed that that officer should join him, and combining the whole force of the Europeans and the disciplined Chinese, seize Soochow, and establish an independent authority of their own. It was the old filibustering idea, revived under the most
unfavorable
their

circumstances, of

fighting

for

own hand, dragging
in the dirt,

name

European and founding an indepenthe

dent authority of

some vague,

undefinable

At

this

stage Burgevine wrote to Major

and

transitory

character.

Major

Gordon two letters the Taepings, and the second
later

first

exalting the

listened to the unfolding of this

Gordon scheme of
strong

written

two days

miserable

treachery,

and only

his

asking for an interview, whereupon he

sense of the utter impossibility, and indeed
the ridiculousness of the project, prevented
his

expressed his desire to surrender on the provision of personal safety.

He

assigned the

contempt and indignation finding
the traitor to

forcible

state of his health as the cause of this change,

expression.

but there was never the least doubt that the
true reason of this altered view
faction with
his

Burgevine,
cause,

the

Imperial

was

dissatis-

the

man whose

health

would not

treatment by the Taeping

allow him to do his duty to his
in

new masters

leaders and a conviction of the impossibility

of success.
it

Inside

Soochow, and

at

Nankin,

ing

Soochow, thus revealed his plan for defyall parties, and for deciding the fate of

at

was possible to see with clearer eyes than Shanghai that the Taeping cause was one

the

received
better

Dragon Throne. The only reply he was the cold one that it would be
and wiser to confine
his attention to

that could not be resuscitated.

But although Burgevine soon and very clearly saw the hopelessness of the Taeping movement, he had by no means made up his
mind to go over to the Imperialists. With a considerable number of European followers at his beck and call, and with a profound
and
ineradicable

the question of whether he intended to yield
or not, instead of discussing idle schemes of

"vaulting ambition."

Meantime, Chung

Wang had come down

from Nankin to superintend the defence of Soochow; and in face of a more capable
opponent he
still

contempt for the whole

did not despair of success,

1^

w

o
in

O H <! U
y-t

O h W M O

1-1

1

'"«>#

^^^

^E

< W
'k

L

*
'1

I*

y^-^mi

I

m^^'s

112

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
good
fight of
it.

or at the least of making a

turers,

he

reached

Monding, where

the

He

formed the plan of assuming the offensive

against

Chanzu whilst General Ching was employed in erecting his stockades step bySoochow.
In order to prevent the realization of this

Imperialists were strongly intrenched at the junction of the main creek from Chanzu He attacked them, and a with the canal.

step nearer to the eastern wall of

severely contested struggle ensued, in which
at
first

the

Taepings

carried

everything

project

Major Gordon made several demonstrations on the western side of Soochow, which had the effect of inducing Chung

But the fortune of the day round. The Kajow was sunk soon veered by a lucky shot, great havoc was wrought
before them.

Wang
At

to defer his departure.
this

by the explosion of a powder-boat, and the
Imperiahsts

conjuncture serious news arrived

remained masters of a hard-

from the south.
bled from

A large rebel force, assemsilk districts

fought

field.

Chekiang and the

south of the Taho lake, had moved up the

Succeeded

in Escaping.

Grand Canal

and

held

the

garrison

of

The

defection

of the

Europeans piaced

Wokong
made a
loss

in close confinement.

On the

loth

Burgevine in serious
courtesy to the

peril,

of October the Imperialists stationed there
sortie,

Gordon's urgent representations

and only Major and acts of
saved his
life,

but were driven back with the

Mow Wang

of

several

hundred men

killed

and

The Taeping

leader, struck

by the

gallantry

wounded.

and fair dealing of the English officer, set Burgevine free, and the American consul

Hard Fought
and
the
it

Battle.

thanked Major Gordon

for his great kindness

Their provisions were almost exhausted,

to that misguided officer.

Burgevine came

was evident

that unless relieved they

out of the whole complication with a reputation in every

could not hold out
1

many days

longer.

On

2th of October Major

Gordon

therefore

even the most

way tarnished. He had not common courage which would
in

hastened to their succor.
a
position

south

of

The rebels held Wokong, and, as they
lasted three

have impelled him to stay

Soochow and

take the chances of the party to which he

felt

sure of a safe retreat, they fought with

great determination.

The battle

talents

hours

;

the guns had to be brought up to
fifty

within

yards of the stockade, and the
described as one of the hardest

had attached himself Whatever his natural might have been, his vanity and weakness obscured them all. With the inclination to create an infinity of mischief, it
.

whole
the

affair is

fought actions of the war.
contingent to

On

the return of

must be considered fortunate that his ability was so small, for his opportunities were
abundant.

Patachiaou, about thirty

Europeans deserted the rebels, but Burgevine and one or two others were not with
them.

The
mind.

conclusion of the Burgevine incident

removed

a weight from Major

Gordon'^

Established on the east and south of

Chung Wang had
of

seized the opportunity
for

Gordon's departure
to

the

relief

of

Wokong
Chanzu.

carry out his scheme against Taking the Kajow with him, and
foreign adven-

Soochow, he determined to secure a similar on its western side, when he would be able to intercept the communication still
position

held by the garrison across the

Taho

lake.

a considerable number of the

In order to attain this object it was necessary,

"CHINESE GORDON.'
in

113

the

first

place, to carry the stockades at
village

Wuliungchow, a

two miles west of Patachiaou. The place was captured at the first attack and successfully held, notwithstanding a fierce attempt to recover
the personal direction of
it

campaign there were 13,500 men round Soochow, and of these 8,500 were fully occupied in the defence of
this stage of the

At

the stockades, leaving the very small

number

under

of 5,000

men

available for active measures

Chung Wang, who

in the field.

On

the other hand, Santajin

returned for the express purpose.

was followed by others. Another large body of rebels had come up from the south and assailed the garrison of
This
success

had not fewer than 20,000, and possibly as many as 30,000 men under his orders. But
the Taepings
superiority.
still

enjoyed the numercial

Wokong.
Gordon's
flicted

On

the 26th of October one of

They had 40,000 men in Soochow, 20,000 at Wusieh, and Chung

lieutenants,

Major Kirkham,

in-

Wang

occupied a camp, half-way between 18,000 followers.

a severe defeat upon them, and vigor-

these places, with

The

ously pursued them for several miles.

The

presence of
to

Chung Wang was also

estimated

next operation undertaken was the capture
of the village of Leeku, three miles north of Soochow, as the preliminary to investing the
city

be worth a corps of 5,000

soldiers.

Petty Rivalries.

on the north.

sorted to his

Here Major Gordon reusual flanking tactics, and with
success.

Had Gordon
decisive.

been

free to act, his plan of

campaign would

have

been

simple

and

conspicuous
well;

The
killed at

rebels

fought
side,

He would

have effected a junction

one

officer
in

was

Gordon's

of his forces with Santajin, he would have

and the men

the stockade were cut

down

with the exception of about forty,

who were

made

prisoners.

overwhelmed Chung Wang's 18,000 with his combined army of double that strength, and he would have appeared at the head of
his victorious troops before the bewildered

The Force
Soochow was then
as well as

too Small.

garrison of

Wusieh.

It

would probably
at

assailed

on the northern
but Chung

have terminated the campaign

a stroke.

on the other

sides,

Even
cause

the decisive defeat of

Chung Wang
But Major

Wang's army still served to keep open communications by means of the Grand Canal. That army had its principal quarters at Wusieh, where it was kept in check by a
large Imperialist force under Santajin, Li's

alone might have entailed the collapse of a

now tottering
of his

to

its

fall.

Gordon had
tary quality
jealousies

to consider not merely the miliallies,

but also their

and

differences.

brother,

who had advanced from Kongyin
Major Gordon's main
diffi-

General Ching hated Santajin on private

on the Yangtse.
culty

grounds as well as on public.

He

desired a

now

arose from the insufficiency of his

force to hold so

wide an extent of country;
assist that

and

in order to

procure a reinforcement from

and honor of the campaign. His own reputation would be made by the capture of Soochow. It would
profit

monopoly of the

Santajin,

he agreed to
his

commander

be diminished and cast into the shade were
another Imperial commander to defeat

against

able

opponent Chung Wang.

Chung

With a view

to accomplishing this the Taep-

Wang

ing position at Wanti, two miles north of

Leeku, was attacked and captured.
8

and close the line of the Grand Canal. Were Gordon to detach himself from General Ching he could not feel sure what that

114
jealous and impulsive

CHINA: PAST
commander would
do.
certainly not preserve the vigilant

AND

PRESENT.
by the European

the information provided

He would

Soochow necessary to ensure army operating to the north. The commander of the Ever-Victorious Army had consequently to abandon the tempting idea of crushing Chung Wang and
defensive before

the safety of the

and other deserters who had been inside. The Taepings were not without their spies and sympathizers also, and the intended
attempt was revealed to them. The attack was made at two in the morning of the 27th of November, but the rebels had mustered in force and received Major Gordon's men Even then the with tremendous volleys. disciplined troops would not give way, and encouraged by the example of their leader, who seemed to be at the front and at every point at the same moment, fairly held their own on the edge of the enemy's position.

to have recourse to slower methods.

An Unexpected
On
attack

Retreat.

the 19th of

November Major Gordon
his available force to

collected the

whole of

Fusaiquan, a place on the Grand

Canal six miles north of Soochow.
ferent points, while

Here
dif-

the rebels had barred the canal at three

pied

eight
in

on the banks they occuearthworks, which were fortuvery
incomplete
state.

The Troops
Unfortunately
the

Confused.
troops
in

support

nately

a

A
and
loss.

behaved badly, and got confused from the

desperate resistance was expected from the
rebels at this advantageous spot, but they

heavy

fire

of

the Taepings which never

preferred their
retreated to

safety

to

their

duty,

Wusieh with hardly any
this reverse

Chung Wang In consequence of withdrew his forces from his camp in face of Santajin, and concentrated his men at Monding and Wusieh for the defence of the Grand

of them absolutely retired and others were landed at the wrong places. Major Gordon had to hasten to the rear to restore order, and during his absence the advanced guard were expelled from their
slackened.
position

Some

by a forward movement
person.

Wang

in

The
as

attack

now

Soochow being number of troops under the Imperial standard would allow, Major Gordon returned to General Ching's
Canal.

The investment

of

and there was nothing to
off the troops with
possible.
defeat,

by Mow had failed, do save to draw
led

as complete as the

little

further loss as
first

This was Major Gordon's
it

stockades in front of that place, with the

view of resuming the attack on the Eastern
Gate.

General Ching and Captain Bonnefoy
slight repluse there

had met with a
14th of October.
the east gate

on the
of of

The stockade in front was known by the name

had been strengthened to the best knowledge of the Taeping engineers. Their position was exceedingly formidable,
the
consisting of a line of breastworks defended
at intervals with circular stockades.

Low Mun, and

was so evidently due to the accidents inseparable from a night attempt, and to the fact that the surprise had been revealed, that it produced a less discouraging effect on officers and men than might have seemed probable. Up to this day Major Gordon had obtained thirteen distinct victories besides the advantage in many minor
but
skirmishes.

Undismayed by

this reverse

collected all his troops

and

artillery

Major Gordon from the

other stockades, and resolved to attack the

Major Gordon decided upon making a night attack, and he arranged his plans from

Low Mun

position with his

also collected all his

whole force. He heavy guns and mor-

'CHINESE GORDON."
tars

115
impressed

and connonaded the rebel stockade for some time but on an advance being ordered the assailants were compelled to retire by
;

Gordon

had

on

both

of his

Chinese colleagues the imperative necessity
there was, for reasons of both policy

and

the

fire

which the Taepings brought to bear
hastened

prudence, to deal leniently and honorably by
the rebel chiefs.
well.

on them at every available point.

Wang had

Chung down from Wusieh to

All seemed to be going

General

Ching

took

an

oath Li

of

take part in the defence of what was rightly

brotherhood with
Gordon's

Lar

Wang,

Hung

regarded as the key of the position at Soo-

chow, and both he and

Mow Wang

super-

intended in person the defence of the

Low

Chang agreed with everything that fell from lips. The only one exempted from this tacit understanding was Mow Wang,
always in favor of fighting
ing the town
;

Mun

stockade.

it

out and defend-

and

his

name was not men-

Superb Bravery.
After a further cannonade the advance was

tioned for the simple reason that he had

nothing to do with the negotiations.

again sounded, but this second attack would
also have failed

had not the officers and men boldly plunged into the moat or creek and swum across. The whole of the stockades and a stone fort were then carried, and
Imperial forces firmly established at a

For

A Gallant Enemy. Mow Wang Major Gordon

had

formed the esteem due to a gallant enemy,

the

point only

900 yards from the inner wall of Soochow. Six officers and fifty men were killed, and three officers, five Europeans and 128 men were wounded in this successful

and he resolved to spare no efforts to save his life. His benevolent intentions were thwarted by the events that had occurred within Soochow. Mow Wang had been murdered by the other Wangs, who feared
that

he might detect

their plans

and prevent

attack.

The

capture

of

the

Low Mun
fall

their being carried out.

stockades meant practically the

of Sooits

Wang
heartily

removed the

The death of Mow only leader who was

chow.

Chung Wang then

left it

to

fate,

and all the other Wangs except Mow Wang were in favor of coming to terms with the Imperialists. Eveia before this defeat Lar Wang had entered into communications with General Ching for coming over, and, as he had the majority of the troops at Soochow under his orders, Mow Wang was
practically

chow,

opposed to the surrender of Sooand on the day after this chief's

murder the Imperialists received possession of one of the gates. The inside of the city had been the scene of the most dreadful confusion. Mow Wang's men had sought to
avenge their leader's death, shaved their heads
in

and, on

the

other hand, the followers of Lar

Wang

had

powerless, although resolute to
last.

token of their adhesion

defend the place to the

to the Imperialist cause.

Several interviews took place between the

Some

of the

more prudent of the Wangs,

Wangs and
Chang.

General Ching and Li
also

Hung

saw the former, and had one interview with Lar Wang in
person.

Major Gordon

not knowing what turn events might take amid the prevailing discord, secured their
safety

by a timely

flight.

Major Gordon

The English
During

officer

proposed as
period Major

the most feasible plan his surrendering one of the gates.
all this

kept his force well in hand, and refused to allow any of the men to enter the city, where

they would certainly

have

exercised the

116
privileges of a
pillage.

CHINA: PAST
mercenary force
in respect of

AND PRESENT.
circumstances
of
their
fate

were

never

Instead of this Major

Gordon en-

deavored to obtain for them two months' pay from the Futai, which that official stated his
inability to procure.

known ; but nine headless bodies were discovered on the opposite side of the creek,
and not
It

far distant

from the Futai's quarters.

Major Gordon there-

then became evident that Lar
his fellow

Wang
to

upon resigned in disgust, and on succeeding in obtaining one months' pay for his men, he sent them back to Quinsan without a disturbance.

and

Wangs had been

brutually

murdered.

Major Gordon was disposed

take the office of their avenger into his

own

hands, but the opportunity of doing so fortunately did not present itself

He

hastened

Nine Headless Bodies.

The

departure of the
for its headquarters
officials

Army
and

Ever Victorious was regarded by

back to Quinsan, where he refused to act any longer with such false and dishonorable

the Chinese

with great satisfaction
In the flush of the
force

for several reasons.

The matter was reported to Both the mandarins sought to clear themselves by accusing each the other; and
colleagues.

Pekin.

success at

Soochow both that commander seemed in the way

and

its

a special decree

came from Pekin

conferring

of the Futai,

on the English
the

officer

a very high order and

and to diminish the extent of his triumph. Neither Li nor Ching also had the least wish for any of the ex-rebel chiefs, men of ability and accustomed to command, to be
taken into the service of the government.

sum

of 14,000 dollars.

Major Gordon

returned the money, and expressed his regret
at being unable to accept

any token of honor
consequence of the

from the Emperor

in

Of
for-

Soochow

affair.

men

of that kind there were already enough.

General Ching himself was a sufficiently midable
sistance
rival to the Futai,

Gordon Again

in the Field.

without any as-

A

variety of reasons, all equally credit-

and encouragement from Lar Wang and the others. Li had no wish to save them from the fate of the rebels; and although he had promised, and General Ching had sworn to, their personal safety, he was bent on getting rid of them in one way or
another.

able to

Major Gordon's judgment andsingle-

mindedness, induced him after two months'
retirement to abandon his inaction
sink his difference with the Futai.

and to

He saw
in the
at-

very clearly that the sluggishness of the
Imperial

commanders would
whereas,
if

result

prolongation of the struggle with

all its

Major Gordon, but he also thought that the time had arrived when he could dispense with him and the foreignfeared

He

tendant

evils,

he took the

field,

within two months.
force,

he would be able to bring it to a conclusion Moreover, the Quinsan
never very amenable
off all restraint

same way as he had got rid of Sherard Osborn and his fleet. The departure of the Quinsan force left him free
drilled legion in the

to

discipline,

shook

when

in quarters,

and

promised to become as dangerous to the

to follow his

own
to

inclination.

The Wangs

government

in

whose way

were

invited

an entertainment in the

enemy
fight.

against

whom

it

it was as to the was engaged to

Futai 's boat, and Major

both in the city and subsequently
their

Gordon saw them when on

way

to Li

Hung Chang.

The

exact

Major Gordon, in view of these facts, came to the prompt decision that it was his

"CHINESE GORDON."
duty, and the course most calculated to do
of

117
1864,

February,

he accordingly
his

left

good

for

him

to retake the

field,

and

strive

Quinsan at the head of

men who showed

W'7' '^ni

CHINESE MANDARIN AND HIS WIFE.
as
energetically as possible to

expel

the
still

great satisfaction at the return to active campaigning.

rebels from the small part of

Kiangsu

remaining in their possession.

On

the 18th

the

fall

of Soochow, and

Wusieh had been evacuated on Chung Wang's

118
force retired to

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
Changchow, while that chief few weeks General Ching had seized Pingwang,

himself returned to Nankin.
later

A

be admirably constructed, and as it contained a garrison of fifteen thousand men and a plentiful

supply of provisions.

From

Liyang, Major

thus obtaining the
trance into the
lished his

command

of another en-

Gordon marched on Kintang, a town due
north of Liyang, and about half-way between

Taho Lake. Santajin estabforce in a camp not far distant
in

Changchow and Nankin.
striking distance of

The

capture of

from Changchow, and engaged the rebels
almost daily skirmishes.

Kintang, by placing Gordon's force within

Changchow and
and

its

com-

This was the position of affairs when Major Gordon took the field towards the end of February, and he at once resolved to carry the war into a new country by crossing the Taho lake and attacking the town of Yesing on its western shores. By seizing this and
the adjoining towns
rebellion in two,

munications, would have compelled the rebels
to suspend these operations
forces. recall their

A

Resolute Garrison.

Unfortunately the attack on Kintjmg revealed unexpected
difficulties.

he hoped to cut the
to

The

garrison

and

be able to attack

showed
fire,

extraordinary

determination;

and

Changchow

in the rear.

The
;

operations at
last

although the wall was breached by the heavy

Yesing occupied two days
rebel stockades

but at

the

were carried with tremendFive

ous

loss,

not only to the defenders but also

to a relieving force sent from Liyang.

thousand prisoners were also taken.

two attempts to assault were repulsed loss, the more serious inasmuch as Major Gordon was himself wounded below the knee, and compelled to retire to his boat. This was the second defeat Gordon had exwith heavy
perienced.

Marching Onward.
Liyang
attacked
;

In consequence
to

of

this

reverse,

which
of

itself

was the next place

be

dashed the cup of success from Gordon's

but the intricacy of the country,

hands when he seemed on the point
brilliant

which was intersected by creeks and canals, added to the fact that the whole region had been desolated by famine, and that the rebels had broken all the bridges, rendered this undertaking one of great difficulty and some However, Major Gordon's fortitude risk. vanquished all obstacles and when he appeared before Liyang he found that the rebel leaders in possession of the town had come
to the decision to surrender.

bringing the campaign to a close in the most

manner, the force had to retreat to

Liyang, whence the
ijack with

commander hastened

one thousand

men

to

Wusieh.

He

reached Wusieh on the 25th of March,

four days after the repulse at Kintang, and

he there learnt that Fushan had been taken and that Chanzu was being closely attacked.

The

Imperialists

had fared

better

in

the

At

this place

south.

General Ching had captured Kash-

Major Gordon came
ing the
siege

into

communication

ingfoo, a strong place in Chekiang,

with the general Paochiaou,
operations

who was
against

cover-

Nankin

same day as the repulse at Tso Tsung Tang had recovered Hangchow.
the very

and on Kintang

which

Tseng

Kwofan was

pressing with

Major Gordon, although

still

incapacitated

ever-increasing vigor.

by

his

wound from

taking his usual foremost
all

The

surrender of Liyang proved the
fortifications

more

place in the battle, directed

operations

important, as the

were found to

from

his boat.

He

succeeded, after numer-

'CHINESE GORDON.'
ous skirmishes, in compelling the Taepings
to
their

119

quit their position before

Chanzu

;

but
of

they drew up in force at the village Waisso,

him battle. Most unfortunately Major Gordon had to
they
offered

where

upon them, and very pursuit was continued for a week, and the lately victorious army of Waisso was practically annihilated. The capture of Changchbw was to be the
exactions, rose

few rebels escaped.

The

entrust the

conduct of the attack to

his

next crowning success of the

campaign.

lieutenants, Colonels

Howard and Rhodes,
Finding the banks

For

this enterprise the

whole of the Ever-

while he superintended the advance of the

Victorious

gunboats up the creek.

the ex-rebel contingent of Liyang.

Army was concentrated, including On the
carried

were too high to admit of these being usefully

23d of April Major Gordon
stockades near the west gate.
ture the

the

employed, and

failing to establish

com-

In their cap-

munications with the infantry, he discreetly
returned to his camp, where he found everything in the most dreadful confusion owing
to a terrible disaster.

Routed with Great Loss.

The
Seven

infantry in fact

had been out-manloss.

Liyang men, although led only by showed conspicuous gallantry, thus justifying Major Gordon's belief that the Chinese would fight as well under their own countrymen as when led by fordgners. Batteries were then constructed for the bombardment of the town itself. Before these
Chinese,

oeuvred and routed with tremendous
officers

were completed the Imperialists assaulted,
but were repulsed with
loss.

and 265 men had been killed, and one officer and sixty-two men wounded. Such an overwhelming disaster would have crushed any ordinary commander, particularly

On

the follow-

ing day (April 27th) the batteries opened
fire,

across,

and two pontoon bridges were thrown when Major Gordon led his men to

when coming

so soon after such a rude
It

the assault.

defeat as that at Kingtang.

only roused

Major Gordon to increased
disaster.

activity.

He

at

A
one,
ists,

Bridge of Casks.

once took energetic measures to retrieve this

He

sent his

wounded

to Quinsan,

The made
lost,

first

attack

was repulsed, and a second
with the Imperial-

in conjunction

collected fresh troops, and, having allowed

fared

not less badly.

The pontoons

by a week's rest, resumed in person the attack on Waisso. On the loth of April Major Gordon pitched his camp within a mile of Waisso, and paid
his

own wound

to recover

were
loss

and the force suffered a greater than at any time during the war, with

the exception of Waisso.
lost heavily
;

The Taepings also
conse-

and

their valor could not alter

his

men

as the preliminary to the resumption

the inevitable result.

Changchow had

of the offensive.

quently to be approached systematically by
following
trenches, in the construction of

The

attack

commenced on the
skilful flank

which the

morning, and promised to prove of an ardu-

Chinese showed themselves very skiMul.
loss of the

The

ous nature

;

but by a

movement

pontoons compelled the formation
;

Major Gordon carried two stockades in person, and rendered the whole place no longer
tenable.

of a cask -bridge

and, during the extensive

preparations for renewing the attack, several

The The

rebels evacuated their position

hundred of the garrison came over, reporting
that
it

and

retreated, closely

pursued by the Imper-

was only the Cantonese who wished to

ialists.

villagers

who had

suffered from

fight to the bitter end.

120

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
the
I

May, the fourth anniverby Chung Wang, Li requested Major Gordon to act in concert with him for carrying the place by storm. The attack was made in the middle of the
ith of

On

sary of

its

capture

day, to the intense surprise of the garrison,
'

who made only a
town was
at
last

feeble resistance,

and the
loss.

carried

with

little

Nankin alone in their hands. Inside that was the greatest misery and suffering. Tien Wang had refused to take any of the steps pressed on him by Chung Wang, and when he heard the people were suffering from want, all he said was, " Let them eat the sweet dew." Tseng Kwofan drew up his lines on all sides of the city, and gradually
city there

drove the despairing rebels behind the walls.
sent out the old
children;

Chung Wang

women and
be recorded

and

let it

to the credit of

Tseng Kwotsiuen that he did not drive them
and despatched

back, but charitably provided
for their wants,

them

to a place of shelter.

In June Major

Gordon visited

Tseng's camp, and he found his

works covering twenty-four to thirty miles, and constructed in the most elaborate fashion. The
Imperialists

numbered eighty

thousand men, but were badly armed. Although their pay

was very much in arrear, they were well fed and had great
confidence in their Ieader,Tseng

Kwofan. On the 30th of June, Tien Wang, despairing of success, committed suicide by swallowing golden
leaf.

Thus

died

GENERAL GORDON.

the Hungtsiuen who had erected the standard of revolt in Kwangsi
thirteen years before.

The commandant. Hoc Wang, was made
prisoner the last

His son was proclciimed

and executed. This proved to be action of the Ever Victorious Army,

Tien

Wang on
was
last act

his death
brief.

becoming known, but
arrived.

his reign

which then returned to Quinsan, and was
quietly disbanded

The

of

all

had now

On

by

his

commander

before

the 19th of July the Imperialists had run

the 1st of June.

a gallery under the wall of Nankin, and
the closing incidents of the

To sum up

charged
powder.

it

with forty thousand pounds of
explosion destroyed
fifty

Taeping war, Tayan was evacuated two days after the fall of Changchow, leaving

The

yards

of the walls, and the Imperialists, attacking

"CHINESE GORDON."
on
all sides,

121
officers,

poured

in

through the breach.
desperate resistance

under their

own

and that the

inevi-

Chung Wang made a
Wang's place
ther
to

table consequence of their being placed under

in the interior, holding his

stand with
gate,

own and the Tien the last. He made a fura thousand men at the
his

Europeans was that they became rebels to
their

government.

southern

but

band was

over-

whelmed, and he and the young Tien
fled into the

Wang
In this

These opinions show the disinterested spirit He fought in which he served the Chinese. the Taepings not for any empty or vainglorious desire to
tion,

surrounding country.

make

a military reputa-

supreme moment of danger Chung
thought more of the safety of
exceptionally
his

Wang
young him an

but because he saw an opportunity of
the horrors of a
It

rendering a great service to a suffering people,

chief than of himself, and he gave

among whom

civil
is

war had
his

good pony

to escape on, while

spread death and disease.

impossible

he himself took a very
consequence Tien
while

inferior animal.

As a
hills

to exaggerate the impression
disinterestedness

made by

Wang

the Second escaped,

Chung Wang was
later.

captured in the

elevated

him

for his

on the Chinese people, who courage and military

a few days

prowess to the pedestal of a national god of

Captured and Beheaded.

Chung Wang, who had

certainly been the

hero of the Taeping movement, was beheaded

The cane which he carried when leading his men to the charge became known as " Gordon's wand of victory " and the troops whom he trained, and converted by success
war.
;

on the 7th of August, and the young Tien

from a rabble into an army, formed the
nucleus of China's modern army.
Brilliant Services.

Wang was
also,

eventually captured and executed

by Shen Paochen.
Tseng Kwofan,
fair,

For

this

decisive
re-

victory,
bellion,

which extinguished the Taeping

whom Gordon

called

The

service

he rendered

his

adopted coun-

" generous,

honest and patriotic," was

try was, therefore, lasting as well as striking,

made a Hou, or Marquis, and his brother Tseng Kwotsiuen an Earl. Although Gordon took no direct part in the closing scene of Taeping power at Nankin, everybody felt, and history accepts the view, that the triumphant and speedy suppression of the rebellion was due to his extraordinary military successes.

and the gratitude of the Chinese has, to
credit,

their

proved not
is still

less durable.

of Gordon

one to
if

The name conjure with among
will-

the Chinese, and the
ing,

ever China v/ere placed in

same
from

straits,

she would be the more

example, to entrust her cause to an English officer. As to the military
his

He

himself,

with characteristic modesty, was disposed to

achievements of General Gordon in China, nothing fresh can be said. They speak in-

minimize the importance of his services

;

and

deed for themselves, and they form the most
solid

he often declared that the Imperialists were certain to have overcome the Taepings eventually,

portion

of the reputation which

he

gained as a leader of men.
of the

In the history

although their caution and military

in-

Manchu dynasty he

will

be known as

experience might have prolonged the struggle.

" Chinese Gordon ; " although for others his
his heroic

Another opinion to which he strongly

adhered was, that the Chinese did not require

European leading, that they were very good

must needs give place, from and ever-regrettable death, to that of " Gordon of Khartoum."
earlier soubriquet

CHAPTER

VI.

PRINCE KUNQ AND THE REGENCY.

WHILE
f ekin.
to Jehol,

the

suppression of the
in pro-

of the

Dragon Throne

to

treat all othei

Taeping rebellion was

potentates as in

no degree equal to

himself.

gress, events of great interest

and importance happened

at

But the continued residence of the Emperor at Jehol was not popular with either his

When

the allied forces approached

that city in

1 860, the Emperor Hienfung fled and kept himself aloof from all the

own family or the inhabitants of Pekin. The members of the Manchu clan, who received a regular allowance during the Emperor's residence at Pekin,

peace negotiations which were conducted to
a successful conclusion by his brother. Prince

greatest straits,

were reduced to the and even to the verge of
Chinese naturally re-

Kung. After the signature of the convention
in

starvation, while the

Pekin, ratifying the Treaty of Tientsin,
his capital
;

sented the attempt to remove the capital to

he refused to return to

and he

any other
ity

place.

This abnegation of authorfor

even seems to have hoped that he might, by
asserting his Imperial prerogative, transfer the
capital

by Hienfung,

his

absence meant

nothing short of that, could not have been

from Pekin to Jehol, and thus evade
for-

prolonged
ror has

indefinitely, for

a Chinese Empe-

one of the principal concessions to the
eigners.

many
if

religious

and secular duties to

But

if

this

was impossible, he was

perform which no one else can discharge,

quite determined, for himself, to have nothing

and which,

not discharged, would reduce
to a nonenity.

do with them, and during the short remainder of his life he kept his Court at Jehol. While his brother was engaged in meeting
to

the office of

Emperor

His Case Hopeless.
Reports began to be spread of the serious
illness

the

difficulties

of diplomacy, and in arranging

the conditions of a novel situation, Hienfung,

of the Emperor, and a pamphlet which

by

collecting

round

his person the

most big-

enjoyed considerable circulation stated that
" his doctors declared his case to

oted

men

of his family, showed that he precounsellors

ferred

those

nothing from recent

who had learnt events, and who would
Prominent

and

be hopeless, he promptly abandoned some pernicious habits, he could not hope to
that,

even

if

support him in his claims to undiminished
superiority

hve beyond six months."
evidence went to

All the available

and

inaccessibility.

show

that he did not take

the men in his confidence was Prince and among his advisers were several inexperienced and impulsive members of the

among
Tsai,

any precautions, but during the

summer

nothing definite was stated as to his health,

although rumors of the gravity of Hienfung's
complaint continued to
that the
circulate so freely

Manchu

family.

They were

all

agreed

in the

policy of recovering, at the earliest possible

moment, what they considered to be the
natural and prescriptive right of the occupant

announcement of his death at any moment would not have caused surprise. The superstitious were the more disposed to

122

PRINCE KUNG

AND THE REGENCY.
ing their

123

believe that something extraordinary might

own

plan of action, and in making

happen, because a comet appeared in the sky

sure of the fidelity of a certain
troops.

number

of

and remained some weeks
in mediaeval

;

for in China, as

Europe,

it

was held

"Wheii beggars die there are no comets seen, The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of
princes."

In August Prince

Kung

hastened to Jehol,

the object of his journey, and indeed the

journey

itself,

being kept secret.

Not merely

was Hienfung dying, but it had become known to Prince Kung and his friends that he had
left

the governing authority during the minor-

ity of his son,

a child less than six years of

age, to a

Board of Regency composed of eight of the least intelligent and most arrogant and self-seeking members of the Imperial family, with Prince Tsai at their head.

The Emperor

died on the 22d of August.

A few hours later the Imperial decree notifying the last wishes of the ruler as to the

Throughout these preparations Prince Kung was ably and energetically supported by his brother, Prince Chun, by his colleague, Wansiang, and by his aged fatherin-law, the minister Kweiliang. But the conspirators could not keep the young Emperor at Jehol indefinitely, and when, at the end of October, it became known that he was on the point of returning to Pekin, it was clear that the hour of conflict had arrived. At Jehol the Board of Regency could do little harm; but once its pretensions and legality were admitted at the capital, all the ministers would have to take their orders from it, and to resign the functions which they had retained. The main issue was whether Prince Kung or Prince Tsai was to be supreme.
Arrival of the Emperor.

mode

of government was promulgated.

The

Board of Regency assumed the nominal
control of
affairs,

On

the 1st of

November the young Emstate.
It

proclaimed
Chiseang.

and Hienfung's son was Emperor under the style of

peror entered his capital in
said that
in

was

he was driven through the streets sitting on his mother's lap, while the Empress Dowager, or the princia carriage,
pal
seat in the

Intrigue to Obtain

Power.

In

ail

of these arrangements neither Prince

widow of Hienfung, occupied another same carriage; but no European

Kung
part.

nor his brothers, nor the responsible

ministers at the capital,

had had the smallest

saw the cortege, because Prince Kung had asked the ministers as a favor to keep
actually
their
suites

It was an intrigue among certain members of the Imperial clan to possess themselves of the ruling power, and for a time it seemed as if their intrigue would be only too successful. Nothing happened during the months of September and Octo-

at

home

until

the procession

reached the palace.

A

large

number

ot

soldiers, still dressed in their

white mourn-

ing,

accompanied

their Sovereign

from Jehol

but Shengpao's garrison was
of Prince

infinitely

more

numerous, and thoroughly loyal to the cause

ber to

disturb

their

confidence,
at

for

they

Kung.

The

majority of the Re-

remained at Jehol, and

Pekin the routine

gents had arrived with the reigning prince;

of government continued to be performed

those

who had
its

not yet

by Prince Kung. That statesman and his colleagues employed the interval in arrang-

road, escorting the dead

come were on the body of Hienfung

towards

resting-place.

124
If a

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
Emperor.

blow was to be struck at all, now was it. The Regents had not merely placed themselves in the power of their opponent, but they had actually brought with them the young Emperor, without whose
the time to strike

Two

precedents for the adminisv

tration being entrusted to

an empress were

person Prince
little.

Prince

Kung could have accomplished Kung had .spared no effort to

by the Hanlin doctors during the Ming dynasty, when the Emperors Chitsong and Wanleh were minors. Special edicts were issued and arrangements made for
easily found

the transaction of business during the continuance of the Regency, and as neither of

and had fortunately succeeded in obtaining, the assistance and co-operation of the Empress Dowager, Hienfung's principal widow, named Tsi An. Her assent had been
secure,

the empresses

knew Manchu
in

it

was

specially

provided that papers and documents, which

were always presented

that

language,

obtained to the proposed plot before the
arrival in Pekin,

should be translated into Chinese.
Concurrently with these measures for the
settlement of the
closing scenes in the

and

it

now only remained

to carry

it

out.

Regency happened the drama of conspiracy
at

Not Given a Choice.

which began so successfully
plete success

Jehol and

On

the day following the entry into the

capital, Prince

Kung

hastened to the palace,

and, producing before the astonished Regents

an Imperial Edict ordering
decree of
their Sovereign,
in his

their dismissal,

For comwas necessary that all the ringleaders should be captured, and some of them were still free.
ended so dramatically at Pekin.

and security

it

he asked them whether they obeyed the
or whether
to

he

Arrested and Executed.

must

call

soldiers

compel them.

The

bravest,

if

not the ablest, of the late

Prince Tsai

and

his

companions had no
but,

choice save to signify their acquiescence in

what they could not prevent

;

on leav-

ing the chamber in which this scene took
place, they hastened towards the

Board of Regency, Sushuen, remained at large. He had been charged with the high and honorable duty of escorting the remains of Hienfung to the capital. It was most
important that he should be seized before he

Emperor's

apartments in order to remonstrate against
their dismissal, or to obtain

became aware of the
his colleagues.

fate that

had

befallen

from him some

Prince

Chun

volunteered to
for-

counteredict reinstating
tions.

them in their posiThey were prevented from carrying

capture the

last,

and

in

a sense the most

midable, of the intriguers himself, and on

out their purpose, but this proof of contu-

the

very

macy

sealed their fate.

They were promptly
official

happened
at the

at Pekin

day that the events described he rode out of the capital
following

arrested,

and a second decree was issued

head of a body of Tartar cavalry.
the

ordering their degradation from their

On

night

Prince

Chun

and hereditary rank.
his allies

To

Prince

Kung and

reached the spot where he was encamped,

was entrusted the charge of trying and punishing the offenders. The next step was the proclamation of a new Regency, composed of the two empresses, Tsi

him Sushuen did not restrain his indignation, and betrayed the ulterior plans entertained by himself and his associates by
and, breaking into the house, arrested
whilst in bed.

fung,

An, principal widow of Hienand Tsi Thsi, mother of the young

declaring that Prince

Chun had been only

just in time to prevent a similar fate befalling

PRINCE KUNG
himself.

AND THE REGENCY.
rials
first

125

He was

at

once placed on his

trial

that "if the Imperial household be the
to begin misunderstandings " there

with the other prisoners, and on the loth of

was
not

November the order was given in the Emperor's name for their execution. Sushuen was executed on the public ground set apart
for that

no
fail

telling

where the excitement would not
could

extend.

These representations
after his fall Prince

to produce their due effect.

purpose;

but to the others, as a
their connection with the

Five weeks
reinstated,
offices,

Kung was
in all his

special favor

from

on the 8th of May,

Imperial family, was sent the silken cord,

with the exception of that of Presi-

with which they were permitted to put an

dent of the Council.

This episode, which

end to their existence.
Strange Stroke of Misfortune.

might have produced grave complications,
closed with a return to almost the precise
state of things previously existing. There was one important difference. The two empresses had asserted their predominance. Prince Kung had hoped to be supreme, and

The

events

of this introductory period

may be

appropriately concluded with the

strange stroke of misfortune that befell Prince

Kung

in the spring of 1865, and which seemed to show that he had indulged some

to rule uncontrolled.

From

this

time forth

he was content to be their minister and ad-

views of personal ambition.

The
if

affaii;

had

probably a secret history, but
is

so the truth

on terms similar to those that would have applied to any other official.
viser,

hardly likely to be ever known.
facts

The
Trouble in Remote Quarters.

known
April,

were as follows

:

On

the 2d of

1865, there appeared an edict degrad-

The year

1865, which witnessed this very

ing the Prince in the name of the two Regent-

interesting event in the history of the Chinese

him was of having grown arrogant and assumed privileges to which he had no right. He was at first "diligent and circumspect," but he has now become disposed "to overrate
Empresses.
against
his

The charge made

Government, beheld before

its

close the de-

parture of Sir Frederick Bruce from Pekin,

and the appointment of Sir Rutherford Alcock, who had been the first British minister
to Japan during the critical period of the in-

own

importance."

In consequence, he

troduction of foreign intercourse with that
country, to
fill

was deprived of all his appointments and dismissed from the scene of public affairs. There was not much likelihood that a man who had taken so decisive a share in arranging the accession of the ruling prince, and in the appointment of the Regents during his minority, would tamely acquiesce in being set on one side by the decree of two women. All his friends on the Imperial Council petitioned the Throne, representing in the plainest

the post of Resident Min-

ister at Pekin.

While the events which have been set forth were happening in the heart of China, other misfortunes yet had befallen the executive in the more remote quarters of the realm, but resulting none the less in the loss and ruin of provinces, and in the subversion^
of

the Emperor's

authority.

Two

great

uprisings of the people occurred in opposite
directions,

terms the great inconvenience that would be

both commencing while the Taepfull

by the withdrawal of Prince Kung from the control of public affairs. It was
entailed
significantly observed in

ing rebellion was in

force,

and continu-

ing to disturb the country for
after its suppression.

one of these memo-

many years The one had for its

126

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
The Panthay
the
first

scene the great south-western province of

rising calls for description in
it

Yunnan

;

the other the two provinces of the

place, because

began

at

an

earlier

north-west, Shensi and Kansuh, and extend-

period than the other, and also because the
details
fidelity.

ing thence westwards to the Pamir.

They

have been preserved with

greater

resembled each other in one point, and that

was that they were instigated and sustained by the Mahomedan population alone. The Panthays and the Tungani were
either

indigenous

tribes

or foreign immi-

Mahomedanism is believed to have been introduced into Yunnan in or about the year 1275, and it made most progress among the so-called aboriginal tribes, the Lolos and the Mantzu. The officials were

CHINESE PEDLER.
grants

who had adopted

or imported the

mostly Chinese or Tartars, and,
cally
free

left

practi-

tenets of Islam.

Their sympathies with the

from control, they more often
it

Pekin Government were probably never very
great,

abused their power than sought to employ
for the benefit of the

but they were impelled in both cases

people they governed.

to revolt

more by

local

tyranny than by
ofif

In the very
(185
1)

first

year of Hienfung's reign

any

distinct desire to cast
;

the authority

a petition reached the capital from a

of the Chinese

but, of course, the obvious

embarrassment of the central executive encouraged by simplifying the task of rebellion.

Mahomedan land proprietor in Yunnan named Ma Wenchu, accusing the Emperor's
officials

of the gravest crimes, and praying

PRINCE KUNG AND THE REGENCY.
that

127

"a

just

sent to redress the

and honest man" might be wrongs of an injured and
carefully read
;

tion

to avenge

him, and fled to join the In

Mahomedan

fugitives in the mountains.

long-suffering people.

this secure retreat

they

rallied their forces,

The

petition

was

and favor-

and, driven to desperation
of want, they
left their

by the promptings
lost.

ably considered at the capital
gracious answer the

but beyond a

fastnesses with the

Emperor was at the time powerless to apply a remedy to the evil. Four years passed away without any open
manifestation of the deep discontent smoul-

view of regaining what they had
this

In

they succeeded better than they could
for.

have hoped
defeat;

The Chinese

population

experienced in their turn the bitterness of

dering below the surface.

But

in

185s the

Chinese and the
relled in

Mahomedan

laborers quar-

difficulty in

and the mandarins had the less concluding a temporary under-

one of the principal mines of the

standing between the exhaused combatants.
Tranquillity

province, which is covered with mines of It seems that the gold, iron, and copper.
greater success of the

was

restored,

and the miners

resumed

their occupations.

Mahomedans

in the

uncertain pursuit of mining
displeasure of the Chinese.
in

had roused the
Disputes ensued,

Plot for a General Massacre.

But the peace was deceptive, and in a
fury.

little

which the Mussulmans added success in combat to success in mining ; and the official
appointed to superintend the mines, instead
of remaining with a view to the restoration of
order,

time the struggle was renewed with increased
In this emergency the idea occurred
to some of the officials that an easy and efficacious remedy of the difficulty in which they found themselves would be provided by the massacre of the whole Mussulman population. In this plot the foremost part was taken by Hwang Chung, an official who He sucbitterly hated the Mahomedans.

sought

tate flight his

by precipiDuring to the town of Yunnan.
his personal safety

absence the Chinese population raised a
masse,

levy en

attacked the

Mahomedans

who had

gained a momentary triumph, and

compelled them by sheer weight of numbers
to beat a hasty retreat to their

ceeded in obtaining the acquiescence of
his

all

own homes

in

colleagues with

the exception of the

a

different part of

the province.

Viceroy of the province,
support,

who exposed

the

iniquity of the design, but who, destitute of

Ill-Will Against the

Mahomedans.

all

This success was the signal for a general
outcry against the Mahomedans,

cution.

At

was powerless to prevent its exethe least he resolved to save his

who had
ill-will

long been the object of the secret
the other inhabitants.
in several parts

of

Massacres took place
flee for their lives.

honor and reputation by committing suicide, and he and his wife were found one morning hanging up in the hall of the yamen. His
death simplified the execution of the project

of Yunnan, and the followers

of the Prophet

had to

which
vented.

his

refusal

might possibly have pre-

Among

those

who were

slain

during these

popular disorders was a young chief named

The
St.

19th
the

of

May, 1856, was the date
of
this

Sucheng; and when the news of his murder reached his native village, his younger brother. Ma Sien, who had just received a
small military

Ma

fixed for

celebration

Chinese

Bartholomew.

But the secret had not

command, declared

his inten-

The Mahomedans, whether warned or suspicious, distrusted the authoribeen well kept.

128
ties

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
and
their neighbors,

and stood valiantly

on

their guard.

At

this time they looked

among his co-religionists. therefore a man in high repute.
highest

He was

chiefly to

a high priest named

Ma Tesing for

While
due to

Ma Tesing exercised the
age and

supremacy

guidance and instruction.
the alert they were, after extent

But although on
all,

his

attainments, the

young

taken to some

and many of them were massacred after a more or less unavailing resistance. But if many of the Mussulmans were slain, the survivors were inspired with a desperation which the mandarins had never contemplated. From one end of Yunnan to

by

surprise,

chief Ma Sien led the rebels in the field. His energy was most conspicuous, and in

the year 1858 he thought he was sufficiently strong to make an attack upon the city of

His attack was baffled by the resolute defence of an officer named Lin Tzuchin, who had shown great courage as a

Yunnan

itself.

the other the

personal

peril,

Mahomedans, in face of great rose by a common and sponto take a hasty refuge in the

partisan leader against the insurgents before

taneous impulse, and the Chinese population

provincial capital. to beat a retreat,

he was entrusted with the defence of the Ma Sien was compelled

was compelled
towns.

and

to devote himself to the

organization of the

many thousand
signified their

Ijen or

Lolos recruits

who

attachment

They Held

the City.

At

Talifoo,

where the Mahomedans formed
fighting occurred,

a considerable portion of the population, the

For the successful defence of Yunnan, Lin was made a Titu, and gradually collected into his own hands such authority
to his cause. as
still

most desperate

and

after

remained to the Emperor's lieutenants.
Suicide of a Mandarin.

three days' carnage the Mussulmans, under

Tu Wensiu, were
city.

left

in possession of the

Their success inspired them with the hope of retaining the freedom they had won,

On

both sides preparations were made for

the renewal of the struggle, but before the

and, impressed with the conviction that noth-

year 1858 ended
repulse at the

ing would atone for their acts of rebellion in
the eyes of the government, they had no choice save to exert themselves for the retention of their independence.

Ma Sien met with a second town of Linan. The year 1859 w^s "°t marked by any event of signal
on the whole to the Mussulmans.
year the

importance, although the balance of success
inclined

The

rebels did

not remain without leaders,

whom
;

they

will-

But

in the following

Mahomedans

ingly recognized and obeyed
shihs, or chiefs,

for the

kwanof

who had

accepted

titles

drew up a large force, computed to exceed 50,000 men, round Yunnanfoo, to which they
laid

authority from the
allegiance

Chinese, cast off their

vigorous siege.
at

The

Imperialists were

and placed themselves at the head The priest Ma of the popular movement. Tesing was raised to the highest post of all as Dictator, but Tu Wensiu admitted no
higher authority than
walls of Talifoo.
his

taken

a

disadvantage,

and the large
fled for shelter
of

number
into the

of people

who had
for

town rendered the small store
less

provisions
defence.

sufficient

a

protracted

own

within the

Ma

Tesing had performed

Yunnanfoo was on the point of surrender when an event occurred which not
merely relieved
altered the
it from its predicament, but whole complexion of the struggle. The garrison had made up its mind to

the pilgrimage to Mecca, he

had resided

at

Constantinople for two years, and his reputation
for

knowledge and

saintliness stood

PRINCE KUNG
yield.

AND THE REGENCY.
sible personal

129

Even the brave Lin had accepted the

advantage with the minimum
Powerful as they were,
leaders seeking

and begun to negotiate with the Ma Sien and the priest Ma Teaing. Those chiefs, with victory in their grasp, manifested an unexpected and surprising moderation. Instead of demanding from Lin a complete and unconditional surrender, they began to discuss with him what terms could be agreed upon for the cessation of the war and for the restoration
inevitable,

of

risk.

But they were also influenced by

two

rebel leaders,

other considerations.
there were other

Mahomedan

to acquire the supreme position among their co-religionists and foremost among these was Tu Wensiu, who had reduced the whole of Western Yunnan to his sway, and reigned
;

at Talifoo.

The Mahomedan
two such men as

cause, important as

it

of tranquillity to the province.

At

first

it

was, did not afford scope for the ambitions of

was thought that these propositions con-

Ma Julung and Tu Wensiu.

some intended treachery, but their sincerity was placed beyond dispute by the
cealed
suicide of the

The former
tical

availed himself of the favorable

opportunity to settle this difficulty in a pracand, as
profitable

mandarin

Hwang Chung, who

had
their

first

instigated the people to massacre

most
ally,

he shrewdly anticipated, the manner for himself person-

Mahomedan

brethren.

by

giving in his adhesion to the govern-

ment.
Deserters to the Government.

The terms

of peace were promptly ar-

Every

Man

for Himself.

ranged, and a request was forwarded to Pekin
for the ratification of a convention

This important defection did not bring in
its

concluded

under the pressure of necessity with some of
the rebel leaders.
fact that this

train any certainty of tranquillity. Incited by the example of their leaders, every petty

The

better to conceal the

arrangement had been made
disafifected,

and chief thought himself deserving of the highest honors, and resolved to fight
officer

with the principal leader of the

for his

own

hand.

Ma Julung left Yunnan-

Ma

Sien changed his

name

to

Ma

Julung,
in

foo for the purpose of seizing a neighboring

and received the rank of general

the

Chinese service; while the high priest accepted as his share the not inconsiderable

town which had revolted, and during his absence one of his lieutenants seized the capital, murdered the Viceroy, and threatened to plunder the inhabitants.

pension of ;^28,ooo a month.
It is

Ma Julung
and as
Tesing

impossible to divine the true reasons
to the side of

was summoned to return was
elected Viceroy.

in hot haste,

which actuated these instigators of rebellion
in their decision to

a temporary expedient the priest

Ma

go over

the government.
that they

They

probably thought
secure
all

When Ma

Julung returned with

his

army

had done

sufficient to

practical advantages,
in hostilities

and that any persistence

he had to lay siege to Yunnanfoo, and although he promptly effected an entrance
into the city,
it

would only result in the increased impoverishment of the province. misery and They thought that their kinsmen and followers would obtain justice and security;
and, as for themselves, no

took

five days'

hard fighting
occupation

in the streets before the force in

moment would be

more opportune for securing the largest pos9

was expelled. The insurgent officer was captured, exposed to the public gaze for one month in an iron cage, and then executed in a cruel manner. Ma Tesing was deposed

130

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
and a new Chinese Vice-

from the elevated position which he had held
for so short a time,

roy arrived from Kweichow.

The year 1863

opened with the

first

active operations against

Tu Wensui, who,

during these years of dis-

With the year 1867, both sides having collected their strength, more active operations were commenced, and Ma Julung proceeded in person, at the head of the best troops he could collect, to engage Tu
Wensiu.

order in central Yunnan, had been governing
the western districts with
It

would have been

better

some prudence. if they had not
in
It

The Red
was

Flag.

been undertaken, for they only resulted
the defeat of the detachments sent

at this time that the Imperialists
in

by

Ma

adopted the red flag as their standard
contradistinction
to

Julung to engage the despot of Talifoo.
Rejected with Disdain.

the white flag of the

insurgents.

A

desultory campaign ensued,

Force having
diplomacy, and

failed,

they had recourse to
sent to sound

Julung evinced both courage and capacity, the result was on the whole
but although
unfavorable to him; and he had to retreat
to the capital,

Ma

Ma Tesing was

Tu Wensiu
tate their

as to

whether he would not imi-

where events of some import-

example and make his peace with the authorities. These overtures were rejected with disdain, and

ance had occurred during his absence in the
field.

The Viceroy, who had been staunchly

Tu Wensiu

pro-

attached to

Ma

Julung, died suddenly and

claimed his intention of holding out to the
last,

under such circumstances as to suggest a

and refused to recognize the wisdom
government.

or the necessity of coming to t^rms with

the

Ma Julung
sufficiently

The embarrassment of and the Yunnan officials, already
afcute,

and Tsen Yuying had by virtue of his rank of Futai assumed the temporary discharge of his duties. The
suspicion of foul play;
retreat of

Ma Julung
up
their

left

the insurgents free

was at conjuncture by an outbreak in their rear among the Miaotze and some other mountain tribes in the province of Kweithis

to follow

successes;

and

in

the

further aggrsn^ated

course of 1868, the authority of the

Em-

peror had disappeared from every other part
of the province except the prefectural city of Yunnanfoo.

chow.

To

the difficulty of coping with a

was thus added that of maintaining communications through a hostile and difficult region. third independent party had also come into existence in Yunnan, where an ex-Chinese official named Liang Shihmei had set up his own authority at Linan, mainly, it was said, through jealousy of the Mahomestrongly placed
in

enemy

front

This bad fortune led the Mussulmans

who

had followed the advice and fortunes of Ma Julung to consider whether it would not be
wise to rejoin their co-religionists, and to at

A

once

finish

the contest

by the destruction of

the government.
in his fidelity for a
all

Had Ma Julung wavered
moment they would have

joined the standard of

Tu Wensiu, and

dans taken into the service of the government.

the rule of the Sultan of Talifoo would have

The

greatest difficulty of all

was to
and
re-

reconcile

the

pretensions

of

the

different

been established from one end of Yunnan to the other, but he stood firm and arrested
the

commanders,
garded

for the Chinese officials,

movement

in a

summary manner.

the Futai Tsen

Yuying

in

particular,

Ma

Julung with no friendly eye.

having established the security of his communications with Burmah, whence

Tu Wensiu,

PRINCE KUNG AND THE REGENCY.
he obtained supplies of arms and munitions
of war, devoted his efforts to the capture of those of the rebel leaders
over,

131

who had come
this

and put them
natural

all

to a cruel death.
foolish

Yunnanfoo, which he completely invested.

The

consequence of

The

garrison

was

reduced to the lowest

and ferocious act was that the
stand firmly

Mahomedans

straits

before Tsen

Yuying resolved
town

to

to the aid of his distressed colleague.
loss

come The
not

again reverted to their desperate resolve to

of

the prefectural
entail

would

by the side of Tu Wensiu. The war again passed into a more active

merely
sonally
Pekin.
fore,

serious

consequences to the

phase.

Ma

Julung had recovered from his

Imperialist cause, but

he felt it would percompromise him as the Futai at

wounds.

In the early part of 1869, there-

he threw himself into the town with

three thousand men, and the forces of

Tu

Wensiu found themselves obliged draw from the eastern side of the
this

to withcity.

A new Viceroy, and a man of some energy, was sent from Pekin. Lin Yuchow had attracted the notice of Tseng Kwofan among those of his native province who had responded to his appeal to defend Hoonan against the Taepings sixteen years
before
last
;

A

and shortly before the death of the

long period of inaction followed, but during
time the most important events hapultimate result.

Viceroy of Yunnan, he had been made

Governor of Kweichow.
tron at Pekin he
the Viceroyalty.

To

the

same pa-

pened with regard to the

now owed
It is said

his elevation to

that he lost the
;

No Hope

of Success.
his artifice

energy which once characterized him

but

Julung employed all arguments to show the rebel

Ma

and

chiefs the utter

hopelessness of their succeeding against the

whole power of the Chinese Empire, which, from the suppression of the Taeping rebellion,

him several thousand Hoonan braves, whose courage and military experience made them invaluable auxiliaries to the embarrassed authorities in Yunnan.
he
brought
with

would soon be able
them.

to be

employed
also

Many Towns

Recovered.

against

They
and

felt

the force of his

representations,

they

were
the
after

op-

pressed by a sense of the slow progress

they had

made towards

capture of

The details of the campaign that followed would fail to be instructive, and the mention of names that are not merely uncouth but unpronounceable would only repel the
reader.

Yunnanfoo.

Some months

ying's arrival, those of the rebels

Tsen Yuwho were

The

result

is

the principal, or, in-

deed, the single fact worthy of our consideration.

encamped to the north of the
the government.

city hoisted

In the course of the year 1870
in

the red flag and gave in their adhesion to

most of the towns
north of

the south and the
recovered, and com-

Yunnan were

Then

Ma

Julung resumed active opera-

munications were re-opened with Szchuen.

tions against the other rebels,

and obtained
received

As soon

as the inhabitants perceived that the

several small successes.

A wound
Ma

government had recovered

during one of the skirmishes put an end to
'

its strength, they hastened to express their joy at the change

his activity,

and the campaign resumed But
Julung's

its
ill-

desultory character.
ness

by repudiating the white flag which Tu Wensiu had compelled them to adopt. The
Imperialists even to the last increased the
difficulty

for during

had other unfortunate consequences; it Tsen Yuying broke faith with

of their work

of pacification

by

132
exhibiting a

CHINA: PAST
relentless cruelty
;

AND PRESENT.
In this extremity Tu Wensiu, although there was every reason to believe that the Imperialists would not fulfil their pledges, and that surrender simply meant yielding to a cruel death, resolved to open negotiations with Yang Yuko for giving up the town. The

and while

the inhabitants thought to secure their safety

by a speedy
solve to resist.

surrender,

the

Mussulmans
in their re-

were rendered more desperate

The chances of a Mahomedan success were steadily diminishing when Yang Yuko,
a mandarin of some military capacity,

Emperor's generals signified their desire

for

*

who

the speedy termination of the siege, at the

had begun his career in the most approved manner as a rebel, succeeded in capturing the whole of the salt-producing district which had been the main source of their
strength.

same time expressing acquiescence
general proposition of the

in

the

garrison being

admitted to terms.

Although the Futai and
to the
fall

Yang Yuko had promptly come
Talifoo

In the year 1872

all

the prelimi-

mutual understanding to celebrate the

of

nary arrangements were made for attacking

by a wholesome massacre, they exon the surrender of

had been received from Canton or Shanghai, and a few pieces of artillery had also arrived. With these improved weapons the troops of Ma Julung and Tsen Yuying enjoyed a distinct
Talifoo
itself.

A supply

of

rifles

pressed their intention to spare the other
rebels

Tu Wensiu

for

execution and on the payment of an indemnity.

The terms were

accepted, although the

advantage over the rebels of Talifoo.

A
The

more experienced of the rebels warned their comrades that they would not be complied
with.

Terrible Plague.

On

the isth of January, 1873,

Tu
the

horrors of war were at this point in-

Wensiu, the original of the mythical Sultan
Suliman, the fame of whose power
world, and
filled

creased by those of pestilence, for the plague

broke out
and,

at

Puerh on the southern
it

frontier,

who had been an

object of the

before

disappeared, devastated the
effect

solicitude of the Indian

government, accepted

whole of the province, completing the
of the
civil

the decision of his craven followers as express-

war, and ruining the few districts
its

ing the will of Heaven, and gave himself up
for execution.

which had escaped from
direct

ravages.

The

command

of the siege operations at

was entrusted to Yang Yuko, a hunchback general, who had obtained a reputation for invincibility; and when Tsen Yuying had completed his own operations
Talifoo

Rode

in State to

His Death.

He

attired himself in his best

and choicest

garments, and seated himself in the yellow

palanquin which he had adopted as one of
the few marks of royal state that his opportunities

he also proceeded to the camp before the Mahomedan capital for the purpose of taking part in the crowning operation of the
war.

allowed

him to

secure.

Accom-

panied by the

men who had

negotiated the

surrender, he drove through the streets re-

Tu Wensiu and

the garrison of Talifoo,

ceiving for the last time the people,

homage

of his

although driven to desperation, could not discover any issue from their difficulties.

They were reduced
tution,

to the last stage of destiface.

and starvation stared them in the

and out beyond the gates to Yang Yuko's camp. Those who saw the cortege marvelled at the calm indifference of the fallen despot. He seemed to have as little

PRINCE KUNG
roundings.
dent.

AND THE REGENCY.
common
benefited
to

133
struggles.

fear of his fate as consciousness of his sur-

Oriental

Nobody

The

truth

soon

He had

baffled his enemies

became eviby taking

by

the contest, and the prosperity

of Yunnan, which at one time had been far

slow poison.
of the Futai,

Before he reached the presence

from inconsiderable, sank to the lowest possible point.

who had wished

to gloat over

the possession of his prisoner, the opium had

A new class
was a

of

officials

came

to the front
fidelity

and Tu Wensiu was no seemed but an inadequate triumph to sever the head from the dead body, and
done
its

work,

during this period of disorder, and
sufficient passport to

more.

It

a certain rank.
of European
;

Ma

Julung, the Marshal

Ma

to send

it

preserved in honey as the proof of

travellers,

gained a

still

higher station

and
col-

victory to Pekin.

notwithstanding the

jealousy of his

A
Four days
Imperialists

leagues, acquired practical

supremacy

in the

Frightful Slaughter,
after

province.

The high

priest.

Ma

Tesing,

who

Tu Wensiu 's

death, the

may be
1

considered as the prime instigator of

were

in

complete possession of

the movement, was executed or poisoned in

the town, and a week later they had taken
all their
fell

874
all

at the instigation of some of the Chinese

measures for the execution of the

officials.

Yang Yuko,
It

the most successful

plan upon which they had decided.

A

of

the generals,

only enjoyed a brief

great feast

was given

for the celebration of

tenure of power.
dissatisfied with his
in-chief,

the convention, and the most important of the

was said that he was position as commander-

Mahbmedan commanders, including those who had negotiated the truce, were present. At a given signal they were attacked and
murdered by
soldiers concealed in the gal-

and aspired to a higher rank. He was summoned to Pekin, but never got further than Shanghai, where he died, or was
also

removed.

But,

although
this part

quiet

gradually
it

lery for the purpose, while six

cannon shots

descended upon

of China,

was

announced to the soldiery that the hour had arrived for them to break loose on the defenceless townspeople.

long before prosperity followed in

its train.

The

scenes that

fol-

Wide-Spread Discontent.

lowed are stated to have surpassed description.
It

About six years
of discontent
south-west,

after

the

first

mutterings
in the

was computed that 30,000 men
fall

among the Mahomedans
disturbances

alone

perished after the
capital,

of the old

occurred in

the

Pathay

and the Futai sent to Yunlarge

north-west provinces of Shensi and Kansuh,

nanfoo twenty-four

baskets

full

of

human

ears,

as well

as the heads

of the

where there had been many thousand followers of Islam since an early period of
Chinese
history.

seventeen chiefs.

They were

generally

With the capture of
j

Talifoo the

great

obedient subjects
of the soil
;

Mahomedan
which
the

rebellion in the south-west, to

and sedulous cultivators but they were always liable to
of fanaticism or turbulsaid that during the later

Burmese

gave

the

name

of

sudden
ence,

ebullitions
it

Panthay, closed, after a desultory struggle
of nearly eighteen years.

and

was

The war was

con-

years of his reign

Keen Lung had meditated
fifteen.

ducted with exceptional ferocity on both
sides,

a wholesale execution of the male population

and witnessed more than the usual
of
falseness

above the age of

The

threat,

it

amount

and breach of

faith

ever made, was never carried out, but the

134
report suffices to

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
frontier provinces

show the extent to which danger was apprehended from the Tungan
population.

appealed to the secret fears

as well as to the longings of the
settlers

Tungan

and

soldiers in all

the towns and

The

true origin of the great outbreak in

military stations between
gar.

Souchow and Kashperil,

1862 in Shensi seems to have been a quarrel between the Chinese and the Mahomedan
militia as to their share

The
led

sense of a

common
at

more

perhaps than the desire to attain the same
object,

of the spoil derived

to

revolts

Hami, Barkul,

from th« defeat and overthrow of a brigand
leader.
rial

Urumtsi, and Turfan, towns which formed a

After

some bloodshed, two Impe-

group of industrious communities half-way
between the prosperous
districts

Commissioners were sent from Pekin to
order.

of

Kansuh
other.

restore

The

principal

Mahomedan

on the one

side,

and Kashgar on the

murder the commissioners, and on their arrival he rushed into their presence and slew one of them with his
leader formed a plot to

Another Insurrection.

The Tungani
tated

at

these

towns revolted
priests,

own hand.

His co-religionist deplored the

under the leading of their
the

and

imi-

rash act, and voluntarily seized and sur-

example of

their

co-religionists

rendered him for the purpose of undergoing

within the settled borders of China

by mur-

a cruel death.
pieces,

But, although he
fact did

was torn to

dering
After a

all

who

did not accept their creed.

that

not satisiy the out-

brifef interval,

which we

may attribute

raged dignity of the Emperor.

to the greatness of the distance, to the vigi-

lance of the

Chinese garrison, or to the
population, the

The Hated Mahomedan. A command was issued in Tungche's name to the effect that all those who persisted in following the creed of

apathy of
of Turfan,

the

movement
Aksu, and was
under

spread to the three towns immediately west

Karashar, Kucha, and
into contact with,

Islam should

where

it

came
by,

perish

by the sword.

From

Shensi the out-

stopped

another

insurrection

break spread into the adjoining province of

Kansuh
quished

;

and the local garrisons were vanin

a pitched battle at Tara Ussu,
frontier.

beyond the regular

The insurgents

Mahomedan, but totally distinct, auspices. West of Aksu the Tungan rebellion never extended south of the Tian Shan range. The defection of the Tungani, who had
formed a large proportion,
of
the
if

did not succeed, however, in taking any of

not the majority, paralyzed
the

the larger towns of Shensi, and after threat-

Chinese

garrisons,

ening with capture the once famous city of
Singan, they were gradually expelled from
that province.

strength of the Celestials in

Central Asia.
Hi,

Both

in the districts

dependent on

and

in

The Mahomedan

rebellion

those ruled from Kashgar and Yarkand, the

within the limits of China proper would not,

Chinese were beset by

have possessed more than local importance, but for the fact that it encourtherefore,

manent
divided

difficulties.

strength a minority,

many great and perThey were with united and now that they were

aged

a

similar

outbreak
it

in

the country

among

themselves almost a hopeless

further west,

and that

resulted in the sever-

minority.

ance of the Central Asian provinces from

The
false,

peoples they governed were fanatical,
fickle.

China

for

a period of

The

uprising of

many years. the Mahomedans

and

The

ruler of

Khokand and

in the

the refugees living on his bounty were always

PRINCE KUNG
on the
alert to take least slip or act of

AND THE REGENCY.

135

most advantage of the
Their machinations

weakness on the part of

were disturbances as early as January, 1863, these were suppressed, and the vigilance
the authorities sufficed to keep things quit,
for another year.

the governing classes.

had been hitherto baffled, but never before had so favorable an opportunity presented
itself for

Their subsequent inca-

pacity, or hesitation to strike a

prompt blow,

attaining their wishes as

became known that the population was up in arms against the Emperor, and that communications were severed between Kashgar and Pekin. The attempts made at earUer periods on the part of the members of the old ruling family in Kashgar to regain their own by expelling
the Chinese are a part of history.

when it whole Mahomedan

enabled the

Mahomedans

to husband their

resources and to complete their plans.

A

temporary alliance was concluded between
the Tungani and the Tarantchis and they

hastened to attack the Chinese troops and
officials.

The year 1865 was marked by

the pro-

gress of a sanguinary struggle, during which

the Chinese lost their principal towns, and

some of
Fled from the Country.
In 1857 Wali Khan, one of the sons of
Jehangir,

their

garrisons

were

ruthlessly

slaughtered
scenes

after
civil

surrender.
followed.

The

usual
the

of

war

When

had succeeded

in gaining

temporary

Chinese were

completely vanquished and
themselves.

possession of the city of Kashgar, and seemed
for

their garrisons exterminated, the victors quar-

a

moment

to be likely to capture
fell

Yark-

relled

among

The Tungani and

and

also.

He

by

his vices.

The people

the Tarantchis met in mortal encounter, and the former were vanquished and their chief
slain.

soon detested the presence of the man to whom they had accorded a too hasty welcome.
After a rule of four months he fled
the country, vanquished in the field

When

they renewed
later,

the
after

contest,

some months

they were,

another

by the
to

sanguinary struggle, again overthrown.

Chinese garrison, and followed by the execrations of the population he
deliver.

had come

Horrors of Civil War.

The
invasion of Wali

Tarantchis then ruled the state

by

The

Khan

further embit-

themselves, but the example they set of
native rule was, to say the least, not en-

tered the relations between the Chinese and
their subjects;

and a succession of governors

couraging.

One

chief

after

another was
in the

bore heavily

on the Mahomedans. Popular dissatisfaction and the apprehension in the
minds of the governing
officials

deposed and murdered.
nessed no fewer than

The same year witfive

leaders

that their

lives

might be

forfeited at

any moment to a
itself,

supreme place of power; and when Abul Oghlan assumed the title of Sultan the cup
of their iniquities was already
full.

popular outbreak added to the dangers of
the situation in

In the

Kashgar

when the
and of

year 1871 an end was at

last

put to these

news arrived of the Tungan
the

revolt,

many

other complications which
ruler.

hamin

pered the action of the Pekin

enormities by the occupation of the province by a Russian force, and the installation of a Russian governor. Although it is probable
that they were only induced to take this step

The news

of the

Mahomedan outbreak
in

China warned the Tungani
opportunity had come.

Hi that their

But although there

by the fear that if they did not do so Yakoob Beg would, the fact remains that the Russian

136

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
in the

government did a good thing

cause of

cordial.

The commercial and missionary

order by interfering for the restoration of
tranquillity in the valley of the Hi.

The Mahomedan
fore, in

outbreaks in southwest-

which the foreign community was naturally divided, had objects of trade or religion to advance, which rendered them
bodies, into

ern and northwestern China resulted, there-

apt to take an unfavorable view of the progress

the

gradual

suppression

of

the
in

made by

the Chinese government in

Panthay
the

rebellion,

which was completed

the paths of
tical

civilization,

and

to

be ever skep-

the twelfth year of Tungche's reign, while

even of its good

faith.

Tungan

rising,

so far as the Central

Asian

territories

were concerned, remained

Trying to Obtain Justice.

unquelled for a longer period.
led to the establishment of

The

latter

The main

object with the foreign diplo-

an independent Tungan confederacy beyond Kansuh, and
also of the

matic representatives became not more to
obtain justice for their
restrain their eagerness,

countrymen than

to

kingdom of Kashgaria ruled by

Yakoob Beg.

The

revolt in Hi, after several

alternations of fortune resulted in the brief

independence of the Tarantchis,

who were

in turn displaced by the Russians under

and to confine their pretensions to the rights conceded by the treaties. A clear distinction had to be drawn between undue coercion of the Chinese government on the one hand, and the
effectual

a pledge of restoring the province to the
Chinese whenever they should return.

compulsion of the people to evince
foreigners

respect towards

and to comply
occurred
in

with the obligations

of the treaty on the

Only a Question of Time.
Judged by the extent of the
involved, the
territory

other.

Instances

repeatedly

Mahomedan
less

rebellion

might

be said to be not

important than the

when it would have been foolish to have shown weakness, especially as there was not the least room to
reference to the latter matter,

Taeping

;

but the comparison on that ground

suppose that the government possessed at
that time the

alone would be really delusive, as the numerical inferiority of the
it

power and the capacity
for,

to

Mahomedans rendered

secure reparation

or

to

prevent

the

always a question only of time for the cen-

repetition of attacks

on

foreigners.
at

tral

power to be restored. The young Emperor Tungche, therefore, grew up amidst continual difficulties, although

Under

this
in

category came the riot
the year 1868,
their

Yangchow
missionaries

when some

had

houses burnt down,

the successes of his principal lieutenants affor-

ded good reason to believe that, so far as they arose from rebels, it was only a question of time before they would be finally removed.

The

foreign intercourse

still

gave cause

for

and were otherwise maltreated. similar outrage was perpetrated in Formosa; but the fullest redress was always tendered as soon as the Executive realized that the European representatives attached importance to the occurrence.
bring

A

much

anxiety, although there was no appreIt

The

recurrence of

hension of war.
reasonable
to

would have been unthe relations

these local dangers and disputes served to

suppose that

more

clearly

than ever before

the

between the foreign merchants and residents and the Chinese could become, after the suspicion

and dangers of generations, absolutely

minds of the Chinese Ministers the advisability of taking some step on their own part towards an understanding with European

PRINCE KUNG
governments and peoples.

AND THE REGENCY.
foreigners,

137

The

proposal to

she refused the remedy forced upon her by

depute a Chinese ambassador to the West
could hardly be said to be new, seeing that
it

who had

at least as

much

their

own

interests as

hers in view, declared that

had been projected

after the

Treaty of

Mr. Burlingame's statements were " enthusiastic fictions."

Nankin, and that the minister Keying had
manifested

some

desire to be the first

man-

darin to serve in that novel capacity.

The Chinese themselves did not attach as much importance as they might have done
and Mr. Burlingame's Mission remembered more as an educational be process for foreigners than as signifying any
to his efforts,
will

The American
The
sented
itself

Minister.

favorable opportunity of doing so pre-

when Mr. Burlingame
Minister

retired

decided
death at

change
St.

in

Chinese

policy.

His

from

his

post as

of the United

Petersburg, in March, 1870, put

States at Pekin.

In the winter of 1867-68 Mr. Burlingame accepted an appointment as

a sudden and unexpected close to his tour,

but

it

cannot be said that he could have

accredited representative of the Chinese gov-

done more towards the elucidation of Chinese
questions than he had already accomplished,

ernment to eleven of the principal countries of the world, and two Chinese mandarins

while his bold and
after

optimistic

statements,

and a certain number of Chinese students were appointed to accompany him on his tour. The importance of the Burlingame Mission was certainly exaggerated at the time, and the speculations to which it gave rise as to the part China was about to take in the movement of the world were no doubt bjised on erroneous data but still it would mistake to say that it failed to produce be a any of the beneficial effect which had been It was something for the outer expected. world to learn in those days that the Chinese
;

awakening public attention, had already begun to produce the inevitable reaction.

Great Popular Outbreak.
In 1869 Sir Rutherford Alcock retired, and was succeeded in the difficult post of English representative in China by Mr.

Thomas Wade.
his

In the very

first

year of

holding
all

the post an event occurred

represented a great power.

Mr. Burlingame was sanguine as to the

and the intenand the expectations of his audiences both in America and in Europe over leapt all difficulties and spanned but only at a step the growth of years shallow minded observers will deny that Mr. Burlingame's widest stretches of fancy were supported by an amount of truth which
future development of China
tion of her Executive,
;

the minor aggressive acts that had preceded it into the shade. It may perhaps be surmised that this was the Tientan event which threatened to sin massacre reopen the whole of the China question, and which brought France and China to the verge of war. It was in June, 1870, on the

which cast

eve of the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian
war, that the foreign settlements were startled

by

the report of a great popular outbreak

against foreigners in the important
Tientsin.

town of

At
getic

that city there

events are

making

clearer every year.

Of

colony of

Roman

was a large and enerCatholic priests, and
still

course those

who

only looked on the surface,

their success in the task of conversion, small
as.
it

who saw

the

difficulties

under which China

might be held, was

sufficient to

staggered, and the

dogged pride with which

excite the ire

and

fears of the literary cUid

138
official classes.
is

CHINA: PAST
The
origin of

AND PRESENT.
were spread about as to the cruelties and evil practices of those devoted to the service of

mob

violence

ever difficult to discover, for a

trifle suf-

THE FAMOUS PORCELAIN TOWER.
fices to set
it

in

motion.

But

at Tientsin
it

specific charges of the most horrible and,

need not be

said, the

most baseless character

These rumors were diligently cirand it need not cause wonder if, when the mere cry of " Fanquai " Foreign
religion.

culated,

PRINCE KUNG
Devil

AND THE REGENCY.
side the Mission

139

^sufficied

to raise a disturbance, these

House.

They very soon

allegations resulted in a vigorous agitation

assumed an
clear that at

attitude of hostility,

against the missionaries,

who were

already

and it was any moment the attack might
off in person
his threats

the

mark of popular execration. was well known beforehand that an attack on the missionaries would take place
It

begin.
to

M. Fontanier hastened

Chung How, but

seem to hav{

been as unavailing as his arguments.
his return

On

unless the authorities adopted very efficient

measures of protection.

The

foreign resi-

dents and the consulates were warned of the

he found the attack on the point of commencing. He made use of menaces, and he fired a shot from his revolver, whether
in self-defence or in the heat of indignation

bility will

coming outburst, and a very heavy responsialways rest on those who might, by the display of greater vigor, have prevented
ensued.

at

the

unfortunate

occurrences

that

At

the same time, allowing for the
it

prejudices of the Chinese,
that not only
missionaries
peril,

must be allowed

must the

efforts of all foreign

be attended with the gravest
not indiscreet,

some official treachery will never be known. The mob turned upon him, and he was murdered. The Chinese then hastened to complete the work they had begun. Chung How, like Surajah Dowlah, was not to be disturbed, and the attack on the Mission House and Consulate proceeded, while
officials

but that the acts of the French priests
at Tientsin were,
if

the

responsible for order remained

and nuns

inactive.

at least peculiarly calculated to arouse the

brutally

Twenty-one foreigners in all were murdered under circumstances of

anger and offend the superstitious predilections of the Chinese.

the greatest barbarity, while the
native converts

who

fell

at the

number of same time can

never be ascertained.

Might Have Been Prevented.

Had
it

the

officials in

the town acted with
official inquiry,

Feeling of Great Alarm.
This event naturally produced the greatest
feeling of alarm,

promptitude and instituted an
is

probable that the outbreak might have

and

for the

moment

it

was

been averted.

Such a course had proved availing on equally critical occasions in some of the towns along the Yangtse; and the
responsibility of not taking
it

feared

that

the rioters would proceed to
rest

attack the

of the foreign
still

settlement.

The mandarins
tion,

refrained from interven-

rested in equal
officials

and as there happened to be no gun-

proportions between the Chinese
the French Consul.

and

boat at Tientsin, the foreign residents were
for the

At

that time

Chung

moment placed

How,

the Superintendent of Trade for the

gerous predicament.
all

in an extremely danThey, of course, took

was the principal official in Tientsin; but although some representations, not as forcible however as the occasion demanded, were made to him by M. Fontanier, the French Consul, on the
three Northern Ports,
1

the measures they could to defend them-

selves,

but

it

was said

at the time that if the

mob had

only attacked at once they would

probably have overcome such resistance as the Europeans could then have offered.

8th of June, three days before the massacre,
given,

They

did not do so, however, chiefly because

no reply was
taken.

and no precautions were

they distrusted
strength;

or failed

to

realize

their

On

the 2 1st a large crowd assembled out-

and the massacre of Tientsin did not assume the larger proportions tha<: were

140
at

CHINA: PAST
feared.

AND PRESENT.
the celebration of his marriage the formal

one moment

The

turbulent ele-

ments were

partially quieted.

was followed by a wave of anti-foreign feeling over the whole country; but although an official brought
Tientsin massacre

The

out a work

entitled

rupt Doctrine "

"Death-blow to Cor-

^which obtained

more than

upon Tungsche the perwas performed. special decree issued from the Board of In a Rites the Emperor said that he received "the commands of their Majesties the two Empresses to assume the superintendence of
act of conferring

sonal control of his dominions

a passing notoriety, and notwithstanding that

business."

some members of the Imperial Family, and
notably,
as
it

This edict was directed to the Foreign
Ministers,

was

stated.

Prince

Chun,

who

in

return presented a

col-

regarded the movement with favor, the argu-

lective request to

be received in audience.
requested "to take his

ments of Prince
to

Kung and the more moderate
and
it

Prince

Kung was

ministers carried the day,

make every

concession in

was resolved the power of

Imperial Majesty's orders with reference to
their reception."

The

question being thus
point,
it

the government

for the pacific settlement of

brought

to

a crucial

was not

the dispute that had arisen with France.

unnatural that the Chinese Ministers should

Compensation was offered and accepted, and
the unfortunate
affair

make the most vigorous
to those details

resistance they could

was

settled.

which seemed to and did

enroach upon the prerogative of the Emperor

Marriage of the Emperor.
had been known for sometime that the young ruler had fixed his affections on Ahluta, a Manchu lady of good family, daughter of Duke Chung, and that the Empresses had decided that she was worthy of the high rank to which she was to be The marriage ceremony was deferred raised. on more than one plea until after the Emperor had reached his sixteenth birthday, but in October, 1872, there was thought to be no longer any excuse for postponement, and it was celebrated with great splendor on the 1 6th of that month. The arrangements were made in strict
It

he had been accustomed to exercise it. For, in the first place, they were no longer free agents, and Tungche had himself to be
as

considered in any arrangement for the reception of foreign envoys.

A
The

Spirited Controversy.

assumed a which stress was laid on the one side upon the necessity of the kotow (touching the head to the ground),
discussion of the question
controversial character, in
it

even in a modified form, while on the other was pointed out that the least concession

accordance

with

the

precedent

of

the

Emperor Kanghi's marriage in 1674, that 'ruler having also married when in occupation of the throne, and before he had attained It was stated the ceremonial his majority.
was imposing, that the incidental expenses were enormous, and that the people were very favorably impressed by the demeanor of Four months after their young sovereign.

was objectionable as the greatest, and that China would benefit by the complete settlement of the question. It says a great deal for the fairness and moderation of Prince Kung and the ministers with him that,
although they knew that the Foreign govern-

ments were not prepared to make the Audience Question one of war, or even of the
suspension
of
diplomatic
settle

relations,

they

determined to

the matter in the

way

most

distasteful

ta themselves and most

CHINESE CHILDREN

TRAVELLING MERCHANT AND WIFE OF PROVINCE OF THIBET, CHINA

PRINCE KUNG
ciliatory disposition.

AND THE REGENCY.
lieutenant, Li

141
succeeded
his

agreeable to foreigners, thus showing a con-

Hung Chang, who
dignities

to

some of

his

and much of

On

the 29th of June, 1873,
at Pekin,

Tungche

re-

power.

ceived inaudience the ministers of the principal

Another of Tseng's proteges, Tso Tsung
Tang, had been raised from the Vice-royalty
of Chekiang and Fuhkien to that of Shensi and Kansuh. The promotion was of the more doubtful value, seeing that both those
provinces were in the actual possession of the rebels
;

and thus gave completeness to the many rights and concessions obtained from his father and grandfather by the treaties of Tientsin and Nankin. The privilege thus
Powers
secured

caused lively gratification in the
all

minds of
signified

foreign residents, to

whom

it

but Tso threw himself into the

the great surrender of the inherent

task of reconquering

right to superiority claimed

by the Chinese
it

Emperors, and we have recently seen that
has been accepted as a precedent.

them with remarkable energy, and within two years of his arrival he was able to report that he had cleared the
province of Shensi of
of Kansuh
all

insurgents.

He

then devoted his attention to the pacification

The

Illustrious

Dead.

;

and

after

many desultory engageMahomedans had

The sudden death of Tseng Kwofan in the summer of 1872 removed unquestionably the foremost public man in China. After
the
fall

ments proceeded to lay siege to the town
of Souchow, where the

massed

their strength.

of Nankin he had occupied the

highest posts in the Empire, both at that

A

Signal Victory.

and in the metropolis. merely powerful from his own
city

He was
position,

not

but

from
dents

his

having placed his friends and depen-

At the end of the year 1872 the Imperial army was drawn up in front of this place, but Tso does not seem to have considered himself

in

many

of

the

principal

offices

strong enough to deliver an attack, and

throughout the Empire.
against foreigners, he

At

first

prejudiced

confined his operations to preventing the introduction of supplies and fresh troops into

had gradually brought

himself to

recognize that
their

some advantage
knowledge.
distinct benefit
liberal policy

the town.

Even

in this

he was only

partially

might be derived from

successful, as

a considerable body of men
in in January, 1873.

But the change came
on
he
his country
felt

at too late a period

made

their

way

In the

to admit of his conferring

any

following

month he succeeded

in capturing,

from the more

disposed to pursue with regard to the

by a night attack, a temple outside the walls, upon which the Mahomedans placed considerable value.

training of Chinese youths in the science

learning of the West.

It

was

said that

and had

The

siege continued during
it

the whole summer, and

was not

until the

he been personally ambitious he might have
succeeded
in displacing the Tartar regime.

month of October

that the

garrison

was
,

reduced to such extremities as to surrender.

But such a thought never assumed any practical shape in his mind, and to the end of his days Tseng Kwofan was satisfied to remain
the steadfast supporter and adherent of the

The

were hacked to pieces, and about four thousand men perished by the sword.
chiefs

The women,

children,

spared, and the spoil of the place

and old men were was handed
merit that, far

Manchus.
closely

In

this

respect
his

he has

been

over to the soldiery.
It

imitated

by

most distinguished

was Tso's

distinctive

142

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
same time their insular position has left them safe from the attack of the Pekin government. The attempt made by the Mongol, Kublai Khan,
Chinese predominance, at
the
to subdue these islanders

from being carried away by these successes, he neglected no military precaution, and
devoted his main
efforts to

the reorganiza-

tion of the province.

In that operation he

employed for the brief remainder of Tungche's reign but it may be said that in 1874 the campaign against Kashgariahad
left
;

may be

had been too

disas-

trous to invite repetition.
tensions

In Corea the pre-

of the ruler of

Yeddo had been
but wherever the

been fully decided upon.

thousand Manchu cavalry were sent to Souchow. Sheep-

A

repelled, if not crushed;

sea intervened the advantage rested

more or

CHINESE COBBLERS.
skins,

horses,

and

ammunition

in

large

less decisively

with him.

The island of Forby
officials

were also despatched to the far and General Kinshun, the Manchu west,
quantities

mosa

is

dependent upon China, and the

western districts are governed

general,

was entrusted with the command of
event that

duly appointed by the Viceroy of Fuhkien.

the

army in the field. The year 1874 witnessed an

But the eastern half of the
from the cultivated
trable forests,

island, separated

districts

by a range
if

of

claims notice.

There never has been much good-will between China and her neighbors

mountains covered with dense
is

not impene-

held

by

tribes

who own no
fit.

in Japan.

The

latter are

too independent in of

one's authority,

and who act as they deem

their

bearing to please the advocates

In the year 1868 or 1869 a junk from

PRINCE KUNG

AND THE REGENCY.
over

143

Loochoo was wrecked on this coast, and the crew were murdered by the islanders. The civil war in Japan prevented any prompt
claim for reparation, but in

much

to his fancy.

On

the loth of

September the young ruler took the world into his confidence by announcing in a Vermilion Edict that he

1873 the

affair

had degraded Prince
rank as
for using "

was revived, and a demand made at Pekin for compensation. The demand was refused, whereupon the Japanese, taking the law into
their

Kung and his
princes of the
in

son

in their hereditary

Empire

language

very

many

respects unbecoming."
this

own

hands, sent an expedition to For-

Whether Tungche took
step in a

very decided

mosa.

China replied with a counter-demonstration, and war seemed inevitable. In this
crisis

moment

of pique or because he

perceived that there was a plan
chief relatives to keep

among

his

Mr.

Wade

offered his

good

services in

him

in leading-strings,

the interests of peace, and after considerable

controversy he succeeded in bringing the two

governments to reason, and

in inducing

them

to agree to as equitable terms as could be

obtained without having recourse to arms.

must remain a matter of opinion. At the least he must have refused to personally retract what he had done, for on the very following day (September nth) a Decree appeared from the Two Empresses reinstating Prince

The Chinese

paid

an indemnity and the

Kung and

his

son in their

Japanese evacuated the island.

hereditary rank and dignity, and thus reasserting the

power of the ex-Regents over

Fortunes of Prince Kung.
In
all

the sovereign.

countries governed
it is

by an absolute
it is

sovereign
to obtain

as interesting as

difficult

Startling

Rumors.
disturbance in

some accurate knowledge of the

Not long
interior

after

this

the

character of the autocrat.

A most important
how far
life,

of the palace,

of which only the

change had been
of China, yet
its
it

effected in the

it is

government impossible to discover what
of the country.

ripple reached the surface of publicity, there

were rumors that the Emperor's health was
in

precise significance was, or to say

a precarious

state,

and

in the

influenced

the fortunes

The Empresses had
and
for

retired into private

a time

their

Regency came to an end.
power to guide affairs
either the real

December it became known that was seriously ill with ah attack of small-pox. The disease seemed to be making satisfactory
progress,
for

month of Tungche

Prince Kung was only the minister of a young
prince

the doctors were rewarded
i8th
of

who had

it

in his

but on
presses

the

December an
assume the

edict

exactly as he might feel personally disposed.
Prince

appeared ordering or requesting the

Em-

Kung might be
It

gov-

Dowager

to

personal

ernor of the state or only the courtier of his

charge of the administration.
the impression that the

Six days later

nephew.

depended solely on that prince's character. There were not wanting signs that Tungche had the consciousness, if not
the capacity of supreme power and that he

another edict appeared which strengthened

Emperor was making good progress towards recovery. But apfor,

pearances were deceptive,

after several

wished his
that he

will

to be paramount.

Such

evidence as was obtainable agreed in stating

was impatient of

restraint,

and that

the prudent reflections of his uncle were not

became known that the Emperor's death was inevitable. On the 1 2th of January, 1875, Tungche "ascended upon the Dragon, to be a guest on high,"
weeks' uncertainty,
it

144

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
never born.
for

without leaving any offspring to succeed him.

The

charitable gave her credit

There were rumors that his illness was only a plausible excuse and that he was
really the victim of foul play
likely that the truth
;

having refused food through grief for

her husband, Tungche.

The

skeptical

list-

but

it

is

not

ened to the details of her illness with scorn
for the vain efforts to obscure the

on that point will ever be revealed. Whether he was the victim of an intrigue similar to that which had marked his accession to power, or whether he only died from the neglect or incompetence of his
medical attendants, the consequences were
equally favorable to the personal views of
the two Empresses and Prince Kung.

dark deeds

of ambition.
realize their

In

their

extreme anxiety to

own

designs and at the

same
,

time not to injure the constitution, the two

Empresses had been obliged to resort to a plan that could only have been suggested by
desperation.

For the

first

time since the
it

They

Manchu dynasty occupied
cession,

the throne,

was

resumed the exercise of that supreme authority which they had resigned little more than twelve months before. The most suspicious
circumstance in connection with this event

necessary to depart from the due line of suc-

and to make the

election of the

sovereign a matter of individual fancy or
favor instead of one of inheritance.

was the treatment of the young Empress Ahluta, who, it was well known, was pregnant at the time of her husband's death.

Choice of a

New

Emperor.
;

The range of
son of Prince

choice was limited
himself,

for the

Kung

who seemed

to

The Queen's Mysterious Death.
Instead of waiting to decide as to the suc-

enjoy the prior right to the throne, was a

young man of
himself;

sufficient

age to govern for
his

was known whether Tungche's posthumous child would prove to be a son or a daughter, the Empress Dowager hastened to make another selection and to place
cession until
it

and,

moreover,

promotion

the
in

young widow of the deceased sovereign
Their

a state of honorable confinement.

would mean the compulsory retirement from life of Prince Kung, for it was not possible in China for a father to serve under his son, until Prince Chun, the father of the present reigning Emperor, established quite
public
recently a precedent to the contrary.

motive was plain.

Had

Ahluta's child hap-

The
at

pened to be a son, he would have been the legal Emperor, as well as the heir by direct
descent,

name of
all,

Prince Kung's son,

if

mentioned

and she herself could not have been

was only mentioned to be dismissed. The choice of the Empresses fell upon Tsai Tien,
of Prince

excluded from a prominent share in the gov-

the son
Prince,

Chun

or

the

Seventh
of too

Dowagers one the throne mattered no more than child on another but it was a question of the first
ernment.
;

To

the Empress

who on

the

13th of January was

proclaimed

Emperor.

As he was

tender an age to rule for himself, his
ination served the purposes of the

nom-

importance that Ahluta should be set on one
side.

In such an atmosphere there

is

often

presses

and

their ally

two EmPrince Kung, who

grievous peril to the lives of inconvenient

thus entered upon a second lease of undis-

personages.

puted power.
died.

They
in

ruled in reality, the

boy

Ahluta sickened and

Her

child

was

Emperor only

name.

CHAPTER

VII.

THE REIQN OF THE EMPEROR KWANQSU.

THUS
fung.
little

after

a very brief interval the

Browne, an

officer

of distinction, through
of the underthe

governing power again passed into

the hands of the Regents
ruled the
state

who had
the

Burmah to that province. The difficulties in the way
King of Burmah was
friendly

so well for

taking seemed comparatively few, as

twelve years following the death of Hien-

and appeared

The nominal Emperor was a
more than
style of "

child of

disposed at that time to accept his natural
position as the dependent of Calcutta.

three years of age, to

Whom
il-

The

was given the
lustrious

Kwangsu," or "

Pekin authorities also were outwardly not

succession,"

and the Empresses

opposed to the journey
sition to

;

and the only oppo-

could look forward to
ity

many years
young a

of authorsovereign.

in the

name of
have

so

be apprehended was from the Yunnan officials and people.

The only
seems
to

opposition to their return to

power
Palace
It

come from

the

Long Journey Across China.
was thought
desirable, with the

eunuchs,

who had

asserted themselves dur-

view of

ing the brief reign of

Tungche and hoped

to

preparing the

way

for the appearance of this

gain predominance in the Imperial councils.

foreign mission, that a representative of the

But they found a determined mistress in the person of Tse An, the Eastern Empress, as she was also called, who took vigorous
action against them, punishing their leaders

English embassy at Pekin, having a knowl-

edge of the languageand of the ceremonial
etiquette of the country, should

be deputed

to proceed across China

and meet Colonel
frontier.

with death and effectually nipping in the bud
all their

Browne on the Burmese
selected for this delicate

The

officer

projects for

making themselves su-

preme.

The return of the Empresses to power was followed by a great catastrophe in the For relations between England and China.
the

and difficult mission was Mr. Raymond Augustus Margary, who to the singular aptitude he had displayed in
the study of Chinese added a buoyant
spirit

moment

it

threw every other matter into

and a vigorous frame that peculiarly fitted him for the long and lonely journey he had
undertaken
across

and seemed to render the outbreak of war between the two countries
the shade,

China.

His

reception

throughout was encouraging.
performed his journey

Mr. Margary

almost inevitable.

In the year

1874 the
its

in safety; and,

on the

government of

India, repenting of

brief

infatuation for the

Panthay cause, yet still reluctant to lose the advantages it had promfrom the opening of Yunnan to

26th of January, 1875, only one fortnight after Kwangsu's accession, he joined Colonel

ised itself

Browne at Bhanio. three weeks ensued

A
at

delay of more than

trade, resolved

upon sending a formal mission of exploration under Colonel Horace
10

certainly unfortunate.

Bhamo, which was Time was given for
145

the circulation of rumors as to the approach

146

CHINA: PAST
held by tribes almost independent, a;nd
instincts

AND PRESENT.
that all

of a foreign invader along a disturbed frontier

was quiet
last

at that

there were no signs of
letter

whose predatory

were excited by

was the

the prospect of rich plunder at the

same

time that their leaders urged them to oppose
a change which threatened to destroy their

Mr. Margary. On from Momein, and the information subsequently obtained left no doubt that he
started

place, and that any resistance. That news ever received from the 19th of February he

hold on the caravan route between

Bhamo

and

Talifoo.

When

on the 17th of February Colonel

Browne and his companions approached the limits of Burmese territory, they found themselves in face of a totally different state of
affairs

was treacherously murdered on that or the An ominous following day at Manwein. followed, and Colonel Browne's party silence delayed its advance until some definite news should arrive as to what had occurred in front, although the silence was sufficient to
justify the

from what had existed when Mr. Marsafely

worst apprehensions.

gary passed
before.

through

three weeks

The

preparation for opposing the

A

Brave

Little

Band.

English had been

made under

the direct en-

couragement,

and probably the

personal

direction, of Lisitai, a

brigand and then a
time held a military
tier.

man who had been a rebel, but who at this command on the fron-

Last

News

Received.

Three days later the rumor spread that Mr. Margary and his attendants had been murdered. It was also stated that an army was advancing to attack the English expedition; and on the 22nd of February a large Chinese force did make its appearance on the neighboring heights. There was no longer any room to doubt that the worst had happened, and
it

As
him.

Colonel Browne advanced he was met

only remained to secure the

with rumors of the opposition that awaited

safety of the expedition.

At

first

these were discredited, but on

the renewed statements that a large Chinese

men under

These Chinese numbered several thousand Lisitai in person, while to oppose

had been collected to bar his way, Mr. Margary rode forward to ascertain what truth The first town there was in these rumors. on this route within the Chinese border is Momein, which, under the name of Tengyue, was once a military station of importance, and some dibtance east of it again is another town, called Manwein. Mr. Margary set out on the 19th of February, and it was
force

them there were only four Europeans and fifteen Sikhs. Yet superior weapons and steadfastness carried the day against greater
numbers.

The Sikhs fought

as they retired,

arranged that only in the event of his finding everything satisfactory at

Momein was

he to proceed to

Manwein

suspicious occurrence

and on the first he was to retreat at
;

once to the main body.

Mr. Margary reached Momein

in safety,

and r^orted

in

a

letter to

Colonel Browne

and the Chinese, unable to make any impression on them, abandoned an attack which was both perilous and useless. The news of this outrage did not reach Pekin until a month later, when Mr. Wade at once took the most energetic measures to obtain the amplest reparation in the power of the Pekin government to concede. The first and most necessary point in order to ensure not merely the punishment of the guilty, but also that the people of China should not have cause to suppose that their rulers

THE REIGN OF THE EMPEROR KWANGSU.
secretly sympathized with the authors of the
attack,

147

was that no punitive measures should
or, if undertaken, recognized,

that the

be undertaken,
until

It was not till the end of the year Commission to ascertain the fate of Mr. Margary began its active work on the

slowly.

a special Commission of Inquiry had

spot.

been appointed to investigate the circumstances
officer

on the

spot.

Mr. Margary was an

of the English government traveling

The result was unexpectedly disappointThe mandarins supported one another. The responsibility was thrown on several
ing.

under special permission and protection. Mysterious Delay.

The Chinese government could not expect
to receive consideration
respect for
its
if it failed

to enforce

and on the border-tribes or Several of the latter were seized, savages. and their lives were offered as atonement for The an offence they had not committed. which the Chinese furthest act of concession
minor
officials,

commands, and the English government had an obligation which
could not shirk in exacting reparation for

own

it

the

murder

of

its

representative.

The

treacherous killing of Mr. Margary was evidently not an occurrence for which it could be considered a sufficient atonement that

Commissioner gave was to temporarily suspend Tsen Yuhing the Futai for remissness but even this measure was never enforced with rigor. The English officers soon found that it was impossible to obtain any proper reparation on the spot.
Strong
Sir

some miserable criminals under sentence of death, or some desperate individuals anxious
to

Demand

for Reparation.

Thomas Wade, who was knighted

secure the worldly prosperity of their

during the negotiations, refused to accept
the lives of the

families,

should undergo painful torture and
official

men

offered,

whose compliat

public

execution in order to shield

city in the offence
all,

was known to be none

falseness
ever,

and infamy.

suspected the

Although no one Pekin government of

while

its

real instigators

escaped without
year, 1876,
unsettled,

any punishment.
it

When the new
still

having directly instigated the outrage, the
delay in instituting an impartial and search-

opened, the question was

and
dis-

was

clear that

no solution could be
Sir

ing inquiry into the

affair

strengthened an

covered on the spot.

Thomas Wade

impression that

it felt

reluctant to inflict pun-

again called upon the Chinese in the most

ishment on those
act of violence.

who had committed

the

emphatic language allowed by diplomacy to

conform with the
that

spirit

and

letter

of their en-

Nearly three months elapsed before any
step

gagements, and he informed the government
unless they proffered full redress for
it

was taken towards appointing a Chinese
to proceed to the scene of the out-

official

Mr. Margary's murder
ble to

would be impossi-

rage in

company with the

officers

named by

continue

diplomatic relations.

To

the English minister; but on the 19th of

show

that this

June an edict appeared
ordering Li

in the

Pekin Gazette

sion, Sir

was no meaningless expresThomas Wade left Pekin, while a
English
fleet

Han Chang,
to

Governor-General

strong reinforcement to the

of

Houkwang,
and "

temporarily vacate his

demonstrated that the government was resolved to support
its

post,

repair with all speed to

Yunnan

representative.

to investigate

and deal with certain matters." Even then the matter dragged along but

In consequence of these steps, Li

Hung

Chang was,

in

August, 1876, or more than

148

CHINA: PAST
full

AND PRESENT.
Ambassador, whose dispatch had been decided upon in the previous year. secret history of this transaction
it

eighteen months after the outrage, entrusted

with

powers

for the

arrangement of the

When
is

the

and the small seaport of Chefoo was fixed upon as the scene for the forthcoming negotiations. Even then the Chinese sought to secure a sentimental advantage by requesting that Sir Thomas Wade would
difificulty;

revealed

will be seen how sincere were Li Hung Chang's wishes for a pacific result, and how

much his advice contributed to this end. The most important passage in the Chefoc
Convention was unquestionably that commanding the different viceroys and governors to respect, and afford every protec-

change the scene of discussion to Tientsin, or at least that he would consent to pay Li

Hung Chang

a

visit there.

This

final effort

CHINESE RESTAURANT.
to conceal the fact that the English

demanded

tion

to,

all

foreigners

provided with the

redress as an equal and not as a suppliant having been baffled, there was no further

necessary passport, and warning

them

that

they would be held responsible in the event
of any such travellers meeting with injury or maltreatment.

attempt at delay.

The Chefoo Convention was
town, to
Tientsin.

signed in that

The next most

important

which the Viceroy proceeded from
Li

passage was that arranging for the despatch
of an

Hung Chang

entertained the

Embassy

to

London bearing a

letter of

Foreign Ministers at a great banquet; and
the final arrangements were hurried forward
for the departure to

regret for the

The

Europe of the Chinese

murder of the English official. duty was Kwo Sungtao, a mandarin of high rank and unex>
official selected for this

THE REIGN OF THE EMPEROR
ceptionable character.
It

KWATSfGSU.
The

149

was a
Sir

delicate

cessful

number or name

in the lottery as to

mission with which he was entrusted.

take the degree.

practice could not

The

letter

was submitted to
its

Thomas

have been allowed to go on without introducing serious abuses into the system of
public examination.

Wade

in

order that

terms should be

exactly in accordance with Chinese etiquette,

and that no phrase should be used showing that the Chinese government attached less
importance to the mission than the occasion

The
not
as
less

profits of the

owners of the lottery

were so enormous that they were able to pay
than eight hundred thousand dollars
to the Viceroy

demanded.
its
it

The Embassy proceeded

to

hush-money
officials

and the other

Europe, and, whatever

may

be thought of
that

high
his

of Canton.

In order to shield

immediate

effect, it

must be allowed

own

participation in the profits, the Vicethis

established a precedent of friendly inter-

roy declared that he devoted
fences of Canton.

new source

course with that country, which proved an
additional guarantee of peace.

of revenue to the completion of the river de-

A curious
China,

incident arising from the pasis

sion of gambling which

so prevalent in

Severe Penalties Threatened.
In 1874 the whole system was declared
illegal,

and bearing incidentally upon the

national character,
to.

may be

briefly referred

and severe
the Weising

penalties

were

passed

The

attention of the Pekin government

against those aiding, or participating in

any
local

was

attracted to this subject

by a novel form

way

in,

Company.
laws,

The

of gambling, which not merely attained enor-

officers did

not, however, enforce with

any

mous

dimensions, but which threatened to

stringency these
fraternity

new

and the Weising

bring the system of public examination into
disrepute.

enjoyed a further but brief period

This

latter fact created

a pro-

of increased activity under a different name.

found impression at Pekin, and roused the

mandarins to take unusually prompt measures.

The fraud was soon detected, and in an Edict of August II, 1875, it was very rightly laid down that " the maintenance of the purity of
government demands that
it

be not allowed
Viceroy

Lottery on a Large Scale.

under any pretext to be re-established," and
for their apathy in the matter the

Canton was the headquarters of the gambling confederacy v/hich established the lotteries

known

as the Weising, but

its

ramifica-

in

Yinghan and several of the highest officials Canton were disgraced and stripped of
In China natural calamities on a colossal

tions extended

throughout the whole of the

their official rank.

province of Kwantung.

The Weising,

or

examination sweepstakes, were based on the
principle of

scale

have often aggravated

political troubles.

drawing the names of the suc-

The year 1876

witnessed the

commencement

cessful candidates at the official examinations.

of a drouth in the two great provinces of

They
lager,

appealed, therefore, to every poor

vil-

and every father of a family, as well as

Honan and Shansi which has probably never been surpassed as the cause of a vast amount
of

to the aspirants themselves. to the Weising
lists

The subscribers

human suffering. Although
suffered the

the provinces

were numbered by hunIt

dreds of thousands.

almost as

much importance

became a matter of to draw a suc-

most from the prevalent drought, the suffering was general over the whole of Northern China, from Shantung

named

150

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
of the introduction of railways

and Pechihli to Honan and the course of the Yellow River.

and other
the

mechanical appliances.

The Viceroy of

At

first

the government,

if

not apathetic,

Two

Kiang gave his assent to the construcbetween Shanghai and

was disposed to say that the evil would be met by the grant of the usual allowance made by the Provincial Governors in the
event of distress;
after

tion of a short line

the port of

Woosung.

but when one province
treat the

another was absorbed within the famine
it

The great difficulty had always been to make a start; and now that a satisfactory commencement had been made the foreigners
were disposed
all

(

era,

became no longer possible to
felt

in their

eagerness to overlook

matter as one of such limited importance, and
the high ministers
obliged to bestir themselves in face of so grave a danger.

obstacles,

and to imagine the Flowery
all directions

Land

traversed in

by

railways.

Li

Hung

Chang

in particular

merely in collecting
tributions of

was most energetic, not and forwarding supplies
all

But these expectations were soon shown to be premature. Half of the railway was open for use in the summer of 1876, and during

of rice and grain, but also in inviting con-

money from

those parts of

the Empire which had not been affected
famine.
Efforts to Relieve the

by

some weeks the excitement among the Chinese themselves was as marked as among the Europeans. The hopes based upon this
satisfactory event

were destined to be soon
officials.

Famine.
for the absence

dispelled by the animosity of the They announced their intention to

resort to

Allowing
of any large

for the general sluggishness of
in China,

every means

in

their

power

to prevent the

popular opinion

and

completion of the undertaking.
tion revealed

The

situa-

amount of currency, it must be allowed that these appeals met with a large
and hberal response.
charity of

such dangers of

mob

violence

that Sir

The

foreign residents

also contributed their share,

and even the
in

London found a vent

sending

Thomas Wade felt compelled to request the Company to discontinue its operations, and after some discussion it was arranged that the Chinese should buy the
line.

some thousands of pounds
famine in Northern China.
foreign

to the scene of the

This evidence of
Opposition to the Railway.
line was management, when, placed under Chinese

sympathy in the cause of a common humanity made more than a passing impression on the minds of the Chinese people.

After

a stipulated period the

While the
attributed

origin of the famine
either

may be
war,

instead of devoting themselves to the interests

to

drought or
its

civil

of the railway, and to the extension of

its

there

is

no doubt that

extension and the

power of
neglected
stroying

utility,
it,

they wifully and persistently
conjuncture the Viceroy

apparent inability of the authorities to grapple

with the express design of de-

with

it

may

be traced to the want of
it

means
almost

it.

At

this

of communication, which rendered

allowed the Governor of Fuhkien to remove
the the
rails

impossible to convey the needful succor into
the famine districts.
vious,
it

and plant to Formosa.

The

fate of

The

evil

being so ob-

Woosung

railway destroyed the hopes

was hoped that the Chinese would be disposed to take a step forward on their own initiative in the great and needed work

by its construction, and postponed to a later day the great event of the introduccreated
tion of railways into China.

Notwithstand-

THE REIGN OF THE EMPEROR KWANGSU.
ing such disappointments as
this,

151

and the

ever present difficulty of conducting relations

with an unsympathetic people controlled by
suspicious
£\

officials,

there

was yet observable

marked improvement

in the relations of the

when she was only and her subsequent obsequies were as splendid as her services demanded. For herself she had always been a woman of frugal habits, and the successful course of
April, from heart disease
forty-five,

different nations with the Chinese.

recent Chinese history

was largely due to

Opening
Increased
i

New
far

her firmness and resolution.
Ports.
in

Her

associate

the Regency, Tsi Thsi,
less of

who was always

facilities

of trade, such as the

more or

an

invalid, survived her.

opening of new ports,
good-will.

from extending the

The

difficulty

with Russia had not long

area of danger, served to promote a mutual
/

been composed, when, on two opposite sides
of her extensive dominion, China

1876 Kiungchow, in the island of Hainan, was made a treaty port, or rather the fact of its having been included in
In
the
treaty

was called

upon to

face a serious condition of affairs.

In Corea, "the forbidden land" of the Far
East, events were forced by the eagerness and competition of European states to con-

of

Tientsin

was

practically

accepted and recognized.

In the following
list.

year four

new

ports were added to the

clude treaties of
tive

commeace with

that primi-

One, Pakhoi, was intended to increase trade
intercourse with Southern China.

Two

of

the three others, Ichang and

Wuhu, were
com-

kingdom, and perhaps also by their fear that if they delayed Russia would appropriate some port on the Corean coast.

selected as being favorably situated for

merce on the Yangtse and its affluents, while Wenchow was chosen for the benefit of the
trade on the coast.

Corea a Source of Trouble.

To

all

who had
desire
this

official

knowledge of
seizing Port

Russia's
Lazareff,

and plan

for

work successfully accomplished during the two periods of the Regency was followed within a few weeks by the disappearance of the most important of the personages who had carried on the
close of the great

The

apprehension was far from

chimerical,

that

Russia's

and there was reason to believe enroachment might compel

other countries to

make

annexations in or

government throughout these twenty years
of constant war and diplomatic excitement.
Before the Pekin world
it

round Corea by way of precaution. Practical evidence of this was furnished by the
English occupation of Port Hamilton, and

knew
of

of her illness,

by its subsequent evacuation when the necessity

heard

of

the

death

the

Empress

passed away, but should the occasion
arise

Dowager Tsi An, who as Hienfung's principal widow had enjoyed the premier place in
the government,

again

the key of the situation will

although she had never

probably be found in the possession not of Port Hamilton or Quelpart, but of the Island
of Tsiusima.

possessed a son to occupy the throne in
person.

In a proclamation issued in her name and possibly at her request, Tsi An
described the course of her malady, the
citude of the Emperor,
soli-

Recourse was had to diplomacy to avert what threatened to be a grave international danger; and although the result was long doubtful, and the situatio'
sometimes
In
full

and urged upon him
8th

of

peril,

a gratifying success

the duty of his high place to put restraint

was achieved
1

in the end.

upon

his grief.

Her death occurred on

1

88 1 a draft commercial treaty was

152

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
aroused the jealousy of Japan, which has long asserted the right to have an equal
voice with China in the control of Corean
affairs
;

drawn up, approved by the Chinese authorand the representatives of the principal powers at Pekin, and carried to the Court of
ites

Seoul for acceptance and signature by the

and the government of Tokio, on

American naval officer, Commodore Schufeldt. The Corean king made no objection to the arrangement, and it was signed with
the express stipulation that the ratifications
of the treaty were to be exchanged in the
following year.

hearing of the Schufeldt treaty, at once took
steps not merely to obtain all the rights to be conferred by that document, to which no one would have objected, but also to assert
its

claim to control equally with China the

Thus was

it

harmoniously

policy of the Corean Court.

With

that ob-

CHINESE OUT FOR AN AIRING.
arranged at Pekin that Corea was to issue from her hermit's cell, and open her ports
to trading countries under the guidance
ject,

a Japanese

fleet

and army were sent to

the Seoul river, and

when the
a.

diplomatists

and

returned for the ratification

of the treaty,

encouragement of China.
doubt that China
in
if

this

There can be no arrangement had been

they found the Japanese in
close to the

strong position

Corean

capital.

carried out, the influence

and the

position of

The Chinese were not
side in so

would have been very greatly increased and strengthened.
Corea
But, unfortunately, the policy of Li

to be set on one open a manner, and a powerful

Chung

Hung
it

fleet of gunboats, with 5,000 troops, sent to the Seoul river to uphold their rights. Under

for, if

he did not

originate,

he took

the most important part in

directing

more especially as the Chinese expedition was beheved to be the
other circumstances,

THE REIGN OF THE EMPEROR KWANGSU.
must have ensued, and the war which has so often seemed near between the Chinese and Japanese would have become an accomplished fact;
superior, a hostile collision

153

due allowance must be made for these facts, and also for the anomalous character of that contest when active hostilities were carried
on without any formal declaration of war state of things which gave the French many
advantages.

but fortunately the presence of the foreign

moderated the ardor of both and a rupture was averted. By a stroke of judgment the Chinese seized Tai Wang Kun, the father of the young king, and the leader of the anti-foreign party, and carried him off to Pekin, where he was kept
diplomatists
sides,

Towards the end of the year

1882, the French Government came to the '' decision to establish a " definite protectorate

over Tonquin.

Events had for some time
in this direction,

been shaping themselves

and
it

the colonial ambition of France had long
fixed

in

imprisonment for some time,
settled

until matters

on Indo-China
risk

as a field in

which

had

down

in his

own

country.

might aggrandize
little

itself

with comparatively

Rivalry Between China and Japan.

The opening

of

Corea

to

the Treaty

Powers did not put an end to the old rivalry of China and Japan in that country, of which
history contains so

many examples

;

and the

attack on the Japanese Legion in

1884 was

a striking revelation of popular antipathy or
of an elaborate anti-Japanese plot headed

and a wide margin of advantage. the kingdom of Annam was a strong enough temptation in itself to assert the protectorate over it which France had, more or less, claimed for forty years; but when the reports of several French explorers came to promote the conviction that France might acquire the control of a con-

The weakness of

by

venient

and, perhaps,
richest

the best route into
provinces

the released

Chinese prisoner,

Tai

Wang

some of the
tion

of interior the tempta-

Kun.

China without much
the opposite point of the frontier China

difficulty,

At

became

irresistible.

was brought face to face with a danger which threatened to develop into a peril of the first magnitude, and in meeting which she was undoubtedly hampered by her
treaties with

France
French

is

Quick to Act.
Indo-China was height-

activity in

ened by the declaration of Garnier, Rocher

the general

body of

foreign
in the

Powers and her own peculiar place
family of nations.
It is

the special misfor-

and others that the Songcoi, or Red River, furnished the best means of communicating with Yunnan, and tapping the wealth of the
richest

tune of China that she cannot engage in
any, even a defensive,

mineral

province in
in

China.

The

war with a maritime
risk, or,
if

apathy of England

her relations with

power without incurring the grave
indeed, the practical certainty that,

such a

war be continued

for

any length of time, she

Burmah, which presented, under its arrogant and obstructive rulers, what may have seemed an insuperable obstacle to trade intercourse between India and China, afforded
additional inducement to the

must

find herself involved with every other

foreign country through the impossibility of

French to act

confining the hostility of her

own

subjects to

quickly
ability

;

and, as they

felt

confident of their

one race of foreigners
In considering the

in particular.

and power to coerce the Court of
initial difficulties

last

war with a Euro-

Hue, the

of their undertak-

pean country

in

which China was engaged,

ing did not seem very formidable.

154

CHrNA: PAST AND PRESENT.
in the
first

That undertaking was,
as the
first

place,

The French were
when a serious

in

the

full belief

that the

defined to be a protectorate of China, and,

conquest of Tonquin would be
reverse obliged

easily effected,

town of Hanoi, in the delta of the Red River, and the nominal capital of Tonquin, was captured before the end of the year 1882. Tonquin stood in very much the same relationship to China as Corea and, although the enforcement of the suzerain tie was lax, there was no doubt that at Pekin the opinion was held very strongly that the action of France was an encroachment on the rights But, if such was the secret opinof China.
step in the enterprise, the
;

them

to realize

the gravity of their task.

A

considerable

detachment, under the

Henri Riviere,

command of Captain who was one of the pioneers
Riviere

of French enterprise on the Songcoi, was
surprised and defeated near Hanoi.

and it became necessary to make a great effort to recover the ground that had been lost. Fresh troops were sent from Europe, but before they arrived the French received another check at Phukai, which the was
killed,

ion of the Chinese authorities, they took

no

Black Flags claimed as a victory because the

immediate steps to arrest the development of

French were obliged to

retreat.

Tonquin by proclaiming it Chinese dependency, and also their intena While Li Hung Chang tion to defend it.
French poHcy
in

Extreme Measures by the French.
Before this happened the French had taken

and the other members of the Chinese Government were deliberating cis to the course
they should pursue, the French were acting
with great vigor in Tonquin, and committing
their

exteme measures against the King of Annam, of which state Tonquin is the northern province.

The King of

that country,

by name

military

reputation
in

to

a

task

from

Tuduc, who had become submissive to the French, died in July, 1883, and after his
death the Annamese, perhaps encouraged
the difficulties of the French
in

which they could not

honor draw back.

by

Tonquin,

Movements

of the "Black Flags."

During the whole of the year 1883 they were engaged in military operations with the Black Flag irregulars, a force half piratical and half patriotic, who represented the national army of the country. It was believed at the time, but quite erreoneously,

became so hostile that it was determined to read them a severe lesson. Hue was attacked and occupied a month after the death of Tuduc, and a treaty was extracted from the new king which made him the dependent of France.
in

When

the cold season began
in-

Tonquin, the French forces largely

that the Black Flags were paid

and

incited

creased, and,
bet,

commanded by Admiral Cour-

by the Chinese. Subsequent evidence showed
that the Chinese
authorities

did not take

even an indirect part in the contest until a

much

of Hanoi, the French were constantly engaged
later

period.

After the capture

with the Black Flags, from

whom

they cap-

renewed operations, and on the i ith of December attacked the main body of the Black Flags at Sontay, which they had reoccupied and strengthened. They offered a desperate and well sustained resistance, and it was only with heavy loss
town.

tured the important town of Sontay, which

that the French succeeded in carrying the

was reported to be held by Imperial Chinese troops, but on its capture this statement was
found to be untrue.

The victors were somewhat recompensed for their teirdships and loss by the magnitude of the spoil, which included a

THE REIGN OF THE EMPEROR KWANGSU.
large

155

sum

of money.

Desultory fighting
;

the ridiculous figure of ;^SO,ooo,ooo.

An

continued

without

intermission

Admiral

apology was

offered,

but such an indemnity

Courbet was superseded by General Millot,

who
the
after

determined to signalize his assumption

of the

command by attacking Bacninh, which Black Flags made their headquarters
the loss of Sontay.

On

the 8th

of

was refused, and eventually France obtained one of only ;^8oo,ooo. After the Bade affair hostilities were at once resumed, and for the first time the French carried them on not only against
the Black Flags, but against the Chinese.

March, he attacked
defences that he
in front,

this place at the

head
its

of 12,000 men, but so formidable were

M.

Jules Ferry did not, however,

make any

would not risk an attack and by a circuitous march of four days he gained the flank of the position, and
Black

formal declaration of war against China, and

he thus gained an advantage of position for his attack on the Chinese which it was not

thus taken at a disadvantage, the

Flags abandoned their formidable
retreated without
artillery,

lines,

and

much

loss, leaving their

French chivalry to have asserted. The most striking instance of this occured at Foochow, where the French fleet, as reprecreditable to

including

some Krupp guns,

in the

senting a friendly power,

was

at

anchor above
river.

hands of the

victors.

the formidable defences of the

Min

In

A
At
this

accordance with instructions telegraphed to

Treaty of Peace.

him, the

French

admiral attacked those
forts

stage of the question diplomacy

places in reverse

and destroyed the
difficulty

on

intervened,

and on the i ith of May a treaty of peace was signed by Commander Fournier, during the ministry of M. Jules Ferry, with
the Chinese government.

the

Min without much
them as a
friend.

or

loss,

thanks exclusively to his having been allowed
past

One

of thd prin-

cipal stipulations of this treaty

was

that the

Upholding the

Laws

of Neutrality.

French should be allowed to occupy Langson and other places in Tonquin.

The French

also endeavored to derive all

When the

possible advantage from there being

French commander

Tonquin sent a force under Colonel Dugenne to occupy Langson was opposed in the Bade defile and it The Chinese exrepulsed with some loss.
in

no formal declaration of war, and to make use of

Hongkong
China.

as a base for their fleet against

onerated themselves from

all responsibility

But this unfairness could not be tolerated, and the British minister at Pekin, where Sir Harry Parkes had in the autumn
of 1883 succeeded Sir

by declaring

that the

French advance was

Thomas Wade, issued
hostilities

premature, because no date was fixed by the

a proclamation that the

between

Fournier convention, and because there had
not been time
orders.
to

France and China were tantamount to a state
of war, and that the laws of neutrality must

transmit the necessary

be
the other hand, M. Fournier declared

strictly

On
on
his

this

step,

observed. The French resented and showed some inclination to
instituting

honor that the dates
in

in his draft

were

retaliate
rice,

by

a right to search

fol

named

the original

convention.

The

but fortunately

this pretension

was not

demanded an apology, and an indemnity fixed by M. Jules
French government
Ferry, in a
at once

pushed to extremities, and the war was closed before it could produce any serious
consequences.

moment of mental

excitement, at

156

CHINA: PAST
of their atten-

AND PRESENT.
may be
pulsory

The French devoted much
tion to an attack
in

gathered from the fact that the comretreat, in

on the Chinese possessions Formosa, and the occupation of Kelung
in

March, 1885, of the French

a fort

the northern part of that island was

captured, but the subsequent success of the

from before Langson, where some of the Chinese regular troops were drawn up with a large force of Black and Yellow Flags

French was small.
fences

The Chinese

displayed

the latter of whom

were in Chinese pay

did

great energy and resource in forming de-

not imperil the negotiations which were then
far

any advance inland from Kelung or Tamsui, and the French governagainst

advanced towards completion.

On

the

9th of June of the same year a treaty of

VIEW OF TIENTSIN, CHINA.

ment was brought to face the fact that there was nothing to be gained by carrying on these desultory operations, and that unless
they were prepared to send a large expedition, it was computed of not less than 50,000
to

peace was signed by M. Patenotre and Li

Hung Chang which gave France nothing more than the Fournier convention.
The military lessons of this war must be pronounced inconclusive, for the new forces which China had organized since the Pekin campaign were never fully engaged, and the
struggle ended before the regular regiment

men, to attack Pekin, there was no alternative coming to terms with China.

How

strong this conviction had become

THE REIGN OF THE EMPEROR KWANGSU.
sent

157
in

showing

Langson had any opportunity of their quality. But the impression conveyed by the fighting in Formosa and the northern districts of Tonquin was that China had made considerable progress in the military art, and that she possessed the nucleus of an army that might become formidable. But while the soldiers had made no inconsiderable improvement, as much could not be said of the officers, and among the commanders there seemed no grasp of
to

been the most powerful man
the

China since

Treaty of

Pekin.

A

decree of the

Empress Regent appeared dismissing him all his posts and consigning him to an obscurity from which after many years he had not succeeded in emerging. The causes of his fall are not clear, but they were probably of several distinct kinds. While he was the leader of the peace party and the advocate of a prompt arrangement with
from
France, he was also an opponent of Prince

the situation, and a complete inability to con-

Chun's desire to have a share
obstacle in the

in the practical

duct a campaign.

administration of the state, or, at least, an

Incapable Commanders.

Prince

Chun,
will,

way of its realization. who was a man of an

Probably these deficiencies
the really

will

long remain

weak spot

in

the Chinese war

organization,

and although they have men
only capacity their

who

will fight well, the

commanders showed in Tonquin and Formosa was in selecting strong positions and in fortifying them with consummate art.
But as the strongest position can be turned and avoided, and as the Chinese, like all
Asiatics,

and who, on the death of the Eastern Empress, became the most important personage in the palace and supreme Council of the Empire, was undoubtedly the leader of the attack on Prince Kung, and the
imperious

immediate cause of
tioned

his

downfall.

Prince
inten-

Kung, who was an amiable and well

man

rather than an able statesman,

yielded without resistance,

and indeed he
was very
slight

become demoralized when
it

their

had no
except

alternative, for

he had no following

rear

is

threatened,

cannot be denied that,

at Pekin,

and

his influence

considerable progress as the Chinese have

among Europeans.

made

in the military art,

they have not yet

mastered some of its rudiments. All that can

Sudden Death of Prince Chun.
Prince
ing an

be said

is

that the

war between France and

Chun then came

to the front,' tak-

China was calculated to teach the advisability
of caution in fixing a quarrel

upon China.

Under some
acter of the

special difficulties

from the char-

and prominent part in the government, making himself President of a new Board of National Defence and taking
active specially

war and with divided councils at still gave a very good account of themselves against one of the greatest Powers of Europe. During the progress of this struggle a coup de'tat was effected at Pekin of which at the time it was impossible to measure the whole significance. In July, 1884, the Chinese world was startled by the sudden fall and disgrace of Prince Kung, who had
Pekin, the Chinese

up the command of the Pekin Field Force, a trained body of troops for the
defence of the capital.

He

retained posses-

sion of these posts after his son

assumed the

government

in person, notwithstanding the

law forbidding a father serving under his
son, which has already been cited,

and he
Chinese

remained

the

real

controller

of

policy until his sudden and unexpected death
in the first days of 189 1.

168

CHINA: PAST
earlier in April,
1

AND PRESENT.
issued

Some months
had
Tseng, whose
his

890, China

an edict

in

1890 formally

legalizing

suffered a great

loss

in

the Marquis

the cultivation of opium, which, although
practically carried on,

diplomatic experience and knowledge of Europe might have rendered

was nominally

illegal.

An

immediate consequence of

this step

was

country
the

infinite

service

in

the future.

a great increase in

the area under

cultivation,

He was
of his

chosen colleague of Prince
is

particularly in Manchuria,

Chun, and he

said to

have gained the ear

production of native opium
that
field

young

sovereign.

While wiUing to

and so great is the now becoming that of India may yet be driven from the
as

admit the superiority of European inventions,

a practical

revenge for the loss

he was also an

implicit believer in China's

inflicted

destiny and in her firmly holding her place

among

the greatest Powers of the world.

on China by the competition of But at all events these measures debar China from ever again posing as an
Indian tea.
in

In December, 1890, also died Tseng
Tsiuen, uncle of the Marquis, and a

Kwo
man

injured party
traffic.

the matter of the opium

who had
part
in rebellion.

taken a prominent and honorable
the

suppression of the Taeping

During these years the young Emperor Kwangsu was growing up. In February, 1887, in which month falls the Chinese New Year, it was announced his marriage was
postponed
health,
in
it

Tax on Opium.
In 1885 an important and delicate negotiation

consequence of his delicate

and

was not

until the

new year

of

between

England

and

China

was

1889,

when Kwangsu was

well advanced in

brought to a successful issue by the joint
efforts

his eighteenth year, that

he was married to

of Lord Salisbury and the Marquis

Tseng.

The

levy of the lekin or barrier tax
in the

Manchu general named Knei Hsiang, who had been specially
Yeh-ho-na-la, daughter of a
selected for this great

on opium had led to many exactions
interior

honor out of many

which was injurious to the foreign

hundred candidates.
Magnificent Marriage Ceremonies.

trade and also to the Chinese government,

which obtained only the customs duty raised
in

the port.

After the subject had been
in
all
its

The marriage was
usual state, and

celebrated with

the

thoroughly discussed

bearings a

convention was signed in London, on 19th
July, 1885,

by which the
thirty taels,

lekin

was

fixed at

more than ;^ 5,000 ,000 is said to have been expended on the attendant ceremonies. At the same time the Empress
Regent issued her farewell edict and
into retirement, but there
is

eighty taels a chest, in addition to the cus-

passe::!

toms due of

whole of
of bond.

this

and also that the should be paid in the sum

reason to believe

that she continued to exercise

treaty port before the

opium was taken out

able influence over the

no inconsideryoung Emperor.

This

arrangement

was

greatly to

the

ing power by the

The marriage and assumption of governEmperor Kwangsu brought
by the foreign
ministers

advantage of the Chinese government, which

to the front the very important question of

came had previously been frittered away in the provinces, and much of which had gone into
into possession of a large revenue that

the right of audience
resident at Pekin.

This privilege had been

conceded by China at the time of the Tientsin massacre,

the pockets of the Mandarins.

The Emperor

and

it

had been put

into force

THE REIGN OF THE EMPEROR KWANGSU.
as a result of that concession.

159
performed

The Em-

or to secure

facilities

for trade,

perors of China do not appear at any time
to have taken up the position that their

the kowtow without apparent compunction.

own

One Russian
at Pekin
in

official,

however,

who
first

arrived

person was so supremely sacred as to render
audience with a foreigner an indignity.
the contrary, in olden days,
perial state

the reign of the

Manchu
was
re-

On

Emperor Shun Chih
kowtow.

(i 644-1661)

when

the Im-

fused an audience because he declined to

greater than they
freely granted,

and prestige were immeasurably now are, audience was

In those days the audience

commonly
in

and the person of the Soveris

took place

in

one or other of the great

eign was less hermetically concealed than

Ceremonial Halls of the Imperial Palace

now

the fashion.

the heart of the Forbidden City, where no

European

is

now

permitted to enter.

Here

The Two Great

Questions.

stands the Tai

Ho

Tien, or Hall of Supreme

Two questions,

however, have successively
in the settlement of

been made uppermost
ance

Harmony, a magnificent structure, 1 10 feet in height, erected upon a terrace of marble
20
feet high,

the matter, namely, the character of obeis-

with projecting wings, ascended
flights of steps.

made by

the foreigner admitted to the

from the outer court by

and the nature and locality of the building in which it took place. As regards the former the favored individual was expected to comply with the Chinese usage by
interview,

Seated on a Raised Throne.

The Great Audience Hall on
of the platform
is

the summit

a vast pavilion, in design

performing the kowtow, that
thrice

is,

kneeling

not unlike the Memorial Temple of

Yung

and knocking

his forehead nine times

Lo

at the

Ming Tombs, 200
in depth, sustained

feet in length

upon the ground.

by 90 feet
sovereignty being
is

by 72 immense

The theory of Chinese
that the

columns of painted teak.

In this Hall the
holds the splendid

Emperor

the dejure monarch of

Emperor held and
the

still

the whole earth, of which China
dle

is the MidKingdom, all other nations, therefore, must be either his tributaries or his subjects; whence the exaction of this mark of defer-

annual Levees at the Winter Solstice, at

New
in

Year, and on his
the Tai

own
the

birthday.

Here
centre.

Ho

Tien

Emperor

takes his seat upon a raised throne in the

ence from their envoys.

As

regards the

site

of audience, the practice of emphasizing the
lowliness of the stranger in presence of the

A few Manchus
bility

of exalted rank alone are

admitted to the building. Outside and below
the marble balustrades are ranged the no-

Son of Heaven by
of
inferiority,

fixing the audience in
it

a

building that carries with

some

implication

and

officials in

eighteen double rows,

appears

to

have been

the

the

civil officers

growth only of the

last fifty years, if

not

military officers

on the east side, and the on the west, their respective
care
is

more
turies

recently.

ranks and positions being marked by low

In the seventeenth and eighteenth cen-

columns.

The utmost

observed in
according

both the Jesuit Fathers

who were

in

appointing places for the
to their respective ranks

officials
titles.

the service of the Emperor and the envoys

and

of

European Courts or Companies, who
to Pekin for complimentary purposes

The

privilege of audience, as
it

we

see,

had

came

been conceded, and

had been put

into force

160

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
made on him the idea which they carried away of the Emperor Kwangsu was
ians'

on one occasion during the brief reign of Tungche. The time had again arrived for
giving
it effect,

and, after long discussions as

pleasing

and almost

pathetic.

His

air is

one

to the place of audience and the forms to be

observed,

Kwangsu

issued
a.

in

1890, an edict appointing

December, day soon after
it

exceeding intelligence and gentleness, somewhat frightened and melancholy lookof

the

commencement of the Chinese New Year,
and also arranging that

for the audience,

should be repeated annually on the same
date.

and though it is distinguished by refinement and quiet dignity it has none of the force of his martial ancestors, nothing commanding or imperial, but is altogether mild, delicate, sad and kind.
ing.

His face

is

pale,

In March, 189 1,

Kwangsu gave

his first

"

He

is

essentially

Manchu

in features, his

OPIUM SMOKERS.
reception to the foreign ministers, but after

skin

is

strangely pallid in hue, which

is,

no
of

was over some criticism and dissatisfaction were aroused by the fact that the ceremony had been held in the Tse Kung Ko, or Hall of Tributary Nations. As this was the first occasion on which Europeans saw the young Emperor, the fact that he made a favorable impression on them is not without interest,
it

doubt, accounted for
his
life

by the confinement

and the absence of the ordinary pleasures and purinside these forbidding walls
suits of

youth, with the constant discharge

of onerous, complicated and difficult duties of state which,
it

must be remembered,
Chinese

are,

according

to

Imperial

etiquette,

and the following personal description of the
master of so

mostly transacted between the hours of two

many

millions

may

well be

and

quoted

six in the morning. His face is oval shaped with a very long narrow chin and a
sensitive

"Whatever the impression 'the Barbar-

mouth with

thin nervous lips

;

his

THE REIGN OF THE EMPEHOR KWANGSU.
nose
is

161

well shaped

and

straight, his eye-

of December, 1892, and was received in a
specially honorable

brows regular and very arched, while the
eyes are unusally large and sorrowful in expression.

way

at the principal or
officials

Imperial
Court.

entrance by the

of

the

The forehead
is

is

well shaped

and

Such a mark of distinction was con-

broad, and the head
average."

large

beyond the
felt

sidered quite unique in the annals of foreign

diplomacy in China, and has since been a
to

Owing

the dissatisfaction

at

the

standing grievance with the other ministers
at Pekin.
It was noticed by those present that the Emperor took a much greater interest in the ceremony than on previous occasions. This audience, which lasted a considerable time, was certainly the most satisfactory and encouraging yet held with the Emperor Kwangsu by any foreign envoy, and it also

place of audience, which seemed to put the

Treaty Powers on the same footing as tributary states, the foreign ministers have en-

deavored to force from the government the
formal admission that a more appropriate
part of the Imperial city should be assigned
for the

selves
stress

ceremony, but as the Powers themwere not disposed to lay too much on this point, no definite concession
ministers

afforded opportunity of confirming the favorable impression which the intelligence
dignified

was yet made, and the Chinese
held out against the pressure of
foreign representatives.

and

some

of the

But, although no

made on
coming

demeanor of the Emperor Kwangsu all who have had the honor of

concise alteration

audience, the question

was made in the place of was practically settled

into his presence.

One

incident in

the progress of the audience question deserves notice,
refusal, in

by a courteous concession to the new English minister, Mr. O'Conor, who succeeded Sir John Walsham, and it is gratifying to feel that this advantage was gained more by tact than by coercion. When Mr. O'Conor wished to present his credentials to the Emperor, it was arranged that the Emperor should receive him in the Cheng Kuan Tien Palace, which is part of the Imperial residence of Peace and Plenty
within

and that was the Emperor's 1891, to receive Mr. Blair, the
Minister, in

United States

consequence of

the hostile legislation of our country against
China.

The

anti-foreign outbreak along the

Yangtsekiang, in the
time

summer of
serious

1891, was

an unpleasant incident, from which at one
it

looked as
;

if

consequences

might follow

but the ebullition fortunately
crisis,

passed away without an international
it

the

Forbidden City.

The
his

British

representative,
taries

accompanied by

secre-

and that the improved means of exercising diplomatic pressure at
Pekin will render these attacks
less frequent,

may be hoped

and

suite in

accordance with arrange1

ment, proceeded to this palace on the

3th

and

their settlement

and redress more

rapid.

11

CHAF»TrBR

VIII.

THE EMPEROR OF CHINA AND HIS COURT.

THE

foregoing concise and graphic

features

and

institutions,

and absorbing

rathei

history from the able pen of the
historian,

than being absorbed by the foreign elements

well-known
Boulger,

Mr. D. C.
fol-

which have occasionally thrust themselves
into the

may

appropriately be

body

politic.

lowed by Mr. Robert K. Douglas's interesting and entertaining account of the manners and customs of the Chinese. This enables
the reader to see China as
past and as
it is

The
tions
tallized

poUtical constitution, the social rela
crys-

and customary ceremonies were
in

their

present

forms by those
to the opinion

it

has been in the

ancients on

whom, according

at the present time.

He

is

of the people, rested the mantle of perfect

now conducted from one
to another, while before

point of observation

wisdom.
nounced,

If the death of the
it

emperor

is

an-

him are pictured the
the manners, dress,

is

proclaimed in words used by

customs, the domestic

life,

Yao,

who

lived before the time of

Abraham.

idol-worship and singular ideas and habits of
this

remarkable people.
fashions in trivial
If a

Fondness
he bases
;

for Antiquity.

With the exception of
matters, nothing has

many

centuries.

changed in China for Every institution, every
its

spatch,

mandarin writes a controversial dehis arguments on the sayings
if

of Confucius

a youth presents himself at
is

custom, and every idea has
the distant ages and draws the sages of antiquity.
that
is its

foundation in

the public examinations, he

expected to

inspiration

from
all

Immutability in

essential

is

written on the face of the

empire.

No fear of organic change perplexes
else, in that

monarchs, or anyone
land,

changeless

and the people love to have it so. Sovereigns reign and pass away, dynasties come and go, and even foreign powers take
possession of the throne, as at the present
time,

compose essays exclusively on themes from the four books and five classics of antiquity and if a man writes to congratulate a friend on the birth of a daughter, he does so in phraseology drawn from the national primitive odes, which were sung and chanted before the days of Homer.
This immutability gives certain advantages
in writing
is

on Chinese

society, since the author

when a
;

line of

Manchu emperors
life

reigns

not called upon

at Pekin

but the national
goes on

in all its char-

"To shoot folly
And
It is

as it flies

acteristics

unmoved by

political

catch the manners living as they rise."

change and revolutionary violence. One of the most remarkable spectacles
the world's history
is

enough

for

him

to keep in view the

in

rock from which the people have hewn their

that of this strange
after

empire which, having been time

time

and to draw from the current literature, which reflects that foundation, the picture
lives,

thrown

into the crucible of political unrest,
in its

has always reappeared identical

main

which he may propose to sketch. What, then, are the constituent elements

162

THE EMPEROR AND
of Chinese society
?

HIS COURT.
a description of which cannot

163
fail

They

are very simple,

ritual,

to

and are
is

free

from the complications and
life.

enlacements of European

At

the head

be of interest to the reader. The Temple of Heaven, where

this

august

the emperor and his court, next comes the

ceremony is performed, stands
triple circular terrace, feet

in the

southern

bureaucracy, and after them the people. With
the exception of

portion of the city of Pekin, and consists of a

some few

families,

such as

two hundred and ten

those of Confucius, of Tseng, and five or six
others, there
is

wide at the base, and ninety feet at the

no hereditary aristocracy of
All are equal
aris-

top.

The marble
circles.

stones forming the paveterrace are laid in nine

high rank and importance.
until the

ment of the highest
concentric

examiners have elected into an

On

the centre stone,

tocracy of talent those whose essays and

which is a perfect
facing

circle,

the

Emperor

kneels,

poems

are the best.

The remaining divisions

the

north,

of "farmers, mechanics, and traders," represent one level.

prayer and by his
to

and "acknowledges in position that he is inferior

Heaven, and to Heaven alone. Round him on the pavement are the nine circles of as

High-Sounding

Titles.

many heavens,

consisting of nine stones, then

Emperor reigns supreme. The possessor of a power which is limited only by the endurance of the people,
these classes the

Above

eighteen, then twenty-seven,

and so on,

in

successive multiples of nine until the square

of nine, the favorite

number of Chinese

phil-

the object of profound reverence and worship

osophy,

is

reached in the outermost circle of

by his
as

subjects, the holder of the lives of "all

eighty-one stones."

under heaven," the fountain of honor as well
the dispenser of mercy, he occupies a

The Burnt

Sacrifice.

position

which is unique of its kind, and unmatched in the extent of its influence. There is much magic in a name, and the titles by which the potentate is known help us to realize what he is in the eyes of the
people.

On
the

the evening before the winter solstice
is

Emperor

borne
after

in

a carriage drawn
precincts of the

by elephants to the mystic
temple,

whence,

offering

incense to
to his

Shangti, "the

Supreme Ruler," and
There he remains

ancestors, he proceeds to the hall of peneis

He

the

"Son of Heaven," he

is

the

tential fasting.

until 5.45

"Supreme Ruler," the "August Lofty One," the "Celestial Ruler," the "Solitary Man," the "Buddha of the present day," the " Lord " and, in adulatory addresses, he is often entitled the " Lord of Ten Thousand Years." As the Son of Heaven, he rules by the express command of the celestial powers, and is sustained on the throne by the same supreme authorities, so long as he
;

A.M.,

when, dressed

in his sacrificial robes,

he ascends to the second
the signal for setting
sacrifice,

terrace.

This

is

fire to the whole burnt which consists of a bullock two years old and without blemish. The Supreme Ruler having been thus invoked, the

Emperor goes up

to the highest terrace,

offers incense before the

sacred shrine,

and and

that of his ancestors.

rules in accordance with their dictates.

He

At
thrice
offers

the same

time,

after

having knelt

alone

is

entitled to

worship the azure heaven,

and prostrated himself nine times, he
bundles of
silk,

and

at the winter solstice

rite after careful

he performs this preparation, and with solemn

jade cups, and other

gifts in

lowly

sacrifice.

A

prayer

is

then

i4

w > a

o

M H W

164

TH)£
read by an attendant

EMPEROR AND
while the

HIS COURT.
its

165
advocate the redoubtfather of the

minister,

able as having for able

Emperor kneels
rite

in adoration, to

an accom-

Tseng Kwofan, the
in the empire.

Mar-

paniment of music and dancing. One solemn
has
still

quis Tseng,

and the foremost man of the

to be performed before the sacriis

day

To

him, more than

tc-

ficial

service

complete.

While the Em-

peror remains on his knees, officers appointed
for the

purpose present to him " the flesh of

happiness,"

and the "cup of happiness."

Thrice he prostrates himself before the sacred

any other mandarin, is due the suppressior< of the Taeping rebellion. He was the inti mate adviser of the throne, and was held ir the highest esteem as a learned and enlight ened man.
This
viceroy,
in

emblems, and then receives them with solemn
reverence.
It is

conjunction

with

the

curious to find these

marked

Viceroy of Fuhkien, "petitioned the throne
to deify

resemblances to Jewish and Christian worship in the Chinese ritual.

two female

genii

who had worked
good

a
of

great

number of

miracles for the
district
is

the people."

In the

of Chiangtu,

Claims Divine Authority.

write the viceroys, " there

a place called

By

this

solemn

sacrifice

the

Emperor

Hsien-nii-chen, which has long had a temple

assumes the office of Vice-regent of Heaven, and by common consent is acknowledged to be the co-ordinate of Heaven and earth, and
the representative of

two genii, Tu and Kang. This temple was once upon a time the scene of a beneficent miracle, which is duly recorded in the
to the

man

in

the trinity of

history

of the

district.

Moreover, in the

which those two powers form the other persons.

eighth year of Hiengfung (1858),

when

the

As

possessor of the Divine authority,
all

Taeping rebels were attempting to cross on
rafts at

he holds himself superior to
called gods,
titles

who

are

Fuchiao, on the east side of Yangfrightful

and takes upon himself to grant of honor to deities, and to promote
one occasion a memorial was prethe
Lieutenant-

chow, a

storm of thunder and rain

burst over the place and drowned countless

them

in the sacred hierarchy.

numbers of them.

On

sented to the throne by

Lamps and
"The
that,

Fairy Godesses.

Governor of Kiangtsu, asking the Emperor
to confer higher honors on

refugees

from the city

all

stated

the
,

Queen of

Heaven, the God of the Wind
the Sea, and the

the

God

of

on the night in question, when the rebels were attempting to cross, they saw the
opposite bank lined, as far as the eye could
reach, with bright azure-colored lamps, and
in the

God
on

of the city of Shanghai,

in consideration of their

having brought the
to Tientsin,
it

tribute rice safely
for

its

way

and
with

midst of the lamps were seen the

having favored the vessels bearing

fairy goddesses.

Scared by

this

apparition

gentle zephyrs and a placid sea.

To

this re-

the rebels abandoned the attempt, and the

quest the Emperor was pleased to accede, and the gods and goddesses reaped the reward of his benignity by the issue of patents which were held to vouch for their promotion

town and neighborhood were saved from
ing into their hands."
memorialists add,
"

fall-

Some

time ago," the
petitioned

"Tseng Kwofan

the throne to deify the two female genii,

Tu

on the heights of Olympus. One other instance of this form of super-

and Kang

;

but the Board of Rites replied

that the local histories only mention

Kang,
for

stition

may be

mentioned, which

is

remark-

and

asked what authority there was

166
ranking
to be

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
Tu among the genii. There appeared
in respect to

the English rendering of the term, and to

no doubt

Kang.
and
find

look at the native characters which represent
it.

"The memoralists
vestigated the whole

have, therefore, re-incase,

They form

the

word Hwangti, and by the
inven-

that

are of considerable interest both as indicating

Kang was

a priestess in Tu's temple, and

the very lofty idea entertained
tors of the
first

that she ascended from the

town

in

question

character of what an emperor

on a white dragon up to
in

fairyland,

and that
placed

should be; and, in the case of the second, as
confirming a theory which
is

consequence of

this the inhabitants

now commonly
num-

her on a par with
together.

Tu

and worshipped them

accepted, that the Chinese borrowed a

The names of the fairies, Tu and Kang, are to be found in the official registers, and they have long been objects of worship. Such are the representations of the local gentry and elders, and the memoralists would earnestly repeat their request that his majesty would be graciously pleased to deify the two genii, Tu and Kang, in acknowledgment of the many deliverances they have wrought, and in compliance with
the earnest wish of the people."

ber of their

written symbols from the cunei-

form writing of Babylonia.

Hwang was

formerly

The character made up of two parts,
self,"

meaning "ruler" and "one's

and thus
in

conveys the very laudable notion,

har-

mony

with the doctrines taught by Confu-

cius, that

an emperor, before attempting to have learnt to be the

rule the empire, should

master of his

own

actions.

Supreme White Ruler.
In the same
spirit later,

In the pages of the Pekin Gazette, such

memorials, presented by the highest
in the empire, are constantly to

officials

hundred years
charge
is

said,

Mencius, about two " The greatest
self."

be met with,

the charge of one's

An

and are treated with all seriousness both by the suppliants and the Son of Heaven.
His Subjects Adore Him.

idea which appears in the

mouth of Polonius,

where he says
"This above all to thine own self be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst not then be false to any man."
:

harmony with these subjects, when admitted
In
prostrate themselves

lofty attributes his

into

his

presence,

By

a clerical error the character

is

now

in adoration on the ground before him, and on a certain day in the year he is worshipped in every city in At daylight on the day in the empire. question the local mandarins assemble in

written with the omission of a stroke in the

symbol

for one's self, and,

so altered, the

compound

reads, " the white ruler."

The
the

second character means "the supreme."

The Emperor
present day.

is

also the
is

Buddha of
which has

the city temple, where, in the central hall,

This

a

title

little

a throne

is

raised

on which
kneel

is

placed the

meaning among the
the question
plored.
.

skeptical Chinese,

who

imperial tablet.

At a

given signal the asthrice
strike
in

agree with Confucius in preferring to leave
of a future
existence unex-

sembled

officials

before the
their

throne, and

nine times

heads

on the ground as though of the Supreme Ruler.
In speaking of this
Ruler,
it

the presence

golia

But in and Tibet, the ignorant natives give an

the weary wastes of Mon-

interest to their dreary existences

by

blindly

title,

is

interesting to

Supreme go a step beyond
the

following the superstitious teaching of their
priests.

In Tibet, more especially,

Budd-

THE EMPEROR AND
hism has gained complete possession of the
people,

HIS COURT.

167

and the priestly profession is crowded with men who seek for power, and who find
easier to

it

make a

living out of the supersti-

The sympathy produced by his condition prompted the despatch of petitions to Pekin to plead for his soul, and such success attended them that an edict was shortly
afterwards
"

tious fears of the people than
soil at their feet.

from the barren

issued in the following terms:
is

We

decree that as

besought of

us, search

Not content with managing the
concerns of their followers, these

spiritual

may be made

to discover the child in

whose

men have

body the soul of the decased Hut'ukht'u has
been re-born, and that he be allowed to

made themselves masters
situation,

of the political

and in the hand of their chief, the Grand Lama, rests the government of the
country.
"

resume the government of
sery, or dominion."

his

proper lama-

To

these people the
"

title

of the

Buddha

of the present day

is full

of mean-

Compelled to Fall on Their Faces.

and a command from the potentate at Pekin is readily obeyed as coming from the suzerain of the land, and the spiritual head of their religion. The Grand Lama is surrounded by several dignitaries, and on the
ing,

The

title

of "the solitary

nently applicable to a potentate

only claims temporal

man" is emiwho thus not dominion, but who
priest over the
is

assumes the position of high
household of the gods.
It

a

common
their

death of any one of these ecclesiastics the

complaint with emperors and kings that they

re-embodiment of
ferred to Pekin,

his spiritual essence is reis

have no fellows; but here

is

one of

and

not considered valid

until the sanction of the

received.

Emperor has been On occasions the Emperor actu-

number whose cherished attributes place him beyond the reach of mortals. With the
exception

of those immediately about his

ally forbids the transmigration of the soul of

person, his subjects are not allowed to gaze

any dignitary who which thus remains

may
in

be under
pleasure.

his ban,

upon

his face.

When

he goes abroad the
fall

a state of suspended

people are compelled to

on

their faces to

animation during his good

the ground until his cavalcade has passed on,

and on

all

occasions he

is

to

them a mystery.
receive

A
The Pekin

Strange Decree.
tells us,

A sovereign so exalted and so worshipped
would
naturally

Gazette

that one such,

expect
his

to

from

a Hut'ukht'u, was once impeached for deserting his post, and carrying off his seal of
office, in

foreigners

entering

presence,
is

homage
and
at

equal to that to which he

accustomed

consequence of a disturbance which

from the pliant knees of
first,

his subjects,

arose through a distribution of alms.
this dereliction of

For

no doubt, the

refusul of British repre-

duty his

title

cancelled,

and

it

was
to

at

and seal were the same time
at
his

sentatives to kotow, or prostrate themselves

before him,

came

as a surprise.

From

the

decreed by the Emperor that his soul should

time of Lord Macartney's mission, in 1792,

not

be

allowed

transmigrate

down

to a few years back, the question of

decease.

On

receiving this

extinguishing

the kotow was a burning one, and was as
consistently resisted
it

came to Pekin for the purpose of appealing, and soon afterwards
sentence the offender
his death

by

foreign ministers as

was urgently pressed by the Chinese.

At

produced the

crisis in his spiritual

the present time, on two or three occasions

state

which the sentence contemplated.

on which the European ministers have been

168
granted
audiences,

CHINA: PAST
they

AND PRESENT.
Gazette,

have

paid

the

and

to the plays

and novels of the

that they

Emperor the same reverence, and no more, pay to their own sovereigns.

people, for sketches of his monotonous and dreary existence. The palace, as befitting

TYPES OF CHINESE WOMEN.

lic

Being so entirely withdrawn from the pubgaze, very little can possibly be known of
life,

the abode of so exalted a personage,

is

so

placed as effectually to cut off

its

occupants

the Emperor's private
to

and we are driven

from the

rest of the empire.
it

Situated in the

that

veiy candid

periodical, the

PeHn

" Forbidden City,"

is

surrounded with a

THE EMPEROR AND
triple barrier

HIS COURT.
His Majesty
will pass

169
through the
entering
the

of walls.
is

Beyond the inner and
city,

wards

secret enclosure

the Imperial

which
tiles

is

Yung-suy-tsiang gate,

and,

enclosed by a high wall topped with
the Imperial yellow color
again
is
;

of

King-shansi gate, will proceed to the Show-

the Tartar

city,

and outside that which forms the

hwang temple

to worship.

His Majesty will

then pass through the Pehshang gate from
the Sishan road, and, entering the Shinwu
gate, will return to the palace to breakfast.

northern part of the capital.
Strict

guard

is

kept day and night at the unauthorized persons
its

gates of the Forbidden City, and severe penalties

His Majesty will then hold an audience, and
at 7

are inflicted on

all

o'clock will
receive

ascend to the Kientsing
congratulations

who may
ferred

dare to enter

portals.

One

of

Palace to
birthday.

on

his

the highest distinctions which can be con-

At

8 o'clock he will take his seat

on

officials
is

whom the Emperor delights
Only on
rare

to witness the theatrical performance."

to honor,

the right to ride on horseback

within these sacred precincts.
occasions,

Putting

On

the Purple.

and those almost exclusively occasions of ceremony, does the Emperor pass out of the palace grounds. These no doubt present a miniature of the empire. There are lakes, mountains, parks,, and gardens in which the Imperial prisoner can amuse himself, with the boats which ply on the artificial lakes, or by joining mimic hunts in miniature
forests
;

and conjurers are summust be ready at an equally uncongenial hour to show their skill. But such relaxations are the glints of sunlight which brighten the sombre life of the solitary man. The sovereign announced his assumption of the Imperial purple in 1875, when he was quite an
if

And

wrestlers

moned

into the Imperial presence, they

but

it is

probable that there

is

not

infant, in

the following edict
fifth

one of the millions of China who has not a more practical knowledge of the empire than he who rules it.
Stirring Before Daylight.

day of the moon " (January 12, 1875), "at the yeo hour" (5-7 P.M.), "His Majesty the Emperor departed this life, ascending upon the Dragon to be a
" Whereas, on the

guest on high, the benign mandate of the
his

Theoretically he

is

supposed to spend
affairs

days and nights in the

of

state.

The

gates of the Forbidden City are opened at

midnight, and the halls of audience at 2 a.m.

Empress Dowager and Empress Mother was by us reverently received, commanding us to enter upon the inheritance of the great succession. Prostrate upon the earth we bewailed our grief to Heaven, vainly stretching

Before daylight his cabinet ministers arrive

and are received at veritable
10 o'clock.

levees,

and

all

out our hands in lamentation.
years, as

For

thirteen

the state sacrifices and functions are over

by

we humbly

reflected,

His Majesty

Even the court amusements are dew is off the grass. The following programme, taken from the Pekin Gazette, describes a morning's work at Court "To-morrow, after business, about 6
held before the

now

departed reigned under the canopy of
In reverent observance of the anprecepts,

Heaven.
cestral

he made the counsels prompted by maternal love his guide, applying himself with awestruck zeal to the
toil-

Emperor will pass through the Hwa-Yuen and Shinwu gates to the
o'clock A.M., the

some performance of his duty. The welfare of the people and the policy of the State
were ever present
in

Takaotien temple to

offer sacrifice.

After-

his

utmost thoughts.

170

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
in

Not

words can we give expression to the

the

royal

household,

in

which secondary
fifties.

sadness which pierces our heart and shows
itself in tears

wives are counted by tens and

and blood."
Gazette bears testimony to the
felt

As

is

natural in the case of any matter

The Pekin
desire

affecting so exalted a

personage as the Son
the dignity

which was

by the Emperor's

of Heaven, the ceremonies connected with
his

tutors to rear the tender thought aright.
in that journal the following

And
this

marriage are marked by

all

memorial on

and splendor which are peculiar to Oriental
states.

subject was published with approval.

" His
it

Unlike his subjects, even of the

Majesty, being

still

of

tender age,
that

is

beyond question
those

expedient

effectual

training in the right path be studied.

All

who surround His

Majesty, and are in

near employment about his person, should

be without exception of
solid character.
less

tried capacity

and

who are bound as a preliminary pay court to the parents of their future brides, the Emperor finds it sufficient to issue an edict announcing his intention to marry the lady on whom his choice may have fallen, and she, trembling with the weight
highest rank,
to

No

youthful and thoughtin at-

of the honor, blushingly obeys the

person should be suffered to be

Unlike his subjects, also, the Emperor
law entitled to wives of three ranks.

command. is by

tendance."

A
From

The
Wife
for the

first

consists of the

Empress,

who

is

Emperor.

alone in her dignity except when, as has

time to time the outer world was

happened,

on some

rare

occassions,

two

informed of the progress which this tenderly

Princesses have shared the imperial throne.

guarded youth was making

in

his studies.

At

last

the time came

in

1889

The second rank
and
it is

is

unlimited as to

number

for

him

to

from these ladies

that, in case of the

assume the reins of power hitherto held by the dowager empresses, and to take to himself a consort.

death of the Empress, the Emperor com-

monly chooses her successor.
rank
is filled

The

question of choosing a

up as the
it is

taste of the

The third Emperor

wife

for

the

Imperial recluse was a more

may
this

direct,

and

rarely that the ladies of

serious matter to arrange than the transfer of

grade ever succeed to the lofty dignity

power.

It

was

necessary that

the

lady

of the throne.

—a Manchu—and
to looks

should be of the same nationality as himself
that she should satisfy the

Imposing Ceremonies.

requirements of the

Dowager Empresses

as

To
the

the wedding of the Empress alone are

and appearance. Levees of aspirants to the honor were held by the Dowagers, and a lady having been chosen, the personage most interested in the event was made aware of the selection. According to custom, and possibly to provide against any disappointment which the

reserved the courtly ceremonials which grace
imperial

marriage.

are ten in

number.

First

These ceremonies comes an edict
marriage.

announcing the

intended

The

Board of Ceremonies next proclaims the fact throughout the empire, and having consulted
the Imperial astronomers as to the choice of

appearance of the bride might produce in the

a fortunate day for sending the customary
presents to the bride-elect, prepares for the

two young ladies were also chosen to accompany the Empress as secondimperial breast,

occasion ten horses with accoutrements, ten
cuirasses, a

ary wives.

This

trio

forms the nucleus of

hundred pieces of

silk

and two

<
l-H

a o
ft

o
P
t4

w o z
1—

PM

a

z 1— g 3

< o 1—
Pi

w s

^^Lffwm
171

172

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
To
the Board

hundred pieces of nanking.

on the threshold, and kneels while he
the Imperial
hall.
gifts to

carries

of Rites belongs the duty of preparing a

the tables in the great

golden tablet and a golden seal on which the
scholars of the Hanlin College inscribe the

On

the centre table the envoy places

the Imperial seal, and on the others the vari-

necessary decrees relating to the marriage.

ous portable presents, while the horses are
a

Armed

with

these

imperial

pledges

arranged on the right and
yard.

left

of the court-

President of the

Board

invites the imperial
gifts.

order for the presentation of the
this

When
early

When

all

are disposed in order, the father
gifts

has been received, the
the day

officials, at

of the lady receives the

kneeling, and

dawn on

appointed, place a table in

prostrates himself nine times as a token of
his

the hall of "Great

Harmony"
seal,

for the recep-

gratitude for the Imperial favor.

The

tion of the imperial

while others set

departure of the messenger,
Imperial seal

who
is

carries the

out a pavilion ornamented with dragons, in which the cuirasses, the silks and the cloths
are reverently deposited.

away with him,

surrounded

with the same

ceremonies as those which

greeted his arrival.

Two
The
Imperial Mandate.

banquets form the second part of the

ceremony.
order
al-

The mother of

the bride

When

the assembly is complete, the master

of the Emperor,

entertained

is, by by the

of ceremonies orders every one to his
lotted place,

Imperial princesses in the apartments of the

and exhorts

all

to

assume a

Dowager Empress, while
berlains

the Imperial chamoffer

grave and decorous attitude.

In the hear-

and high

officials

the same

ing of this attentive gathering a commis-

hospitality to her father.

bowing the knee, reads aloud Imperial mandate, which runs as follows the
sioner,
after

The

Nuptial Presents.

"The august
the wishes
press,

ruler has, in accordance with

On

the wedding-day officers appointed for

of the revered

Dowager Emof the

the purpose present to the bride two hun-

promised to take Miss
as his consort,

dred ounces of gold, ten thousand ounces of
silver,

and orders the minaccordance
with the

one gold and two
pieces

silver tiaras,

a thou-

isters

to take the seal of the empire with the
presents,
in

sand

of

silk,

twenty

caparisoned

nuptial

horses,

and twenty others with equipments. and precious orna-

sacred rites."

To

her father and mother are, in like man-

So soon
table

as the herald has ceased speaking

ner, offered gold, silver

a Secretary of State takes the seal from the

ments

;

pieces of silk,

bows and arrows, and

and hands
in

it

to an Imperial messenger
officials

countless robes.

who,

company with
and other

carrying the

The

declaration of the marriage follows.
is

pavilion

gifts,

and preceded and
to the

An
On

ambassador

sent with

an Imperial

followed

by the Imperial guards, goes

letter to

the father of the future empress.

there

house of the future Empress. Everything has been prepared for his reception.
in the centre of the

his knees, this

much

genuflecting

man

listens to the

words of

his future son-in-law,
in

A table has been placed
hall

and makes nine prostrations
his table.

the direction

between two others, draped with ap-

of the Imperial seal, which again stands on

propriate hangings.

On

the arrival of the

On

messenger the father of the lady salutes him

ladies of his

this occasion his wife and two household take part in the cere-

THE EMPEROR AND
mony. Six times they bow low, thrice they bend the knee, and twice as often they prostrate themselves before the seal.

HIS COURT.
and

173
seal of gold,
for

officers carrying the tablet

and bearers with the sedan-chair destined
the bride.

This done,

In strange contrast to the ordistreets,

they receive from the envoy the tablet of
gold,

nary state of the

the thoroughfares

on which

is

inscribed the declaration

on

this occasion are swept, garnished,

and

of marriage, and retire with this evidence of

made

straight.

the fulfilment of their hopes to the apartments
of the bride.

On arriving, over these unwontedly smooth
ways, at the dwelling of the bride, the envoy

On

the eve of the eventful day ministers

are sent to announce the auspicious event to

Heaven, and Earth, and to the
Imperial temple.

deities of the

mark of honor and reverence, not only by the father of the bride, but by the elder ladies of the houseis

received with every

On the

following morning,
is

hold, dressed in their

most

brilliant

costumes.

so soon as the august procession the

formed,

In the grand hall the father kneels before the

Emperor

enters his sedan-chair,

and

is

envoy,

who hands

the seal to a lady in wait-

borne to the Tzuning palace, where the
throne of

ing, while his lieutenant delivers the tablet

dowager Empress awaits him seated on a state. With dutiful regard he kneels, and thrice, and again nine times bows
low
at the feet of his mother.

and the Imperial
to receive them.

letter to

the ladies appointed

As

these things are borne

to the private apartments of the bride, her

mother and
ence,
listen

ladies kneel in

token of reverin

and then, following
addressed to the bride.

their

wake,

The Great

Seal.

with devout respect to the terms of the

Having thus manifested his respect, he proceeds to the " Hall of Great Harmony,"
accompanied by bands discoursing music
from an
infinite

letter

The

Bride Escorted to the Palace.
this

variety

of

instruments.

When
bride,

There, at a signal given, the members of the

ceremony is concluded, the with her mother and ladies in attend-

Board of Rites kneel and prostrate themselves before their august sovereign.

ance, advances to the " Phoenix Chair," in

This

which, preceded

by

ministers

bearing the

done, a herald advances and reads aloud the
Imperial
"

Imperial seal, and followed by musicians and

decree,
in

which

runs

as

follows:

guards of honor, she proceeds to the palace.

The Emperor,

obedience to the desire of

On

arriving at

the

gate,

the officers and

the Empress
princess

his

mother, agrees that the

attendants dismount from their horses, while
porters bearing aloft nine umbrellas

shall

be his consort.

In this

orna-

propitious month, and under
constellation,
gifts

this favorable

mented with phoenixes lead the procession
to

he has prepared the customary and the usual contract, and now comhis ministers

the Kientsing

gate.

Beyond

this

the

attendants and officials are forbidden to go,

mands
In

to

escort

the

chosen
the

bride to his palace."

and the bride proceeds alone to meet her affianced husband.

harmony with
officers of

this

last

clause,

One more ceremony
to

has to be performed

Imperial envoy, followed by chamberlains

complete the marriage.

A
at

banquet

is

and
on

the guard, and accompanied

spread for the august pair,

which they

with music, takes the great seal and starts
his mission.

pledge each other's troth in cups of wine,

Following

in his train

come

and thus

tie

the knot which death alone un-

174
ravels.

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
This, however, does not quite confalls

following valedictory manifesto was put in
his

clude the laborious ceremonial which
the lot of the bride.
the wedding
it

to

On

the morning after

" It

mouth was owing

to the exalted love of

becomes her duty to testify her respect to the dowager Empress by bringing her water in which to wash her
hands, and
in return

late Imperial father.

Our Our canopy and support,
is,

that the Divine Vessel (that
-

the throne)

by spreading viands

before her,

was bestowed upon Our keeping. Having set foot in Our childhood on the throne, We
from that moment had, gazing upwards, to thank their two majesties the Empresses for
that, in

for

which courtesies the dowager

entertains her daughter-in-law at a feast of

welcome.

ordering as Regents the

affairs

of

Meanwhile

the

Emperor

receives

the

government, they devoted night and day to
the laborious task.
dience to their

When,

later, in

obe-

commands, We personally assumed the supreme power. We looked on high for guidance to the Ancestral precepts of the Sacred Ones before Us, and in devotion to Our government and love towards Our people, made the fear of Heaven and the example of Our Forefathers the mainspring of every
divine
act.

"To

be unwearied day by day has

been Our single purpose.
constitution

Our bodily has through Our life been

strong,

this year.

and when, in the nth moon of We were attacked by smallgave the utmost care to the

pox.

We

preservation of

Our health but
;

for

some

days past Our strength has gradually

CHINESE MANDARIN.

^
given

failed,

until the

hope of recovery has
recognize in this the

passed away.
will of

We
And

homage
state,

of the princes, dukes, and officers of

Heaven."

then the dying

man

and for some days the palace is up to feasting and rejoicing an echo of which reaches the remotest parts of the empire when the proclamation announcing

named
cousin.

his successor in the person of his first

So soon

as the august patient has ceased

to breathe, his heir strips from his cap the

the joyful event
vinces.

is made known in the proThe long and formal ceremonies are

ornaments which adorn it, and " wails and stamps " in evidence of his excessive grief

now concluded and
the

the

Emperor

is

married.

But the Imperial mentors not only teach

The widow and ladies same way discard the
which
it

of the

hair-pins

harem in the and jewelry

Emperor how to
harder lesson

live,

but they teach the
to die."
late

is

ordinarily their delight to wear,

"still

how

On

the

and show
position

their practical appreciation of the
setting

approaching death of the

Emperor, the

by

to

work

to

make

the

u o

s H ^, D

175

176

CHINA: PAST
clothes

AND PRESENT.
"

mourning
coffin

and

habiliments.

The
is

Heavenly Rest."

From

the balcony above

prepared for the remains having been

this portal

the contents of the document are

carried into the principal hall of the palace,

inspected

by the

heir,

and receives

its

august

The announced to the assembled crowd. terms of the testament having been communicated to the people of the capital,
it
isf

burden.

By an

ordinance, which

is

probably

more honored
formance, the
sacrifice their

in the

breach than in the perhis courtiers

printed in yellow, and distributed not only

new Emperor and

throughout the empire, but throughout every

queues as a token of their sor-

row, and the ladies of the harem, not to be

outdone, submit their flowing locks to the
scissors of their attendants.

Son of Heaven Corea, Mongolia, and Manchuria, and Liuchiu, and Annam. When the time named by the astrologers
region which owes allegiance to the

arrives for the

removal of the coffin to the
hill

Periods of Mourning.

temporary palace on the
fiction
is

within the Impe-

For three

years,

which by a

rial

enclosure, a procession, formed of all
is

reduced to twenty-seven months, the young

that

great and noble in the empire, accom-

Emperor mourns the decease of
cessor.

his prede-

panies the Imperial remains to their appointed
resting-place, where, with every
spect,

The exigencies of administration, however, make it necessary that he should
confine the period of unrestrained grief to a

token of re-

they are received by the Empress and

the ladies of the harem.

hundred days

;

while twenty-seven days are

considered sufficient for the expression of the
regrets of the concubines of the third rank.

The Three Names.
In a mat shed adjoining the temporary palace the

the

During the twenty-seven months members of Imperial family are not supposed to

marry or indulge
married
life.

in

any of the pleasures of

late

curious punishment was inflicted on a Emperor for an infraction of this last rule. Most inopportunely a son was born to him at a time which proved that, in accordits

A

Emperor takes up his abode for With unremitting attention he presents fruits and viands to the deceased, accompanying them with sacrificial libations and prayers. The choice of a posthumous title next occupies the attention of
twenty- seven days.
the
ministers, and from that moment the names which the late sovereign has borne in life disappear from Imperial cognizance. To every Emperor are given, during life, and at
his death, three

ance with Chinese notions,

existence must

have begun during the mourning for the deceased Emperor. The question then arose

names.

how

the august offender was to be dealt with.

called

his

personal

The first may be name; the second is
to the throne,

Banishment would have been the sentence naturally passed on any less exalted personage, but as

assigned

him on coming
titles

and

resembles the

given to the occupants of
is

the

it was plainly impossible to send Son of Heaven into exile, it was deter-

the papal chair; the third
to

the style chosen
or

commemorate

his
is

particular virtues

mined

to

banish his portrait across

the

those which he
sessed.

supposed to have poshas been

deserts of

Mongolia into a

far country.

On

a day of good

omen

the will of the

So soon
seal;

as the
it is

posthumous

title

deceased

Emperor

is

carried,

with
the

much
of

decided upon

engraved upon a tablet and

pomp and

circumstance,

to

gate

and

in

order that the spiritual powers

THE EMPEROR AND HIS COURT.
should be made acquainted with the style
adopted, especially appointed ministers anprocession

177
the officers
fell

moved along

on

their knees and, looking upwards, raised a

nounce the newly chosen epithet to Heaven, and Earth, and to the gods of the land and
of grain.

cry of lamentation.

On

reaching the pre-

cincts of the hall the

mandarins, from the

On

the completion of these longis

highest to the lowest, thrice
nine times

bowed

low,

and

drawn-out ceremonies a day
the removal of the coffin to

chosen for
In a

struck

their foreheads

on the
the

its

tomb.

ground.

So soon

as

the notification had
for
it,

wooded
Pekin,

valley, forty or fifty miles west of

been placed on the table prepared
herald cried aloud, " Let
lamentation."
all raise

lie all

that

is

mortal of the emperors
Thither,

the cry of

of the present dynasty.
stages, the coffin,
is

by easy

borne by countless bearers,

Anon, the same
appointed for the

officer

proclaimed, " Preofficer

carried, over

a road levelled and carefully

sent the notification,"

upon which the

prepared for the cortege.

purpose

presented the

paper to the governor-general and governor

Funereal Pomp.

of the province,

who
it

received

it

on

their

As

in

duty bound, the Emperor accomit

knees and handed
urer,

to the provincial treasit

panies the coffin, but does not find

neces-

who,
it

in like

manner, passed

to the

sary to join in the actual procession.

By
in

secretary charged with the duty of seeing
that

pursuing devious ways he reaches the travelling palaces, at

which the halts are made,

time to receive the coffin, and without having

was reverently copied and published abroad. At another word of command the mandarins retired to a public hall, where
nig^ht abstaining

experienced the fatigue of the slow and dreary

they passed the

from meapt

march.
monies,

Finally, with

many and minute
money, and

cere-

and from

all

carnal indulgence.
in

among which

occurs the presentation
clothes,

to the deceased of food,

Mourning

White Apparel.

the remains are laid to rest in the august

company of Imperial shades. With much the same pomp and ceremonial a deceased Empress is buried in the sacred
precincts,
is

and the proclamation of her death

received in the provinces with

much

the

same demonstrations of grief and sorrow as which greets the announcement of the decease of a Son of Heaven. Some years ago, on the death of the Empress Dowager, a curious proclamation, prescribing the rites to be performed on the occasion, was issued to the people of Canton.
that

For three days similar ceremonies and lamentations were performed, and for nine times that period white apparel was donned by the mandarins, who had already discarded the tassels and buttons of their caps on the first arrival of the Imperial messenger. From the same date all official signatures were written with blue ink, and seals were impressed with the same color. No drums were beaten, no courts were held, and a blue valance was hung from the chair and table
of
all officers in lieu

of the ordinary red one.
first

From

this

paper

we learn

that the notification

three days a state banquet was offered to the deceased, when,
in the presence of the

On

each of the

of the death was received from the hands of the Imperial messenger
local officials,

assembled mandarins,

by the assembled and was borne on the " dragon
Examination Hall.

the herald cried aloud, " Serve tea to

Her

Majesty."

Upon which attendants, preceded
governor-general

bier" to the
12

As

the

by the

and

governor,

178
ascended the
dais,

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
and, kneeling, poured out
tea,

a cup of

which they handed to the governor-general. With every token of respect this officer placed the cup before the

flame, and with prostrations and bows the ceremony came to an end. Such is the side of the shield presented to

us in the pages of the Pekin Gazette.

It

represents a cloistered vir-

tue which, even

if

genuine,
if

we should admire more
it

sallied

out to seek

its

ad-

versaries.

Probably, how-

ever,

a truer presentment
inner
hfe

of

the
is

of

the

palace

to be found in the

native novels and plays, where the natural effects

confining the Son of Heaven within the narrow

of

hmits
City,

of the Forbidden and of depriving him
those healthy exerfoster

of

all

cises

which
in

a sound

mind

a sound body, are can only be

described as resulting from

the system.

It

men

of the strongest will

and keenest intellects, who would not rust under such conditions, and these qualities

are possessed as rarely
as

by Emperors
nary persons.

by

ordi-

For the most part we see the Emperor portrayed as
surrounded by sycophants

and worse than sycophants, who fawn upon him and

add
STREET SCENE
tablet representing the late

flattery to adulation in

CANTON.

their attempts to gain

and

to hold his favor.

Ener-

Empress.
water,

With

vated by luxury, he, in a vast majority of
cases, falls a

the same ceremonies

rice,

and wine
the

ready victim to these blandish-

were offered to the
Empress.
Finally,

spirit

of the deceased

ments, and rapidly degenerates into a weak

at

a

word from

herald, the viands were committed to the

and flabby being. It is true that occasionally some hardy Son of Heaven enjoys

THE EMPEROR AND
a long reign, but the more
of events
is

HIS COURT.
when by Imperial
favor

179
the

common

course
rule

exchequers,

is

that a short

and inglorious

number of those holding patents of
is

nobility

brought to a premature close by the

effects

multiplied.

On

one occasion the governor

of debauchery and inanition.

of Kiangsi complained that he had to provide 50,000 taels a year for the incomes of

In so complicated an administrative machine as that of China
it

is

difficult to

say

the four hundred and eighty-three hereditary

what part the Emperor really takes in the government of the country. We know that

nobles residing within his jurisdiction.

This master
the

number he considered
enough, and he begged

to

be quite large

some have been powerful for good and many more for evil. Over the Imperial princes and nobles the Emperor holds complete sway.

his Imperial

to abstain from throwing

any more nobles
In

on the
hundred,

provincial

funds.

Hunan

He

regulates their marriages,

and

in cases

number, he alleged, was confined to four
in

of failure of issue he chooses sons for their
adoption.

Nanking

to three

hundred and

He

appoints their retinues, and

forty-eight, in
fifty,

orders
ness.

all their

goings with curious minuteall

Over them as over
is,

his other sub-

six.

Soochow to a hundred and and in Anhui to a hundred and seventyBeyond these areas his investigations
travelled.

jects, his will

theoretically, law.

had not

No

Indian Rajah, no Shah of Persia, ever

possessed more autocratic power.

We

have
of

The Chinese
The

Nobility.

some knowledge of the debasing
eastern palace
better
safely
life

effect

hereditary nobility of China

may

be

from the

histories of the

divided into the Imperial and National.

Of

known

countries of Asia,

and we may
since

the former there are twelve denominations

draw the deduction

that,

the

which, with certain subdivisions, extend over
eighteen classes of persons ennobled because of their descent.

same conditions produce the same

effects,
if

the records of the Forbidden City would,

These

are, of course,

under

written at length, reflect the normal condition of society in the old palace of Delhi or

the present dynasty, exclusively Manchus.

that at Teheran.

The members of the National nobility may be Manchus or Chinese elevated for their merits to one of nine degrees. The five superior of these, viz.
:

Rewarded As
aristocrats of

for

Bravery.

Kung, Hou,
and baron

Pih, Tzu,

has already been said, the hereditary

Nan, the English
marquis,

in general describe

by duke,
;

rank and importance form but

earl, viscount,

the recall

a small and unimportant body, while the
lower grades are well supplied with

maining

four, for

convenience sake, they

men who
and

orders of knighthood.

have earned distinction in the
in

battle-field

The

highest of these and the five above
first,

other arenas of honor.
first

For example, the

sepecified are each divided into

second,

man who was Nanking when
rebels

to

mount the

wall of

and third
degrees.

classes,

making
title

in all twenty-six

it was recaptured from the was rewarded by a title of the fourth

Unless the
it

in perpetuity

loses

given be conferred one degree of nobility

rank.

To

all

such distinguished persons
in-

with each step of descent.

Thus the Kung,
;

annual allowances are made, and though
dividually small
in

duke, of the

first

class will reach the lowest

amount, the

total

sum

round

in twenty-six

generations

the

first

becomes a serious burden on the provincial

class Tzu, viscount, in fourteen.

CHAPTKR
has often been said that the laws of a

IX.

THE PUNISHMENT OF CRIMINALS.
three feet long, two feet nine inches broad,

IT

nation

furnish

the best

and
all

truest

and weighing

in ordinary cases twenty-five
is

description

of the manners and cusIn
respects

pounds," which

toms of the people.
the Chinese

Code

is

an exceptionally good

on the shoulders; (3) the capital punishment, which is inflicted either by strangulation or by the execucarried

instance of the truth of this

maxim.

Unlike

tioner's sword.

many
west,

of the legal systems of the east and
it

Most punishments
crimes are redeemable
capital sentences, in

for the

less

serious

avoids

all

useless redundancies,

and

by

fines,

and even

represents in a concise form, the laws which
are intended to govern the courts of justice.

such cases as are not

legally excluded
acts of grace
for

Further, following the bent of the national

from the benefits of general and pardon, are commutable
in

mind,

it

does not concern

itself only

with the

sums of money varying

amount with

duties of
into their

men as citizens, but follows them homes and provides legislation for
conduct, their relations in the
for the clothes

the heinousness of the crime and with the

wealth of the criminal.

A man sentenced to
five

their social

a hundred blows with the bamboo can save
his skin
silver,

family,

and even
as a

which they
its

by

the

payment of

ounces of

should wear.

and an

officer

above the fourth rank

Regarded

whole

it is

obvious that

who

is

sentenced to be strangled

may

avoid

provisions are mainly directed to keeping the

the cord

by paying twelve thousand ounces

people quiet and loyal.

The Emperor

is

into the coffers of the state.

surrounded with enactments which are

in-

tended to ensure that such divinity shall

Pardon Often Granted.
But besides these pecuniary modifications,
there are certain conditions which are held
to justify the mitigation of sentences.

hedge him what it would," and every disturbing motive and exciting cause is studiously suppressed

in " that treason can but peep to

In

among his subjects. The code begins by enumerating
defines

the case of an offender surrendering himself
the punto justice,

he

shall, in

some

circumstances,

ishments to be inflicted for offences, and

be

entitled to

a reduction of two degrees
in

them

as (i) flogging with a straight

of punishment, and

others he absolves

polished piece of bamboo, the branches cut

himself from
himself up.

all
If,

consequences
again,

away and reduced
to

to five Chinese feet five

by giving "an offender under

inches in length, varying in breadth from one

sentence of death for an offence not excluded

weight from one and a half to two Chinese pounds, and when used to be held by the smaller end (2) the canque,

two

inches,

and

in

from the contingent benefit of an act of
grace,
shall

have parents or grandparents

;

who

are sick, infirm or aged above seventy

consisting of

"a square frame of dry wood,

years,

and who have no other son or grand-

180

THE PUNISHMENT OF CRIMINALS.
son above the age of sixteen to support
them, this circumstance shall be submitted
to the consideration of His Imperial
jesty."

181

to all sorts

and conditions of men, from the

Emperor
In every

in his palace

down

to actors

who

Mayears

are regarded as the meanest of his subjects.

In any case offenders under

fifteen

of age, or over seventy, are allowed to re-

than capital.

deem themselves from any punishment less Even when the crime is capital, if the offender is less than ten or more than
eighty, his case, unless

and repose of the sovereign is jealously guarded by all the precautions which the law can provide, and in eastern countries, where the dagger and poison are the constant terror
life

kingdom and Empire the

of potentates, the preventive measures are

he be charged with

always carefully devised.

treason,

is

sideration

recommended to the conof the Emperor; and no punishto be

No

doubt

many

of the observances prac-

ticed at the Chinese Court, such, for instance,

ment, except for treason and rebellion, shall

as standing with the hands joined as in supplication,

be

visited

on those who are

less

than seven

and kneeling when addressing the
In the

or more than ninety.

sovereign, were instituted as safeguards from

harbored weapons or from violence.

Flogging and Imprisonment.
Especial regulations lighten punishments
to be inflicted on four classes of the population.

code, pains and penalties of every intensity
are laid

down

as the portion of those

who

directly or indirectly raise
evil

any suspicion of

Astronomers

sentenced
to

to

banish-

design against the throne.

ment may submit
with the
selves

one hundred blows

bamboo

instead,

and redeem them-

Barbarous Punishments.

from further punishment, unless they
stealing, killing

Any

one passing without proper authoriz-

have been guilty of "poisoning, murdering,
wounding, robbing,

by magic,

or of any such offences as

may

subject the

party to the punishment of being branded."
Artificers

and musicians who have incurred

any of the gates of the Forbidden City incurs a hundred blows of the bamboo. This law is invariably enforced, and quite lately the Pekin Gazette announced the infliction of the penalty on a trespasser,
ation through

sentences of banishment

may be

flogged,

and, instead of being sent to Central Asia,

may be
while

kept in the magistrate's
in

yamun and

employed

the service of

government;

and the degradation of the officer of the guard at the gate through which he had entered. Death by strangulation is the punishment due to any stranger found in any of
the

women who
fine.

are sentenced to banish-

Emperor's apartments; and with that
introspection

ment can always redeem themselves by paying a
;

curious
profess,

which Chinese

laws

In cases where

women

are convicted of
it

jbffences

punishable by flogging,

is

pro-

/vided that they shall be allowed to wear
/

their

upper garment unless the crime should
is

be adultery, when that privilege

withdrawn.

Such are some of the main provisions which condition the laws laid down in the These apply with strange minuteness code.

any one passing the palace gate with the intention of going in, although he does not do so, is to have a definite number of blows with the bamboo. Every workman engaged within the palace has a pass given to him, on which is a detailed description of his figure and appearance, and which he is bound to give up to the oiificer of the identical gate

182

CHINA: PAST

AND

PRESENT.

through which he was admitted. To carrydrugs or weapons into the Forbidden City is
to court a flogging in addition to perpetual banishment, and any one " who shall shoot

is passthereon while the Emperor's retinue If the Emperor aring is to be strangled.

rives

unexpectedly at a place, "it shall be retire sufficient for those who are unable to
in time, to prostrate

arrows or bullets, or fling bricks or stones towards the Imperial temple, or towards any
Imperial palace, shall suffer death
strangled at the usual period."

themselves humbly on

the roadside."

by being

But there are other and more insidious dangers than these to be guarded against.
Doctors and cooks have
it

No

convicted person or relative of a con-

readily within

CHINESE MODES OF TORTURE.
victed person
is

Imperial

city,

employed about the and any one found disputing
to be

their

power to do

all

the

evil

that the dagger

or quarrelling within the precincts of the palace is to be punished with fifty blows. If
the quarrelling leads to a personal encounter Even the roads the penalty is doubled.

or club can accomplish, and it is, therefore, enacted that if a physician inadvertenly

mixes medicines for the Emperor in any manner that is not sanctioned by established
practice, or
if

a cook unwittingly introduces
into

along which the Emperor travels and the bridges which he crosses are not to be profaned by vulgar use, and any one intruding

any prohibited ingredients

the dishes

prepared for his Imperial master, they shall

each receive a hundred blows.

The same

THE PUNISHMENT OF CRIMINALS.
punishment
is

183

due to the cook,
into
is

if

he puts
of food,

ters.

The same
mother
if

authority which

makes
for

it

any unusual drug
and, in addition, he

an

article

incumbent on a son on the death of his
father or to

compelled to swallow

go unshaved
is in office

a hun-

the compound.

dred days, and regarded as an incentive to
It is

he

to retire into

Marriage
political

is

private

life

for twenty-seven

months, forbids

peace and quiet.

considered,
is

and rightly considered, that a householder
less likely to disturb the

him to marry while in mourning for a parent, under a penalty of a hundred blows for disobedience.

peace of the realm

than a waif and stray, and the Government
therefore considers marriage a subject worthy

The same punishment

is

to

be

inflicted

on

of careful legislation.
the State
people,
is

In Chinese parlance

the father and mother of the

any misguided widow who embraces a second husband before her weeds should be legally dispensed with while the frisky widow, who,
;

and it is part of its office to see that parents do not neglect their duty in this
respect towards their offspring.

having been ennobled by the Emperor during
the lifetime of her
to
first

husband, should dare

marry again,

is

to lose her rank,

ordered to be bambooed, and to be separated from

Shall Receive Fifty Blows.

her second venture.
Strict

When
plation
it

a marriage contract
shall

is

in

contem-

be made plain to both of the
nor
infirm, aged, or

Matrimonial Laws.
strictly

families interested that rc:*^her the bride

Marriage

is

forbidden within cer-

bridegroom are " disease r',
under age."
raised

tain recognized degrees

of relationship, and

If, no objection having been on any of these scores, the preliminary contract be made and the lady afterwards

even persons of the same surname
termarry are
liable to separation,

who

in-

wish to decline to execute

it,

the person

who

had authority to give her away shall receive fifty blows, and the marriage shall be at once
completed.
If

a son, when at a distance a marriage conhis behalf at

from

his family, enters into

tract in ignorance of
his father

an engagement which
his own choice and made for him by his

may have made on
shall give

home, he
shall
fulfil

up

and to forfeit the wedding presents to Government. Indeed, the matrimonial prohibitions are both numerous and far-reaching. man may not marry an absconded female criminal a law, one would imagine, which it cannot often be necessary to enforce. mandarin may not marry the daughter of any one living under his rule, nor may he make either a female musician or comedian his wife. A priest of

A

A

the contract

Buddha
slave

parent.

or of Tao may not marry at all. A may not marry a free woman, and so on.
in its
it

Bigamy is punished with ninety blows, and the same fate awaits any man who, during the lifetime of his wife, raises a concubine
to the rank

But though the State

wisdom
affords

is

a

great promoter of marriage,

many

loopholes for escape to people

which she enjoys. The times and
to individual taste

they have

made

mistakes.

who find that Of course the
wife,

seasons proper for marriages are, in western
lands,
left

law of divorce only applies to the

and

and judgment;
is

apart from the supreme crime of wives, the

but in China, where etiquette
State policy,
for the
it is

a matter of

following seven causes are held to justify the

necessary to lay

down

rules

annulling of the marriage

;

namely, barrenof her hus-

guidance of the people in such mat-

ness, lasciviousness, disregard

184

CHINA: PAST
and suspicious temper, and
this list offers

AND PRESENT.
acquired infirmities of particular individuals,

band's parents, talkativeness, thievish propensities, envious

be indiscriminately beheaded."

inveterate infirmity.
It

But
a restless husband,

this

is

not

all.

Every male
is

relative,

must be admitted that

of whatever degree,

who may be

dwelling
to

many chances of escape to

under the roof of the offender,

doomed

and the further enactment that when " a

husband and wife do not agree, and both
parties are

desirous of separation, the law

death. An exception is made in the case of young boys, who are allowed their lives, but on the condition that they are made eunuchs
for

limiting the right of divorce shall not

be

service in the Imperial palace.

In the

enforced to prevent
desired.

it,"

leaves nothing to be

appendix to Stanton's translation of the code an imperial edict
is

quoted from the Pefdn
is

Of all

offences treason

is,

in the opinion of

Gazette in which a case

detailed of
life

a supof the

Chinese legislators, the gravest and most

posed treasonable attempt on the

worthy of severe and condign punishment. So atrocious is it that capital punishment
as laid

Emperor Kiaking (1796- 1820).
Horrible Cruelty.

down

in

the general provisions

is

considered an insufficient requital, and the
equivalent of the old English sentence,

As

the Imperial cortege was entering one

"To

of the gates of the palace a

man pushed
it

be hung, drawn, and quartered," is met with in China in the shape of an even more cruel sentence, namely lingchi, or death by a slow

and lingering process. Gashes on the Body.

A culprit, condemned to this form of death,
is

tied to

a cross, and, while he

is

yet alive,

gashes are

made by

the executioner on the

was considered, the intention of murdering the Emperor. He was promptly seized by the guards and put on his trial, when he made, or is said to have made, a confession of his guilt. In grandiloquent terms the Emperor proclaimed the event to the Empire, and ended by confirming the sentence of lingchi on the offender, and by condemning his sdns,
through the crowd, with, as
" being of tender age, to

fleshy parts of his body, varying in

number

be strangled."

according to the disposition of the judge.

Lingchi

is

the invariable fate pronounced
kills

When

this

part of the sentence has been

on any one who
hold, or

three people in a househis father or

carried out, a merciful

blow severs the head

on a son who murders

from the body.
It is

mother.
the male relatives of

Some

of the most horrible passages

a principle of Chinese jurisprudence
all

in the Pekin Gazette are those

which announce

that in great crimes

the infliction of this awful punishment on

the principal are held to be participators in
his offence.

madmen and
of mania,
this offence

idiots

who,

in

sudden outbreaks
parricide.

Thus,
off,

for

one man's
in cases
first

sin,

whole

have committed

For

families are cut

and

of treason
degree, at

no

infirmity

is

accepted, even as

"

all

the male relatives of the

a

palliation.

The

addition of this form of
is

or above the age of sixteen, of persons convicted

execution to those generally prescribed
instance of the latitude

—namely, the grandsons, paternal uncles and — without any regard
respectively
shall,

an

father, grandfather, sons,

which

is

taken by the
of the

their sons

powers that be
code.

in the interpretation

to the

place

of residence,

or to the

natural

or

To

read the

list

of authorized punishments

THE PUNISHMENT OF CRIMINALS.
one would imagine that the Chinese were
the mildest mannered
culprits before

185
for

posal are

insufficient
it

their

purposes.
pain;

men who

ever

had
tor-

Unhappily,

is

always easy to

inflict

them.

Admitting that

and

in

almost every

yamun throughout

the

ture

is

necessary in China to extract con-

Empire an

infinite variety

of instruments of

fessions

from obdurate witnesses, the kinds

torture are in constant use.

authorized are probably as unobjectionable
as could well be devised.

To
is

induce unwilling witnesses to say what

But they are but

expected of them, they are not unfrequently
to kneel

a shadow of the pain and penalties actually
inflicted

made

on iron chains on which

their

every day in

all

parts of the Empire.
it

knees are forced by the weight of
ing on the calves of their legs.
tied

men

stand-

Even
to

in

the appendix to this code

was

Others are

found advisable to add the Imperial sanction

more

stringent measures in cases of rob-

toes.

up to beams by their thumbs and big Others are hamstrung, while some

bery or homicide.

have the sight of their eyes destroyed by
lime or the

drums of

their ears

deadened by
indefinitely,

Instruments of Torture.
Instruments for crushing the ankles, and
for compressing the fingers, are there ad-

piercing.

This
so

list

might be extended

but enough has been said to show that, like

mitted on the canonical
these,
it

list.

The

first

of

many

Chinese institutions, the penal code
is

is

laid

down,

shall

consist of

"a
feet

only faintly represents the practice which
actually in force.

middle piece of wood, three (Chinese)

four inches long, and two side pieces three
feet

each in length.

The upper end

of each

Penalty for Murder.

piece shall be circular and rather

more than

Beheading
derer, while

is

the ordinary fate of a mur-

one inch in diameter, the lower end shall be
cut square and two inches in thickness.

accessories to the deed,

when

At

not actual perpetrators, enjoy the privilege
of being strangled.

a distance of six inches from the lower ends,
four hollows or sockets shall be excavated-^

In the case of the mur-

der of a mandarin the accessories as well as the principal are beheaded, and
strikes
if

one on each side of the middle piece and
one in each of the other pieces to correspond.

a

man

a mandarin so as to produce a severe

The lower ends being

fixed

and immovable,

and the ankles of the criminal under examination being lodged within the sockets, a
painful compression
is

wound his fate is to be strangled. The charge has of late years been constantly made against missionaries, that they
cutting
kill

effected

by

forcibly

children

drawing together the upper ends."

parts of the

and others to procure from body drugs for medicinal purit

The
smaller,

finger

squeezers

are

necessarily

poses.

This sounds so barbarous that

but are

arranged

on much

the

will readily
its

be believed that the charge had
imaginations of the

same principle. But even these tortures are considered insufficient to meet the requirements of the Mandarins, whose minds courts of justice. grown callous to the sufferings of their have
fellow-creatures, are always ready to believe

origin in the wild

most ignorant of the people.
quite so.
to the idea

But

this is

not

Some

sanction

is

certainly given

by the

code, which provides, for

instance, that "the principal in the crime of

murdering, or of attempting to murder any
person, with a design afterwards to mangle

that the instruments of torture at their dis-

186
the body, and divide the

CHINA: PAST
Hmbs of
the defor

AND PRESENT.
the throne that "alarming rumors were
culated
cutting
cir-

ceased

magical purposes, shall suffer
only in contemplaconviction

among
off

the people concerning the

death by a slow and painful process."

of

queues,

the imprinting of

Even,
tion
shall

if

the crime
principal

is

marks on the body by 'paper men,' and the
appearance of black monsters which played
the part of incubi on sleeping persons."

the

offender on

be beheaded, and the chief inhabitant
to report

of the village or district who, on becoming

aware of the design, shall

fail

it,

shall suffer to the extent of a

hundred blows.

would be natural to expect that the all the wisdom of would have reproved these foolish China
It

governor being learned in

BEHEADING A CHINESE CRIMINAL.
Like most uncivilized nations the Chinese
are firm believers in magic, and place full
belief in

imaginings, and would have used his influ-

ence to check the spread of such ridiculous

those arts of the sorcerer which

rumors.

But the course he took, with the

have a congenial
ants
traces are

home among

the inhabit-

subsequent approval of the Emperor, was a

of Central Africa, and of which dim
still

very different one.
discovered at

He

professed to have
wizard,"

to be found in the highlands

Soochow a "

named
all

of Scotland, and

among

the most ignorant
since the gov-

Feng, and others who,

afler trial,

were

of English rustics.

Not long

condemned
in

to be beheaded.

Several others

ernor of the province of Kiangsu reported to

different parts of the

province suffered

THE PUNISHMENT OF CRIMINALS.
the same penalty, and a
his wife

187
the
sapient
is

man named Hu and
to

on

inquiry,"

adds

governor,
practi-

were arrested on a confession made
that they

" that the entire province
tioners

free

from

by Feng

had imparted

him the

of unholy arts of this description,

words of the incantation necessary to invoke the "paper men."

As
"

the statements

made by

the

Hus were

and that the population is in the enjoyment of its accustomed tranquillity, whereby grounds are afforded for allaying the anxieties

stubbornly evasive, the prefect with the
magistrate and other officers sub-

of the Imperial mind."

district

This case affords an excellent example of
the gross
superstition

jected the prisoners to repeated interrogations,

which

exists

even

continued without intermission even

among
and
it

the most highly educated Chinamen,

by

night, instituting rigorous

and searching
as a result

also

draws a picture which, to those
lines,

inquiry in an unprejudiced

spirit;

who can
ful

read between the

stands out

of which the
following

woman Hu

at length

made

the

very clearly, of the gross cruelty and shame-

She acknowledged having met a man whose name she did not know, and whose manner of speech was
confession.

abuse of the use of torture.

Compelled to Lie.
There cannot be a doubt that Feng, having
under the influence of torture
fessed his
falsely con-

that of a

person from distant parts,
of an
incantation,

who
to

gave her some foreign money and taught her
the words

and how

send off the "paper
people.

men "

to

go and crush

Head Stuck on a
"She

Pole.

told this to her husband,

and

he,

upon by the same pressure to give up the names of his associates, and that, in his agony, he wrongfully implicated Hu and his wife. The " repeated interrogations " to which this couple were subjected mean the infliction of
guilt;

own

was

further called

animated by the desire of gain, communicated the secret to their acquaintance Feng.

sufferings so acute that even the prospect of

death became a welcome vision, and by a

On

the

woman being

confronted with Hu, he
;

self-condemning

lie

made
after

full
it

and confession to the same effect had been established by thrice regovernor arrived at the
having been so bold as to

of the executioner's

they escaped by means sword from the hands of

peated interrogatories that the confessions

were

truthful, the

more inhuman torturer. must not be supposed that this particular governor was more ignorant than the rest of
the
It

conclusion that, in

his kind.

The

code, which was based on the

follow the advice of an adept in unholy arts
in practising incantation
;

laws existing during the

Ming

dynasty, was

and

cating the secret, the guilt

communiof the two prisin

thoroughly revised by a committee of the
highest
functionaries

of the

realm,

and

oners was such that death could barely expiate
it.

received the Imperial approval in 1647, after
careful consideration.

In

it

we

find, there-

"

He

gave orders forthwith to the pro-

vincial judge, directing

him

to cause

Hu and

the mind which was in these grandees, and that they deliberately adopted a section
fore,

the

woman to be subjected together to the extreme penalty of the law, and to cause

providing that " all persons convicted of writing and editing books on sorcery and magic,

the head of

Hu

to be exhibited on a pole as
It is

a salutary warning.

now

ascertained

and incantations, in order to influence the minds of the people,
or of employing spells

188
shall

CHINA: PAST
be beheaded."
all parties

AND PKESENT.
reported.

This was a

fair

warn-

The

report was in the form of &

ing to

concerned.

Lesser punishments,

on

what

principle

memorial addressed to the throne by the governor of Shansi, in which that officer

awarded

it is

impossible to say, are incurred
raise evil spirits

by magicians who

by means by leaders of corrupt and impious sects, and by members of superstitious associations in general. Even fortune-tellers, unless they divine by the recognized rules of astrology,
of magical books and dire imprecations,
are liable to be bambooed.

had been in his district a lad named Lui, who was endowed by nature with an " unamiable and refractory disposition." On one occasion he stole his mother's head ornaments, and another time he pilfered
stated that there

2,000 cash belonging to her.

This

last mis-

demeanor aroused her

direst anger^

and she

attempted to chastise him.

Unwilling to en-

dure the indignity, Lui seized her by the

As Bad By

as Others.

throat,

and only released her on the expostuThis behavior so angered

analogy, persons

who

rear

venomous

lation of his sister.

animals, and prepare poisons for the purpose

the old lady, that

she determined on the

of murder, are treated on a par with those

death of her son.

who commit murder.
In
all

Chinese legislation the principal that
is

A

Helpless Victim.

the family

the basis of government

is

con-

Being physically incapable of accomplishing the deed herself, she begged a sergeant of police on duty in the neighborhood to act
as executioner.

spicuously apparent.
father
is

The

authority of the
it

everywhere recognized, and

is

only in supreme cases that the State
feres

inter-

This he declined to do, but

between the head of a household and
If

softened his refusal

by

offering to flog Lui.

his family belongings.
his wife in

a

man

discovers

To do

this

conveniently he

bound the

lad,

criminal

relations with another
is

and, with the help of three men, carried
off to a deserted
skirts

him

man, and
wife
for

kills

her on the spot, he
if

held

guard-house on the outThither

blameless; and

a husband punishes' his

of

the village.

Mrs. Lui

striking

and abusing

his

father,

followed,

and implored the men to bury her

mother, grandfather, or grandmother, in such

son

alive.

a

way

as to cause her death, he shall only be

liable to receive

a hundred blows.

With equal

consideration a

man who
,

kills

a son, a grandson, or a slav

is

punished

with seventy blows and a year and a half's

banishment, and this only
attributes

when he
another

falsely

Again the sergeant declined, and emphaby leaving the hut. The other men were more yielding, and having thrown Lui on the ground they proceeded, with the help of his mother and sister, to pull down the walls and to bury their victim
sized his refusal
in the ruins.
trial
it

the

crime

to

person.

Though
tion

the code affords no direct justifica-

for

punishing disobedient
it

sons with

death, or for infanticide,
vertible fact that in cases

is

an incontro-

When the case came on for was decided " that the death in this case was properly deserved, and that his mother was accordingly absolved from all
The
sergeant, however,

which constantly

blame."

was

sen-

occur, both crimes are practically ignored

by

tenced, for his comparatively innocent part in

the authorities.

A particularly brutal
unfilial son,

case,

the

affair,

to receive a

hundred blows, and

of the murder of an

was

recently

the three

men and

the daughter each re-

THE PUNISHMENT OF CRIMINALS.
ceived ninety blows, which was considered

189

masters as sons and daughters are in those
of their parents, they suffer, from a Western

only a just punishment.

This case

is

significant of the

supreme

point of view,
ties.

power which practically rests in the hands of parents, and is exemplified by the countless acts of infanticide which go unpunished eveiy year. In the volume of the Pekin Gazette from which the above account is taken, a wretched case is reported, in which a husband drowned an infant born to his wife, of which he had reason to believe he was not the father. On another and subsequent issue the case came before the mandarins, but the infanticide was not so much
as mentioned in the finding.

A

wife

many and great legal inequaliwho strikes her husband is
is

liable to

be punished with a hundred blows,
declared to be entitled

while the husband

to strike his wife so long as he does not pro-

duce a cutting wound.

Punishment of Insolent Slaves.
Death by beheading
a slave
is

the punishment for

who

strikes his master;

but

if

a

master, in

order to

correct

a disobedient

slave or hired servant, chastises

him

in the

canonical way, and the offender "happens to die," the master is " not liable to any punish-

Children Placed at Disadvantage.

ment in consequence thereof"

Throughout the whole
daughters,
as

code

sons and
is

One

of the strangest sections in the code

well

as

daughters-in-law,

that which

stand at a marked disadvantage with regard
to their parents.

fighting,
is

and

in

with quarrelling and which every shade of offence
deals

Not only

is

parricide pun-

differentiated with strange minuteness.

On

ished

by

lingchi,

but even for striking or
the punishment

abusing a father, mother, paternal grandfather
or grandmother,
is

what part of the body a blow is struck, with what it is struck, and the result of the blow,
are all set out with their appropriate penalties.

death

and the same penalty follows on a like offence committed by a wife or her husband's
father,

Tearing out "an inch of hair," breaktabulated in due
that people,

ing a tooth, a toe, or a finger, with countless
other subdivisions, are
all

mother, or paternal grandparents.

A
that

still

more one-sided provision ordains
his father or

form.

It is

commonly observed

"a son accusing

mother a
; ;

grandson, his paternal grandparents
cipal or inferior wife, her

a prin-

and therefore nations, admire most those qualities in which they are deficient, and on

husband or her husgrandparents,

somewhat the same
lators

principle Chinese legis-

band's parents,
shall in

or paternal

delight to

hold up to opprobrium

each case be punished with a hunyears'

those social misdemeanors to which they
are most prone.
If

dred blows and three even
if

banishment,

the accusation prove true, and that

an impartial observer of Chinese man-

the individuals so accused
if

by

their relatives,

they voluntarily surrender and plead guilty,

shall

be

entitled to pardon."

If

such accu-

sation should, however, turn out to be either
in part

or wholly

false, "

the accuser shall

suffer

death by being strangled."
neither wives nor slaves are so

Though

entirely in the

hands of their husbands and

and customs were to name the two most prominent civil vices of the Chinese, he would probably give his decision in favor of bribery and gambling. Against both these vices the code speaks with no uncertain sound. The mandarin who accepts a bribe of one hundred and twenty taels of silver and upwards, when the object is in itself
ners

190
lawful, or eighty taels

CHINA: PAST

AND

PRESENT.

and upwards when the object is unlawful, is pronounced guilty of death by strangulation. It is no exaggeration to say that if this law were enforced it would make a clean sweep of ninety-nine out of every hundred officials in the Empire. Gambling also is denounced with equal fervor, and eighty blows is the punishment for any person found playing at any game of chance for money or for goods. The same

CooUes, in moments of leisure, while away the time with cards and dice as they sit at
the sides of the streets, and the gaming-

houses are
crowds,

always

full

of

eager excited

who

are willing to lose everything

they possess, and more also, in satisfaction
of the national craving.

Like opium, games

of chance have a peculiar fascination for

Chinamen.
is

One

of the

commonest games
is

known

as fantan,

and
it

so simple that

can be played

by

any one.
cash,

The

croupier

throws down a heap of

and each gambler
will

stakes on what the re-

mainder
the

be when
been
in fours.

pile

has

counted out

This and other games
are publicly played at the

gambling -houses,
of

the owners

which
for

purchase

security

their trade

by bribing

the mandarins and their
police.

Quail-fighting,

cricket - fighting,

and
of

pubhc events are also

made subjects
pected

wagering, and the ex-

appearance

of

FIGHTING QUAILS.
penalty awaits, in theory, the owner of a

the names of the successful candidates at the local examinations
is

gaming-house, with the additional
existence of such a law, side

fine

of

a

fruitful

source of desperate gambling.
discouraging

the loss of the house to Government.

The

With the
speculation

object possibly of

by

side with the

and games of chance, the code
if

open and palpable violation of it in streets and alleys, as well as on country roads and
in village lanes, reduces
it

fixes the legal rate of interest at thirty-six

per cent., but the enactment,

that

is

its

to an absurdity.

object, fails signally to effect its purpose.

At

breakfast-time

workmen stream out

of

The
in the

love of

games

is

so deeply imbedded
all sorts

their places of

employment, and throw dice

Chinese nature that

of expe-

or lots for their meal at the nearest itinerant

dients are resorted detection.

to in order to escape

cookshop.

CHAPTER

X.

CHINESE MECHANICS AND MERCHANTS.

NEXT
common
petually

to farmers in popular estima-

tion stand mechanics,

and even a
the

deeper state of poverty than that

which

afflicts agriculturists is

lot of these

men.

They

live per-

from no

on the verge of destitution, and this fault of their own and in spite of

their untiring devotion to their callings.

No

would be ruin to all those who made their living by the earlier methods of travelling, and it need not therefore surprise us to find Chinamen ranging themselves in opposition to any contrivances which may appear to compete with human labor. The mason who wishes to move a block of stone knows no better means for the purpose than the shoulders of his fellow-men

one can have seen these m.en at work
streets,

in the

or in their workshops, without being

supplemented by bamboos and ropes.
carpenter

The

struck with the indefatigable industry which

who wants

to

saw up a

fallen tree

they display.

From an hour in European workmen
have ceased to
toil

the morning at which
are
still

does so with his own hand, without a thought of the easier device of a saw-mill.

in

bed

until

a

So

it

is

with
the

every branch of industry.
contrivances

time at night long after which the same

men

Many
tion

of

employed

are

and

spin, the patient

extremely ingenious, but since their inven-

Chinaman plods on to secure for himself and family a livelihood which would be contemned by all but the patient Asiatic. As in every branch of science and art, mechanics in China have remained for centuries

no

further

advance has been

towards relieving the
part of his
toil.

made workman from any

Great Mechanical
In

Skill.

in

a

perfectly

stagnant

condition.

many

cities.

Canton,

for

example,

The

and appliances which were good enough for those who worked and labored
tools

before our era,

still

satisfy the

requirements

of Chinese craftsmen.
all

The

rudest tools are

that a

workman has

at his disposal,

and

the idea never seems to occur to him that an

improvement

in their structure is either called

for or necessary.

The abundant population and over-crowded
labor market

and carpenters stand in the street for hire, and often, unhappily, remain all the day idle. Even when employed their wages are ridiculously small compared with the pay of their colleagues in our own country, or even in Europe, whose hours of labor are short compared with theirs, and whose relaxations furnish a relief from toil to which Chinamen are complete strangers.
bricklayers

may have something
It is

to

do with

In the higher branches of mechanical

skill,

the disinclination of the people to the use of
labor-saving machinery.

such, for instance, as gold, silver and ivory

not so long

work. Chinamen excel, and they are exceptionally

ago that, in civilized countries, there arose an outcry that the adoption of railways

proficient

in

the

manufacture of

bronzes, bells, lacquer ware and cloisonne.

191

192

CHINA: PAST
at

AND PRESENT.
subordinate in the social scale to laborers

With the appliances
sonorousness
is
little

their

command
and

their skill in casting bells of great size

and mechanics

it is

difficult

to understand.

short

of marvellous.

The merchants and
of
all

traders of China have

The famous
pounds, and

bell
is

at Pekin

weighs 120,000

gained the respect and
those
tact with them.

won

the admiration
into con-

one of five of the same which were cast by order of Like the Emperor Yunglo (1403-1425). all Chinese bells, it is struck from outside
weight and
size

who have been brought

For honesty and integrity they have earned universal praise, and on this point a Shanghai bank manager, in acknowledging a valedictory address, presented to

with a mallet, and
the city to

its

tones resound through

announce the changes of the

him on

his

leaving the country, bore the

watch.

following

testimony:

"I have," he

said,

" referred to the

high commercial standing of

Jacks of All Trades.

the foreign community.
of China

The Chinese
;

are in

A
is

feature in the

workaday

life

no way behind us

in that respect

in fact, I

the

number of

itinerant craftsmen

who

know

of no people in the world I would

earn their livelihood on the streets.

Every
is

sooner trust than the Chinese merchant and
banker.
I

domestic want, from the riveting of a bro-

may mention

that

for the

last

ken

saucer

to shaving

a man's head,

twenty-five years the

bank has been doing a

supplied

by these

useful peripatetics.

If a
re-

very large business with Chinese at Shanghai,

man's jacket wants mending, or his shoes
pairing,

amounting,
millions

I

should say, to hundreds of

he summons a passing tailor and cobbler, and possibly, while waiting for his

of taels, and we have never yet met with a defaulting Chinaman."

mended

clothes,

employs the

services of a
it

travelling

barber to plait his queue, or

Chinese Merchant Princes.
It

may be
wax.

to clean his ears from accumulated

was such men as these that built-up the

Even blacksmiths carry about with them
the very simple instruments of their trade,

commerce which excited the wonder and admiration of Marco Polo and other early
European
travellers ;

and

it is

to their labors

and the bellows which blow the flame are

and to those of

their descendants that the

commonly so
required as a
to rest the

constructed as to serve

when

existence of the crowded markets, the teem-

box

for the tools

and

for a seat

ing wharfs and the richly laden vessels of the

owner when weary.
of Chinese topsy-turvy-

present day

are due.

However much

in

It is characteristic

theory the Chinese

may
and

despise their mer-

dom
most

that that class of society
to

which has done promote the material prosperity of
least,

chant princes, their intelligence gains them a
position of respect,
their riches assure

the nation, should, in theory at

be

them consideration
darins,

at the

hands of the man-

placed on the lowest round of the social
ladder.

who

are never backward in drawing

The principle, " that

those
is

who

think

on

their overflowing coffers.
It is

must govern those who toil,"
in

justly upheld

noticeable

that while

noveUsts are

China, but

why

the

her the rich country

men who have made which she is, and who

never tired of satirizing the cupidity of the mandarins, the assumption
of the
literati,

have carried the fame of her wealth and power into every market in Asia, should be

and the viciousness of the priesthood, they refrain from reflections on a class which at

CHINESE MECHANICS AND MERCHANTS,
least

19S

honestly

toils

and only asks to be
its

classes to

the chariot-wheels of the sage.
at

allowed to reap the rewards of
tiring industry.

own

un-

The same problems which were

an early

As

for everything else
is

in

China, a vast antiquity

claimed
In

for

the

beginning

of commerce.

the earliest native works extant mention occurs of the efforts

made

to barter

the products of one district for those

of another, and to dispose of the superfluous goods of China

by exchange with
the

the merchandise
countries.

of

neighboring

The

subject

was not consid-

ered beneath the notice of the earliest
philosophers, and Confucius

on

several

occasions gave utterance to his views on

the matter.
were,
affairs
it is

Wise as many of his sayings
either plati-

a fact that his dicta on practical

were for the most part
fallicies.

tudes or
It is

not

difficult to

determine in which
" Let the pro-

class his best

quoted pronouncement on
sage,

trade should be placed.
ducers," said the

"be many and
activity
in the

the consumers few.
in the production

Let there be

and economy

expenditure.

Then

the wealth will al-

ways be ample."
It

might have occurred even to Conin

fucius that, if the producers of a certain

commodity were
people

the majority, and

the consumers in the minority, the only

who

could possibly benefit would
if

be the few, more especially

they further

reduced the demand for the product by
following the philosopher's advice and
practising

economy
it

in the use of

it.

Fortunately, the merchants of China

have not found
Confucius as an
cantile concerns

necessary to accept

guide in merand they, in common with the rest of their countrymen, have benefited by the disenthralment from the bondage which still binds the literary
infallible
;

PAGODA AND VASES.
date worded out in the commercial centres

of Europe have been presented for solution
to the frequenters of the marts in the

Flowery

13

194
Land, and occasion as
they did long ago.

CHINA: PAST
much
controversy as

AND

PRESENT.
are

Natives of Canton visiting Chehkiang or

Hunan
by Lomaffording
in Italy

now no

longer subjected to the
at

Long

before the establishment

insults to

which they were accustomed

bard Jews of banks

(A. D. 808), the

the native inns.

In their provincial guilds

money-changers of China were
their customers all the help

they
and,

may
if

count on security and comfort,

and convenience whidh belong to the banking system and three hundred years before the establishmenjt at Stockholm of the first bank which issued notes in Europe, paper currency was
;

merchants, they are sure to find
the frequenters of the clubs, either

among

customers for their goods or vendors of the
products which they

may

wish to buy.

The

more
Each

strictly mercantile guilds serve invalu-

passing freely through

all

the

provinces

able purposes in
is

the promotion

of trade.

of the

Empire.

A

later

development of

presided over

by a

president,

who

is

trade has been the adoption of guilds, whose
halls are often

helped in the administration by a specially
elected committee

among

the handsomest build-

and a permanent secretary.
literary

ings to be met with in the busy centres of trade.

This

last is

generally a graduate, and thus

in virtue

both of his

rank and of his

.

For Mutual

Protection.

connection with the guild has ready access
to the mandarins of the district.
his

The

idea

first

took shape in a curious way.

Through
arranged,
-

Provincial mandarins on visiting the capital

instrumentality

disputes

are

found that they were quite unable to cope
singly with the exactions of the officials and

litigation is

often prevented,

and the Lekin
for
'

taxes due from the

members of the guild
for

the insults which their local pronunciations

the passage of their goods into the interior of

and provincial
the people.

attires

drew upon them from

the country are

compounded

by lump

They

determined, therefore, to

sums.

combine

for

mutual protection, and to estab-

lish guilds as

common
and

centres for protection

Where Revenue Comes From.
The revenue
of the guilds
is

in case of need,

for the

more congenial

derived from

purpose of social intercourse.
Strange as
it

a payment of one-tenth of one per cent, on

may seem

to those

who

only

all sales effected

by members. At

first

sight

hear of the opposition shown by Chinamen
to foreigners,
ility,
it ie

this

percentage appears insignificant, but so
is

yet a fact that a like host-

great

the volume of internal trade, that
realized not only covers eveiy

though in a mitigated form, is commonly displayed towards natives of other Like the provincial provinces and districts.
mandarins at
Pekin, travelling

the

amount

requirement, but furnishes a surplus for luxurious feasts. reserve fund
dollars, to

merchants

found the advantage of being of being able to show a united front to the annoyances

In one guild at Ningpo the was lately stated to be 700,000 which must be added the amount

which they suffered from the
ample
set in the capital, in
all

natives

of

by the deposit exacted from each new member of 3,000 dollars.
realized

" outside provinces," and, following the ex-

Against the income account must be

set

they founded pro-

down

large outgoings in several directions.

vincial guilds

parts of the country
their presence

In the case of a

member going

to law with

where trade or pleasure made

the sanction of the guild he receives half his

either necessary or convenient.

law expenses, and a not inconsiderable

sum

CHINESE MECHANICS AND MERCHANTS.
is

195

yearly disbursed in payment of the funeral

The men
way.

struck,

and the mandarin, fearing a

expenses of those members

who

die

away

popular tumult, was wise enough to give
Perhaps, also, the recollections of a

from their homes.

Besides these outgoings

money
is

is

advanced on cargoes expected, and
purchase of return ventures.

terrible retribution

which was,

in 1852,

meted

lent for the

out to a magistrate near Shanghai, for Ijjindly
ignoring the just

The

rules regulating the guilds are
strictly enforced.

numerous
is

demands of the people
a yielding

and are

under him,

may have encouraged

The

favorite penalty for

any

infraction

disposition.

that the

offender

shall

provide

either

a

theatrical entertainment for the

delectation

Acted Like Savages.
In this
instance the people, in an access of rage such as that to which

of his brother
benefit.

members or a

feast for their
recalcit-

If

any member should be
is

Chinamen are
citizens into

rant

and refuse to submit to the authority of
boycotted with a severin the

occasionally subject, and which in an instant

the committee, he
ity

converts
brutal

them from peaceful
invaded
the

which might well excite the emulation of

savages,

magistrate's

promoters of the system

Emerald

Isle.

yamun, and, having made the wretched man
their

prisoner, bit

off his

ears,

each

man

Fines for Dishonesty.
Allied to these mercantile associations are

taking his

part

in

the outrage to prevent

the possibility

of a separate charge being
rioter.

the guilds which are strictly analogous to the
trades-unions

brought against any particular

among
is

ourselves.

Each trade So

An
that

even more brutal display of violence
It

has

its

guild,

which

constituted on precisely

once took place at Soochow.

happened
for the use

the same lines as those above described.
far as
it is

more gold

leaf

was required

possible to judge, the action of the

of the Emperor's palace than the trade as
constituted at

Chinese trades-unions appears to tend to the

Soochow could

supply.

In

promotion of
justice.

fair

play and a ready kind of

this difficulty the

master manufacturer took

Unjust weights, or unfairly loaded
are inflicted on

the unwise step of asking the leave of the
magistrate to engage extra apprentices.

goods, are unhesitatingly condemned, and
substantial
fines

members

Possibly with the knowledge that no one

found guilty of taking advantage of such
iniquities.

had been punished

for the atrocity described

above, which, having occurred in the neigh-

By

the influence of the unions wages are

borhood, must have been well known, they
determined to
inflict

settled, the hours of work are determined, and the number of apprentices to be taken

an even more brutal
erring

punishment

on

the
is

manufacturer.

into

each trade

is

definitely

fixed.

Silk-

" Biting to death

not a capital offence,"

weavers are not allowed to work

after nine

o'clock in the evening, nor are any workmen

permitted to labor during the holidays pro-

was proclaimed amongst them, and, acting upon this dictum, they captured the offender and literally bit him to death.

claimed by the guild.
at

On

one occasion,

On
and

being admitted as an apprentice a lad

Wenchow, the carpenters were called upon by the mandarin to contribute more than the recognized work of one day in the
year for the repairing of public buildings.

has, as a rule, to stand treat to the
in the

workmen,

more

skilled trades
is

he has to
the conduct

serve five years before he

admitted to the

rank of journeyman.

Though

196
of these societies
is

CHINA: PAST
generally beneficial, they
all similarly consti-

AND PRESENT.
By
a long-established custom, barbers and
the sons of barbers used to be reckoned

are occasionally apt, like

tuted bodies, to act tyranically.
Barbers, for example, are in

among

the pariah classes

who were

disquali-

many
it

parts

fied for

competing

in the competitive

exami-

of the country forbidden to add the art of

nations.

Though

complaints of this depri-

shampooing to

their ordinary craft,

having

been determined by the union that to shampoo was beneath the dignity of the knights

had been long and loud, no formal action was taken in the matter until the union took up the question.
vation

In their collective capacity the

members appealed to the governor
of Chehkiang, who, approving of
the
spirit

of the memorial, pre-

sented the matter to the Emperor,

and obtained
too

for the barbers the
disability.

removal of the

It

is

much to expect that the

unions

should always refrain from bringing to bear the influence which

they collectively possess for their

direct financial advancement.
Strikes

are

of

frequent

occur-

Jjjl^;^ 'J*'y
|(

fi,

]!.'

and victory is commonly with the workmen, except when
rence,
their claims are manifestly unjust.

The mandarins

recognize that

they cannot flog a whole trade,

and the poverty of the men
cures

se-

them against those exactions which would probably be demanded from their employers
were they to
appear
in

court.

These

facts are

fully recognized

to yield to the

by the masters, who prefer rather demands of their

ITINERANT CHINESE BARBER.
of the razor.
the year,

During the

last

six

days of

of their rulers.

men than to fall into the clutches As in all primitive and un-

when

the heads of the whole male

educated states of society, the Chinese have

portion of the Empire are shaved, barbers

a rooted objection to machinery of all kinds.
Just as they

are forbidden to clean the ears of their cus-

now oppose steam

navigation in
until,

tomers, as
rest of the

it is

their

wont

to

do during the

the inland waters of the Empire, so,
quite lately, they rebelled

months.

Any one found breaking
be mobbed, and to have
into the street.

against the im-

this rule is liable to

portation of all labor-saving contrivances.

his tools

and furniture thrown

Some

years ago a Chinaman, imbued with

CHINESE MECHANICS AND MERCHANTS.
Western
for ideas, landed at

197

Canton a machine

sewing boots, and especially the leather

the people.

and to moderate and guide the aspirations of In China no such healthy influis

soles

worn by the

natives.

At

this innova-

ence
there

to be found,

and the

result

is

that

tion the cobblers at once took alarm.

They

is

a constant straining and creaking in

rose in their thousands and destroyed the

the social machine, which has

many

a time
infre-

new-fangled machine.
In the
first

ended
the
It

in

fierce

outbreaks,

and not

same way the promoters of

quently in the overthrow of dynasties.

steam cotton-mills were compelled to

which,

the destruction of machinery had been allowed to work would have given employment to many thousands

submit to

if it

of people.

The

absence of a hereditary aristocracy
sub-

was remarked by a Chinese statesman, at the time of the Taeping rebellion, that two hundred years was the normal length of a Chinese dynasty, and this bears substantial evidence to the want of some such mediating influences as hereditary and representative institutions are

deprives the Chinese of a most useful and

alone able to afford.

The

potent link between the crown and
jects.

its

voice of the people finds no expression in

England has learned from her own

history

how great

is

the protection afforded

to the nation

powerful nobles
resist

by the presence of a body of who are strong enough to

any recognized form of representation. Politically, they are atoms whose ultimate power of asserting their claims to justice lies
only in the sacred right of rebellion, which they are not slow to exercise on occasion.

the encroachments of the sovereign

CHAPTER

XI.

CHINESE MARRIAGE CUSTOMS.

BY
It is
oiit

the

highest and

most revered
is

It is

obvious that considerable trust and

authorities marriage

described,

confidence have to be placed in these people,

and rightly described, as the greatest of the five

human
is

relationships.
it

and it is also a fact that they not uncommonly betray this trust and confidence in the
interests
it

the foundation of the State, and
that prospect, which

holds

of rich people

who

are able to

make

so dear to the

worth

their while to represent
girl as

a plain and

heart of every Chinaman, of obtaining sons

ungainly

a Hebe, or a dissolute youth
in

who

shall

perform at the tombs of their
In one respect,

as a paragon of virtue.

parents the sacrifices which are necessary for

Archdeacon Gray,
scribes a tragic scene

his

" China," de-

the repose of their

spirits.

matrimonial alliances in China have an advantage over those in Western lands.

wedding

at

which occurred at a which he was present. dying

A

They can

mother, anxious to see her son married before

never be undertaken in a hurry. There can be no running off of the young lady to the registry office some morning before her parents

she closed her eyes for ever, insisted on the

marriage ceremony being performed at her
bedside.

On

the completion of the
veil

rite

the

come down

to

breakfast,
in a

nor can a

bridegroom raised the bride's

special license
gratify

be obtained

moment

to

on the features of a

leper.

and gazed The scene which

a sudden caprice.
all

followed was of a most painful description,

In the houses of

well-to-do people the
rites

ceremony

is

surrounded by

which make
is

and ended by the bride being incontinently repudiated and sent back to her parents.
Professional Match-makers.

haste impossible, and the widest publicity

secured for the event.

In dealing with social
it

matters in so huge an Empire as China,

is

"To

he like a match-maker"

is

a common

necessary to remember that practices vary in
detail in different parts of the country.

But

throughout the length and breadth of the land the arrangement of marriages of both
sons and daughters
entirely in
is

and a published correspondence exists between a Chinese bridegroom and his friend, in which the former bitterly complains that his bride, far from being the beauty
expression,

a matter which

is left

described

by the go-between,

is

fat

and

the hands of the parents,

who

in

marked deeply with small-pox.

His

friend,

every case employ a go-between or match-

being of a practical turn of mind, and not
being himself the victim, recommends the

maker, whose business
or herself

it is

to

make

himself

—both men and women follow this

strange calling

—acquainted

accurately with
families

bridegroom to make the best of the bargain, and with cheap philosophy reminds him that
if

the circumstances of both

and the

the

young lady
and
that,

is

stout she

is

probably

personal qualifications of the proposed bride

and bridegroom. 198

though disfigured, she may very possibly be even as " an angel from
healthy,

CHINESE MARRIAGE CUSTOMS.
heaven," to use his

199

own words.

This was

the knowledge of the other party to the contract,

certainly very comforting.

advantage

is

taken of some such acciwith

From

the time that the match-maker
until the

is

dents to put an end to the negotiations.

employed,

bond

is

tied,

there are

In accordance

usage,

the

letters

six ceremonies to

be performed.

The

parents of the

young man send

the

which pass between the parents during the preliminaries are couched in good set terms,
the sender of presents describes
"

go-between to the parents of the
quire her

girl to in-

name and

the

moment

of her birth

mean

"

that the horoscopes of the

two may be exIf

cipient

them as and "contemptible," while the reregards them as "honorable" and

amined, in order to ascertain whether the

"priceless."

The

parent of the bride speaks

proposed alliance

will

be a happy one.

of his

daughter as "despicable," and his

the eight characters of the horoscopes seem
to augur aright, the man's friends send the

house as " a cold dwelling," while the bridegroom's people designate her as " your honored beloved one," and her
erable palace."

match-maker back to make an
riage.

oifer

of mar-

home

as " a ven-

If that

be accepted, the lady's father
are then
to

is

again requested to return an assent in writing.

"The Best Man."
The Chinese
monies.
his father,

Presents

sent to the girl's

love of indirectness
in

comes
cere-

means of the parties. The go-between requests them to choose a lucky day for the wedding. The preliminaries are concluded by the brideparents

according

the

out conspicuously

the

betrothal

The bridegroom does

nothing, and
is

who

is

the real negotiator,

rep-

resented

by a

friend of the bridegroom,

who

groom going or sending a party of

friends

alone passes

backwards and forwards be-

with music to bring his wife to his house.

tween the two houses.
this

The

first

duty of

"best

man"

is

to carry to the lady's

Betrothal of Children.

father a statement of the hour, day,
is

month
;

So soon
ing ;

as the

first

of these ceremonies
is

performed, the betrothal

considered bind-

and in the cases of the
of
to leprosy, dissolve
is
it.

engagement of
potent

children, nothing but disablement, or the affliction

and year of the bridegroom's birth, together with the maiden name of his mother and to receive in return a document containing the same particulars concerning the bride.

considered
Certain

On
pair
altars,

receipt of these facts the fathers of the

enough
tions,

supersti-

spread the documents on the family

however, render

the contract

more

easily dissoluble

when

the pair are of marri-

ancestors

and beseech the blessings of their on the match. Astrologers are
propitious, the best

ageable age.
If,

next consulted, and, should the horoscopes

for instance, a china

bowl should be

of the

young people be

broken, or any valuable article lost within three days of the engagement, the circumstance
is

man

is

again sent with a letter making a

formal proposal of marriage.

considered

suflficiently

unlucky to
under-

The

following authentic

letters,

appropriate

justify the instant termination of the

to this occasion, are

good specimens of the
tone which
is

and in cases where facts unfavorable to the one side, whether socially, physically
taking,

bland self-depreciatory

in-

dulged in by fond fathers when exchanging
presents.

or morally, have, in the meantime,

come

to

200

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
ancient times,

The first is from the parents of the wouldbe bridegroom, and runs thus " Prostrate, I
:

who was

told

by a

fairy that

if

beseech you not to disdain this cold and

mean

application, but to listen to the

match-

he would plant some jewels in a certain grassy field, he should obtain a charming wife. He obeyed, and shortly afterwards

and to bestow your honorable daughter on my slavish son, that the pair may be bound together with silken threads, and be united in jadelike joy. In bright spring-time I will offer wedding gifts, and
maker,
present a pair of geese.
that
ness,

made
ments.

overtures of marriage to a lady
for her

who

was renowned

beauty and accompHsh-

Her

father, not particularly desiring

the match, gave his consent on condition that the bridegroom presented the lady with a

And

let

us hope

jade

sceptre.

Remembering

the

buried

we may

anticipate long-enduring happi-

jewels, the

bridegroom dug

in the field

and

and look forward through endless generations to the completion of the measure of
their sincere attachment.

found to his delight a sceptre exactly answering to the description demanded.

Of course,

May

they sing of
Pros-

the marriage took place, and the pair lived

the Unicorn, and enjoy every
trate, I

felicity.

happily ever afterwards.

beg you to look favorably upon my proposal, and to bend the mirrorlike brightness of your glance upon these lines."

The S5rmbol

of Marriage.

Historical allusions of this kind

abound in

such communications, and a curious sym-

A

Lucky Day

in Spring.

bolism proba-

is

employed
is

in the various rites.

The
its

In reply the lady's father,

who was

plum-tree

held to symbolize marriage,
it

bly a wealthy man, and whose references
therefore to his

probably because
elsewhere,

is

conspicuous for

impecunious condition are

beauty in spring-time, when, in China, as

intended only to exaggerate the wealth and
position of the would-be bridegroom, writes

"young men's fancy

lightly turns

"A

respectful communication.

I

have

re-

ceived your notice of a lucky day in spring

and no youth sighs in verses for a bride, nor does any maiden in the harem lament in numbers her lonely conto thoughts of love,"
dition,

ceremony of exchanging bridal presYour younger brother, being a plain ents. and unpretentious man, cannot escort his daughter with a hundred chariots." [This
for the
is

without references to the beauty of
fruit.
is

the blossom, and the excellence of the

The
sent

letter

of the bridegroom's father

a reference to a king in the eighth century

before Christ,

who brought home

his bride

on a lucky day chosen by the astrologers, and is handed to the best man, with much ceremony, at the family altar, before

attended by an escort of this extent.] " She shall not, however, be without cotton
skirts, hair-pins,

which the writer performs the kotow in honor of his departed ancestors. On arriving at the bride's dwelling the
received with

and wooden brooches, as

I

groomsman

is

will surely

arrange for the trousseau of

my

much state and is conducted by
where a master
they

impoverished green-windowed " (that is, poor)
" daughter.
If you say that you seek, the

his host to the ancestral hall,

of

ceremonies stands ready to direct the

palace of the
for

moon

" (wedlock),

"I

shall ask

rites.

At a word from

this potentate

a sceptre from the grassy

field,

and so

both prostrate themselves before the ancestral tablets

frustrate

your

design.''

which stand on the

altar,

and

This phrase has reference to a

man

in

having risen from their knees resume their

CHINESE MARRIAGE CUSTOMS.
positions, the

201

one on the east and the other
hall.

Presents consisting of silks and satins, ear-

on the west side of the

The groomsman
priate
letter,

then, with a few appro-

phrases, presents his

host with the

and

at the

same time

offers for his aclive

ceptance boxes of confectionary and a
pig, or, in

and hair-pins, are next sent and return gifts are offered by her parents. sumptuous dinner, given by the bridegroom to his friends, announces the completion of this ceremony, which is known
rings, bracelets,

to the bride,

A

some

parts of the country, a pair

as Napi, or

"The

Presentation of Silks."

of wild geese.

The
is

choice of these birds as
is

a nuptial present
consider
it

so odd that one

apt to
for the

The Dragon and

Phoenix.
it is

as one of the peculiar outcomes

When

sending the presents

customary

of the topsy-turvy Chinese mind.

But

it is

bridegroom to prepare two large cards
pasted a paper

not quite so

;

for

we

find

from George Sand

containing the particulars of the engagement.

that at the marriage of French peasants in

On

the one which he keeps

is

Berry, a goose, though a dead one, was com-

dragon, and on that which he sends to his
bride,

monly borne

in the bridegroom's procession.

a phoenix, emblems which are held to
brilliant

symbolize the Imperial qualities of the one
Gifts

and Music.
an exis

and the

beauty of the other.

"Near," writes the authoress, "this bearer
of a flowering and ribboned thyrsus
is

To
red

each card are attached two pieces of

silk,

which are tokens of the

invisible

pert spit-bearer, for under the foliage

a

bonds with which Fate has from
connected the ankles of the
heaven.

their infancy

trussed goose which forms the object of the

pair, for, in

China,
in

ceremony around it are the carriers of the presents and the good singers, that is to say those who are clever and knowing and who are going to engage in an [amicable] quarrel with the followers of the bride." It is odd to find the East and West allied in so curious a detail, but such marriage customs seem to be
;

as with us, marriages are said _be

made

To

that

power

is left

the choice of

a lucky day for the
gers

final rite.

The

astrolo-

who

interpret the signs of the
full

sky comis

monly pronounce a

moon

to be the for-

tunate time, and so soon as this fixture

arranged, the bridegroom's father sends

gifts

scarcely less widely spread than the rite

itself.

of wine and mutton to the lady.
Etiquitte requires
it

So

soon as the cakes and the

box

containaltar,

that the

groomsman

ing the letter have been placed on the

should ask the bride's father to name the
day, and that he should in his turn beg that

the host again prostrates himself and reads

the

letter,

while the

groomsman

is

led off to

the bride's future father-in-law should decide

be regaled with tea and viands in the guestThe reply is handed to the chamber.
that with which the letter

groomsman with the same ceremonies as was received, and
is

This is the cue for the groomsproduce from his sleeve the letter of to which he is the bearer, announcing the lucky date, which is already well known to all conthe point.

man

he

then invited to a feast which etiquette
refuse twice and accept on the third

cerned.

To

this the

host replies in stilted

bids

him

terms, expressing his concurrence, but adding
his regret at
nificant

occcision.
tral hall

On
is

an adjournment to the ances-

having to part with his "insig-

he

presented with return presents

daughter" so soon.
fixed the

of cakes, and wends his

way back

to report

For some days before the date

proceedings to his principal.

bride assumes all the panoply of woe,

and

202

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
attended.

weeps and wails without ceasing. On the day immediately preceding the wedding her
trousseau and household furniture are sent
to her future

In

many

parts of the country this

home, and though the trunks

ceremony takes place in the evening, and is a mere formality, whereas in others, as wHI be presently shown, it retains more of its
original significance.

are always locked, cases have been

known in
relatives,

which the

bridegroom's

female

On

entering the bride's house the brideis

being unable to restrain their curiosity, have

groom

received

by

his father-in-law,

who
him

conducts him to the central
hall,

and there

offers

a goblet of wine, from which
the visitor pours out a libation to the emblematic geese
in

token of his nuptial

fi-

delity,

accompanying the
rever-

action with a deep

ence to the family altar in
confirmation

of

his

vow.

The

bride,

covered from
introduced on

head to foot with a red
veil, is

now

the scene, and makes obei-

sance in the direction of
the spot where the bride-

groom
is is

is

standing, for he

as invisible to her as she to him.

The
been
chair

procession then re-

forms, and the bride having
lifted into

her sedanof

by two women
that
is

good fortune,
and children
airs

to say,

who have both husbands
living, is

borne
to the

to her future

home

of well-known wedding

EMBROIDERED CHINESE SCREEN,
picked the locks to examine the dresses of
the bride.

melodies.

On

arriving at the portal of the house the

bridegroom taps the door of the sedan-chair
with his fan, and in response, the instructress
of matrimony,
bride,

On

the eventful day the bridegroom either

goes himself, attended by a procession of
friends

who prompts

every act of the
still

and musicians, with

flying banners

opens the door and hands out the

bearing feUcitous mottoes, to carry away his
bride,

enshrouded young lady,

who is carried bodily

or sends his faithful friend similarly

over a pan of lighted charcoal, or a red-hot

CHINESE MARRIAGE CUSTOMS.
coulter laid

203
to join the guests at

on the threshold, while at the same moment a servant offers for her acceptance some rice and preserved prunes. It is curious to observe that the ceremony
of
lifting

tomary

for the

groom

their feast in the outer hall,

where he forms the subject of countless jokes, and is expected
to submit to a like severe ordeal in the matter

the bride over the threshold
in all

is

found

of riddles as that which enlivened Samson's

existing

the four continents, and

we also

wedding.
It is

know

that in ancient

Rome
fire

received his bride with

the bridegroom and water. It has
lifting

impossible not to recognize that

many

.

of the ceremonies which have been described
are relics of the primitive right of marriage

been conjectured that the act of
bride over
purification,
tive
fire

the

may have some reference to but we have no duly authorita-

by

capture.

In the procession which, gen-

erally at night, goes to carry the bride to

statement on the meaning of the act.

her new

home

is plciinly

observable a sur-

vival of the old-world usage, in compliance

The
the bride,

First

Sight.

with which young
their consorts
"I/O,

men

sallied out to snatch
foes.

In the reception hall the bridegroom awaits

from their

who

prostrates herself before him,
first

and he then for the

time

lifts

her veil and

how the woman once was wooed Forth leapt the savage from his lair,

gazes on her features. The moment must be a trying one, especially on occasions when
the

He felled her, and to nuptials rude, He dragged her, bleeding, by the hair.
Prom that to Chloe's dainty wiles, And Portia's dignified consent, What distance "
!

go-between has concealed defects

or

exaggerated charms.

Perhaps

it

is

as well

that etiquette forbids the utterance of a word,

and

in a silence

which must often be golden,
conducts his bride to the
seat themselves side

Perched

in

a Tree.

the bridegroom
divan,
side;
it

But even within the Chinese Empire we
find almost every gradation

when they

by
sits

between these

being traditional that the

one who
is

wide extremes.

In Western China,
it is

among
for

on a part of the dress of the other
hold rule in the household.

likely to

some of the

native tribes

customary

the bride to perch herself on the high branch of a large tree, while her elderly female relatives station

But the marriage has yet to be consecrated. For this purpose the young people repair to the hall, where, falling on their knees before the ancestral altar, the bridegroom announces
to his ancestors that, in obedience to his

themselves on the lower limbs

armed with switches.
way, and
is

Through

this protect-

ing force the bridegroom has to

make

his

duly assailed by the dowagers
also

commands, he has taken so-and-so to wife, beseeching them at the same time to bestow their choicest gifts on himself and his partner. Prostrations in honor of heaven,
parents'
earth,

before he reaches the object of his search.

At Chinese weddings
for the

it is

not unusual

and the bridegroom's parents complete

bridegroom to be compelled to run the gauntlet on the way to the bride's chamber between rows of waiting women, who go

the ceremony, and the newly wedded couple retire to the semi-privacy of their apartments
to enjoy a repast in which they pledge one

through the farce of pretending to bar his progress. But the most perfect survival of
the old
rite is

found

among

the Lolo tribes

another in the wedding goblet.

of China,
it

who

indulge in a long prelude of

In some parts of the country

is

cus-

alternate feasting

and lamentation before the

204
wedding, as
if

CHINA: PAST
the occasion were one for
rejoicing.
:

AND PRESENT.
marriage ceremonies having been completed,
the

mourning rather than

young couple take up

their

abode

in the

At
crisis

last,

as the late Mr. Baber writes

"A

house of the bridegroom's
until

father, and, speak-

of tearfulness ensues,

when suddenly

ing generally, the contract remains binding

the brothers, cousins, and friends of the hus-

death does them part.
is more social and reand cases constantly occur is broken by mutual con-

band burst upon the scene with tumult and
loud shouting, seize the almost distraught
maid, place her pick-a-back on the shoulders of the best man, carry her hurriedly and
in

But the obligation
ligious than legal,

which the

tie

sent,

and freedom

for

the future secured

and mount her on a horse, which gallops off to her new home. Vioviolently away,

without the interference of any court or
proctor.

On

one occasion,
it

in

a case of an

lence

is

rather

more than

simulated,

for

appeal to Pekin,

came out

incidentally in

though the male
flour

friends of the bride only

the proceedings that one of the parties in the
case had previously married a bride who,

repel the attacking party with showers of

and wood-ashes, the attendant virgins are armed with sticks, which they have the
fullest liberty to wield."

being discontented with the house to which

she had been brought, incontinently
spouse, and married another man.

left

her

In popular history, also, there

is

a well-

Carrying off the Bride.
This practice of carrying off the bride has
its

known
civilized

case of a woodcutter who, having
de-

some knowledge of books, and being a
voted student, disgusted
foolish wife
his

counterpart

among

the

more
it

flippant

and

Chinese in the act of bearing the lady over
the threshold of her house; and
full force in Orissa,
tells

by attending more

to the

works

exists in

of Confucius than to felling trees.

Finding

where General Campbell

expostulation vain, his short-sighted partner
deserted
like

us in his " Personal Narrative of Service

him and married a more

business-

in

Khondistan," he once "saw a

man

bear-

man.
all

Left to himself, the woodcutter

ing
in

away upon

his

back something enveloped

acquired such scholastic proficiency that he

an ample covering of scarlet cloth; he was surrounded by twenty or thirty young fel-

passed

the examinations with ease, and,

by a coincidence, was appointed prefect over
the district where he

by them protected from the desmade upon him by a party of young women. On seeking an explanation
lows, and

had formerly

lived.

perate attacks

Nothing Said.

of this novel scene," adds the writer, " I
told that the
his precious

was

Among the men employed to make smooth
the roadway for his arrival was his wife's

man had just been

married, and

whom

burden was his blooming bride, he was conveying to his own village."
districts in

second husband, to

whom

it

chanced that

she was in the act of bringing his dinner

Again, in certain

China, where
girl, in

when her

first

venture's cortege passed by.

the aborigines predominate, each
choice of her husband,
is

her

A recognition was mutual, but as the prefect
had equally consoled
himself, nothing

solely led

"by nice
pairs off

was

direction of a maiden's eyes,"

and

said about the restitution of conjugal rights.
Difficulties often arise,

without any troublesome formalities with the

however, in cases

youth she admires and

who

admires her.
;

where the husband

is

not a consenting party

But to return to the orthodox Chinese

the

to the arrangement, but in such instances

205

206
the husband
his

CHINA: PAST
commonly takes the law own hands, and recovers his errant
into

AND

PRESENT.
He would no more vento

to yield obedience.

wife

ture to refuse to submit even those concerns

by

force, or

engages friends and neighbors

which we should consider most private
the arbitration

to intervene and persuade the lady to return.

of his

neighbors than an

The use

of force not unfrequently brings the

matter before the magistrate, but otherwise
;the law does not interfere

unless, indeed,
is

formal complaint of a bigamous marriage

made, when the law orders that the offending

Englishman would dream of flouting the decision of a judge and jury. In a well-known farce this peculiarity of Chinese society is amusingly illustrated. The hero of the play is a man, who, having
married a Miss Plumblossom, has taken to
himself a Miss Willow as a secondary wife,
in

woman

shall

be strangled.
is

As

a

rule,

however, public opinion

sufKcient to bring

the difference to a satisfactory conclusion.

accordance with the custom which

will

be

presently described.

To

each lady a court-

Seven Grounds
But apart
of the

for

Divorce.

yard of the house
rear premises.

is

assigned, Plumblossom

from

these irregular matriit

occupying the front part and Willow the

monial causes, the law puts

man

to annul his marriage

of seven distinct

power on any one grounds, among which disin the

The

first

scene opens with

the husband approaching his dwelling after a

long absence.

obedience to father-in-law or mother-in-law,

and over-talkativeness are named.
question, a decree without
ally granted

But even

A
The evening

'Wordy W^arfare,
is

on occasions when these legal plaints are in any nisi is gener-

drawing

in,

and he
,

tells his

servant to drive to the back door without disturbing the elder lady.

elders of the neighborhood,

by a court composed of and not by

the the

He

is

cordially

greeted

by Willow,

mandarins.

In this and similar matters local

enjoying a repast,
ing

whose company he is when Plumblossom, havin

social pressure takes the place of

a wider

public opinion.

herself
in

become aware of his arrival, presents upon the idyllic scene. Peace inIn
piercing

There are no newspapers
ple's attention, instead of

China beyond

stantly vanishes.

accents the
for

those published at the treaty ports, and peo-

intruder

reproaches

Willow

having

being distracted by
is

robbed her of her privilege as mistress of
the household of receiving her husband after
his absence.

subjects of general or foreign importance,

centered in the affairs passing around them.

Nothing daunted,
the
shrillest

this

young

The very

stationary nature of the population
this peculiarity.

lady defends herself, and replies with counter-reproaches in

adds force to

In most

vil-

of trebles,
oil

lages and small towns the majority of people

while the husband attempts to throw
the troubled waters
expostulation.

upon

are related to each other through the constantly widening circles of relatives

by

occasional words of

which

each marriage in the family tends to multiply. minute acquaintance with every one

So

great

is

the tumult that the neighbors

A

are disturbed, and on the essentially Chinese

else's affairs is

the natural consequence of

this kinship.

No Chinaman ever stands alone.
body he
is

one else's business is your business, they determine to interfere,
principle that every

He

forms one only of a general body, and

to the opinion of this

compelled

quoting as their justification a saying of a certain philosopher that, in cases of disturb-

CHINESE MARRIAGE CUSTOMS.
ance
If

207

the neighbors do not interfere, they
participators in the guilt of the dis-

of

all, still

better fortune befriends Willow,
sixes

become
putants.

who throws
her

and breaks out

into a

Two

graybeards are therefore de-

paean of triumph, amid the strains of which
rival retires discomfited.

puted to inquire on the spot into the circumstances of the quarrel.
scene, instead of

Their arrival

part of the
nently,

prompting a desire husband to eject them
tell

on the on the

It

seems almost anomalous

after this ap-

parent instance to the contrary to say that

inconti-

polygamy

is

not practised in China.
is

But

in

and to
is

business,

them to mind their own regarded by all concerned as the
in the world.

the strictest sense that

true.

A man

goes

through the
one

full

ceremonies of marriage with

most natural thing
I

woman

only, except on very rare occa-

sions.

A certain godlike
we

Emperor of

anti-

Peace Finally Secured.
ladies

quity gave,
tories, his

are told in the canonical his-

The
cision,

submit their cases to their deit

and, though

is

some time

before

two daughters in marriage to his successor. With such an example as this
marriages admissible,

the storm has sufficiently subsided to enable

before them, the Chinese have always considered such double

them

to arrive at the rights of the quarrel,

th^y eventually
position

consider themselves in a

and

in

many

of the best-known romances

to

deliver

judgment.

They propeace in the

the heroes marry two

young

ladies of the

nounce

that, in the interests of
it

same household, and,
be
believed,
sults.

if

the authors are to
re-

neighborhood,

is

necessary that the hus-

always with the happiest

band should apportion his residence equally between the two courtyards, residing in one fr<^m the first of each month to the full moon, and in the other from the full moon to the end of the month. To this the ladies as well as the husband a^ee, but a further question is raised, which lady is to have which half of the month ? Plumblossom claims the time of the waxing moon, and considers the waning period quite good enough for Willow. That young lady, on the contrary, claims that as it was then the first part of the month, and that as she was in possession, that period of the month
should belong to her.
This knotty point
the graybeards find a difficulty in deciding,

Naughty
slated into several

Fickleness.

In a popular novel which has been tran-

European languages, the hero makes love to a young lady through
the

medium

of her waiting-maid, and with

a despicable fickleness becomes enamored of
another paragon of learning and virtue,
siding in another part of the country,
re-

who

ultimately proves to be the cousin
first

of his

love.

Towards

to the end of the work,

when the

mists and doubts which surround

the plot begin to clear, the two ladies find
that their happiness
object, and, as they
is centred in the same have become inseparable,

and they, therefore, determine to leave it to the throw of the dice. The ladies readily produce a trio of those
endless

they determine to endow the hero,

who

is

eminently unworthy of them, except for the

sources of amusement, and Plum-

beauty of his verses, with the double prize. But such marriages, though they exist,
are

blossom throws first. To her infinite delight she throws two sixes and a cinque, and
thinks herself secure.

very exceptional,

and the

secondary

wives which

men

take are received into the

But, to the surprise

household with a

much

abridged form of

208
ceremony.

CHINA: PAST
No
nuptial

AND PRESENT.
and though the advent of a secondary wife is occasionally resented, this is not by any means
always the case.

sedan-chair bears

them

in

triumph to their new homes, and

they enter the portals unattended by the
musicians and processionists
the
fact,
first

who accompany
And, in
it

Not unfrequently ladies
so,

are pleased to have

bride on her wedding-day.

considering that an addition to the

the relation of such a one to the misis

household adds to their dignity.
plimentary language the chH
is

In com-

tress of the establishment

very much what

compared to

Hagar's was to Sarah in Abraham's household.

the moon, and the secondary wife to a star,

By

conventional laws she owes obedifirst

and

in

a well-known collection of published

ence to the

wife,

and only

rises to

a

letters several are

met with

in

which

friends

THE BRIDAL FEAST.
level with her ih case

progeny should be
term the

" are congratulated on having taken " a star

denied to the
wife,

ch'i,

as the Chinese to her.

to

add
It is

lustre to the "

moon."

and be granted

impossible to suppose that, things

A case of this kind occurred in the instance
of the late Emperor,
of the

being as has been described, the status of a
wife can be anything but, to say the least,

young

ladies

who was the son of one who accompanied the

unfortunate.

raised his

Empress to the palace, and whose birth mother to the rank of Empress.
us

As has been remarked, how" though the lot of Chinese women is ever,
happy than that of their sisters in Europe, of a better state renders their present or prospective one more supportable
less

It is difficult for

who

live

under so entirely

their ignorance

a condition of things to realize such a state of domestic society as is here described,
different

happiness does not consist in absolute enjoy-

CHINESE MARRIAGE CUSTOMS.
ment, but in the idea which
of it.

209

we have formed
feel

In the estimate of the other sex.

Chinamen

A Chinese woman does not

that

agree with a certain well-known Kentucky
editor,

any
be

injustice is

done her by depriving her of

who
and

described
this

women

as

the right to assent to
;

whom her partner shall
and when

issue,"

view of the sex

"a we

side
find

her wishes and her knowledge go no

stereotyped in

some
is

of the ideographic char-

further than her domestic circle,

acters of the language.

she has been trained in her mother's apart-

If a

husband

driven to

make mention

of

ments to the various duties and accomplishments of her sex, her removal to a husband's house brings to her no great change."
Blissful

his wife he speaks of her as his " dull thorn,"

Ignorance.
in

by some equally uncomplimentary term. life he regards her less as a companion than as a chattel, which in times of adversity may be disposed of by sale. In
or

In ordinary

This

is

no doubt to a great extent true
life.

seasons of famine an open market

is

held of

common
wounds
grets

Ignorance

is

unquestionably

the wives and daughters of the poorer sufferers
;

a protecting

shield against

many

of the

and not long
in

since,

during a period

inflicted

by the

repinings

and

re-

of dearth in Northern China, so great a traffic

which

arise

from a perfect knowledge.
are, as

sprung up

women and

girls,

that in

And

Chinese

women

a

rule,

provided

some

places nearly every available cart and

with an ample shield of this description.

conveyance were engaged to transport the
newly-purchased slaves to the central provinces.

There
tells

are,

however, exceptions.

History
ruled the

us

of

women who have
walk of

Empire, directed armies, and made themselves illustrious in every
;

life

com-

Cruel

Husbands.

monly trodden by men and novelists assure us by their creations that not a few women
have an abundant taste and skill in literature. The heroines of most novels have a pretty
art in composing verses and writing essays,

When
occupy

such

is

the position which
it

women

in China,

cannot but be that they

occasionally suffer ill-usage at the hands of

such husbands as are capable of cruelty.
is

It

not at

all

uncommon

for

husbands to pun-

heroes,

and so make congenial companions for the whose chief claims to distinction are
battlefield, or

ish their wives severely, sometimes,

no doubt,

under great provocation, for Chinese women,
untutored, unloved, and uncared for, have
all

gained not in the
prowess,

by personal
before

but

in

their

studies

the

the faults and failings of unreclaimed
;

examiners.

natures
existence
is

but at others for

little

or no reason!

A monotonous and quiet
most favorable
role

the

which a Chinese
Confucius laid

woman
down,

The Abbe Hue tells a story of " a Chinese husband, who had a wife with whom he had
lived happily for

can expect to play.

it

two years. But having con-

and it is rank blasphemy to dissent from him, that a woman should not be heard of outside her own home. Unhappily neither ignorance, nor the placid nature which belongs to

ceived the idea that people were laughing at

him, because he had never beaten her, he

determined to

make a beginning
no

in

such a

way

as to impress every spectator,

and ac-

most of them, is able to save them in all cases from the miseries inherent in the state of abject dependence which belongs to them.
14

cordingly, though he had

fault to find

with her," he beat her mercilessly.

Although

this story carries

with

it

the im-

210

CHINA: PAST
it

AND PRESENT.
for refuge.

primatur of the worthy Abbe,

may properly

By

the accident of sex she

is

be received with a certain amount of caution.

But even

if this

particular instance

may be an

viewed as a burden by her parents from her birth onwards, and, if they succeed in marrying her
their
off,

exaggeration, the facts that the question,

they are only too glad to wash

"Does your husband beat you?" is very commonly put to English ladies by Chinese women, and that the indignant negative with
which the inquiry
ulity,
is

hands of her altogether. Among ourselves a man is taught that he should leave
his father

and mother and
in

cling to his wife,

happily always answered,

but the theory
his wife to

China

is

that a

man

should

invariably excites astonishment

and incredChinese

cling to his father

and mother and compel

are sufficient to prove that

do the same.

women
ment

are not unusually subject to ill-treat-

When

admitted into her

new home

it

be-

at the

hands of their natural protectors.

Occasionally, however, the wife has her

revenge, and in the collections of ancedotes

which abound there are plenty of

stories of

comes her duty to wait on her parents-inlaw in the same way as she has been accustomed to serve her own father and mother, and it is often from these elders that the un-

happy bride
est

suffers the great-

hardships

and
married

cruelty.

So many

are the disabilities
life

attaching to

in

China that many
going
neries,

girls prefer

into

Buddhist even

nun-

or

committing

suicide,

to trusting their fu-

tures to the guardianship of

men
DEFORMED FEET OF CHINESE LADIES.
hen-pecked husbands and masterful wives,
in one case a certain
fered

of

whom

they

know
in

practically nothing.

Archdeacon Gray,

his

eight

young
in

"China," states that in 1873 girls, residing near Canton,
affianced,

man who

at times suf-

'who had been
selves

drowned them-

much

at the

hands of his wife was

order to avoid marriage.

They
and

driven to seek refuge from her violence be-

clothed themselves
at eleven
night,

in their best attire,

neath his bed. Unwilling to allow her victim
to escape her, the harridan called to

o'clock,

in the darkness of the

upon him

having bound themselves together,
In

come

out.

"

I

won't," replied the

man

threw themselves into a tributary stream of
the Canton river."

"and when a man and husband says he won't,
he won't."

some

parts of the

But experience shows

that, after all, the

are formed, the

same province anti-matrimonial associations members of which resist to

rule tends in the opposite direction, and that which makes the position of a wife more

the death the imposition of the marriage yoke.

"The
in

existence

of

this

Amazonian
long been

than ordinarily

pitiable, especially
is

among the
no one to
fly

League," writes a missionary long resident
the

poorer classes,

that she has

neighborhood,
its

"has
rules

appeal to, and no one to

whom

she can

known, but as to

and the num-

CHINESE MARRIAGE CUSTOMS.
ber of
its

211

members, no

definite information

tearful notes the

absence of their lords.

But

come to hand. It is composed of young widows and njarriageable girls. Dark hints
has
are given as to the methods used to escape

there

is

other and more

direct evidence of the

existence of happiness in the married state.

Cases constantly appear in the Pekin Gazette
in

matrimony.

The sudden demise

of be-

which wives, unwilling to survive

their
live

trothed husbands, or the abrupt ending of

husbands, commit suicide rather than
without them.
of the wife of

the newly-married husband's career, suggest
unlawful means for dissolving the bonds."

One such

instance

was that

Kwo

Sunglin, brother of a late

This

is

the sordid view of the position.
all

minister to the English court.

Through a

Happily, in this and in
there
their
is

other matters

long
her

illness this

lady nursed him with devoted

a reverse side to the shield, and in

tenderness until death came,

when she ended
poison.

own peculiar way the Chinese certainly enjoy a modicum of wedded bliss. In a
modern Pekinese
late

own

existence

by taking
in

play, one of the characters,

Died Emperor,

Grief.

a widower, describes the even current of his
that he and his and guest, and in most novels we read of husband and wife

married

life

by saying

Another case was once reported to the in which a young widow, aged

wife lived together as host

twenty-seven, declared her intention not to
survive her lord, and remained for three days

living harmoniously, if not rapturously to-

without nourishment.

gether.

In poetry also the love of

home

is

the memorialist; " having
rise

"At length," writes made an effort to

and the misery of being separated from wife and children is the common plaint of the traveller and the
constantly insisted on,
exile.

Dreary Solitude.
In a

poem

entitled "

Midnight Thoughts,"
Sir

and perform the mourning rites of prosshe threw herself weeping on the ground, and breathed her last." The most curious phase of this devotion is the form which it takes in some of the southern provinces, where after the manner of Sutteeism, the widow commits suicide in public in the
tration,

which was translated by

John Davis, the

poet, after describing his inability to rest in

presence of an applauding crowd. In an instance described by an eye-witnes^
a vast procession escorted the

the remote district in which he finds himself,

young widow,

goes on to say

:

who was
!

dressed in scarlet and gold, and
in

" This solitary desertion ^how bitter do I find it Ivet me then push my roving to a distance Let me visit the passes and mountains a hundred
leagues hence,

was borne
scaffold,

a richly decorated chair to the

scene of the tragedy.

On

arriving at the

Like some devotee of Buddha, wandering amid clouds and torrents, Ignorant of what is passing elsewhere. How shall I forget the melancholy of my own home ? Thus dull and mournful through life's whole course, My sorrows and pains can never have an end."

on which stood a gallows, the lady mounted the platform, and having welcomed the crowd, partook, with some female relatives,

of a prepared repast, which, adds the

narrator,

she

appeared to appreciate
rice,

ex-

tremely.
flowers

She then scattered

herbs, and

among

the crowd, at the same time
for
their

In the lines put in the mouths of the stay-

thanking

them

attendance and

at-home wives the melancholy of the

traveller

upholding the motives which urged her to
the step she was about to take.

becomes a keen longing, and they lament

in

212

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
tant

She then mounted on a chair, and having waved a final adieu to the crowd, adjusted the noose round her neck, and drawing a red
handkerchief over her
for the
face,

when the slow-moving Chineman
in

will

be induced to follow

the footsteps of their
Until quite rein the

more advanced neighbor.
cently the position of

gave the signal

women

Land

of

removal of the support.

With extra-

the Rising
as that

Sun was every whit

as

unworthy
sisters.

ordinary self-possession, while hanging in
mid-air, she placed her

now occupied by their

Chinese
in

hands before her,
the usual form of

Happily the experience gained

western

and continued
salutation

to

make

lands has taught the Japanese that the un-

until

complete

unconsciousness

trammelled society of educated and pureelevating effect

ensued.

Such devotion

to the fond

memory

of husbands invariably receives the approval

of the people, and

when

reported to the

minded women exercises a wholesome and on a nation. With the intuitive perception which they
is

Emperor gains

his entire approbation.

possess for what

best

and wisest

in foreign

From
it

the above account of this particular
it

systems, they have, by a course of sound

phase of Chinese society
represents

will

be seen that

a

condition

of things which

leaves

much

to be desired.

Nor is the cause
In the very sub-

of the mischief far to seek.
ordinate position occupied

by the women of
evil.

begun to prepare the women of new position which it is intended that they should occupy, and already an example is being set by the empress and other leaders of fashion, of the
education,

the country for the

China we see the origin of the
State where

In a

better part they are expected to play.

women

are degraded, the whole

community

suffers loss,

and the first symtoms

This change cannot be without its influence on China^ and though we know that the surface of small pools
is

of the approach of a healthy and beneficial
civilization is the elevation of

more

easily agitated
it

women to

their

than the face of larger waters, yet

cannot
is

and useful position in society. At present no trace of the dawn of a better day appears on the horizon of China, but the example which has been set by Japan
legitimate

but be that the

spirit of

reform which

now
will

abroad

will influence

even the sluggish temdepths the minds of

perament of the Chinese nation, and
eventually
stir

to the

leads one to

hope that the day

is

not far dis-

this hitherto changeless people.

CHAPTER
may
be asked
in

XII.

VARIETIES OF CHINESE LIFE.
surprise

why no

has yet risen to teach the Chinese laws of the
circulation of the blood, nor has the study of

IT

mention has been made of the professional classes

—the
;

doctors, the law-

anatomy

disclosed to

them the

secrets of the

yers and others

and the answer may

human

frame.
is

words of the celebrated chapter on the snakes in Iceland, " There are none." That is to say, there are none in the sense to which we are accustomed. There are plenty of doctors, but they can
be returned
in the

Amputation

never resorted

to,

it

being

a part the creed
mutilation of the

of the people that any
is

body

an act of disrepect
it

to the parents from

whom

was received

and cases have constantly occurred where
mandarins,
dents,

only be described as belonging to a professional class in the sense in

which
all

itinerant

who have met with violent acciand who have been assured by foreign
alone could save

quacks,

who
that

profess

to

cure

the

ills

doctors that amputation
their lives,

which
claim

flesh is heir to

to

distinction.

by bread pills, can lay They are the
having

have deliberately chosen to go to

their graves rather than lose a limb.

On the

merest empirics, and,

no

fear

of

same

principle,

a criminal condemned to die
if

medical colleges or examination tests before
their eyes,

considers himself fortunate

he

is

allowed to

prey on the

folly

and ignorance

make

his exit

by

strangulation or the hang-

of the people without

let

or hindrance.

man's cord rather than by decapitation.

The

physicians

who

are privileged to preare the only

scribe for the

Emperor

mem-

Doctors Poorly Paid.

means disgrace. When the late Emperor was attacked by small-pox, an improvement in his symptoms with which the doctor's skill was credited, brought a shower of distinctions on the fortunate physicians. Unhappily for
bers of the profession to
failure

whom

Between the ignorance of the doctors and the fees they receive, there is a just ratio.

No

physician,

in

his

wildest

ambition, expects
dollar
for

to receive

moments of more than a

a

visit,

and many are not paid

and when

them, however, the disease took a fatal turn, his Imperial Majesty " ascended on

more than a fifth of that sum. But, whatever the amount may be, due care is taken to wrap the silver in ornamental paper bearing
the inscription " golden thanks."

a dragon to be a guest on high," the latelypromoted doctors were degraded from their high estate, and were stripped of every title
to honor.

On
wrists.

entering the presence of his patient the
first

doctor's

act

is

to feel the pulses

on both

Not only

are they entirely ignorant

Such of the drugs

in

common

use as have

of the difference between arteries and veins,

any curative properties are

derived from

but they believe that the pulses of the wrists

herbs, while the rest are probably useless

communicate with, and indicate the condition
of,

when not

absolutely harmful.

No Harvey

the different organs of the body.

By the
213

214
beating of the pulse of the
fess to

CHINA: PAST
left

AND PRESENT.
sand years B. C. the Emperor Hwangti wrote,
it is

arm they pro-

read the state of the heart, while that

on the right represents the health of the lungs and liver. If these guides are deemed
insufficient

to

make

patent
is

the disorder

a work on the healing art. In the which have elapsed since that time little advance has been made in the science, the principal exceptions being a knowledge
said,

centuries

under which the patient
is

suffering, recourse

of acupuncture and of vaccination.
It is

yield a

had to the tongue, which is supposed to sure augury of the nature of the

uncertain

when acupuncture was

first

practiced in China, but the faith of the people
in its efficacy for all cases

malady.
Singular Notions.

of rheumatic affec-

tions

and

for dyspepsia

is

unbounded.
his

soon as the physician
that a particular

has made up
is

So mind

Their great object
equalize

is,

as

they say, "to
the phlegm,

strengthen the breath, put

down

of

inflammation,

bone or muscle he thrusts a
Happily

in

a state

substantial
stirs it

humors, purge the
gate of

and warm the blood, repress the liver, remove noxious matters, improve the appetite, stimulate the
life,

steel

needle into the part affected, and

ruthlessly about.
their race is heir to

for the patients,

a lymphatic temperament

and restore harmony." dual system of -heat and cold pervades, they believe,

A

which preserves

it

from many of the
arise

evils

which would certainly

from such

treat-

the

human

frame, and
is in

it

is

when one

ment among a more inflammatory people.
Thrusting in a Needle.

of these constituents
supervenes.

excess that illness
delight in numerifind in the

The Chinese

cal categories,
five

and they profess to

The treatment

for dyspepsia

elements of which they believe a man's
to be composed, an intimate relation to

calculated to produce danger

body

than that applied to the joints

is even more and disorders and bones.

A

the five planets, the five tastes, the five colors,

Chinese doctor does not hesitate to thrust
the needle into the patient's stomach or liver,

and the
"

five metals.

The

heart," they say, "

is

the husband,

and the system of

blistering

wounds thus

and the lungs are the wife." and if these two main organs cannot be brought to act in har-

caused adds considerably to the danger sur-

rounding the operation.

mony,

evil at

once

arises.

In the native

For many years the Chinese have employed inoculation as a preventive against
small-pox, but
it

pharmacopoeia there are

enumerated four
these three hun-

hundred and forty-two
being in

principal medicines as

was not

till

the arrival at

common
fifty

use.

Of

Canton of Dr. Pearson,

in

1820, that the

dred and fourteen are derived from vegetable products,

from minerals, and seventy-

knowledge of vaccination was introduced into the Empire. pamphlet on the sub-

A

eight from animal substances.

ject, translated

into Chinese

by

Sir

George

Among
by
tite,

the monstrous tonics prescribed

Staunton, spread the knowledge of the art
far

the Galens of China, are asbestos, stalacfresh

and wide, and though by no means uniit

tops

of

stag-horns,

dried

red
milk,

versally used,

still

allays to

some degree
is

spotted lizard-skins, dog-flesh,
tortoise-shell,

human

the terrible scourge of small-pox which
ever present in China.
child escapes
It
is

bones and teeth of dragons,

seldom that a

shavings of rhinoceros-horns, and other possible

and impossible nostrums.

Two

thou-

from an attack of the disease, and the percentage of deaths is always con-

VARIETIES OF CHINESE LIFE.
siderable,

215
reaching that stage in

enough to create a panic among
it

have succeeded

in

people better informed.
In the north of the country,

which disease
has been

is

recognized as a departure

observed that the disease becomes epidemic
every winter.

from the usual and harmonious working of the organism, they have yet never learnt, in
the words of Harvey, " to search and study

The

reason for this
is

regular

recurrence of the malady

probably to be

out the secrets of nature by

way

of experi-

found

in the fact that the

infection clings to

ment."

the fur clothes

are, as a rule, sent to the

worn by the people, which pawnshops on the
the

Charms

for Cholera.

return of every spring, and are only brought

In the presence of cholera, instead of taking any medical precautions, they have recourse to charms, to the worship of their
gods, and, as a religious exercise, to the
practice of vegetarianism.
therefore,

out

again

on
all

approach
endemic.

of

winter.

Throughout

the central
is

and southern
In the pro-

provinces leprosy
vince of Canton

it is

reckoned that there are
not regarded as
;

Being deprived,

ten thousand people afflicted with this terrible malady.
infectious,

of every rational weapon with

Though
is

it

is

which to combat the malady, one would be
inclined to expect that the disease

contagion

avoided

and outside

would be
If the

most of the large cities there are leper villages, where the victims to the disease are
supposed to segregate.

endemic, instead of only epidemic.

theory of infection
true,

is

without qualification

and,

if

no precautions whatever are

taken to prevent the spread of the disease,

The
The law on
cities

Horrible Leprosy.
this subject is not,

it

however, such

areas of infection
tiply.

would be only natural to suppose that the would increase and mul-

strictly enforced,

and

in the streets of

as Canton, for example, beggars suf-

No
tion

care

is

taken to isolate the patients
is

;

fering

from the disease appeal

for

alms to
are the

no such safeguard

invoked as the destruc-

the passers-by

by exposing their swollen and

of the clothes of the victims, whose

decaying limbs to their gaze.

Many

dead bodies are frequently allowed to remain
encoffined in the dwellings of the survivors.

strange remedies resorted to for cures in the
first

stages of the malady, but so soon as
is

And
it

yet the outbreak disappears almost as
it

the disease

fully developed,

the wretched
It

suddenly as

came, leaving no trace behind

sufferers resign themselves to their fate.
is

except in the sad memories of those
loss of relatives

recognized

among

the natives, as has been
it

mourn the
sults

and

friends.

who The

found to be the case elsewhere, that
that there
cleanliness

is

natives believe that the outbreaks are the re-

only by constant association with a leper
is
is

danger

of infection,

and that

as potent a protection against

the disease as

damp
of

climates
it.

and unhealthy
and
diphtheria

and they evil approach in the shape of clouds, which have swept over provinces, leaving disease and death in
conditions,
assert that they

of atmospheric

have seen the

food are promoters of

their

train.

Some

color

is

given to this

Epidemics

cholera

theory by the

fact, as

already stated, that

sweep periodically over the land, and the
people are powerless to allay their progress
or to diminish their intensity.

the disease comes and goes without any ap-

parent cause, and certainly not as a result of

Though they

any unusual sanitary or unsanitary conditions.

216

CHINA: PAST
the same

AND PRESENT.
and encourage outbreaks of hydrophobia.
It
is

Much
so

may

be said of the outIn a

breaks of diphtheria, which constantly prove
fatal in

a remarkable

fact,

however, that,
not more pre-

the north of the country.
it

though the disease exists,
valent than
it,

it is

recent epidemic in Pekin,

was stated by a

it is.

Chinese doctors recognize

resident English doctor that in a household

and

their medical

of twenty-six persons, twenty-four were carried off

scribing both the
for its cure.

works treat of it, desymptoms and the remedies
authority gives

by

this fatal disease.
in

Indeed, the

One well-known

whole history of epidemics
suggest that

China seems to

the following prescription as a sure and unfailing

we have not

yet arrived at the

treatment for the victims of the malady
the curd of the black pea dried and

true solution either of the origin of the out-

"Take

breaks or of the cause of their cessation.

pulverized,

mix

it
;

with

hemp

oil,

and form

it

As

in

most Eastern countries, the

cities

into a large ball

roll this

over the

wound
it

for

some

time, then break

open

and the
"

inside will present a hair-

like appearance.

Continue the rolling
it

until,

on
pa-

breaking

open,

it is

found to have

lost the hair-like aspect.
^
<ti

The

tient

must avoid eating dog-flesh or silkworms, and he must not
drink wine or inhale the fragrance
for

^

from hemp
Neither

a hundred days.
eat

may he

with safety

diseased meat or anything in a state

of decomposition.

He must

daily

partake of plum kernels.

When

the poison of the dog has

entered the heart of the victim, and

THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA.
and China swarm with mangy and half-starved curs of all degrees. Ill fed,
villages of

^^~
of saliva
;

has produced feehngs of misery and wretchedness, the stomach swells,

and there
it is

is

an abundant secretion
effect

then proper to try the
in

of the skull, teeth, and toes of a tiger ground
up,

uncared

for,

these scavengers range through

and given

wine in doses of one

fifth

of

the streets and lanes, picking up a precarious
livelihood from the refuse

an ounce.

If a

speedy cure does not follow,

which

is

thrown

the person becomes mad, and barks like a

out as unfit for the food of either
beast.
If

man

or

we add

to these conditions that

the climate over the greater part of the

Empire
dogs
is

is

almost tropical in

its

heat,

and that

the water available to slake the thirst of the

dog. The eyes become white and glaring, and death quickly ensues." These remedies are of a kind that are used in many of the other diseases which afflict Chinese humanity,and are equally efficacious.

none of the purest,
is

it

will

be admitted

Tumors
Chir-<5e,

that no surrounding

wanting to promote

are very common amongst the and as the use of the knife is prac-

VARIETIES OF CHINESE LIFE.
tically forbidden, the sufferers fail to get that
relief

217

But, like
dies

all

popular superstitions, this one
the present day

which a knowledge of practical surgery
in

hard among the ignorant population,
are
at

would,

a great majority of cases, readily

and there

many
and

procure for them.

thousands in China
imperfect,

who

confidently believe

With a knowledge so

and a
it

in the possibility of manufacturing gold,

profound ignorance of physical science,
firm believers in the magical arts.
sight,

is

of prolonging

life

indefinitely.

A less baseThe
properties

not surprising that the Chinese should be

less superstition is

the faith of the people in

Second

the plant

known

as ginseng.

miraculous interpositions, and super-

of this plant are said to be invigorating and
life-giving.

natural appearances are common-places in
their

systems of belief

Not only
serious

in the

strength,

To the debauchee it gives and to the old man it gives vitality
So precious
are these qualities

novels and story-books which delight the
people, but in the

and power.

more

works of

that the best plants are in theory reserved
entirely for the

philosophers and students,
references to these occult

we

find constant

Emperor's use.
is

phenomena.

Messages from the land of spirits are delivered by means of the planchette, which is skilfully manipulated and interpeted by the
cunning professors of the art
;

How^ Revenue

Raised.

A
Corea on

large
is

proportion

of the

revenue

of

derived from the export duty levied
plant,

and the

fig-

this

and
is

one of the

principal
it.

ures and features of individuals

whom

the

streets of

Pekin

devoted to the sale of

gazers desire to see are produced in mirrors

The

plant grows from twelve to eighteen
five

by the
telling

exercise of that ready imagination

inches in height, with

long leaves on
In spring

which belongs to the credulous.

Fortune-

each stalk
it

like

a horse-chestnut.

by means of astrology
it

is

regarded as

bears a cluster of purple flowers on the

a genuine science, and the law protects those

top of the stem, replaced in summer-time by
bright red berries, which the searchers for

who

practice

from the punishment which

is

prescribed for those charlatans
less established

who

follow

the root look out
millionaires

for.

Only Emperors and
article,

methods.

can afford the genuine

for a root four or five inches long realizes

That Famous Stone.

perhaps
figure
tion,

fifty

dollars.
it is

Extravagant as

this

From

all

time the philosopher's stone has
verity,

may

seem,

a moderate computataels of

been regarded as a
of antiquity were able

and

it

is

confi-

and not infrequently a thousand

dently asserted that the Taoist philosophers

silver are

paid for a pound's weight of the

by its means

to achieve

root.

the conversion of dross into the precious
metals.

The

plant

is

grown

in

Manchuria as well

History

tells

us of Emperors and
lives

as in Corea,

and the returns
in

statesmen

who
in

have exhausted their

that the export duty from

and treasures

attempting to discover this

China realized
fifty

for 1890 state Manchuria into that year four hundred and

priceless stone,

and the

elixir of longevity.

thousand

taels.

This

sum does
represent

not,

The

inevitable failures in

which the

efforts

of

however,

by any

means

the

these

men have

ended, has doubtless con-

vinced the more educated classes of the
futility

of the search.

amount of the plant exported. Its rare value, the small compass in which it can be carried, the greed of the peasjuits, and

218
the corruption
ficials, all

CHINA: PAST
rife

AND PRESENT.
life, it is

amongst the customs

of-

worthy of our
in this

careful attention, and

tend to encourage smuggling.

withal of our imitation.

That an illicit trade in the root is commonly carried on is fully recognized by the Government, who have enacted that any one
found attempting to smuggle more than ten
taels

Being held
is

supreme estimation,

it

needless to say that Confucius laid great

stress

upon

it.

He

deplored that he was not

able to serve his father, being dead, as he ex-

weight of the medicine is to be forwarded to the Board of Punishments at Pekin, and that, in case of a less amount

pected his son to serve him, and he defined
the virtue as consisting in not being disobedient, in serving the parent

when
in

alive accord-

being in question, the case
with by local authorities.

may

be dealt

ing to propriety,

when dead

burying himi

according to propriety, and in sacrificing to

him according

to propriety.

The manner of

Quack Lawyers.
In legal
off than
affairs

performing this duty, like other Confucian
instructions, is laid

the people are even worse

down with curious minute-

in

the matter of medical advice.
for
is

ness.

They have no one to give them, money, even as much help as for the body at the apothecaries'
only legal advisers
secretaries

love or

to be got

Duties to Parents.

stalls.

The

At cock-crow
daughter,

it is

the duty of the son or
first

are those

clerks and

who

should

be dressed with and
to

who

guide the mandarins by the

scrupulous care, to go to their parents' apart-

light of the penal
in all

code to a right judgment

ments to inquire

after their welfare,

matters entailing a knowledge of law.

attend to their wants, and he or she,

more

Like magistrates' clerks among ourselves,
they are carefully trained in legal practice,

commonly
beck and

she,
call

must so continue
until the

at their

night again closes

and were they but free from the itching palm which distinguishes the official classes, they would be a most useful section of the community. Having a tabulated code to which they are bound by law to conform, less

upon them. Those duties must not be performed in a perfunctory way, but everything must be done with the expression of cheerfulness, and filial respect and love.

"When
Book of
spirit,

his parents are in error," sayS the

knowledge and ingenuity are required to equip them for their profession than is the
case

Rites,

"the son, with a humble
If

pleasing countenance, and gentle tone,
it

with our

lawyers.

The absence

of

must point

out to them.

they do not

public opinion, also, shelters
cism,

them from and leaves them practically a

criti-

free

hand, mitigated only by the fear of a possibly inquisitive censor, to

work
of

their will

either for

good or

ill

among

the people.

he must strive more and more to be dutiful and respectful towards them until they are pleased, and then he must again point out their error. And if the parents, irritated and displeased, chastise
receive his reproof
"

The
Empire

strange
is,

continuity

the Chinese

their

son until the blood flows from him,
resentment;
but,

in the opinion of some, to

be

at-

even then he must not dare to harbor the
least

tributed to the respect with

which the
is

fifth

on

the

contrary,

commandment
and as
this

of the Decalogue
filial

observed,
is re-

should treat them with increased respect and
dutifulness."

observance of

piety

garded as the fundamental virtue of social

This kind of devotion to parents seems so

VARIETIES OF CHINESE LIFE.
strained

219 and
is
it is

and

artificial

that

one would be
it

sacrificed in the interests of parents,

tempted at

first

sight to imagine that
it

rep-

interesting to find that this to

man,

who

said

resents merely an ideal, were

not that the

have been saved by a miracle from commurder, has

records of the past and the experiences of
the present reveal the existence of a
similar
practice.
precisely-

mitting

been

handed

down

through more than twenty centuries as a

youth of both sexes
they share in

For many centuries the for though daughters

model of virtue. It is unnecessary to quote any more of the twenty-four instances, but it
is

do not partake of the

privileges of sons,

instructive to glance at the state of things

all their duties

—have had held

existing at the present day, as depicted in the

up to them twenty-four instances of filial piety
for their

Pekin Gazette, where cases

may

be met with

guidance and imitation.
Stories of Filial Piety.

which are scarcely
already referred
It is
to.

less

singular than those

not long since that the great Viceroy

They are told, for instance, of a man named Lai, who, in order to make his parents
forget
their

Li

Hung Chang

besought the Emperor that
in

a memorial arch might be erected
of a

honor

great age,

being himself

an

elderly person, used to dress himself in parti-

man within his jurisdiction. This person had been, we are told, from his youth up a
devoted student of the ancient odes from a

colored embroidered garments like a child,

and disport himself before them for their amusement. They are told of a lad whose parents were too poor to provide themselves with mosquito curtains, and who used to lie naked near their bed that the insects might attack him unrestrainedly, and thus cease to annoy his parents. They are told of a poor man who, finding it impossible to support both his mother and his child, proposed to his wife that they should bury the child alive, for, said he, " another child may be
born to
us,

knowledge of which he early imbibed the
principles of
filial

piety.

With devotion he

waited upon his widowed mother during her
life-time,

trated

and when she died he was proswith grief and misery.

Guarding a

Tomb

Eight Years.

In his loving devotion he was quite unable
to tear himself
side of

away from her tomb, by the
his

which he took up

abode day and

night for eight years, being protected from

but a mother, once gone, will

the sun

never return."

by day and the dews by night by a shed which his neighbors erected over him
as he lay

His wife having consented, the man dug a
hole of the depth of three cubits,

on the ground.

Since that time he

when

lo!

has devoted himself to distributing medicine

he came upon a pot of gold, bearing the fol" Heaven bestows this lowing inscription
:

among

the sick, and to reading the book of "Filial Piety " to his neighbors. Such filial
piety should not, the viceroy thought, be
left

treasure

on a
it,

dutiful

son

;

the magistrate

may
it

not sieze

nor shall the neighbors take
this story we

unnoticed, and he therefore suggested the
erection

from him." In
of Chinese

have an instance

of a memorial arch, which was

filial

piety, and an illustration of

graciously accorded.

the effect of the Confucian warning against a
selfish
It is

But the strangest development of
virtue
is

this

attachment to wife and children.

the practice favored

by

dutiful sons

a commonplace of Chinese morality that one or all of these should readily be

and daughters of cutting

off pieces of their

own

flesh to

make soup

for their

aged or

in-

220
disposed parents.
this

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
might devote herself to the care of her parAt the age of eighteen she again refused a proposed matrimonial alliance;
ents.

A

notable example

of

was reported to the throne some time ago by the same viceroy, who seems fortunate in the number of filial sons and daughters
within his jurisdiction.

and when the remains of her father and her second brother, who had perished at the
capture of

This particular instance
lady, a Miss

refers to

a young
earliest

Wuchang by

the rebels, were
exclaimed,

Wang, who from her

brought back to Kaoyeo, she

years "exhibited a decorous propriety of

with tears, that since she could not leave her

conduct coupled with a love of study.

She

mother to follow her father to the grave, she would at least varnish his
coffin with her blood.

Thereupon she gashed
her arm with a knife, allowing a stream of blood to

mingle with the lacquer of
the coffin. She had reached the age of twenty-six

when

her father's obsequies were

and again her mother and elder brother urged her to marry, but she steadfastly declined, and
completed,

devoted herself to waiting

upon

her

mother,
shortly

with
after-

whom
wards

she

removed to Choh Chow, on her brother rePekin as a reward for his

ceiving an appointment at

father's services.

LI-HUNG CHANG, VICEROY OF CHINA

She allowed no hands but her own to wait upon her mother, and when, in 1862, her mother was atillness,

was a
Lan.

diligent reader of

Liu Hiang's " Lives
the

tacked with a dangerous
piece of flesh from her
istered as a
left

she cut a

of Virtuous

Women," and

poems of Muh
parents'

thigh to be admin-

remedy.

In less than a year, a

At

the age of thirteen,

when her

fresh attack of illness supervened,

when she

desire to betroth her reached her ears, she
retired to her room, and, with a pointed weapon, drew blood from her arm, with

cut a piece of flesh from her right thigh,

recovery ensuing as before.

On
was

subsequent occasions, when her parent

which she wrote a sentence announcing her
intention to remain single in order that she

suffering

from slight ailments, she ap-

plied burning incense sticks to her

arms and

VARIETIES OF CHINESE LIFE.
used the calcined
cessful results.
flesh to

221

mingle with the
is

The

character used to represent a

woman

remedies prescribed, and always with sucAfter her mother's death, in 1872, she
fused
days,
all

a corruption of an Accadian heiroglyphic

re-

sustenance during a period of three

meaning the same thing. When we have two women together the compound is intended to convey the meaning of "to
wrangle."

and was afterwards with difficulty persuaded to taste food. Her brother shortly afterwards died, whereupon she escorted his
remains to the ancestral home at Kaoyeo, and afterwards returning thence performed the same journey once more in attendance on her mother's coffin.

The
of

addition of a third
for " intrigue,"

woman
in

makes a symbol
firmation
characters,

and

con-

the idea conveyed by these

of

we find the compound composed "women" and "together" means "to
"to
dislike,"

suspect,"

"to loathe."
Saying.

"The
played,"

devotion and energy she had disIt

An Old

adds the viceroy, "exceed what might be expected from one of the opposite

was a saying reverenced among the
is still

Chinese that a woman should never be heard
of outside of her home, an idea which preserved in the symbol for "rest," "quiet,"

and it is solicited, in view of the wide repute which has been gained by her virtues
sex,
at

Choh Chow,

that a

monument may be

which

is

a

woman
is

under her domestic
are in

roof.

erected in her honor under imperial sanction."

This ideograph

singularly appropriate in a

country where
Position of

women

much

the same

untutored state as that enjoyed by Turkish

Women.
by the viceroy
indication

ladies

when Byron wrote

The
that a
filial

surprise expressed

woman

should be capable of ardent

piety affords

some
to

of the

esteem in which

women

"No chemistry for them unfolds its gases No metaphysics are let loose in lectures No circulating library amasses
Religious novels, moral tales, and strictures Upon the living manners as they pass us ;

are held in China.
their

From

their

cradles

graves they

stand at a distinct disadvantage as compare'd

No

exhibition glares with annual pictures

with men.

In the ancient

book of odes
playthings, and

They stare not on the stars from out their attics. Nor deal (thank God for that !) in mathematics."

mention
tiles

is

made
boys
;

of the custom of giving
for
in

to female
to

infants

No

husband or male

relative ever

appears
his

sceptres

and

the same

way

outside his

own

portal in

company with

throughout their careers
as

women are regarded
and
as being al-

wife or female belongings,

"moulded out

of faults,"

course

is

thus entirely

and social interrobbed of the softento

together unworthy of equal fellowship with

ing influences and elevating tendencies which
are

men. Following
philosophers,

everywhere
It is

due

the presence

of

in the footsteps of their ancient

women.
pose that

a mistake, however, to sup-

Chinamen have
is

learnt to re-

women do
;

not in

many

respects

gard
with

women
much

with disdain and, in ignorance
in

hold their own, even in the oppressive atmos-

of the good that
that

them, to credit them

phere of China

for there, as

elsewhere, as

is evil.

Some
is

of the charwritten afford

Rosalind says in the play, "

Make
will

the doors

acters in which the language

upon a woman's
casement; shut

wit,
tlfat,

an apt

illustration of this perverted idea.

and and

it

out at the

'twill

out at the

222
keyhole
;

CHINA: PAST
stop that,
'twill fly

AND

PRESENT.
which they very
they are scholars

with the smoke

feast the guests are sober,

out at the chimney."

frequently are not,
is

and

if

But

their sphere of influence

confined

the probability

is

that they settle

down

to

own homes. and acquaintances elsewhere, they are among
to their
If they have friends

writing quatrains of poetry on given subjects,
is

when

again the punishment for failure

the

ladies

in

other households, to
in

whom

the consumption of a certain quantity of

they pay

visits

closed sedan-chairs

of

wine.

course, this has
classes

references

to the wealthy

—and

to

whose

dwellings they are ad-

Beautiful Scenery-

mitted
furtive

by the side doors. In the same half manner they receive the return visits
their friends in the " fragrant

Like the Japanese, Chinamen are ardent
lovers of beautiful scenery,

and delight

in

and entertain

picnicing in

favored spots to

admire the
attractive

apartments," from which even the head of
the household
is is

prodigality of Nature.

Wherever mountains,
form

rigidly excluded.

What

lakes, or streams contrive to

we

call

society

therefore confined to the

landscapes, there in the spring and

summer

men, who pay
picnics
countries.

visits,

give dinners,
like

and enjoy
all

seasons parties
ideas

congregate and exchange

and excursions

people of

on everything under heaven except Imetiquette observed at these gatherings

perial politics.

The

Long

Dinners.
of which

is all

laid

down with scrupulous

exactitude,

The only dinner-parties, therefore,

the outside world has any knowledge are

those which lose to us half their attractions

Even a morning call is surrounded with an amount of ceremony which to an American suggests infinite
and
is

rigidly adhered to.

by being robbed of the presence of
by
their great length.
" 'Tis merry in hall Where beards wag all,"

ladies,

boredom.

It is not'

considered proper for

and which are rendered abnormally tedious

the visitor to walk to his friend's house, and
unless he be a military mandarin,

when he

commonly

rides,

he

sallies

out in his sedan-

says the old ballad, and Chinamen seem to

by one or more servants, and armed with red visiting-cards about eight inches long and three wide, on which is inchair, followed

be of the same opinion. Before the guests are seated a long and protracted struggle
ensues to induce the punctiliously modest
guests to take the places assigned to them.

scribed his name, with sometimes the addition of the

words, " Your stupid younger
his

brother

bows

head

in salutation."

On

approaching his friend's house, a serat the door.
tells

When
ranged,

this

formality

is

satisfactorily ar-

vant goes ahead with one of these cards and
presents
it

innumerable courses

are served,

with long intervals of waiting, which would

the porter

If the host be out, the servant " to stay the genif

be excessively wearying were they not enlivened either

tlemen's approach," but

he should be

at

by

theatricals or
in

some game

home

the front doors are thrown open and
is

such as the Italian Morra,

which he

who

the visitor

carried in his

sedan into the

makes a mistake in the number of fingers shown pays forfeit by drinking three or more
glasses of wine.
If at the conclusion of the

courtyard, where the host attired in his robes

of ceremony, greets him with

many bows.

Thence he

is

conducted to the central

VARIETIES OF CHINESE LIFE.
hall,

223
sister-in-law
is

where, after

much
is

friendly contention as

on the subject: "If one's
the hand?"
is

to

the seats they shall occupy, the guest

drowning, ought she to be drawn out with

finally

and

invariably

induced to take the
left

To which Mencius

replied, "It

place of honor on his host's

hand.

The

practice universally followed of the

speaker applying adulatory terms towards
his interlocutor

and depreciatory ones towards
stilted

himself,

adds to the

formalities

on

such occasions.

Everything connected with

the person spoken to

draw out a drowning sisterin-law." And probably most people will agree with the philosopher. Even brothers and sisters, so soon as they have ceased to be children, are entirely separated, and are allowed intercourse only on formal condiwolfish not to
tions.

his age, his neighboretc.

hood, his name, his relations,
guished/'

Outside the family circle young
like

men

are " hon"distin-

do occasionally,
light

Romeo, "with
''

love's

orable," "respected," "lofty,"

and
are

wings o'er-perch the walls

of etiquette

while

the speaker's

"con-

which surround the objects of
tion,

their admira-

temptible" and "rude."
is

His

friend's

house

a "palace," his

is

"a reed hut."

and we have abundance of evidence in native novels that communications are kept up between young ladies and stranger

"Is the Chariot Well?"

youths, but always with a most circumspect

But perhaps the strangest of these set phrases are the indirect terms by which one

regard to the conventionalities.

man

addresses another.

On

receiving
is,

a

Punishment

for

Eloping.

visitor,

a

common

expression

"Is the

Prenuptial elopements occur but rarely,

honorable chariot well?" meaning, of course,
the

and the penalty which awaits the hasty pair
in case
lasts

man who

drives in the chariot, or

"you."

of capture

is

imprisonment, which

In the same way, the term "beneath the

as long as the vindictiveness of the

council-chamber," and "at the feet," are
similarly used, implying

parents determines.

Commonly a

maidser-

a wish that those
Ministers of State,

vant acts as the Mercury between the lovers,

addressed

may become

and

in

one well-known novel the heroine
illness,

"the

feet,"

of course, being those of the

Son

nurses the hero in this vicarious

of Heaven. But, however much acquaintances may discuss subjects relating to themselves,

a long

way through and eventually marries him

out of regard for the scrupulous

way

in

no mention

is

ever

made of

their

which he had confined himself to orthodox
behavior.

wives or daughters,

who

are as completely

tabooed, except between very intimate friends,
as

In another romance the heroine, who, like

though they did not

exist.
is

most
It

heroines

in

Chinese novels, was a

This estrangement between the sexes
carried out in deed as well as in word.
is

Phoenix of learning and possessed of an
exquisite poetic talent, tests the hero's capabilities
is

laid

down on

authority that in no case

by

setting

him themes on which he

may
in

a

woman and

a

man touch

each other

expected to write pieces of poetry, but
in the

giving and receiving, and so literally was

she declines to write the themes, on the

command accepted, that it was held by many that it was even improper for a man to save a woman from drowning.
this

ground that things written
be seen of men.

women's,

apartments should not be handed about to
In such an
artificial state

A

hypothetical case

was put to Mencius

of society dangers must arise, and the appre-

224
hension of
it

CHINA: PAST
prompts mothers to desire to
their

AND PRESENT.
be out of regard for the letter of the law,

marry
It

daughters at as early an age as

possible.

not unfrequently happens that, as in

which custom decides must be observed. few years since a young lady was held up to admiration in a memorial to the throne

A

India,

mere

infants are betrothed,
is

and noththis event

for

having starved herself to death on hearing

ing but the death of either
ficient to
is

considered suf-

of the decease of her betrothed, and cases are
often officially reported in

annul the bond.

Even

which the surviving

not always accepted by the survivor,
is

when

young lady

refuses positively to listen to

any

the survivor

a

girl,

as a cancelling of the

other marriage proposals.

One maiden
f

lately earned distinction

by

clasping her betrothed's memorial tablet to

her arms and going through the marriage

ceremony with
ever, that the

it.

It is quite possible,

howbe

edge of these young

ladies'

adherence to the rules of propriety

may

sharpened by an appreciation of the more
than usually precarious lottery which marriage
is

in China.

It is

true that

young men

occasionally

pay the same honor to the memory of their deceased lovers, and are

wed the shades of their mistresses but the same constancy is not expected of them, nor if it existed would be approved of by the censors of Chinese morals.
content to

Funeral Customs.

Having spoken of marriage, we now turn
to Chinese customs observed in the burial of

the dead.

"I venture to ask about death," said Chi Lu to Confucius. " While you do not know
about
PAVILION NEAR THE MENCIUS TEMPLE.
life,

how

can you

know about

death ?

"

engagement.

The Pekin

Gazette bears

testi-

was the unsatisfying reply. And though this is the orthodox Confucian view of the

mony to the occurrence of such cases, though
it

momentous

question, the

must be acknowledged that the

ilourish of

people at large have bettered the instruction
of the sage and have developed a
in
full faith

trumpets with which they are announced to
the throne suggests the idea that they form the exceptions rather than the rule.
Per-

an

after

life,

in

which those who have done

good pass
they
live

to the blissful regions of the west,

sonal feeling cannot enter into the consideration

where, surrounded with peace and happiness,

which
is

prompts

this

action,

for

the

an eternal round of joy ; and those

probability

that the couple
it

have never

that have

done

evil

are relegated to the in-

seen one another, and

can therefore only

fernal regions,

where executioners even more

VARIETIES OF CHINESE LIFE.
cruel than those to

225

which they are accus-

tomed on
tality.

earth,

torture with merciless bru-

water" to lave the features of the dead. Having thrown some copper cash into the
water, accompanied sometimes
fish,

Authors of works of a
delight in describing
that
in

religious nature

which

is

supposed to

by a small announce the
fills

detail the horrors

transaction to the river god, he

a bowl

await the spirits of evil-doers.

sawn asunder, they are they are thrown into caldrons of boiling oil, they are committed to the flames, and if there are any other shameful and vioare
beasts,
lent deaths,

They devoured by wild

from the current and returns to perform his
sacred
office.

The

coffin

is

a massive structure,

made

of

four boards, from three to four inches in
thickness, of a hard
this the

they form a treasured part of the

punishments of the condemned.

body is laid and charcoal, and the cover
sealed with cement.

and durable wood. In on a bed of quicklime
is

hermetically

This

is

necessary for

Dressed for Death.

the sake of the survivors, since custom provides that the coffin should remain above

These

beliefs find expression in the elabo-

rate ceremonial

of the dead.
invalid

On

which surrounds the burial the approach of death the
hall,

ground

for seven times seven days,

and

it

sometimes happens that the
interment, entails a
period.

inability of the

is borne into the central on a bed of boards, he is gently

where,

astrologers to discover a lucky
still

day

for the

laid

with his

longer pre-sepulchral

feet

towards the door.

In preparation for
office, if

the decease his robes and hat of

he

be a mandarin, and,
attire,

if

a commoner, his best

A
Much

Tragic Incident.

are placed beside him, and when the supreme moment arrives he is dressed in state, and so meets his fate in full canonicals. After death a priest is summoned, who, after having saved the soul from perdition by the use of incantations, calls upon one of the
last

virtue exists in the style

and nature

of the coffin, and most
in years provide

men

as they advance

themselves with their future
indeed, their sons have not

narrow beds,
been

if,

sufficiently filially

minded

to

make them
feature,

presents of them.

A tragic incident, in which
formed a leading
Pekin Gazette.

three spirits which are said to inhabit every

an old man's

coffin

man, to hasten to the enjoyment of bliss in the empyrean regions of the west. Of the two other spirits, one is supposed eventually to remain with the corpse in the grave, and
the

was

lately described in the

A certain
a
coffin
sight,

Mr. Chia had a son

who was
and who,

as
in

dissolute as

he was

disrepectful,

moment of

financial

pressure, sold the

other to be attached to the ancestral

tablet

which ultimately
this

finds its place in the

which his father, with prudent forehad prepared for his final resting-place.
the theft being discovered, Chia at
his

family hall.

On
ceremony
in
is

When

completed, the
friends

once charged
his

son with the crime, and in
if

chief mourner,

the

and supporters for grief is supposed to have so broken him down as to have rendered him unable to walk without the help of a friendly arm and of a sustaining stafiF goes to the nearest river or stream "to buy
15

company of

anger swore that

the coffin were not

returned he would, so soon as he recovered

from an
bring

illness

from which he was

suffering,

before the authorities and cause him to be put to death. This threat so enraged the young man that, in a moment

him

226

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
followed by two

of drunken fury, he strangled his father.

men

bearing banners, on

For such a crime there could be only one sentence, and the wretched criminal was condemned to the slow and lingering process of
being sliced to death.
Before closing the coffin
it is

which are inscribed sentences implying a hope that the deceased may be enjoying
himself in the
Afler these
cock, which
to

company of the blessed. comes a man holding up a white
is

customary to
five prec-

supposed to

summon

the soul

put in the mouth of the deceased
wealth of the family.
offer

ious substances, which vary in value with the

accompany the body, and behind him follow two sedan-chjiirs, in the first of which
is

The Chinese do not
this

carried the ancestral tablet of the dead
in the

any explanation of

practice,

not

man, and
these

second his

portrait.

even the very reasonable
that the

Roman explanation,
serves as the

Supporting themselves by the shafts of
sedan-chairs,

money so placed

wage

two
be and

of the

principal

due to Charon

for the passage over the Styx.

mourners
eldest

drag
if

themselves
there

along.

The

son,

one, immediately
affects

Valuables Buried.
In some parts of the country, also,
usual to deposit
it

precedes
is

the

coffin,

complete
of the

inability
staff

to walk without the help

by the

side of the

body any
etc.,

of wood, or of bamboo, according to
is

object or objects, such as books, pipes,

whether he

mourning

for his father or his

which may have been especially valued by
the deceased.

mother, which he carries in his hand.
Scattering Paper

The

coffin is

closed in the

presence of the family,
selves before the bier.

who

prostrate them-

Money.
this

When the day chosen

Behind the
tives

coffin follow the female rela-

by

the soothsayers for the interment arrives,

and

friends.

Even on

solemn

offerings

of cooked provisions are placed

occasion the frivolous rules for the separation
of the sexes are rigorously observed, and a

beside the coffin, and the mourners, dressed
in coarse white sackcloth,

perform endless

white cord, held at the ends by two men,
the female mourners. advances, paper

is

prostrations before

it.

sometimes used to separate the male from

Should the deceased have been a
follow
stition
coffin.

man

of

As
is

the procession
scattered on
all

consideration, a vast concourse assembles to

money

him

to the grave.

A
first

curious superraising of the
lift

sides to appease the

hunger of any
rice is

destitute

attaches to

the

ghosts which

may be
a pot of

haunting the road.

At
it

the

moment

that the bearers
all fly

With the
over
it.

coffin

lowered into

the sarcophagus, the relatives

from the

the grave, and grains and tea are scattered

room,

being believed that should any misspirit

In some parts of the south
effigies

it

is

adventure occur, the

of the deceased

customary to bury

of cows in the
evil influences.

would avenge
present at the

itself

on

all

those

moment
is

of the removal.

who were The
posi-

grave as correctives against

As

the grave-diggers shovel in earth to

number of bearers
tion of the family,

regulated
varies

by the

earth, the priest takes the white cock, and,

and

from sixty-four
formed, a

standing at the foot of the tomb, makes the
bird

to four.

bow

thrice towards the coffin.

This

When
known

the procession

is

man

carrying a

long streamer of white cloth,

repeated by the chief mourners, and the " soul-cloth " is then burned to ashes.
strange
rite is

as the " soul-cloth," marches in front,

Afler a short exhortation from one of the

VARIETIES OF CHINESE LIFE.
deceased, the procession re-forms, and returns
to the house in the
set out.

227

same order

in

which

it

On
it is

crossing the threshold of their home,

sometimes customary for the mourners

to purify themselves

by

stepping over a
first

fire
is

made
token

of straw, after which their

duty

to carry the deceased's tablet,

with every

of
it

respect,

to the principal

room,

where

remains for a hundred days.

The

mourners then proceed to celebrate " the feast of the dead," and with that the funeral cere-

mony may
For
thirty

be said to be brought to a days the nearest

close.

relatives of the

For seven days a widow mourning the husband is supposed to show her grief by sitting on the ground instead of on chairs, and by sleeping upon a mat instead of upon her bed. On the seventh day it is customary for friends to send presents of cakes and banners, the first of which are presented as offerings to the dead man, while the banners are hung ronnd the hall in which the coffin reposes. By this time all hope of his return to life has disappeared, and the letters which accompany the gifts of friends are burnt in the sacred fire and are so transmitted to the manes of the dead in the blessed
loss of her

deceased abstain from shaving their heads or
their clothes, and for twenty-seven months sons are expected to wear all the

regions of the West.

changing

On

the same day priests offer up prayers

for the flight of the soul to its

new abode,

panoply of woe.
Brief Period of Mourning.

and construct a bridge by an arrangeinent of tables and stools over which the effigy of the
deceased
is

carried, thus

emblematizing the

Married daughters, having passed out of
the family circle, are not always invited to the obsequies ; but

removal of the soul from Hell to Heaven.

not expected to
days.

when they are, they are mourn for more than seven

Fear of Ghosts.
In

many

of the ceremonies

we

see traces

At

the end of that time they adorn

of the old-world fear that the ghostly pres-

themselves
colors,

once again in jewelry and and so return to their homes, it being considered contrary to etiquette for them to
carry the signs of lamentation into their hus-

ence of the dead
survivors.

may

possibly haunt the

The

priest at the grave

adjures the spirit to remain with the

commonly body

and, as a rule, a sufficiently weighty super-

bands' presence.

incumbent mass of earth, stone or masonry
is

Many
erals

of the ceremonials surrounding fundifferent parts of the

placed over the

tomb

to prevent the pos-

vary in
parts

country as
In

sibility

of a resurrection.

In the hilly south
sides of hills,

much as
some

the shapes given to the tombs.
it is

the graves are the

dug on the
like

and

the practice for the mourn-

tomb

is

shaped

a horseshoe.

ers to put
after the

on mourning only on the third day
it

death has taken place,
it is

being con-

sidered that
bility that

within the bounds of possi-

a trance, and not death,

may

hold

In the north, where the country is for the most part flat, conically shaped mounds surrounded by a bank and ditch form the ordinary graves. Wealthy families generally

For a considerable period those who are husbands are bound to be as strangers to their wives, and all are forthe patient senseless.

have grave-yards of their own, surrounded

by a

belt of cypress trees,
offer

which are sup-

posed to

complete protection from a
ghoul-like, delights in

bidden to seek recreation at the theatres or
concert-rooms.

huge monster who,
devouring the dead.

The tombs of

nobles

228
are often approached

CHINA: PAST
by an avenue of stone
waretc.,

AND PRESENT.
In
all

other circumstances, the penalty of

figures, representing ministers of state,
riors, horses,

and the same kinds of statues ornament the Imperial tombs the figures are, as a rule, more than life-size, and in many cases are executed with considerable taste and skill. The body of a member of a family who dies away from home is invariably brought back to the ancestral hall with one exception.
camels, sheep, tigers,
;

is to be awarded to any one " who consumes a corpse with fire or

a hundred blows

commits
it

it

to the waters."

In bygone days

was the practice, on the death of an Emperor, to immolate the favorite wives at the

tomb of the deceased
grave of Shunchi, the
him.

potentate,
first

and

at the

Emperor of

the

present dynasty, thirty persons were buried

beside

His son

Kanghk'si

(1661-

If his
city,

home should be

within the walls of a

1721), however, put an end to the practice

no ceremonial

punctilios

and no

senti-

mental feelings avail to counterbalance the

law which forbids the introduction of a dead

by commanding that the four wives who had paid him the compliment of wishing to accompany him into Hades should be forbidden to sacrifice their
purpose.
lives for

body

within the walls of a city.

so useless a

Honors
Occasionally

to Mandarins.

Other curious Chinese customs
died

relate to

some mandarin who has
is

the

in his country's service, after

having gained
to be borne

honors and
special

distinctions,

allowed by the

edict of the

Emperor
is

on the part of any other sovereign in the world, and this refusal has occasioned a vast amount of conequality
troversy.

Emperor and Heaven admits no

his Court.

The Son

of

through the
to
rest

streets of his native city,

but

No

one can have an audience with

even the body of such a one
within the walls.

not allowed

him

as an equal.

This rule

may
Audiences With the Emperor.

possibly

show

that the Chinese are not en-

tirely blind to the

laws of sanitation, and the
in the

The audience

question has

occupied

a

regulation which forbids all intramural burial

prominent place in recent negotiations with
China, and probably

seems also to point

same

direction.

many

people are sur-

No

such ceremonies as those described
infants,

prised that so ordinary a matter should have

above attend the funerals of
it is

un-

been so constantly a subject of debate.

But

married children, concubines or slaves, and

Chinese ways are not our ways, and a cere-

no uncommon sight to see in the north of China the bodies of these unfortunates thrown out upon the plains and on the hills
be devoured by beasts of prey. Cremation is never practiced in China except in the
to

mony which among civilized nations is regarded as a common act of courtesy
between sovereigns, has
in

China become
the

complicated by the absurd pretensions of the

Government to a superiority over
world.

all

case of Buddhist priests, and the only con-

tingency in which the practice

is

sanctioned

Like a

spoilt heir

who

has been brought
Chinese

by the penal code
to die in

is

when

relatives "

happen

up

in secluded

surroundings, the

a

distant country

and the children

have long been surfeited with dominion and
glory in the midst of neighboring tribes,

or

grandchildren are unable to bring the

who

corpse to be interred in the native district of
the deceased."

stand on a lower level of civilization than that

which they occupy.

In the long history of

VARIETIES OF CHINESE LIFE.
the Empire such an event as an ambassador
in

229
in his journal,

China," " Mr.

Van Braams,

being received as representing a sovereign on

very coolly
honor."

calls

performing the salute of

terms of equality with the Emperor, has never

been known

;

and

this pretension

to supre-

Lord Macartney,
of being the
this
first

in 1793,

had the honor
Happily at
this

macy, which materially contributes to the maintenance of the power which the Empire
possesses, enters into the hfe of the nation

who

refused to submit to

degrading ceremony.

time a sovereign was on the throne
sufficient

who had

and

is,

to a great extent, a matter of
its

life

and

independence to sanction a depar-

death in

present unregenerate state.

ture from the ordinary routine,
sufficient

and who had
self-

good

sense to do honor to the

Court of the "Son of Heaven."

respect of the ambassador.

On

arriving at

The

proposal, therefore, that the foreign
resident in Pekin

Pekin Lord Macartney found that the
ror

Empe-

ministers

should be

re-

Kienlung was at
1

his hunting-palace at

manner common in civilized combated by the mandarins. It must be confessed that
ceived in the
countries, has deen persistently

precedent has been in their

favor.

Portuguese and Dutch ambassadors,
visited

The who

Emperor Hienfeng fled before the allied forces of England and France). By Kienlung's invitation. Lord Macartney proceeded to Jehol, and was there received by him in a magnificent tent in the
Jehol (whither, in 860, the
palace garden.

Pekin in the seventeenth and eighall

teenth centuries,

submitted to the degra-

dation of appearing as envoys of tributaries
at the court of the

His Majesty Appears.
In accordance with Eastern custom, the

Son of Heaven.
given of the mission of
in

From an account

audience was granted at sunrise, and further,
in

Alexander Metello de Sousa Menezes,

accordance with practice, the ambassador
in attendance

1727, we learn that at the audience granted to him by the Emperor Yungcheng, " his excellency entered the western gates [of the
reception hall], ascended the steps of the
throne, and, kneeling, presented his creden-

was required to be
before the arrival

some hours
This
it

of the Emperor.

delay was sufficiently discourteous, but

was

an improvement on the treatment to which
the preceding century,

went out by the same way, and in front of the middle door that was open the ambassador and retinue performed
tials
;

he then

rose,

the usual act of obedience, that

is,

knelt and

struck their heads on the ground nine times.

Dutch ambassador had been subjected in when the unfortunate envoy was left sitting "all night in the open air, and upon the blue stones till morning." Soon after daylight the sound of music announced the Emperor's approach, and
the
seat

About
was
vile

a century earlier a Dutch embassy

without further delay his majesty took his

treated

with even greater contempt.
his
staff

The ambassador and
reception

met " with a
treatment.

and

degrading

upon a throne set up in the tent. On all he was surrounded by princes of the blood and the highest officers of state, some
sides

They were
at

required to humiliate themselves
;

of whom conducted the ambassador from the
tent in

least thirty different times

at

each of

which he had awaited the Emperor's

which they were obliged, on their knees, to knock their heads nine times against the
ground, which," adds Barrow,
in his

arrival to the Imperial presence.

" The ambassador, pursuant to instructions,
received from the president of ceremonies, held

"Travels

230

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
Even before Lord Amherst's arrival at Pekin he was met by the asseverations of the commissioners deputed to meet him that he
could only be admitted into the Imperial
presence by consenting to perform what

a large magnificent square gold box, embellished with jewels, containing his majesty's
letter to

the Emperor, between both hands,
head, and mounting the

raised above his

which lead to the throne, and bending upon one knee, presented the box with a
steps
suitable

Van

Braams described as " the
commissioners,

salute of honor."

laconic

address, to
it

his

Imperial

This he positively declined to do, and the

Majesty,

who

received
it

graciously with his

who had

distinct orders to

own

hands, put

by his side and represented
felt

arrange an audience, were at their wits' end

the satisfaction he
his Britannic

at the testimony

which
his

how

to

reconcile

the Imperial

Majesty gave to him of

with the ambassador's attitude.

esteem and good will in sending him an embassy, with a letter, and rare presents
he,
;

used to express on paper the
is

commands The symbol word " deceit "

that

made

up, as has been said, of parts signi-

on his part, entertained sentiments of the same kind towards the sovereign of Great Britain, and hoped that harmony would
always be maintained
subjects."

fying a "

woman's weapon." Out of a
Difficulty.

Way

among

their respective

In China " a man's

weapon

"

would be

equally applicable, and, in this particular instance, the commissioners determined to use

Ceremonies Set Aside.

this

well-worn arm to rid themselves of the
In later

which was subsequently given to Lord Macartney and the chief Tartar
feast

At a

difficulty.

communications

with

Emperor marked his regard ambassador by sending him several dishes from his own table, and by presenting to him and his staff cups of wine
tributaries, the

for the English

Lord Amherst they agreed to waive the point, and assured him that all that would be demanded of him would be such a genuflection as had been performed by Lord
Macartney.

with his

own hand.
reception

To
to

the Emperor, however, they reported

The

thus accorded

Lord

that the ambassador

Macartney showed a marked advance towards the customs of civilized nations. The kotow

was not

insisted upon,

and though the amtaken as a whole, was

bassador bent one knee in presenting his credentials, the audience,

was ready to obey his commands, and they even drew up a document in which the whole ceremony was minntely described, and in which the ambassador and suite were made to perform the
kotow on several occasions.
In pursuance
of his arrangement with these double-faced

as satisfactory as could have been expected.

To

the

Emperor Kienlung succeeded Kia
had been
liberal

gentlemen. Lord Amherst went to Yuen-

King, who was as bigoted and narrow-minded
as his father

Ming-Yuen, where the Emperor was then
residing.
It

and enlightened.
accredited in

To him Lord Amherst was
l8i6, and from the
tions
it

was, however, plainly impossible for the

first

opening of negotia-

commissioners to admit him into the Imperial

became at once obvious that the new Emperor was determined to return from the position taken up by his predecessor to the
preposterous pretensions
of former times.

presence,

since
their

would be beyond

knew that it power to make him
they

perform the kotow, and were equally aware that the absence of the act would bring

VARIETIES OF CHINESE LIFE.
down the wrath of the Emperor upon them. The manoeuvre which they adopted in this difficulty is interesting. They persuaded the Emperor to order the ambassador into his presence the instant he arrived
at the palace. as the

231
This was

Emperor might determine.

the best that could be done.

The Chinese
all their efforts

authorities, recognizing that

the kotow was no longer in question, directed

towards persuading the min-

As

the journey had

isters to

bow

the knee after the precedent set

been long and tedious, and the ambassador

by Lord Macartney.
position the ministers
front,

was way-worn and weary, he excused himself from obeying this very discourteous command, as the commissioners expected he would do, on the ground of fatigue. They then prompted the Emperor to dismiss him from the court, and the luckless ambassador was obliged to return with his mission unfulfilled.

But against this proshowed a determined

and the Chinese, being compelled to give way on this point also, turned their at-

tention to obtaining

some advantages

in re-

turn for the concessions accorded.

The Dutch and Portuguese

ministers,

who

An

Opportunity Lost.

In accordance with civilized usage, the residence of the foreign
ministers
at

Pekin

would naturally entail their being received in audience by the Emperor; and, if Lord Elgin, when in command of Pekin, had insisted upon the fugitive Emperor Hienfeng returning to the capital to receive him in audience, no further difficulties on the subBut the opportunject would have arisen. ity was allowed to lapse, and a true solution
of the difficulty has
still

to be arrived

at.

The death
long

of Hienfeng, in 1861, and the
his

A HIGH-CASTE MANDARIN. had bowed to the ground in the presence of the Son of Heaven, had been received in the
Imperial audience-chamber within the palace
;

minority of

successor Tungchi,

postponed any further consideration of the matter until 1873. In that year the Emperor, having attained his majority,

and havof power

and Lord Macartney, who had bent the
the hands of the Emperor.

ing signalized the event

by taking

to himself

knee, had been allowed to place his credentials in

three wives, accepted the reins

As

the

from the Dowager Empresses, who had governed the Empire during the past twelve
years.

present generation of ministers
either to

kotow or genuflect,

it

had refused became neces-

The time had thus
and, after

arrived

when

the

sary to emphasize the superiority of the

Em-

audience question had again to be considered
;

peror over the sovereigns
resented,

whom

they rep-

much
it

negotiation with the

by refusing them admittance within
as the

ruling powers,
foreign

was arranged that the
should

the gates of the palace.

ministers

be

collectively

A pavilion, known
was,
therefore,

Tzu-Kuang Ko,
ceremony;

granted a reception at such time and place

chosen for the

232
According to the best
ing
is

CHINA: PAST
authorities, this build-

AND PRESENT.
arrival

of

the Emperor.

But,

if this

was

that in

which the Mongol

princes
at the

and

their expectation,

they were

disappointed,

Corean ambassadors are feasted
Year.
It is here, also, that

New

and
tive

it

Manchu

military-

least

was only after a further delay of at an hour and a half that the representawho, being an ambassador,
separately,

exercises

are

performed,
for the

matches are held

and wrestling amusement of the
one
in

of Japan,

was introduced

was summoned to

Emperor.

the Imperial presence.

The

edifice

was, therefore, not

The

five

European representatives were

which ministers of sovereigns on an equality with the Emperor would naturally have been
received.
it

next introduced, and were led by a door on
the west side of the pavilion into the central
aisle

The

native guide-books describe

of the

hall.

As

they faced the north-

as the place

where "

New Year

receptions

are granted to the outer tribes," and the

choice of

it

was doubtless intended by the
But it was also part of

Emperor was seated on his throne, they bowed in concert. They then " advanced a few paces and bowed
ern end, where the
again, then advanced a few paces further, bowing again, and halted before a long yellow table about halfway up the hall."

mandarins to be a set-off against the concessions they

had made.

the arrangement that the ministers should

not give their credentials into the hands of
the Emperor, but should deposit them on a
table set in the hall for the purpose
;

How
his advisers

they were Seated.

and

The Emperor, who was surrounded by
and
courtiers, was,
it

that they should then be presented

by Prince

was ob-

Kung

to the Emperor.

served, seated cross-legged according to the

Manchu custom.
Costunies for the Occasion.
their

When

all

had taken up
minister of

appointed positions, the

On
istera

the day appointed (June 29) the min-

Russia, as doyen of the corps, read aloud

were early

astir,

as the

Emperor had
in the

an address
intelligible to

in

French, which was

made

fixad the audience at the very inconvenient

the

Emperor by an

interpreter,

hour of between six and seven
ing.

morn-

who

delivered a version in Chinese for his

The

place of audience being close to
Catholic cathedral and mission

benefit.

the

Roman

Says Sir Thomas

Wade
we

:

"

As soon
our

as

house, the five representatives of Western

powers

—England,

the address was delivered

laid

letters

France, America, Russia

and the Netherlands
occasion.

—met

of credence upon the table.

The Emperor
upon both knees
appeared

there to attire

made a

slight

bow

of acknowledgment, and
falling

themselves in costumes befitting the august

the Prince of

Kung,

Thence they were escorted to the Shih-ying Kung, where confectionery, tea and Chinese wine from the Emperor's buttery were offered them. Here they were kept waiting for more than an hour, and were then led to a tent pitched on the west side of the pavilion of
audience.

at the foot of the throne, his majesty

to speak to

him

I

say appeared, because no
ears.

sound reached

my

We had been told,
in

however, that the Emperor would speak

Manchu, and that the prince would
he descended the
steps,

interpret.

Accordingly, as soon as his highness rose,

and informed us that

hoped that

this

They move meant
might

have

reasonably

his majesty declared that the letters of cre-

the immediate

dence had been received.

VARIETIES OF CHINESE LIFE.
"Then, returning to his place, he again fell upon his knees, and the Emperor, having
again spoken to him in a low tone, he again

233
informed

Chinese

statesman

one

of

the

foreign ministers after the audience that the

princes

who

waited on the Emperor had

descended the

steps, and,

coming up to

us,

been surprised and pleased at the demeanor
of himself and his colleagues.

informed us that his majesty trusted that our
respective rulers were in

good

health,

expressed a hope that foreign
all

affairs

and might
This
Isisted

be

satisfactorily

arranged between the

foreign ministers

and the Emperor.

closed the audience, which
a
little

may have

Such a remark illustrates the supercilious contempt with which the Chinese dignitaries regard foreigners generally, and emphasizes an ignorance which would be remarkable considering that the foreign legations had
then been established in
years,
if

more than

five minutes.

We than all
moving back-

Pekin for twelve
entirely the

withdrew

in the usual fashion,

we

did not

know how

ward and bowing."
Departure
Sir

courtiers hold themselves aloof from the for-

eign ministers.

From

Precedent.

It

had been

proposed that an annual

Thomas Wade, and probably the other
marked departure from precedent,
manifested.

reception should
plenipotentiaries,

be given to the foreign
but the sudden death of
to

ministers, recognized that this reception constituted a

the
this

Emperor from small-pox put an end
scheme.

although they were fully alive to the short-

comings

it

To

begin with, the

Imperial decree granting the audience was

worded
say the

in a dictatorial tone,
least,

which was, to
"

Another long minority succeeded, and it was not until the assumption of the ruling power, by the present Emperor, in 1 89 1, that a reception was again held.

discourteous.

The Tsungli

The
least

decree published in the Pekin Gazette

Yamun " (answering

nearly to our Cabinet at Washington), so runs this document, " hav-

announcing

was laconic, but at had the advantage over that published
this event
in that the

ing presented a memorial to the effect that
the foreign ministers residing in Pekin have

on the previous occasion,

deroga-

tory expressions therein used were omitted.

implored us to grant an audience that they

may deliver letters from their Governments, we command that the foreign ministers residing in Pekin, who have brought letters from
their

Request

for

an Audience.

Governments, be accorded audience.
this."

Respect

The decree was dated March 4, and ran thus: "At 11.30 to-morrow the Emperor will receive in audience at the Tzu-Kuang Ko all the nations." The ceremony on this
occasion was almost identical with that which

The long

periods of waiting in the Shihtent,

ying Kung, and afterwards in the
doubtless intended to

were

took place in 1873.
teen years

The

intervening eigh-

mark the condescension

had not taught the Chinese anyis

of the Emperor in granting the audience,
and, together with the very perfunctory cere-

thing as regards foreigners, and their attitude

then and
ever
it

now was and
arrival

as ante-foreign as

mony

in

the hall, were indications which

has been.
his

forbade the cherishing of any high hopes as
to the effects likely to be
reception.

produced by the With a self-complacency which
to

almost amounted

an

impertinence,

a

1893, Mr. O'Conor requested an audience, which was granted him with a change of venue. Instead of the Tzu-Kuang Ko, the Cheng-Kuang
at

On

Pekin in

234
Tien, a

CHINA: PAST
temple which stands outside the

AND PRESENT.
thusiasts could not
It

palace enclosure, was chosen for the cere-

China and foreign countries, the wildest enhope for any such result.

Here again the same forms were and the event was as barren of results as were those of 1873 and 1891. So matters stand at present, and the question suggests itself, " Of what use have these In civilized countries the audiences been?" reception of a minister by the sovereign to whose court he is accredited is a testimony of the friendship of that monarch towards
mony.
followed,
his royal master.
It also facilitates negotia-

may be

said that this

is

but the beginning
right to exatti-

of things, and that

we have no

pect any great and rapid change in the

tude of the Chinese court towards

us.

This

would be plausible if in the thirty years during which the legations have been established in Pekin there has been shown any advance
of friendliness.

On no
tion,

occasion could any such change be

better manifested than at

an Imperial recepin the

tions

between the two countries.

It serves,

but time has
in

made no change

therefore,

a substantially useful purpose.

In China, however, neither of these ends

can possibly be attained by such receptions
as those accorded to the foreign ministers.

which our ministers are received; for it is impossible to see any sign of a progressive movement in the exchange of the

manner

Cheng-Kuang Tien

for the

Tzu-Kuang Ko
too

The Emperor, so
judge,
as Sir
is

far as

it

is

possible to

as an audience-chamber.

in the

hands of

his advisers,

who,

The

fact is that other nations are

much
They

Thomas Wade

told us

are as bitterly anti-foreign

some years ago, as ever, and in
faith

inclined to pursue here, as in other dealings

with China, the cap-in-hand attitude.

whose word, the
declared, in
1

foreign ministers solemnly

have humbly implored, to use the Emperor's

891, that

"no

could be

own

words, to be admitted into the Imperial

put."

presence, and have reaped reward.
to
facilitating

They have

As

negotiations

between

been suppliants and have been treated as such.

CHAPTBR
FOOD, DRESS AND
T
is

XIII.

AMUSEMENTS OF THE CHINESE.
dis-

probable that in the congested

Ducks

are reared in

enormous

quantities, the

tricts

of Southern China the population
in

eggs as well as those of fowls being for the

I

is

more dense than

any other counfor existence
it

try,

and the struggle
If

is

proportionately severe.

were not

for

most part hatched by artificial heat. There being no ownership in rivers, the fishing industry is carried on without let or
hindrance.

the small wants and meagre diet of China-

By

net,

by

line,

by the
of

clever

men, such swarms of human beings as are to
be seen
in Canton, for

use of light to attract,
frighten,

and

noise to

example, where, the

the fish

are

captured from the

land being unable to contain the inhabitants,
the streets

streams and supply a cheap and most useful

may be said to have been carried on to the surface of the river, could not exist. Two bowls of rice with scraps of vegetables
or pieces of fish added, suffice for the daily

food of countless thousands of the people.

Every kind of living creature and even snakes form a common article of food. water These, with eels, carp, and tench, are, when caught, commonly kept in tanks, where they
article

of food.

which moves

in the waters is eaten,

With

all classes rice

and vegetables form the

are carefully fed, and are sold as required.

staple food, as

we

find illustrated

by the

fact

Most of the

fishing-boats

have tanks
artificial

in

which

that the native equivalents of these words are

the captured fish are kept alive, and though

used to express food generally.
tation to partake

In his invi-

the flesh suffers from the

food and

of the

most sumptuous
feast will

surroundings, the prudent

economy of the

viands the host will ask his guest " to eat
rice,"

system recommends
of the natives.

it

to the frugal minds

and a servant announcing a

proclaim that " the vegetables are served."

To

the production of grain and vegetables
all

Disgusting Articles of Food

every available scrap of land and
energies of the people are devoted.
is

the

These, then, with rice at their head, are
the staples of
life. But the same poverty which induces Chinese parents to murder their female infants prompts them occasion-

There
land in
cattle

probably not an acre of
therefore,

meadow
and the

China.
are,

Flocks of sheep and herds of

unknown;

beasts

ally to take

advantage of

less
It is

savory viands

which are reared on the
land with
that
artificial
is

sides of the hills,

to satisfy their hunger.
fact that rats, dogs,

an undoubted

food, are so few in

the flesh

number obtainable only by the

in

and horseflesh are sold Canton and elsewhere. The passing trav-

wealthiest of those

who

are freed from the

eller

may see dried rats hung up in poulterers'
little

Buddhistic belief in the transmigration of
souls.

shops, and a

investigation will prove

Pigs, fowls, ducks,

and

fish

are

more

indisputably to

him

that

horseflesh,

even

cheaply obtained,

and

it is

probable that pork
is

forms quite half the meat which

eaten.

when the animal has met its death in another way than at the butcher's shambles, is greed™ 235

236
ily

CHINA: PAST
Necessity sometimes supplies
diet.

AND PRESENT.
own
thoroughfares.

devoured.

The

locusts

so

dealt

strange articles of
It is

with are regarded as a luxury, and are confact that

an unquestionable

China-

sidered to be

more

nutritive

and better

fla-

and apparently without any ill effects, meat which would poison Englishmen and Americans. The flesh of horses which have died of glanders, and of other animals which have succumbed to diseases of all sorts, are eaten by the beggars and
will eat,

men

vored
alive.

if

they are thrown into the boiling

oil

But whatever the food may be, other than grain, it is cut up into small pieces to
suit

the requirements

of the

chopsticks,

which are invariably used to transfer the food from the plate to the mouth.

other poverty-stricken people,
streets

who

infest

the

of

all

large

cities.

A

superstition

Onions and Garlic.
Knives and forks are unknown
for this

also attaches to the flesh of dogs
especially black ones.
It is
is

and

cats,

considered emi-

purpose, and the two sticks, which to foreigners are such stumbling-blocks at native
dinners, furnish all that a

recommended by the doctors as a wholesome and invigorating diet in the summer season, as well as a gennently nutritious, and
eral preventative against disease.

Chinaman wants
of ex-

with which to supply himself with even the

most oleaginous food.
cessive quantities of oil

The presence

Strange

Remedy

for Baldness.

The same high
course of
baldness.
rat's

authorities

prescribe

a

and fat in Chinese cooking is to Europeans its great offence, and the large admixture of onions and garlic
adds another obnoxious feature to ordinary
viands; but, apart from these peculiarities,

flesh for people inclined to

The late Archdeacon Gray, who probably knew Canton better than any living
foreigner, in speaking, in his

the food

is

always well cooked, and authorithat
it is

of a cat

work on China, and dog restaurant, says: "The
and
fried with
oil.

ties affirm

eminently digestible.

flesh is cut into small pieces

water chestnuts and garlic in

In the

The following Chinese dishes, taken from the menu of the dinner which was given by the Chinese of Hong Kong to the Duke of
fare

window of the

restaurant dogs' carcases are
I suppose, of at-

suspended for the purpose,

Connaught, give a good idea of the sort of which a Chinese host presents to his
guests on state occasions
"Birds'-nest
soup.

tracting the attention of passers by.

Pla-

cards are sometimes placed above the door,
setting forth that the flesh of black
cats can

dogs and
;

Cassia mushrooms.
'

Stewed shell-fish. Crab and sharks' fins.
etc.).

be served up

at a

moment's notice

Promotion

'

(boiled quail,

Fried maSliced
teal.

and then he proceeds to give a translation of a bill of fare such as hangs on the walls
of the dining-rooms.

rine

delicacies.

Fish

gills.

Pekin mushrooms.
pigeon.

Beches-de-mer.

Sliced

Macaroni."

The supposed medicinal properties
horrible articles of food

of these

no doubt prompt
In the
usual in
it

many
the

people to partake of them.
cities

of some of these dishes is enough to explain why it is that foreigners come away hungry from a Chinese dinnerparty; nor are their appetites encouraged

The mention

northern

of the Empire

is

by
it

autumn

to see

men

selling locusts fried

the fact that the feasters, in the enjoyment of

in oil at the corners of streets,

much

as peo-

the good things provided, generally find

ple offer roasted chestnuts for sale in our

necessary to discard

some of

their clothing

FOOD, DRESS
to

AND AMUSEMENTS.
from 1636 to 1644.
official

237

adjust

their

heightened
is

temperatures.

At

his

command every

Their system of dress
for this kind of
it

admirably adapted

emergency.

Like their food
qualities,

his

was obliged to wear a gold button on cap to distinguish him from the common

possesses

some admirable

some

herd.

By

degrees further distinctions were

doubtful ones, and others which are repulsive.

introduced.

To

a high

official

was assigned

Its
fits

general

character

is

looseness

a gold button set in pearls, while to a general

nothing

tightly to the person,
is

and com-

was given one surronnded with precious

plete freedom

thereby secured to the limbs.

stones.

From

this

beginning the present

system arose.

Hurried by Them.
It is

a canon of Chinese art that the out-

line of the

human frame should
indicated.
is

never be

more than dimly

For

this reason

a sculpture gallery

abhorrent to them, as

was amusingly shown on the occasion of a visit paid to the British Museum by the first
Chinese Minister at the Court of St. James.

At

the

first

sight of the beautiful objects in

Another and a far greater innovation than was introduced by the Manchu invaders. As a badge of conquest, they compelled the whole male population to shave the front part of the head and to wear the queue, which now distinguishes the Chinese from the rest of mankind. The manner in which this badge was adopted, and the tenacity with which it is now adhered to, are worthy
this

the Greek and

Roman

around him

in bewilderment,

izing the situation,
significant haste,

he looked and then, realhurried by them with
galleries

of note as illustrating the character of the
people.

looking neither to his right
left.

Fond
At
first it

of His Cue.

hand nor

to his

was
it,

fiercely resisted,

even unto

On
men

this principle the

dress of

all

China-

death.

The vanquished everywhere took up
and
to
it

partakes of the nature of robes, which

arms against
eventually

reach from the neck to the ankles
the better classes are encased

conceal-

varied with cajolery that the

ing loose vests, and trousers which

among
Above
is

able
it

was only by violence Manchus were compel its adoption.
however,
it

in gaiters of

When
came
tion,

once

was accepted,

materials suited to their conditions.

to be regarded with the greatest affec-

the upper part of the robe there

com-

monly worn a jacket made of
ing to the season, silks in

stuffs

accord-

and no greater indignity can be inflicted on a loyal Chinaman of the present day than
his ancestors fought so strenuously.

summer, and

to cut off the queue, against the adoption ol

wadded cotton or fur in the winter months. The dresses of the mandarins and their
wives are, as has been already stated,
regulated
strictly

which

by sumptuary
rise

laws.

Since the

of the Manchus to power,

the buttons on the caps have been added to
distinguish the various grades in the official

But with the Taepings and other rebels the disappearance of the quene, and the growth of the hair on the head, have been accepted as badges of antagonism to the present dynasty, and the discovery in a disaffected district of a

man

with these distin-

hierarchy.

The

first

to institute this system

guishing marks
shrift before

secures

him but a short

was Tsungte, the immediate predecessor of
Shunchi, the
first

Emperor of the present
reigned in

he is called upon to expiate his disloyalty on the execution ground. But to

Manchu

line,

who

Manchuria

return to the dress of the officials.

The cap

238
varies in shape

CHINA: PAST
and material according to the
it

AND PRESENT.
irrespective of the condition of the theremo-

season.

In

summer
fine

consists of a

round
is

meter.

cone made of

straw or bamboo, and

The wives
cial attire

of mandarins render their

oflS-

covered with a tassel of red silken cords

as splendid as rich silks,

gay colors,

which radiate from the apex.
is

In winter

it

turned up at the brim, and
satin,

is

covered with

dark

over which

falls in

the same

way

and bright embroideries can make them. In shape they are identical with those worn by women of every degree in the Empire, and
consist of a

a similar

tassel.
is

loose tunic

reaching to the

The button

fixed in a gold setting above

knees, which buttons at the neck and under

MERCHANTS CLUB AT SHANGHAI.
the tassel at the centre of the crown.

The
law,

the right arm.

A pair of trousers drawn in

changes of uniform at the summer and winter seasons are carefully regulated

by

and, in obedience to Imperial edicts, published as the periods approach, every
darin,

man-

on ordinary and holidays an embroidered petticoat, which hangs square both before and behind, is worn by ladies.
occasions, but on high days

at the ankle completes the attire

from the great wall on the north to the boundaries on Tonquin on the south,

always carefully dressed and gayly adorned, but in ways and fashions
hair
is

The

makes

his

official

change of

attire

on the

which

differ in

every part of the Empire.
natural

days exactly specified by the Emperor, quite

Flowers, both

and

artificial,

are

FOOD, DRESS
richly chased

AND AMUSEMENTS.
bent under the
foot,

239
the big toe
is

largely used as ornaments to the head, and

some-

and jewelled hairpins are added

times brought backwards on the top of the
foot,

to give taste to the coiffure.
often of considerable value,

These last are and are com-

and the instep
In this
is

is

forced upwards and

backwards.

way

the foot

is

clubbed

monly presents
bands.

either

from parents or hus-

and

forced into a shoe from about three

They not

unfrequently form the

to four inches long.

principal part of the property belonging to

the owners, and in cases of emergency they
are the
first

A
The

Fashion that
little

Inflicts
this

Pain.
fashion

things resorted to for the pur-

victims

of

cruel

pose of raising money.
given also

They are sometimes
owners to friends as

unquestionably suffer great pain in the early
stages, but as a rule the skin,
is

by

their fair

tokens of regard, and in
wives
in the

many
same

plays and

dreadfully abrased,

novels their disappearance from the heads of
is

hardened,

and

as

which at first becomes gradually those whose feet are
size

made

to arouse the
ladies'

suspicions

squeezed into shoes of the
are ladies

mentioned

minds of the

husbands as the
in the

who

are not required to
feet

move
all

loss of

Desdemona's handkerchief did

about much, their
This

probably answer

poisoned brain of Othello.

the purposes expected of them.
is

not saying much.

A lady scarcely
Within doors
is

Diminutive Feet.

walks at
in

all.

If she goes out she is either

The
shapen

striking

feature,

however,

the

carried in a sedan-chair, or, in the north of

women's appearance and gait is their misfeet. In most lands the desire is to give freedom of movement, but an absurd fashion, backed by the weight of centuries, has crippled and disabled countless generations of the

the country, in a carriage.

she either hobbles about, leaning on a stick
or on the shoulder of a waiting-maid, or
carried

on the back of a servant. It is obvious that this extreme conipression would
render

women

in China.

No

sufficient

women
fulfil

of the poorer classes quite
their necessary avocations,
feet are

explanation has ever been given of the origin

unfitted to

of this very unnatural custom, which
the

is all

and with them therefore the
greater scope.

allowed

more

objectionable

as

Chinawomen,

speaking generally, are gifted with finely

The custom
Chinese;
never
the

is

entirely confined to the

shaped hands and

feet.

The
must

saying of a French lady that one

Manchu conquerors having submitted their own women to the torit

suffer to

be beautiful

is

certainly true

ture and discomfort of the practice, neither,
also,

accepting the Chinese estimate of the fashion
in

have the boat populations thought
It is

the case of the poor ladies of China.
size

necessary to deform themselves for the sake

and shape of the foot which fashion be attained by a dislocation which causes great pain in the first At instance, and often permanent suffering. an early age, generally when the child is
requires are only to

The

of fashion.

even said that in the neighis

borhood of Ningpo a movement

on foot
doubtful

among
this

the Christian population to abolish

fetish
its

of fashion, but

it

is

whether

promotion by converts from the

about four or
feet

five,

the process begins

by

the

national religion will

do much to advance
beautiful

being bound tightly round in the re-

even so rational an object.
In their desire to

quired shape.

The

four smaller toes are

make

what

is

240
naturally

CHINA: PAST
so
ugly, the

AND PRESENT.
there are winding footpaths, trees here and there as
if

women
rich

delight to

and bright embroidery and fortunately for them the swaying gait which the fashion compels them to assume in walking has come to be regarded as a winsome beauty. Poets are
adorn
the

shoes

with

by chance, woody or

sterile hill-

;

ocks, and deep gullies with narrow passages,

never tired of describing in verse the

leaf-

whose sides are steep or rough with rocks, and presenting only a few nJserable shrubs. They like to bring together in gardening, in the same view, cultivated grounds and arid
plains
it,
;

and the swaying movements of Chinese ladies, which they liken to boughs gently waving in the
shaped eyebrows, the willow
waists,

to

make

the field uneven and cover

with

artificial

rock-work

;

to dig caverns

in

mountains, on whose tops are arbors half
foot-

wind.
It is well that
it is

overthrown and around which tortuous
possible to find some-

paths run and return into themselves, proit were, the extent of the grounds and increasing the pleasure of the walk."

thing to say in favor of the cruel custom of
crippling the feet of the
ally

longing, as

women, and cynicminded Chinamen add to their approval
it

of the grace which

imparts to the step,
it it

Profusion of Blossoms.
In the

their appreciation of the fact that
ladies

prevents
certainly

more purely

floral parterres,

the

from gadding about.
in their

This

plants are arranged so as to secure brilliancy

does,

and even the exercise which they are
gardens
is

of

bloom with harmony of
fertile

color.
is

Over the
favored

tempted to take
j.i

confined

greater part of China

the land

very limited excursions.
Beautiful Flowers

with so

and so congenial a climate that flowers grow and blossom with
a
soil

and Gardens.

prodigal profusion.
nies,

Roses, hydrangeas, peoof

The

love of flowers seems to be inherent

azaleas

and a host

other plants

in the people of the

extreme East, and their
delight.

beautify the ground, while creepers of every

gardens are to both the

China a never-failing
taste

men and women of With much

they lay out the ground and dispose
unsurpassed,

hue and clinging growth hang from the boughs of the trees and from the eaves of the summer-houses and pavilions which are
scattered over the grounds.

the flowers to the best possible advantage.

As landscape gardeners they are

With the instinctive love of

flowers which

and succeed by skilful arrangement in giving an impression of extent and beauty to even paltry and naturally uninteresting pieces of
ground.

belongs to Chinamen, the appearance of the

blooms on the more conspicuous flowering shrubs is eagerly watched for. Floral calendars are found in every house above the
poorest,

By

clever groupings of rock-work,
hills,

and by throwing by high bridges over ponds and streams, they produce a panorama which is full of fresh
raising
artificial

and expeditions are constantly made
enjoy the sight
of
fafirst

into the country districts to

of the

bursting into blossom

points of view

As De

and of constant Guignes wrote,

surprises.
in

vorite flowers.

The presence

of ponds gives

describing

a sense of coolness to the pleasure-grounds,

Chinese gardens, the object of the
to imitate " the beauties
inequalities

owner is and to produce the
Instead of alleys

and the white and pink
lers for

water-lilies

which

adorn their surface furnish excuses to revelholding endless wine-feasts on their
margins.

of nature.

planted symmetrically or uniform grounds,

FOOD, DRESS
made
to such entertainments,

AND AMUSEMENTS.
it

241

In the literature frequent references are

takes a fast steamer to
It

make

its

way from

and numerous

Ichang to London.
to the Chinese

has been shown

volumes have been carefully compiled of the

how

it

would be possible to

more highly esteemed poems
peach,

made on such
and an by the minor
of travel
civil-

occasions in praise of the camellia, apricot,

chrysanthemum,

hibiscus

remove the greater part of the obstacles which make the voyage so difficult, and how, when this is done, steamers might
readily continue their

endless array of other flowers

way up

the river.

poets of the country.

But nothing will induce the Government,
the local
officials,

The manner and convenience
supply a
ization
faithful

or the merchants inter-

index of the stage of

which the people of a country have arrived, and in the conveyances in
to
in

vogue

China we see repeated the strange

contradictions which have

met us as we have
to be admired

scheme, and all delibup with the delay, dangers and frequent losses incurred under the present system to encouraging an enterprise which would save four-fifths of the time emested, to support the

erately prefer to put

glanced at each feature of Chinese society.
In every case there
is

ployed, and
to a

much
is

would reduce the minimum.

peril

and

loss

but in every case what
is

good and

excellent
in

The
try.

particular kinds of conveyance used

marred by some defacing or neutralizing

China vary with the nature of the counIn the north, where the huge delta and immense table-lands from the surcarts are commonly used, and these

quality.

plain

Discomforts of Travelling.
Just as the outward appearance of their
furniture
fort
is

face,

again furnish nature of

an

instance of
civilization.

the

mixed
are

spoiled

by the by
dirt

exquisite discom;

Chinese

They

of their chairs and divans

and

their
;

made on two
without seats.

wheels, without springs and

stately ceremonies,
their

means of

travelling,

and squalor so which in some

ways are

luxurious, are discredited

by the
ruts of

Chinese Carts.

discomfort of the carts, the

mud and

As
and
tion

has been said, the Chinese ha\e no

the roads, and the miserable condition of the
inns.

idea of comfort as

we understand the word,

With us the question of pace
is

enters

these vehicles are a complete justifica-

largely into our ideas of travelling, but in

of the statement.

the leisurely East, where hurry

unknown,

they are the acme of misery.
seats himself

To an American The occupant

the speed with which a journey can be
is

made

not of the slightest consequence.

We

have an excellent

illustration of this

on the floor of the cart, and is thrown hither and thither as the ruts may determine and the skill of the driver may
permit.

on the waters of the Yang-tsze Kiang. Steamers go up the river to Ichang, a distance of fifteen hundred miles from the mouth. For four hundred miles above
that point there are a succession of rapids,
to ascend which, in a native boat at certain

seasons of the year, occupies six or seven

The novice, when going to sea, is commonly advised to attempt to avoid the inevitable fate which awaits him by allowing his body to sway with the movements of the vessel, and in the same way those who drive in Chinese carts are recommended to yield their persons to the strange bumps and
rockings of the springless vehicles, but, so

weeks, or just about the length of time
16

242
far as

CHINA: PAST
the experience of the present writer

AND PRESENT.
chwang, and carrying back the cotton cloths and hardware which are brought from the
despised lands of the " barbarians."

goes,

no better

result follows in this than in

the other case.
It is

remarkable

that,

been

in use for thirty or

though carts have more centuries, the

their very

made no attempt to improve rough construction. Springs are unknown and the only method occasionally
Chinese have
is

adopted to mitigate the horrors of driving
that of placing the axles

the

tremity of the

body of the cart, beams of wood which
in front

and wheels behind and at the rear exconsti-

tute the support of the vehicle,

and when

Sedan-chairs and horseback are also usual means of travelling, and in the southern half of the Empire these modes of locomotion are alone employed on terra firma, the roads being too narrow to allow of the passage of anything on wheels. But in this part, as all over the Empire, the many rivers and canals which fertilize the land and add beauty to its features, are the favorite highways of travel and com-

produced

form the

shafts.

merce.

The

better class of passenger vessels

No
In this

Provision for the Driver.

way

the cart
it

is

swung between the
axle.

and commodious, and contain all the conveniences to which Chinamen are accustomed in their own homes. They are
are large

animal drawing

and the

No

seat

is

commonly from
and are divided

sixty to eighty feet long,

provided for the driver,

who commonly takes

into three rooms.

possession of the off shaft, and seriously interferes

with the ventilation available for the

Sails

and Oars.
which occupies
approached in front

passenger by almost entirely blocking up the

The

principal apartment,
is

only opening which serves both as door and

about half the boat,

window.
northern

Carts of the ordinary kind stand

for hire in the streets of
cities,

Pekin and of other

through a vestibule, and is connected with the bedroom which separates it from the
stern.

and are constantly employed

The

fore part of the boat is

decked

as far south as the banks of the Yang-tsze-

over with movable planks, and affords dark

Kiang.

For carrying purposes large wagons are used which are commonly drawn by seven animals, a pony being in the shafts and the
rest being

and airless cabin accommodation for the crew. The vessels are supplied with masts on which,

when the wind is favorable, sails are hoisted. Under less fortunate conditions oars and tacking are used to propel them.

arranged three abreast in

front.

From this kind

Such conveyances when loaded travel from
fifty

of vessel to the merest sampan, the waters of

to eighty Chinese miles a day, or from

about sixteen to twenty-six English miles.
In the neighborhood of

China furnish every variety of boats. There is one other means of locomotion

mense

traffic is carried

Newchwang an imon by means of these

which remains to be mentioned, and that is one which has attracted more attention than
perhaps
it

and during the busiest two months of the year it is reckoned that upwards of thirty thousand carts, drawn by more than
vehicles,

deserves.

We refer to the wheel:

barrow, of which Milton wrote

two hundred thousand animals, pass between the inland districts and the port, bringing the native products to the wharves of New-

" Sericana, -where Chinese drive, With sail and wind their cany wagons light"

The Chinese

are intensely poor,

and as
be-

the possession of a horse and cart

is far

FOOD, DRESS
yond the means

AND AMUSEMENTS.
If doubtful of the truth of this,

243

of the vast majority, wheel-

barrows are very commonly used to carry

Get up, and strike a light."

goods and passengers.
centre of the barrow,

To

lighten the task

So much has been
Chinese
life,

said of the dark side of

of the porter the wheels are placed in the

that

it is

a pleasure to turn to

and thus

directly bear

those amusements which break the dreary

the weight of the burden.

monotony of
find,

existence.

The

great

body of

But

this

arrangement naturally reduces

the people are hard workers, and, being so,
like
all

the space available for use, since the load,

whether living or dead, has to be placed

people, that

other laboriously employed amusements are necessary to life

on the two
it is

sides of the wheel,

from which

and

health.

protected

by a

casing.

On

the northern

classes
called,

plains, if the

very

commonly hoisted,

wind should be aft, a sail is in which case consid-

ladies

— the they or the unemployed and — time they must seek
that
is,

From

another motive the idle
literati,

as

are

graduates,

the

find that to kill

eiable distances can be traversed in the day.

excitement in some form of diversion.

Wretched Chinese
at the

Inns.

In Western lands the prospect of his inn

For these reasons the theatres are generby all sorts and conditions of men, and no opportunity is missed of engagally well filled

No

end of a journey cheers the traveller. such consolation is afforded to wayfarers,
horseback, or from the
is

ing a

company

for the entertainment of the

neighborhood.

As

such opportunities are
different

or at least to foreign wayfarers, in China.

prompted by many and
actors

motives,

The exchange from

are

in

constant
is

request.

Not un-

racking of a native cart, to an inn

not

frequently the excuse
to the local deities.

a desire to do honor

much

to the advantage of the

last.

No com-

fort is provided,

no quiet is and infinitely

no privacy is secured, and obtained. The rooms are mean
dirty, and, in the north, sur-

Offerings to the Snake God.
Either a
fall

of rain after a prolonged

round the courtyard, which serves as the
stables for the mules, ponies,

drought makes a Thespian display an appropriate token of gratitude to the

and donkeys of
to see

snake god,

the travellers.
as

It is

not

uncommon

or the

elfin

fox deity

is

held to regard a like

many as fifty donkeys in one inn yard, and the pandemonium which they occasion
at night can

festivity as

a due acknowledgment for his
dispersing an
religious

clemency
whatever

in

epidemic; but,

be but

faintly imagined.

the

objects

may

be,

The
inn in

poetical description

of a room

at

an

arrangements are commonly made to hold
the performance in the courtyard of one of
the temples.
village or

Szechuan, which a traveller found
the wall of this apartment,

scratched on

aptly supplements the above.

The
is

original,

For the expenses the whole town is responsible, and so soon
is

which was
follows " Within

in

Chinese verse,

rendered as

as the required sum, from twenty to a hun-

dred dollars a day,
this

raised

—a matter which
to un dergo

room

you'll find the rats,

At least a goodly store. Three catties each they are bound to weigh, Or e'en a little more At night you'll find a myriad bugs. That sting and crawl and bite

generally gives rise to countless bickerings
a troupe of actors
is

engaged, and the vesis

tibule of

a local temple

made

the metamorphosis
sion.

necessary to th< occa-

244

CHINA: PAST
of

AND PRESENT.
which
it is

Chinese stage

The very simple requirements make this a matter
There
is

the

considered necessary for the audi-

of easy-

ence to understand.

arrangement.

practically

no scen-

he prefaces
few
plete
lines

Commonly, however, these confidences by repeating a
com-

ery in a Chinese theatre.
painted views
are
all

A

few coarsely

of poetry, which are supposed to

hung
their

at the

back of the stage
it.

indicate the general tenor of the very

that

is

necessary to furnish
exits

The

explanation which

is

to follow.

As
is

actors

make

and entrances by
performances
acted without

each player treads the boards this formula

a door at the side of these paintings, and the

gone through.
Fortunatety the characters are not numerous, and, as a rule, consist of the heavy

whole

series of plays

for the

go on

for

days together

—are

INTERIOR OF A CHINESE THEATRE.

any change of scenery.
sight the advantage

This has at

first
it

father

and mother, a young lady of the nature

of simplicity, but

of a heroine, a

young man or two, a
and courtiers
in

sprink-

imposes on the characters the inconvenient
necessity of explaining their individualities,

ling of statesmen

case the

play

and of describing their whereabouts.

To
"
I

us an

awkward

spectacle

is

presented

with servants and attendmost part the plots are quite ants. For the straightforward, and no mystery is ever preis historical,

when an

actor comes forward and begins,

sented to tax the intelligence of the audience.

am

So-and-so, the son of Such-an-one,"

With

typical Chinese minuteness the

mo-

and then goes on to describe his trade, the

tives, desires,

members of

his household,

and everything

and actions of the characters explained, and the only people who are fully

FOOD, DRESS
personages in the play
the mandarins

AND AMUSEMENTS.

245

are supposed to be mystified are either the

This Pharisaical sanctimoniousness to some
extent runs through the farces and lighter
pieces in

who

are wronged, or

who

are called upon to ad-

which the people
first

delight.

Some of
theatres.

judicate on the crimes committed
lains of the
is

by the

vil-

them

are very comical, and might well be
pieces at our

dramas.

In

all

cases the action

adapted for
In some

own

and is unhampered with any of those issues which add so much to the interest of Western performances.
direct,

we

find incidents with

which we are

all familiar.

For example, Desdemona's handkerchief
reappears in a Pekin farce, in which a jealous

Contemptible Characters.
In a vast majority of cases the object of
the play
is

waterman

finds fault with his wife for asso-

to elevate virtue,

and to hold up

ciating too constantly with

a Buddhist

priest

the disturbers of households are generally

tyranny and wrong to just execration.

The
The
crea-

represented as priests.
friend

The

lady suspects a

means adopted
dialogue
is

to these ends are not always
in

of her husband

of having instilled
in-

such as to commend them
often coarse,

our eyes.

jealously into her

good man's mind, and

and the virtuous

duces him to quarrel with his associate.
friend being determined to

The
and

characters are
tures.
It is

commonly contemptible

prove the justice
priest,

a peculiarity which runs through

of his suspicions, watches for the

the whole of Chinese society that the utter-

catches him in the act of paying a clandestine visit to the lady.

ances of high-sounding moral sayings and

extremely virtuous platitudes are held to be
quite sufficient to atone for heinous moral

A

Mixed Play.

delinquencies and personal pusillanimity.

In the struggle which ensues the priest
offi-

Just as in real
cial

life

Imperial edicts and

drops a handkerchief which had been given

proclamations abound with lofty sentirighteous phrases, while every

him by

his inamorata.

His opponent
it

seizes

ments and

the token and presents

to the husband,

word

is falsified

tous actions

by the degraded and iniquiof the writers, so an Emperor
yields to a barbarous foe with-

who

recognizes

it

as one which he

to his faithless consort.

had given With a more dis-

on the stage

cerning poetic justice than that which befell

out striking a blow for his country, but ac-

companies the action with

so

many

fine

words and

he covers himself with all the glory of a Black Prince at Crecy or a Henry V. on the field of Aginlofty sentiments that

Desdemona, the priest and the lady in this case suffer an equally dire fate with that which overtook that unfortunate heroine. As seen, however, on the Chinese stage, the native dramas have drawbacks other than
those mentioned above.

t

court.

All the female parts

In the same

way a man breaks
but

every comif

are played

mandment

in the decalogue,

he takes

dialogue

is

by young men or boys, and the constantly interrupted by lines of
all

care at the

same time
filial

to sprinkle his dis-

poetry which are sung, as are
songs, in a shrill falsetto.

Chinese

course with well-seasoned exhortations to
the practice of
piety,

of profound reverence for
tires

and the exercise Confucius, he reall his of-

from the boards purged of
if

musicians, also, are seated on the and keep up so continuous an accompaniment as to make much of what the
stage,

The

fences,

not in the

full

odor of sanctity.

actors say inaudible.

Not only do they

ac-

246

CHINA: PAST
the songs, but on the expression

AND PRESENT.
lated as to express action with great cleverness.

company

of any lofty sentiment they

come down with
that

Figures of a smaller kind are simil-

a crash of their instruments to add emphasis
to

arly exhibited in peep-shows,

which are

fre-

the utterance.

It

has been said

quently to be met with at street corners, and

these performances are given from a desire
to

on the open spaces

in

front of the temples.

do honor to the gods

:

but other excuses
for indulgence in
festivals
first

As

conjurers and acrobats the Chinese are

are very

commonly found

very proficient, and often manage to intro-

the pastime.
at

On

high days and

duce an amount of acting into their tricks

New

Year's time, often on the

and

fifteenth

of the month, and on other holi-

days

which adds greatly to the effect produced. On one occasion the present writer witnessed the performance of a conjurer, who, with the help of a
off his skill in the Tientsin.
little

subscriptions are rdsed for the pur-

pose of engaging troupes of actors

who

are

boy, was showing

always ready at hand.

Consular compound at
to
in the

The man made a cabbage

Popular Dramas.

grow from a seed which he planted
presence of his audience,
are pro-

As

a rule, the theatres are of the Thesif

he swallowed a
off

pian kind, and,

enclosed at

all,

sword, and, after doing a number of similar
tricks,

vided only with temporary coverings of mat,

he inquired whether he should cut
head.

which are erected
eral

in

a night, and can be deIn surveying the genit

his assistant's

molished in a night.
said that
is
is

the affirmative, the
victim,

The answer being in man turned to seize his
fled

tendency of Chinese plays
it is

cannot be

who, however, had

on hearing

elevating in character, and this

the inhuman assent to his decapitation.

so far recognized that, though the drama
universally popular,

and

is

patronized

by

"The Blood

Spurted."

the Court and by the leaders of the people,
the actors are frowned upon and are officially

After a keen and long pursuit he was,

however, caught, and was
ioned.

led,

struggling and

regarded as pariahs of society.
Neither they nor their sons are allowed to
present themselves at the competitive examinations,

weeping, to the block, to which he was pin-

and the doors of

official

life

are

thus closed to them.

Not long
to

since a

memorial
of an actor

was

presented

the

throne

protesting against a certain

man

—who

—the

The conjurer then handed round his weapon that the keenness of the edge might be tested, and having taken up his position dealt what seemed to be a fierce blow on the bare neck of the boy, at which, what appeared to be blood spurted out
tions,
in all

son

direc-

had passed

his

examinapersonal

and

at the

same

instant that he

drew
aloft

tion being allowed a degree.

No

a cloth over the quivering form he held a

charge was brought against the man himself beyond that of having concealed his origin
before the examiners, but
fatal to
;

dummy

head, which bore just sufficient re-

semblance to the features of the lad to favor
the illusion that he had, indeed, been but-

was him his certificates were cancelled, and he was relegated to the outcast class from which he had sprung.
his descent

chered to

make

a holiday.

In the more occult arts of necromancy

As

a

substitute for regular

plays marion-

and enchantment Taoist priests are the acknowledged masters. From time immemorial

ettes are

very common, and are so manipu-

these followers of Laotzu have, in popu-

FOOD, DRESS
lar belief,

AND AMUSEMENTS.
side,

247
Tieh Kwai passed the

possessed the power of controlling
In one wellpriest in-

and

in this guise

the elements, of annihilating space and of

remainder of his existence.
Clairvoyance
the
principle
is

making themselves

invisible.

largely practiced, and

on

known
face

historical battle

a Taoist

that

accumulated
it

evidence
is

voked such a storm of
of the

rain

and

hail in the
fell

proves the truth of a theory,
not to accept

difficult

opposing forces that they

many

of" the facts " stated
Like our

by

easy victims to the swords of their adversaries.

native eye-witnesses.

own

pro-

fessors of the art Chinese clairvoyants read

the secret thoughts of their audiences, de-

Story of

Empty Oranges.
it

On

another accepted occasion

is

said

minute accuracy, and by "crystal-gazing," and other means,
scribe absent persons with

that as

a troop of coolies were carrying
capital,

are often said to be instrumental in detecting
criminals,

oranges to the

they were overtaken

and
is

in discovering the

whereabouts
use of the

by a lame Taoist priest, who offered to ease them of their burdens, and who carried the
whole quantity with the greatest ease
rest

of lost persons and things.
planchette

The

very common, and though the

for the

Chinese, from their phlegmatic nature, are

of the journey.
fruit

On arrival at the

palace,

not easily subjected to magnetic influences,
the effects produced are certainly remarkable.

however, the

were found to be hollow,

and the coolies were only saved from condign punishment by the appearance of the priest, at whose word the oranges were again converted into rich and luscious fruit. Another well-known instance of supernatural power is that attributed to Tieh Kwai, who possessed the power of projecting himself wheresoever he would. On one
occasion the magician sent forth his inner
self to

Expert Gymnasts.

As gymnasts they are
to the best performers
it is

in

no way

inferior

among

ourselves,

and

not necessary to believe the wonderful

stories told

by

early

European

travellers in

China of the proficiency of native acrobats to

the mountain of the gods.

Before

starting
disciple

on his spiritual journey he left a to watch over his body, promising to
Unfortunately,

return in seven days.
six days

when
called

had expired the watcher was

away

to the death-bed of his mother,

and

them with noteworthy skill and agility. Even women possess unwonted power of strength and balance. But, above and beyond all the other amusements of the Chinese, gambling holds a conspicuous place. Although it is strictly forbidden by law, it is winked at, and even encouraged by the authorities. It not uncredit

being thus placed in a dilemma between his
duties as a son,
friend,

frequently happens that

magistrates

even
into

and

his

obligation to his

convert the outer rooms of their
derived from the business.

yamuns

determined to carry the body of his

gambling-houses, and share in the profits
In every city
these dens of corruption abound, and, as a
rule,

master to his mother's home.

Being there detained, he was unable to

keep

his tryst at the appointed time,
spirit,

and the
earthly

consist

of two apartments.

In the

disembodied
habitation

finding that

its

outer one the stakes arc laid in copper cash,

had disappeared, was compelled,
suffer extinction, to enter the

and

in the inner

room

silver

only

is

risked.

rather than

carcase of a beggar which lay

by the road-

Not content with the ordinary games of chance, such as those afforded by cards,

248
roulette

CHINA: PAST
and other
tables, the ingenuity of the

AND PRESENT.
is

unlocked.

If a

gambler has marked only

people is exercised in inventing new means of losing their money. When there are no examinations to be decided and wagered on, the proprietor of a gambling-house will sometimes take a sheet of paper on which are inscribed eighty characters, and having marked twenty, will deposit it in a box.

four of the characters selected
seer,
five

he receives nothing.

by the overIf he has marked
;

of them, he receives seven cash
;

if six,

seventy cash

if

eight, seven dollars

;

and

if

ten, fifteen dollars.

In the streets the same spirit of speculation flourishes,

and every
the

itinerant

vendor

of eatables, whether of fried locusts,
sweets,

or

more

satisfying

rice

with

fish

or vegetables,

keeps

a

set

of dice for the use of those customers

who
their

prefer to run

the risk of winning
or of losing
food, to
for
their

meals
the

for

nothing,

both their

money and
ordinary

their

paying
viands.

price

In

dwelling-houses

cards

are

everywhere played, and to the ladies
they supply an inexhaustible source of

amusement.

The

cards are smaller and
in

more numerous than
lend themselves to

our packs, and

an endless variety

of games.

Only One Coin.
The coinage
institution

of China, like every other

two aspects
it

of the Flowery Land,
^the

has
pro-

one that which

it

fesses to be,

and the other that which
Strange as
it

really

is.

may

seem,

the Chinese have only one coin, which
is

known

to

them as

chien,

and to us

as cash.

In value a cash professes to

be about one-tenth of a half-penny, but as

ACTOR OF COCHIN-CHINA.
Copies of the sheet bearing the same eighty
characters are distributed

a matter of fact
district,

it

varies in almost every

among gamblers
mark the same
in

to

find

and it is even not at all uncommon two kinds of cash current in one
In some parts of the countiy

whose supreme
the box.

object

is

to

neighborhood.

twenty characters as those on the sheet

people go to market with two entirely distinct
sets

of cash, one of which

is

the ordinary
is

When

all

the papers have been received,

mixture of good and bad, and the other

the box which contains the overseer's paper, and which stands conspicuously on the table,

composed exclusively of

counterfeit pieces.

Certain articles are pEiid for with the

spun

FOOD, DRESS
ouscash only.
modities this
is

AND AMUSEMENTS.
accuracy even the cash
is

249
undeserving the

But

in regard to other

com-

a matter of special bargain,

name of coin,
it

since instead of being
cast,

and accordingly there is for these articles a double market price. Independently, again, of the confusion arising from the use of genuine and counterfeit coins side by side, is added the uncertainty due to the system of
counting.

is

roughly

and both
little

in design

moulded and
nation

manufacture does

credit to a

which

is

unquestionably possessed of a large
artistic taste.

share of

Of late

the Governor-

general of Canton has established a mint at
that city, at which he coins both gold
silver tokens.

A hundred

cash means varying

and

/lumbers, other than a hundred, which are

determined by the usage of each

locality.

A

stranger, therefore,

is

liable

to suffer
still

The Oldest Bank Note.
These, however, pass current only in the

loss at the

hands of tradespeople, who

further complicate matters

by almost

invaria-

bly naming a higher price for each article

than that which they are prepared to accept.

The weight
is

of any considerable sum in cash an additional objection to these most in-

convenient coins. dollar's worth of cash weighs about eight pounds, and the transportation of
fore,

A

and so far the Imperial Government has shown no inclination to follow the excellent example set by this satrap. For many centuries bank bills and notes have been issued at the well-established banks in the principal centres of commerce, and during the Mongol dynasty the central Government
locality,

any large sum

in specie

is,

there-

introduced the practice of issuing Imperial
notes
to

a serious matter.

For the purpose of

the people.

A

note which was

carriage the cash are
in

the centre,

made with square holes by means of which they are

passed into currency during the reign of an

emperor of the succeeding Ming dynasty,

strung in nominal hundreds and thousands.

who
in a

reigned from

show-case

in

1 368 to 1 399, is exhibited the King's Library in the

Lumps
It is obvious,

of Silver.

British

of course, that for the pur-

oldest note
Its

Museum, and is a specimen of the which is known to exist.

chase of anything

commanding more than a
is

date carries us back long before the

very low value some other currency must be

general adoption of bank-notes in Europe,

employed, and
silver,

this

supplied

by lumps of
parlance

the values of which are in every case

tested

by the

scales.
is

In

common

and three hundred years before the establishment of the Stockholm bank, which was the first bank in Europe to issue notes. At the
present time notes are largely used at Pekin,

the price of goods
taels weight,

reckoned at so

many

a tael being, roughly speaking,
cast into

but the very uncertain state of the currency
renders a large depreciation inevitable, and

the equivalent of an ounce, and for the sake of general convenience silver
is

makes tradespeople sometimes unwilling to
accept them.

"shoes," as they are called from their shape, weighing a specified number of taels or
ounces.

Imperfect and undeveloped though

it is,

the coinage of China has a very long ancesin

For smaller amounts than are contained
but in every case the value
is

a "shoe," broken pieces of silver are used,
reckoned, not
In strict

by the

piece,

but by the weight.

and can trace its descent from about 2000 B. C. One of the earliest shapes which the coins took was that of a knife, no doubt in imitation of the real weapon, which was
try,

250
early used as a

CHINA: PAST
medium
of exchange.

AND PRESENT.
fishes,

These

and flowers
life

is

remarkable, and an

knife coins originally consisted of the blade

exquisite skill in harmonizing colors, and of

and handle, the last of which was terminated in a round end which was pierced in imitation of the article

giving

and vigor to forms,

distinguishes

the works of artists on both shores of the

which they were intended
degrees the blade became
entirely disappeared.

Yellow Sea.
In like manner the

to represent.

By
it

same

faults are observ-

shortened, until

The

able in both schools.

handle next suffered diminution, and eventually the

monly
form
suffer

defective, the
is

is comanatomy of the human

Perspective

was

all

round end with a hole in the centre that was left, and it is that which is

entirely

misunderstood, and

the

larger animals, such as horses and
distortion at the

cattle,
artists.

perpetuated at the present day in the modern
cash.

hands of the

One
the artists of Japan
late acquired,
effect

noticeable feature in the technicalities
is

The prominence which
have of

of the art

the absence of shadow, the
is

and the very inferior specimens of Chinese work which now commonly reach our shores, have blinded people
to the real merits of the pictorial art of China.

of which

produced by such
is

skilful

drawing that the omission
served.

scarcely ob-

We

are not

now

speaking of the

common
As

Ideal Landscapes.
in the case of every fine art in

brightly colored paintings on rice-paper which are brought from Canton

China,
to

by travellers, but of
paint,

the most precise

rules

are

laid

down

the works

of

men who

and have

guide the painter, and the
in

effect is

observable

painted, for the love of the art,
for the taels they

and not only

a certain uniformity in pictures of land-

can earn by their brushes.

scapes and in the groupings of figures.

The

ideal landscape of the guide-books consists

Superb Paintings.
ago a magnificent collection of Japanese paintings was exhicited at the British Museum, and was arranged in such a manner as to show that the art of China For this purpose the and Japan is one.
paintings were arranged chronologically, be-

of a cloud-capped mountain, in the

bosom
wil-

A few years

of which a temple nestles
trees,

surrounded by

one of which must be a weeping

low.

On

a rocky eminence should stand a

gaunt and bowed pine-tree.
be a waterfall crossed

Near

this

must

by

a rustic bridge,

forming a link in a winding path which leads

ginning with

some

early specimens of Chi-

up to the temple, while

in the far distance

nese

art,

and leading up to the time when

should be seen sailing-boats wending their

the Japanese learned the use of the brush

ways on the much-winding
tion of a couple of

river which flows

from

their

more

cultivated neighbors.
dis-

ronnd the foot of the mountain.

The

addi-

A

comparison of the pictures thus

aged chess-players seated
hill
life

played was enough to prove to demonstration that the artistic flame

under a willow tree on a prominent plateau

which has burned
lit

on the side of the
being likely to give
In

is

recommended

as

so brightly in Japan was of

Chinese

masters.
features

by the genius The same marked
characterize

to the scene.

and
arts

peculiar

the

of the two

countries.

In

both the
birds,

two branches of their art Chinese draughtsmen may be said especially to excel. In the certainty with which they draw their
outlines they are probably

power of representing with

fidelity

unmatched, ex-

PORCELAIN VASES OF NORTHERM CHINA.

252
cept

CHINA: PAST
by the Japanese, and
skilful

AND PRESENT.
religious

in

the beauty of

mysteries,

its

sacred biographies

their miniature painting

they have few equals.
in

and

its

miraculous legends, supplied a fresh
artists

The

use of his brush

schoolboy has to gain

which every copying the heir-

motive to the

of China,

who

at once

caught the inspiration, although they treated
the subjects after the
ner.

oglyphic characters of the language accus-

marked

national

man-

toms him to sketch forms with accuracy, and gives him an assured confidence in the drawing of his outlines.
Skillful

In the troublous period which sucfall

ceeded the

of the

Han

dynasty (A. D.

220), art, like all the other accomplishments

which

flourish best in time of peace,
it

fell

into

Draughtsmen.
is

decay, and
of

was not

until the establishment

As, in addition, he

habituated to the

the

Tang dynasty
its

(A.

D.

618)

use of Indian ink instead of lead pencils, he
false line must always remain him as evidence of his want of skill. The mastery thus acquired gives him that wonderful power of unfalteringly expressing
is

golden age of literature and culture
art

— —

^the

that

aware that a

occupied again

true prominence in the

against

estimation of the people.

Scenes
It is at this

in

Nature.

on paper the scenes he wishes to deUneate which so often excites the astonishment of
foreign draughtsmen.

period that

we

find the objects

of nature represented with the fidelity and
skill

with which

we

are familiar in Chinese

This practice with the brush stands the
miniature painter in equally good stead, and

work.

Throwing

aside the martial notions

of the earliest masters, and the religfous
ideas imported from India, the native artists

him to lay on his colors with such and with so unfailing a steadiness of hand and eye, that he is able to represent with clearness, and often with exquisite
enables
certainty,

sought their subjects in the

fields

and woods,
bank.

on the mountain side and by the

river's

They

transferred to their canvasses the land-

beauty, patterns of microscopic minuteness.

scapes which met their eyes, the flowers

No
art

better specimen of this last phase of the

can be instanced than the best examples

of painting on porcelain.

For delicacy of
these are

which grew around them, the birds as they flew or perched, and the fishes as they darted and swam in the clear water of the streams.

touch and richness of coloring
often

masterpieces,

and possess a beauty

common
like

These they depicted with the minuteness to their craft, and rivalled in liferendering the

which must charm every tutored eye. According
to tradition the first beginnings

work of the

celebrated
said that,

Tsao (A. D. 240), of

whom

it

is

of art in China are to be traced back
centuries before Christ,
in all primitive societies, to the

many

" having painted a screen for his sovereign,

and were devoted, as adornment of the palaces of kings and the houses of the great nobles. If historians are to be trusted,
the

he carelessly added the representation of 'a fly to the picture, and that so perfect was the
illusion

that on

receiving the screen

Sun

Kuan
away."

raised his

hand to brush the

insect

rude
of

efforts

of these early

artists

bore

traces

the

characteristics

which

have

marked so
of the
art.

distinctly the later

developments

As time advanced the lamp of art again grew dim, and it required the fresh impetus
of a new dynasty to revive its brilliancy. The Sung dynasty (A. D. 960-1278) was

The

introduction of Buddhism, with

its

FOOD, DRESS
rich in philosophers, poets,

AND AMUSEMENTS.
display great

253

and

painters,

and

of this branch of the art which undoubtedly

while

Chu Hi wrote

metaphysical treatises,

power of composition and

infi-

and the brothers Su sung of wine and the
beauties of nature.

nite skill in the art of coloring.

Ma

Yuen,

Muh

Ki, Li

As

a

rule,

however, the coloring of Chiis

Lungyen, and a host of others painted birds and flowers, landscapes and figures, dragons and monkeys, together with all kinds of other beasts which walk on the face of the earth, or are supposed to do so. With the rise to power of the Mongol
dynasty
in

nese pictures, though always harmonious,

somewhat arbitrary and

leaves on the eye an

unpleasant feeling of flatness.

In sense of

humor
same

the Chinese are certainly inferior to

the Japanese.
fertility

There

is

not in their work the

of invention or happy choice of

the

1

3th'

century the taste for the

ideas as are to be found on the other side of

religious art of India revived, but did not
eclipse the expression

on canvas of that love

of nature for which both the Chinese and

Japanese are so conspicuous.

But still

paintit

ing did not reach the high level to which

had attained
every other

in the earlier
institution

periods, and as of

But Chinamen are not by any means devoid of this quality, and in many of their albums we find comic sketches reminding one irresistibly, though at a distance, of the masterpieces of our most successful comic artists. The absence of the
the Yellow Sea.

of

China,
art,

we

are

use of profile lines deprives the Chinese portrait-painter of the full
life-like

obliged to say of the pictorial
is

"the old

power of presenting
full-face portraits.

better."

representations of his models, as he

During the last dynasty, however, there were artists whose power of coloring was as great or even greater than that of any
of their
predecessors,

almost invariably draws

When by

chance, however, he strikes off a

side face the effect

so

far

as

we

are

ness accurate.

But

able to judge.

With

infinite skill

realism they painted figures in a

and minute way which

artistic feeling is

good and the likeany circumstances the there, and it needs but the
is ofl:en

in

touch of a torch from a higher
to

civilization

commands

just admiration.

In the British

make

this

Museum

there are exhibited

some specimens

glow

into

and other branches of the more perfect life.

art

CHAPTER
RELIGIOUS sentiment
acteristic of the
is

XIV.

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA.
not a char-

whole system

is

devoted to inculcating the

Chinese.

Their

duty which each

man owes

to his fellow-

views on the subject of faith are

men, and stops short with the obligations
under which every one
to society.
rests in his relation

wanting
the

in definitiveness,
it

and are
the premulti-

so indistinct and blurred that
v/it

might surpass
is

of

man

to determine

what

Of

these three systems Confucianism
its

is

vailing religion of the country.

The

the only one which took

rise

on the

soil

tude of Buddhist temples which cover the
face of the land

of China.

The

other two faiths came, as

might naturally suggest that

have most of those influences which have
modified the institutions of China, from be-

the majority of the people profess the religion
of

Buddha

;

while conversations with native

yond the western
one

frontiers

of the Empire.

scholars
believe

would unquestionably lead one to that the educated classes were to a

Confucianism, however, was formulated by

man, who was
in

essentially

a t3^ical

man
sway

Confucianists.

Chinaman both
not

the strength and weak-

Taoism, the third religion which holds
in China, does

ness of his character.

make

tension to popularity as
faiths.

the same predo the other two
fact,

Story of Confucius.
In the year 55 1 B. C, Confucius was bom what is now the department of Yenchow,
the province of Shantung.

As

a matter of

however,

it

would probably be difficult to find many Chinamen who are Confucianists pure and
simple, or

in in

Legend

sur-

many who

rest contented with the

rounds his birth with

many

of the signs and

worship provided in Buddhist temples.

A
in

combination of the two

—an

wonders which are commonly said to herald
the appearance of Eastern sages.
told that the

amalgam

We

are

which the materialism of Confucius and the religious faith of Sakyamuni mutually
supplement one another
of the people at large
;

future

saw the

light in

uncrowned king first a cavern on Mount Ni, and

enters into the

life

that while

two goddesses breathed fragrant

while Taoism supplies

odors on the infant, a couple of dragons kept

a certain amount of superstitious lore which
these lack.

watch during the auspicious night at the foot
of the mountain.

way

necessary to remark by caution that the term " religion " apof
It is
is

plied to Confucianism

rather a popular

He had

His appearance was not prepossessing. the lips of an ox, the back of a
for

than an exact form of expression.
implies the dependence of

Religion
Deity,

dragon, while on his head grew a formation

man on a

which earned

him the name of Chiu, "a

and

we apply this definition to the doctrines of Confucius, we find that it in no way repreif

mound."

As

the lad grew up he developed
of his

that taste for ritual which
characteristic

sents the teachings of that philosopher.

His

was the marked whole career. Like

254

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA.
Saint Athanasius on the shores of the Medi-

255

of every one was against his neighbor, and

terranean Sea, he

amused himself in earlyboyhood by rehearsing the sacrificial rites, and by practising the postures of ceremony prescribed by the older rituals.

when the strength of the right arm commanded more respect than wisdom in council. Sovereign after sovereign, attracted by the
novelty of his teachings and the repute which

us that he and four years later he married a lady who, like the wives of many other celebrated men, was a thorn
tells

At

the age of fifteen he

" bent his

mind

to learning,"

in

the flesh to her husband.

Confucius
until

was already beginning to attach itself to him, invited him to their courts, and for a time gave heed to the words of wisdom which fell from his lips. But their hearts were not with him, and more material attractions were
apt to prevail over the sayings of the sage.

endured the burden without complaint
his

had borne him a son, when he sought release from his bondage at the hands
wife

On

one occasion the present of a number

of beautiful singing girls so captivated the
attention of the

of the very complaisant marital laws of the
country.

Duke

of

Lu

that the advice

of Confucius was neither sought nor regarded.

Disgusted by this
state

affi-ont,

the sage
feet

History and Ballads.

shook the dust of the

from his

and

The

literature

of China at this time was

transferred his services to a rival ruler.

On

limited in extent,
historical

and consisted mdnly of the records and popular ballads which

another occasion he was driven from the

Court of Wei, where he had established himself,

were to be found in the royal archives. To a study of these Confucius devoted such time as he could spare from his official duties as keeper of the royal stores, and from
the hours which he devoted to the instruction

by the undue preference shown by the duke for the society of the duchess to that of

himself.

A

Fabulous Animal.
in years his political influ-

of a faithful band of students who, even at
this time,

As he advanced
courts

had gathered round him. When he was twenty-nine " he stood firm," and certainly neither at this time nor at any
faith

ence declined, and his stay at the regal

became shorter and

less satisfactory

than formerly.
health
failed,

At

the age of sixty-nine his

subsequent period did his
convictions

in his

own

show the

least sign of faltering.
affluent.

and the capture of a Lin fabulous animal which is said to appear as a
forerunner of the death of illustrious person-

His circumstances were not
official
life

An

was, therefore, necessary to his

ages

^was effected at the

same time.

In the

and he had no sooner equipped himself with a full panoply of ritualistic knowledge than he cast about to find a ruling sovereign who would be willing to guide the
existence,

dearth of notable personages which had over-

taken the land the appearance of these ani-

mals was of such rare occurrence that the

huntsmen were ignorant of its

identity.

policy of the

kingdom by

his counsel.

The

sage, however, at once recognized the

He was

essentially a

man

of peace, and
develop-

creature, and, with that full appreciation of

his opinions were such as required a period

himself which never failed him, he at once

of undisturbed calm for their

full

came
near.

ment.
him.

The
It

times,

however, were against

to the conclusion that his own end was " The course of my doctrine is run,"

was an age of war, when the hand

he

said, as tears

coursed

down

his cheeks.

256

CHINA: PAST
interval,
its

AND PRESENT.
many
of the great leaders of mankind, the

An

however, elapsed between the
fulfilment,

omen and

and the two years

which yet remained to him he devoted to the compilation of the "Spring and Autumn Annals" the only work which is attributable to his pen. His end now approached, and one morning he was heard to mutter, as he paced up and down in front of his door, "The great mountain must crumble, the

fame and repute which were denied to Confucius during his lifetime have been fully and
generously recognized

have attached to

by posterity, who every word he uttered, and
life,

to every act of his

meaning to which,

it

an importance and must be allowed, they

are not always entitled.

Confucius was not an original thinker.

THE TEMPLE OF FIVE HUNDRED CHINESE
strong
wither

GODS.

beam must away like a

break, and the wise
plant."

man

He

uttered

no new thoughts and enunciated

In these words his disciples recognized the foreshadowing of his death, and the sage,
disappointed in every one but himself, and
filled

no new was " a
his
life

doctrines.

He

himself said that he

transmitter,"

and the one object of

was, as he professed, to induce the

rulers of the land to revei't to the ideal sys-

with

unavailing

regrets

that

there

should have been no intelligent monarch

tem which guided the councils of the semimythical sovereigns Yao and Shun (B. C.
ords, to

who would have made him
and died (479 B. C).

his guide, phil-

osopher, and friend, shortly took to his bed

2356-2205). In the adulatory State Recwhich Confucius had access, the

As

in the case of
*:•.-(>

good that these monarchs did was embalmed

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA.
for the admiration of posterity, but the evil,
if

267

there were such, was interred with their

he walked with a bent head and humble mien, and towards parents he inculcated throughout his career the duty of paying minute

bones.

The

stilted

sayings and highly moral re-

obedience and the most affectionate attention to their every

which are attributed to them in the Book of History and other Records, appeared to Confucius to be the acme of wisdom, and he sought a remedy for all the political ills which surrounded him in the reproduction
flections

wish and command.

In the manner in which he took his food,
in the in which he dressed, even in the which he lay in bed, he set himup as an example for all men to follow.

way

attitude in
self

of the condition of things which prevailed

People, he believed, were as grass before the

His leading dogma was the comfortable doctrine that man is born good, and that it is only by contaminaat the earlier period.

wind, and that,

if

they were bent by the

in-

fluence of a superior in a certain direction,

they would naturally follow that inclination.
'

tion with the world

and the things of the
It

world that he

is

led to depart from the strict

That the example of the sovereign was as the wind, and that he had but to allow his
virtue to shine forth to ensure the
tion of the

paths of rectitude and virtue.

was only

reforma"

necessary, therefore, for a sovereign to give
full

vent to his natural strivings after good

to enable
ples

him to emulate the glowing examof Yao and Shun.

How
He made no
sions

to Gain 'Wisdom.

allowance for the

evil pas-

and moral turpitudes which disgrace
failed to recognize
is

mankind, and he entirely
that "there

would would be established he would lead them on, and forthwith they would follow him he would make them happy, and forthwith multitudes would resort to his dominions he would stimulate them, and forthwith they would be harmonious. While he lived, he would be glorious. When he died, he would be bitwhole
state.

Such a man

plant the people, and forthwith they
;

;

;

power that shapes our ends, rough-hew them as we may." On the contrary, he held that man was alone arbiter of his own fate, and that by a strict regard to conventionalities, and by the careful oba

terly lamented."

Incapable Rulers.

servance of the

rites

proper between
attain

man

and man,

it

was possible to

such a

height of wisdom and righteousness as to
constitute an equality with

Heaven

itself.

His system,
tivation

began with the culthe individual, and this was to be of
therefore,

perfected

by a

strict

observance of the minIn his

utest details of conduct.

own person

he

set

an

illustrious

example of how a great

and an on the land. When, therefore, a state was disturbed and rebellious, the main fault was not to be attributed to the people, but to the sovereign who ruled them and hence it followed that the duties of ruler and people were reciprocal, and that while the people owed respect and obedience to virtuous sovereigns, they were exempt from the duty of loyalty to rulers who had departed from the
to exist

Such a sovereign need but

age of peace and prosperity would

settle

;

and good man should demean himself. He cultivated dignity of manner and scrupulous respect to those to whom respect was due.

paths of virtue.

According to
righteously.

his theory,

it

was an easy

matter for a sovereign to rule his people
"Self-adjustment and purifica-

When
17

he entered the palace of

his sovereign

258
tion,

CHINA:

MST AND

PRESENT.

with careful regulation of his dress and

the not making a

movement contrary to the rules of propriety this is the way for the ruler to cultivate his person." Having cultivated his own person, he is able to rule the

earthy, and as such was exactly suited to the commonplace, matter-of-fact tone of the Chi-

nese mind.
that,

And

thus

it

has come about

though,

during his lifetime, his influence
disci-

was confined to a small knot of faithful
ples, his

Empire, and' Confucius -could find no excuse,
therefore, for a sovereign

who

failed to fulfil

system has since been accepted as the guiding star of the national pohcy and
conduct.

these very easy conditions.

Confucius was
Skeptical Views.

not the only teacher of
this

note
for

who appeared about

time to warn

In such a system there

is

no room

a

the people of the probable consequences of the violence and misrule which was spreading over the Empire like a flood.
centuries

personal Deity, and Confucius withheld

all

sanction to the idea of the existence of such

For many

a Being.
future

He

refused to

lift

his eyes

above

men

calling

themselves Taoists,

the earth or to trouble himself about the

who were

plainly

beyond the grave. " When we know so little about life, was his reply to an inquisitive

phical mysticism of Brahminical India,

imbued with the philosohad

preached the vanity of attempting to stem
the tide of disorder, and had, like the Manichaeans, withdrawn as far as possible from

disciple,

"how

can

we know anything

about death?" and the best advice he could
give his followers with regard to spiritual be-

the crowd of

men

into selfish retirement.

ings was to keep

them

at a distance.

But while ignoring

all

direct supernatural

Disagreed

With

Confucius."

interference in the concerns of

man, he adhis fol-

The

views of these
it

men were vague and
until the

vocated the highest morality
lowers.

among

shadowy, and
of Laotzu,
senior to

was not

appearance
aspirations

Truth and

Sincerity, Righteousness

who was
Confucius,

a contemporary of but
that
their

and Virtue were the main themes of his discourses, and though he himself failed on many occasions to observe the truth, he yet professed and felt the greatest respect and regard for that virtue. He was a plain, unimaginative man, but used the mundane weapons at his command with mighty and
far-reaching effect.

found expression in a formulated system. In
almost every respect Laotzu, or the old
philosopher, was poles asunder from Confucius.

Of

his

childhood and youth

we

know
we

nothing, and, unlike Confucius,
life

whose

every act of daily
are
left

is

faithfully recorded,

in

complete ignorance of his per-

Once only he reached
perfect Christianity,

to the high level of
in the enunciation

and

of the command " to do unto others as you would they should do unto you," he sur-

as an old man, holding the office of keeper of the records at the Court of Chow.
sanal history until

we meet him

We are told that his
that his personal

surname was

Li,

and
is,

passed himself.

From

his

limited

stand-

name was Urh, which

point he had no future bliss to offer to his
followers as a reward for virtue, nor

being

interpreted,
is

any punishments after death with which to awe those who were inclined to depart from the paths of rectitude. His teaching was of the earth,

which

said to

"an ear" a sobriquet have been given him on ac-

count of the unusually large size of those
organs.

His

birth,

we

are told, took place in the

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA.
year 604 B.

259

C,

at the village of Chiijen, or
in the parish of

to the state of simplicity before the absence

"Oppressed Benevolence,"

of the virtues which Confucius lauded had
forced on the minds of
ness

Li, or "Cruelty," in the district of Ku, or " Bitterness," and in the state of Tsu, or

men

the conscious-

of their existence.

He would
when

have
filial

"Suffering."

If

these

places

were

as

them

revert to a halcyon period

mythical as John Bunyan's " City of Destruction "

piety, virtue

and "Vanity Fair,"

their

names

and righteousness belonged to the nature of the people, and before the recognition of their opposites

could not

have been more appropriately

made

it

neces-

chosen to designate the birthplace of a sage

sary to designate them.
Instead of asserting themselves, he urged
his
disciples

who was
by

driven from office and from friends
It is

the disorders of the time.

remark-

to

strive after self-emptiness.

able that the description of his large ears

and general appearance

tallies

accurately

with those of the non-Chinese tribes on the

was that of water, which at the same time permeates everything, and by
His
favorite illustration

which seeks the lowliest
its

spots, but

western frontiers of the Empire.
Indian

constant dropping pierces even the hardsubstances.

est

By
walk

practising

modesty,

Philosophy.

humility
taught,

and

gentleness,
to

men

may,

he

His surname,

Li, also

reminds one of the

hope

safely

on the path

large and important tribe of that name which was dispossessed by the invading Chinese, and was driven to seek refuge in what is

which leads to Tao, and protected by those virtues they need fear no evil.

now Southwestern China. that may be, it is impossible
fact that

But, however,
to overlook the
his teachings a

The Mother
To such men
it

of All

Things.
effort to

requires

no more

he imported into

decided flavor of Indian philosophy.

keep themselves pure and uncontaminated than it does to the pigeon to preserve untarnished the whiteness of
its

His main object was to explain to his
that which

fol-

feathers, or to
its

lowers the relations between the universe and

the crow to maintain the sable hue of
pinions.

he called Tao,
is,

The

first

mean-

ing of this word
" It

teachings of Laotzu
that.

was the

The way," but in the was much more than way and the waygoer. It
it
it all

"

was an
all
it is

eternal road ; along

beings and

things walked, but no being

made

it,

for

being

ing,

was everything and nothand the cause and effect of all. All
itself; it

the negation of effort. It was and yet left nothing undone. It was formless, and yet the cause of form. It was still and void. It changed not, and yet it circulated everywhere. It was impalpable and invisible. It was the origin of heaven and earth, and it was the mother of all
inactive,

Tao was

things

originated from Tao, conformed
last returned."

to

Tao, and to Tao they at
nature of

such a prophet as Laotzu war was hateful, and he inculcated the duty of
things.

To

Like Confucius, Laotzu held that the

turning the other cheek to the smiter, and

man was originally good,

but from
In place

that point their systems diverged.

of the formalities and ceremonies which were
the corner-stones

of retreating before all forms of violence. Unlike Confucius, he advocated the duty of recompensing evil with good, and injury with
kindness;

of the Confucian

cult,

laotzu desired to bring his followers back

but he joined hands with that sage in ignoring the existence of a personal

260
Deity.

CHINA: PAST
Thus,
views.
all

AND PRESENT.
every
evil.

in

some particulars, they held
in all.
It

It did

not strive with man, but
its

let

common

each one

who

strayed from

paths find out
acts.

Tao was

and

was uncon-

for himself the evil

consequences of his

ditioned being, which, as an abstraction too

As

a

political

system Taoism was plainly

TEMPLE AT NANKIN.
subtle for words,
earth, including
is

the origin of heaven and

impracticable.

If the

Chinese state and the

God

Himself;

and,

when

capable of being expressed

mother of
tector

all things.
its

It

by name, is the was a mighty prosons against

surrounding nations could have been converted bodily to it, an ideal such as Laotzu sketched out may have found a place in
existence.

who guarded

faithful

But

in

camps and amid the

clash

THE RELIGIONS OF
of arms
its

CHINA.
;

261

adoption was plainly incompatible

themselves Taoists

and even Chi Hwangti,
fell

with the existence of a nation, and Laotzu,
finding that his preaching
fell

the builder of the Great Wall,
to the prevailing superstition.

a victim

on deaf

ears,

More than
Isles

resigned his missionary

effort,

and, leaving

once he sent expeditions to the Eastern
to procure the plant of immortality,

China behind him, started
tion

in

—whither we know
record has

a westerly direc-

which
spots.
states

not.

come down to us of his last days, nor have we any more knowledge of where death overtook him than we have of
his origin.

No

was said to flourish in those favored Death and poverty have always been
abhorrent to
elixir

common

humanity, and to the

of immortality, Taoist priests, in the

As

a meteor he flashed across

interests of the cause,

added a further con-

the meridian of China, and then disappeared
into darkness.

quest over nature, and professed to have

fathomed the secret of being able to transdoctrines advocated

A comparison of the
inspiration

mute common metals

into gold.

by Laotzu with the Brahminic philosophy,
proves to demonstration that he drew his
Believers in

Magic.

from India. The Tao of Laotzu expounded in the Taoteching, a work which is popularly attributed to him, was
as

These are superstitions which die hard,

and even
to

at the present

day alchemists are

be found poring over crucibles in the vain

the

Brahma

of the Brahmins, from which

thing returns

everything emanates and to which every" which is both the fountain ;
life
it

hope of being able to secure to themselves boundless wealth and seekers after magic herbs, though hesitating to promise by their
;

from which the stream of

breaks forth

use an endless

life,

yet attribute to

them the

and the ocean
itself."

into

which

hastens to lose

virtue of prolonging

youth and of delaying

the approach of the time

when " the strong

men

shall

bow

themselves, and the grinders

A
The whole

Crop of Heresies.
conception of the system was

cease because they are few, and those that

look out of the windows be darkened."

and his personal withdrawn from his influence was no sooner disciples than heresies cropped up and deforeign to the Chinese mind,

Coupled with these corruptions came a
desire for visible objects of worship, and, fol-

lowing the example of the Buddhists, the
Taoists deified Laotzu, and associated two

based views took the place of the singularly
pure and subtle metaphysical thoughts of
the
teacher.

other gods with

him

to form a trinity.

The

The

doctrine

that

life

and

establishment of these deities gave rise to a

death were mere phases in the existence of

demand

for

new gods

to personify the various

man encouraged

the growth of an epicurean
life

personal wants and wishes of the people.

longing to enjoy the good things of
oblivion of the hereafter.

in

At

the present day a Taoist temple

is

a

This tendency led
life,

veritable Pantheon,
sible to

and
for

it

is

scarcely pos-

to an inordinate desire to prolong

and

imagine a craving on the part of
or

there were not wanting

among

the followers
to

either

man

woman

which there

is

not

of

Laotzu those who professed
Several
of

have

a particular god or goddess whose province
it is

gained the secret of immortality.
the reigning sovereigns, atviews, professed

to listen to their cries.

Thus the whole

tendency of modern Taoism has been towards
the practice of magic and the most debased

tracted

by these heterodox

262
superstitions

CHINA: PAST
and
it

AND PRESENT.
as great a
fall

has found multitudes of

as has ever been recorded in

willing adherents.
If a

the history of religions.
to lead his disciples
self

Laotzu attempted

man

desires that his horoscope should

be

cast,

or that the

be expelled
child,

demon of disease should from the body of his wife or
spirit

beyond the attractions of and the seductions of the world. His
debased
superstitions
fatten

so-called followers devote their energies to

or that a

should be called from
discovered, a

encouraging the
their
follies.

of

the other world, or that the perpetrator of a
theft

fellow-men, and so

on

their

or murder should be
is

Taoist priest

invariably sent for, who,

by
Cravings of
his

the exercise of his arts, succeeds in so far
mystifying the inquirer as
to
satisfy
follies

Human

Nature.

demands.

These preyers on the

of

But there are instinctive longings in the minds of men, even in those of Chinamen,
which neither Confucianism, nor Taoism
its

their fellow-men reap so rich

a harvest from
eagerly sought

in

the practice of their rites and incantation,
that the calling
after.
is

earlier phase,

could supply.

Deep down
uncivilized

one that

is

in

the hearts of civilized and
is

peoples

a desire to peer into the future,

A

Pompous High

Priest.

Being thus largely supported, the Taoist hierarchy has grown into a large and powerful

body, and

is

presided over

priest,

who

is

chosen for the

office

by a high by divine
spiritual

and seek for verities beyond the limited circle of pains and miseries which bounds the present life. To Chinamen this want was supplied by Buddhism, which was introduced into the Flowery Land by native missionaries from
India.

So

early as

219 B. C. the

first fore-

selection

from a certain family bearing the
supposed to rest.
This ecclesiastic

runners of the faith of Sakyamuni reached
the Chinese capital of Loyang.

name of Chang, among whom the
afflatus is

But the

time was not ripe for their venture.
stoical

The

lives surrounded by wealth and dignity, and at stated intervals presents himself at Pekin

followers

of Confucius and Laotzu

presented a determined and successful opposition to

to offer his allegiance to the

Emperor.

them, and,

after

a chequered experi-

As
teries,

agreeable supplements to their monasthe Taoist priests encourage the estabgirls

ence of Chinese prisons and courts, they
disappeared from the scene, leaving no traces

lishment of nunneries, into which young

of their faith behind them.
In A. D. 61 a second mission arrived in

retreat, either at the bidding of their parents

or of their

own

free choice as

a means of

China, whose

members met with a

far

more

escape from the uncertainties of marriage or

favorable reception.

A

settled

government

from the miseries of their homes. Such retreats are not always the abodes of purity

had followed the time of disorder which had
previously preveiiled, and, though the Confucianists
aries

and peace, and, as occasionally has happened, the occurence of disorders and improprieties

raged and persecuted, the mission-

held their own, and succeeded in lay-

has compelled the law to interfere for
descent from the lofty aspirations of

ing the solid foundation of a faith which was
destined in later ages, to overspread the whole

their suppression.

The

Empire.

Laotzu to the magic, jugglery, and superstition of the

Even
rent the

at this early period

modem-day

Taoists

is

probably

Churgh

in

India,

a schism had where the Hina-

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA.
yana and Mahayana schools had already
divided
fessed to

263
in the arts

be adepts

of magic, and

the allegiance of the followers of

claimed to themselves the power of being

Buddha. The Hinayana school, which held more closely to the moral asceticism and self-denying, self-sacrificing charity which
were preached by the founder of the
established
iiself

faith,

remove pestilence, by their incantations. They posed as astrologers and exorcists, and made dupes of the people from the
able
to

banish famine,

and drive away

evil spirits,

more

especially

among

the

highest to the lowest.

and of Ceylon. Mahayana school, on the other hand, The which may be described as a philosophical system, which found expression in an elaborate ritual, an idolatrous symbolism, and in ecstatic meditation, gained its main supporters among the more hardy races of Northern India, Nepal, and Tibet.
natives of Southern India

Governed by the Senses.

life,

With the choice before them of a holy from which desire and self are wholly
and a
which and to the ordinary the modern Chinese have had no
religious profession

eradicated,

ministers to the senses
intelligence,

hesitation in throwing in their lot with the

Gained
It

Many

Converts.
faith

was

this last

form of the
It

which

more mundane school. With the five commandments of Buddha, "thou shalt not kill; thou shalt not steal thou shalt not commit
;

found acceptance
actly that

in China.

supplied ex-

which Confucianism and Taoism

any unchaste act thou shalt not lie thou shalt not drink any intoxicating liquor," the
; ;

lacked, and, notwithstanding the opposition

ordinary Chinese Buddhist does not

much
to the

of the stalwarts of the Confucian doctrine,
it

concern himself.

He

clings,

however,

spread rapidly and gained the ready adhe-

sion of the people.

And though

the mis-

sionaries sanctioned the deification of

Buddha

and the worship of gods, they still maintained the main features of the faith.

and though he not uncommonly lapses into the sin of eating meat and fish, yet his diet for the most part is, to his credit it must be said,
doctrine of the transmigration of souls,

confined to the Lenten fare of vegetables and
grain.

The
from

doctrine

of

Metempsychosis,

the

necessity

of

gaining perfect emancipation

In

all

religious

works

this

dogma

is

all passions, all
all,

mental phenomena, and,
self,

strenuously insisted on, and even in popular
literature

greatest of

from

were preached

in

authors not infrequently picture

season and out of season, and gained a firm hold among their proselytes. It is the fate of
all religions to

the position of

men who, by the mercy of Buddha, have narrowly escaped from the sin
of devouring their best friends in the guise of a carp or a ragout.

degenerate in course of
origins,

ages from

the purity of their
in

and

The

plain

and unneces-

Buddhism ample of

China affords an

illustrious ex-

disguised adoption of idolatry

by the Chinese
first

this

phenomenon.

Not content

made
sity,

the existence of temples a

with the liberal share of superstition which was santioned by the Mahayana system, the
people

and

at the present time these sacred

edifices are to

turned aside to the later

Tantra

be found wherever men meet and congregate whether in the streets of
cities

school in search of a sanction for
fanatical practices.

still

more
pro-

or in village lanes.
the countless idols which adorn the
first

Among
monks
their halls

Like

the Taoists, the Buddhist

places are invariably

264

CHINA: PAST

AND PRESENT.
one of the features of the Mahayana school, has multiplied these social drones by directly
encouraging the establishment of monasteries

given to the trinity of Buddhas

—the

past

Buddha, the present Buddha and the Buddha which is to come. These three figures
dominate the principal
In rear of this
is

hall of every temple.
in
it

and

their allied nunneries.

which

is

commonly a dagoba concealed a relic of Buddha
nail,

Each monastery is governed by an abbot, who has the power of inflicting punishment
on offending brothers, and the
discipline

may be

the paring of a

lock of hair

—and
ills

a tear-drop or a

at the

back of that again
is

commonly preserved
vigilance
tionary.
If

is

in direct ratio to the

are the deities which are supposed to preside

and conscientiousness of that functhe popular belief
is

over

all
is

the

that flesh

heir to.

to

be
the

As

the case everywhere,

women

are the

accepted,

neither

the

discipline
is

nor

most constant devotees, and on the pedestals
of the favorite deities are
seen
the
scores of votive

morality of the monasteries
picion,

above sus-

commonly

to be

and

in

popular farces and tales the
appears in the most comprois

offerings

expressing
for
is

character

who

gratitude

of

these

worshippers

mising positions, and
perpetration of the

discovered in the
acts, is

mercies vouchsafed to them.

But there

most disgraceful
priest.

a reverse side to the shield from the gods'
point of view.
It

commonly a Buddhist

not unfrequently happens

that deities who, either from forgetfulness or

How
decorum
is

Vacanies are
air

Filled.

malevolence, have turned a deaf ear to the
prayers of suppliants, are violently assaulted

Outwardly, however, an

of peace and
is

preserved, and there

seldom a

and defaced.
Rebellion Against an Idol.

lack of aspirants for the sacred office

when

vacancies occur.
join as

Commonly

the neophytes

mere boys, having been devoted to

At Foochow, where a long drought had wrought havoc among the neighboring
farms, the people rose against
sickness, who

the service of

Buddha by

their parents.

At

other times a less innocent cause supplies
candidates for the cowl.
old,

the god of

was supposed

to

be the cause of

Like sanctuary of Buddhist monasteries are held to be

the plague, and having

made a paper junk

places of refuge for malefactors,

and of

this

bearing a paper effigy of the offending deity,

very raw and unpromising material a large
proportion of the

they launched him on the river at the same

moment

that they set fire to the vessel. This

emblematized banishment was supposed to

do away with the evil influences which had and the showers which subsequently fell were held fully to justify the exprevailed,

emplary

rite.

monks are made. But from whatever motive he may join, the neophyte, on entering, having discarded his secular garments, and donned the gown and cowl of the monkhood, marks his separation from the world by submitting to the loss of his queue and to the shaving of his
head.

Strictly speaking, the

term "

priest "

does
sacri-

The

duties

of the

monks

are not

not apply to Buddhists.
fice

They

offer

no

labrious,

to the gods, but are merely

monks who

perform services and pronounce incantations
for the benefit of their followers.
tice

and they enjoy in the refectory good though plain food. In the nunneries, which are almost as numerous as monasteries,
is

The

pracis

much

of contemplative meditation, which

practiced

the same routine is followed as by the monks. The evil of the

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA.
system
is,

265
skill

however, more apparent
for all kinds

in the

sisterhoods than in the monasteries, and a

honor of a star-goddess, famous for her in embroidery, is held, at which young

girls

bad reputation
clings to them.
It

of improprieties

display specimens of needlework, and offer

up supplications before the
be bestowed upon them.

altar of the

god-

\

must not, however, be supposed that there is no such thing as religious zeal among Buddhist monks. Mendicant friars
often endure hardships, practice austerities,

dess, praying that a share of her skill

may

At
on

the same time, to

show

that they are

worthy

disciples of the deity,

they attempt

and undergo
selves to

self-inflicted

tortures

in

the

their knees to thread their needles, held

cause of their religion.

Others banish them-

above their heads, to the accompaniment of music discoursed by blind musicians.

mountain caves, or condemn them-

The

selves to perpetual silence to acquire that
virtue

moon

which ensures to them an eternal

life

is worshipped in the eighth month, and moon-cakes, especially prepared for the

in the blissful regions of the west.

But such

occasion, are

offered

by the

light of

her

cases are the exceptions, and to the majority

beams

in

adoration of the goddess.

The

monks and nuns the old saying " The nearer the church the further applies,
of both

sun also comes

in for his share of adoration.

To

these and similar celebrations
its

Buddhism

from God."
Superstitious

lends

countenance, and on the eighth of

the fourth

month the

saint himself submits

Observances.

to be bathed in effigy for the edification of

Such
three

is,

stated briefly, the position of the
religions
in

the

faithful,

who

testify their zeal

by pouring

principal

China.

Both
their

handfuls of cash on his brazen forehead.
Religious
Incidentally,
Edifices.

Mahommedanism and
followings
ents
;

Christianity

have

but the numbers of their adhercomparatively small
that,

are so

at

we have brought

to our atten-

present, they cannot
in

be said to influence

tion in this connection the construction of
religious edifices

any way the
features

life

of the nation.

Mean-

or temples, and

Chinese

while, the people, disregarding the distinctive

dwelling-houses.

of the three

creeds

and Buddhism take from each such tenets and rites as suit their immediate views and necessities, and supercianism, Taoism,

—Confu-

We

are

all

familiar with

drawings of the quaint roofs with their upturned corners, which characterize the architecture of the country.

The form
is

at

once

suggests that, as

is

probably the case, this
a survival of
It

adding numerous superstitious observances which have existed from before the time when Confucius and Laotzu were, have established a religious medley which, happily, satisfies all the needs of which they
are conscious.

dominant

style of building

the tent-dwellings of the Tartar peoples.
is

said that

of the

when Jenghiz Khan, the founder Mongol dynasty, invaded China, in

the thirteenth century, his followers, on possessing themselves of a city, reduced the

Many

of the forms employed to
festivals

coia-

them that touch of nature-worship which makes In the the whole primitive world kin.
memorate the annual
have
in

more exact counterpart of by pulling down the walls, and leaving the roofs supported by the wooden pillars which commonly bear the entire
houses to a
their origins
still

seventh

month,

for

example, a

festival

in

weight of those burdens.

266

CHINA: PAST AND PRESENT.
at

What

once

strikes

the eye in the
city,

Architecture," the late Mr. Fergusson suggested, as a reason for this absence of variety the fact that " the Chinese never had either a

appearance of a Chinese
capital itself,
is

even of the

the invariable sameness in

the style of building.

Palaces and temples,

public offices and dwelling-houses, are built

dominant priesthood or an hereditary nobility. The absence of the former class is
important, because
architecture has
it

on one constant model. No spire, no dome, no tower, rises to relieve the monotony of

is

to sacred art that

owed

its

highest inspiration,
art
is

and sacred

never so

strongly developed as under
the influence of a powerful

and splendid hierarchy. In the same manner the want of an hereditary nobility is
equally unfavorable to

do-

mestic architecture of a durable description. Private feuds

and private wars were till unknown, and hence there are no fortalices, or fortified mansions, which by their mass and solidity give such a marked character to
lately

a certain class of domestic
edifices in the

West."
however, other

There
factors

are,

which have operated

even more powerfully than
these

two in producing this monotonous conformity to one model, and that is the
sterility

of the of

imaginative

powers
people,

the

Chinese
steadfast

and

the

conservatism of the race.

INTERIOR OF A CHINESE TEMPLE, SHOWING THEIR IDOLS.
the scene, which
is

Just as the arts and sci-

varied only, so far as

the buildings are concerned,

by the

different

colored

tiles

green, yellow,

and brown

which indicate
to serve,

roughly the various uses
occasional pagodas, remind-

dim past they acquired from more cultured races in Western Asia, have remained crystallized in the stage in which they received them, and just as their
ences, which in the
written language has not, like that of Ancient

which the buildings they cover are designed

and by

ing us of the faith of the people.

Egypt and Assyria, advanced beyond a primitive phonetic stage, so their knowledge of
architecture has been

In his "History of Indian and Eastern

perpetuated without

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA.
the smallest
least

267
cities.

symptom

of development or the

traces

even of royal

spark of

genius.

Even when they

conqueror,

Kublai

Khan,

The Mongol whose wealth,

have an example of better things before
them, they deliberately avert their eyes, and

magnificence and splendor are recorded with

admiration by travellers, built for himself a
capital near the city of Pekin.

go on repeating the same type of mean and
paltry buildings.

If

any

his-

torian should wish to trace out for himself

the features of that Imperial

city,

he would

Filthy Streets.

At

all

the treaty ports, and notably at

be compelled to seek amid the earth-covered mounds which alone mark the spot where
the conqueror held his court, for any relics

Shanghai, there have been reared on the
foreign settlement houses in every kind of

western

architecture,

bordering

wide and

which may perchance Above ground the
baric

survive.
city,

with

all its

bar-

well-made roads, and provided with every
sanitary improvement,

splendors, has vanished as a dream.

and

yet, in the ad-

For

this

ephemeralness the style and nature

joining native

cities,

houses are daily built

of the buildings are responsible.
architect invites

A Chinese

on exactly the original model, the streets are left as narrow and filthy as ever, and no effort is

made

to improve the healthiness of

the areas.

might be supposed that in a nation where there exists such a profound
It

veneration for everything that

is

old, the

people would have striven to perpetuate the
glories

damp, and all the destructive consequences which follow from it, by building his house on the surface of the soil; he ensures instability by basing it on the shallowest of foundations, and he makes certain of its overthrow by using materials which most readily decay.

of past ages in great and
that

noble
raised

monuments
greatness,

Emperors would have

The Roof
The
by wooden
cordance
pillars,

Built

First.

palaces to themselves at records

of their

structure consists of a roof supported

and that the magnates of the land would have built houses which should endure as homes for generations of descendants.

with the intervals

filled in

with badly baked bricks. with
the

It is strictly in ac-

topsy-turvy

Chinese
roof

methods that the framework
their noalso,

of the

But it would seem as though madic origin haunted them in this
that, as in

should be constructed
pillars

first,

before even the
it

and

which are to support

are placed in

shape so
of
their

in

durability,

" the re-

position.

But, like most of the other conis

collection

old tent-houses, which

tradictory practices of the people, this one

were pitched to-day and struck to-morrow,
dominates their ideas of what palaces and houses should be." Throughout the length and breadth of China there is not a single building, except it may be some few pagodas, which by any stretch of the imagination can be called old.
still

capable of rational explanation.

Strange as

it

may

seem, the pillars are

not sunk into the ground, but merely stand

upon stone foundations.
roof
port,
is,

The weight of
is

the

therefore, necessary for their supits

and to

massive proportions

alone

attributable the

A few generations
liest

suffice to see the state-

the building.

temporary substantialness of To prevent an overthrow the

of their palaces crumble into decay, and

a few centuries are

enough to

obliterate all

be?ims,

summits of the pillars are bound together by and much ingenuity and taste is

268

CHINA: PAST
in

AND

PRESENT.
It is

shown

the adornment of

the ends

of

better kind are designed.

one which
a

is

these supports and cross-pieces, which ap-

compounded of

parts

meaning

square

pear beneath the eaves of the
roof.

upturned

within a doorway.

For the most part the pillars are plain, and either square or round, and at the base are slightly cut in, after the manner of
the pillars in the temples of ancient Egypt.

On

entering the front

door the

visitor

passes into a courtyard, on

either side of

which

which are dwelling-rooms, and at the end of is a hall, with probably rooms at both

extremities.

Dragons and Serpents.
Occasionally,

Doors at the back of this hall communicate with another courtyard, and in
is

when

especial honor, either
official

cases of wealthy families, a third courtyard

due to reUgious respect or

grandeur,

succeeds, which

devoted to the ladies of
this is the garden,

attaches to a building, the pillars are carved
into representations of dragons, serpents, or

the household.

Beyond
is

and, in the case of country houses, a park.

winding fohage, as the taste of the designer

The whole
necessary
inwards.

enclosure
is

surrounded with a

may
part,
is

determine.

But
is

in a vast majority of

blank wall, which
doors.

pierced only

by the
face

buildings the roof

the only ornamented

All

the windows

and a great amount of pains and skill devoted to add beauty to this part of the

structure.

Monotony
method of giving an appear-

of Architecture.

A

favorite

To
and

the wayfarer, therefore, the appearance
is monotonous and suggests a want of life which from the actual fact, and a desire for

ance of lightness to the covering of a house
or temple which would otherwise look too

of houses of the better sort
drear,

heavy to be symmetrical,
roof,

is

to

make a double

is far

so as to break the long line necessitated

privacy which,

so

far

as

the

apartments

by a single structure. The effect produced by looking down on a city studded with
temples and the palaces of nobles
as color
is
is,

devoted to the male inmates are concerned,
is

equally wide of the mark.

In accordance

so far

with Chinese custom, the fro