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Cartography is the science of preparing all types of

maps and charts, and includes every operation from


field surveys to final printing of copies.
Purpose of Cartography
To collect and analyze data and measurements of the
various patterns of the earth and to represent them
graphically on such a reduced scale that the elements
of this pattern can be made clearly visible.
Map derived from the Latin word mappa meaning
cloth or sheet
-- a graphic representation of all or a portion of the
earths surface or other celestial body, by means of
signs and symbols or photographic imagery at some
given scale or projection, to which lettering is added for
identification
-- may emphasize, generalize, or omit the
representation of earth features to satisfy specific
requirements. Maps are frequently categorized and
referred to according to the type of information, which
they are designed primarily to convey, to distinguish
them from maps of other types.
Survey Plan -- a type of planimetric map, which depicts
the lengths, and directions of boundaries, as well as the
relative horizontal positions of any existing structures on
a land parcel. This is usually prepared for a specific land
development project.

in an area or soil composition, etc., usually on some


skeletal topographic background.
Hydrographic map a map showing a portion of the
waters of the earth, including shorelines, the topography
along the shores and of the submerged portions, and as
much of the topography of the surrounding country as is
necessary for the purpose intended.
Photo map is a continuous representation of the
ground obtained by piecing together individual
photographs into a composite grid lines, contour lines,
boundaries, place names, and marginal information
have been added or overprinted. This map is also
known as Controlled Mosaic.
Nautical chart a map especially designed for the
mariner, on which are shown navigable waters and the
adjacent or included land, if any, and on which are
indicated depths of water, marine obstructions, aid to
navigation, and other pertinent information. Also called
hydrographic chart.
Aeronautical chart (or air navigation chart) a chart
especially designed for air navigation use, on which in
addition to essential topography are shown
obstructions and aids to navigation and other pertinent
information. They are sometimes referred to as airway
maps, and are published at scales ranging from
1:1,000,000 to 1:250,000 and larger.

All survey plans are maps but not all maps are plans.
Marine (hydrographic) and air (aeronautical) maps
are generally called charts.
Atlas a bound collection of maps and charts
-- term used for such a volume by the renaissance
cartographer Gerhardus Mercator.
Globe a sphere with a representation of the earth on
its surface, it is the most accurate representation of the
earth. It is set at an angle corresponding to the
inclination of the earths axis and can be rotated.
Planimetric Map a map which shows the earths
surface in the two horizontal dimensions only. It shows
the correct horizontal position of natural and manmade
features such as land forms, bodies of water,
vegetation, buildings, roads, properly boundaries,
political boundaries, etc.
Topographic Map a map using suitable symbols, it
shows the configuration of the earths surface, called
relief, which includes such features as (1) hills and
valleys; (2) other natural features such as trees and
streams; and (3) the manmade features such as
houses, roads, canals, and cultivation.
Relief may be represented by relief models, shading,
hachures, form lines, or contour lines.
Topography features of the surface of the earth
considered collectively as to form. A single feature (such
as a mountain or valley) is called a topographic feature.
Topography is subdivided into hypsography (relief
features), hydrography (water and drainage features)
and culture (manmade features).
Thematic map a map showing one or more themes
or subjects such as distribution of the inhabitants over
the country or its region or the concentration of minerals

Base map a map showing certain fundamental


information, used as a base upon which additional data
of specialized nature are compiled. Also, a map
containing all the information from which maps showing
specialized information can be prepared; a source map.
Cadastral map a map showing the boundaries of
subdivisions of land, usually with bearings and lengths
thereof and the areas of individual tracts, for purposes
of describing and recording ownership. It may also show
culture, drainage and other features relating to the value
and use of land.
Overlay map a record on a transparent medium to be
superimposed on another record; for example, maps
showing original land grants (or patents) prepared as
tracing cloth overlays so that they can be correlated with
the maps showing present ownership. Also, any of the
several overlays that may be prepared in compiling a
manuscript map.
Computer generated map/plan is a computer based
output map/plan. The electronic computers are used to
capture information such as survey data, natural and
manmade features and stored in digital form wherein
they can be processed and retrieved in graphic forms
using Automated Graphic System.
Map projections a systematic drawing of lines on a
plane surface to represent the parallels of latitude and
the meridians of longitude of the earth or a section of
the earth.

Planigraphic map -- same as a topographic map but


without relief. World maps of general content and Atlas
maps belong to this class.

Relief maps three-dimensional models of the terrain in


an area; on them, color and scale are used to indicate
geographical features rather than simply to delineate
political boundaries. Because of this feature, relief maps
are extensively used in engineering and the military.
Such maps are usually carved out of clay
or plaster of Paris. To emphasize relief, the vertical
scale of relief maps is usually several times the
horizontal scale. Such maps can also be manufactured
by stamping plastic sheets in a mold.

graphic representations of parts of the Earth; it may be


assumed that mapmaking goes back much further and
that it began among no literate peoples. Centuries
before the Christian Era, Babylonians drew maps on
clay tablets, of which the oldest specimens found so far
have been dated about 2300 BC. This is the earliest
positive evidence of graphic representations of parts of
the Earth; it may be assumed that mapmaking goes
back much further and that it began among no literate
peoples.

Political maps maps showing only towns and political


divisions without topographic features

Early Chinese Maps- They developed their


cartography in a high degree in very early times, and
we have many records of it and a few actual remnants.
Maps have hard use and perish more easily than books
or other records. The oldest known Chinese map is
dated about 1137. Most of the area that is now included
in China had been mapped in crude form before the
arrival of the Europeans. The Jesuit missionaries of the
16th century found enough information to prepare an
atlas, and Chinese maps thereafter were influenced by
the West.

Geologic maps maps showing the geologic structure


of an area; and maps indicating the geographic
distribution of crops, land use, rainfall, population, and
hundreds of other kinds of social and scientific data.
Another useful type of map is the relief map, which is a
three-dimensional model of the terrain of an area. Relief
maps are extensively used in military and engineering
planning.
Cadastral map map drawn on a large scale to show
large ownership.
Globe, a model of the earth or of the heavens. Globes
are a kind of map. Most globes are formed from a series
of roughly triangular maps called gores. Globes that
represent the earths surface are called terrestrial
globes. Most of these globes represent the political
features or relief (physical) features of the earth by
colors printed on a smooth surface. A molded threedimensional surface is used on some relief globes to
represent the surface of the earth with miniature
mountains, valleys, and other physical features.
Unlike flat maps, globes can represent the earths
curved surface without distortion. Globes are often used
to plan long sea and air routes, called great-circle
routes, and to determine the routes of satellites. They
are also used to trace earthquake shocks and tsunamis
(tidal waves). All of these routes are measured better on
a globe than on a flat map because they are not straight
lines: they follow the earths curvature.
Islander Sea Chart- Many no literate peoples, however,
are skilled in depicting essential features of their
localities and travels. During Capt. Charles Wilkes's
exploration of the South Seas in the 1840s, a friendly
islander drew a good sketch of the whole Tomato
Archipelago on the deck of the captain's bridge. In North
America the Pawnee Indians were reputed to have used
star charts painted on elk skin to guide them on night
marches across the plains. Montezuma is said to have
given Corts a map of the whole Mexican Gulf area
painted on cloth, while Pedro de Gamboa reported that
the Incas used sketch maps and cut some in stone to
show relief features. Many specimens of early Eskimo
sketch maps on skin, wood, and bone have been found.
Eskimo Maps- made by an Eskimo who did not know
how to read or write and never heard of cartography. Yet
he did this model according to cartographic principles.
He put thousands of mental images of hundred of
voyages and by complex mental processes, forged into
the concept this map represents.
Babylonian Maps- Centuries before the Christian Era,
Babylonians drew maps on clay tablets, of which the
oldest specimens found so far have been dated about
2300 BC. This is the earliest positive evidence of

Japanese and Greek Maps- They discovered the


spherical shape of the earth, measured its size, defined
the poles the equator and the tropics. They designed
the parallel meridian system, divided into degrees as
what we use today.
Roman Cartography- They are more interested in a
practical map for travel and war, and designed a disk
shape map, the orbis terrarium which was widely
imitated in the middle ages.
Arabic Cartography- The Arabs translated Ptolemy's
treatises and carried on his tradition. Two Islmic
scholars deserve special note. Ibn Haukal wrote a Book
of Ways and Provinces illustrated with maps, and alIdrs constructed a world map in 1154 for theChristian
king Roger of Sicily, showing better information on Asian
areas than had been available theretofore. In Baghdad
astronomers used the compass long before Europeans,
studied the obliquity of the ecliptic, and measured a part
of the Earth's meridian. Their sexagesimal (based on
60) system has dominated cartography since, in the
concept of a 360-degree circle.
Hecataeus a scholar of Miletus, probably produced
the first book on geography in about 500 BC
Herodotus a historian with geographic leanings,
recorded,
among
other
things,
an
early
circumnavigation of the African continent by
Phoenicians. He also improved on the delineation of the
shape and extent of the then-known regions of the
world, and he declared the Caspian to be an inland sea,
opposing the prevailing view that it was part of the
northern oceans. He is the Greek author of the first
great narrative history produced in the ancient world,
the History of the Greco-Persian Wars.
Aristotle formulated six arguments to prove that the
Earth was, in truth, a sphere. From that time forward,
the idea of a spherical Earth was generally accepted
among geographers and other men of science.
Dicaearchus a disciple of Aristotle, placed an
orientation line on the world map, running east and west
through Gibraltar and Rhodes. Eratosthenes, Marinus of
Tyre, and Ptolemy successively developed the
reference-line
principle
until
a
reasonably

comprehensive system of parallels and meridians, as


well as methods of projecting them, had been achieved.
Claudius Ptolemaeus(Ptolemy) - an astronomer and
mathematician, he spent many years studying at the
library in Alexandria, the greatest repository of scientific
knowledge at that time. His monumental work, the
Guide to Geography (Gegraphik hyphgsis), was
produced in eight volumes. The first volume discussed
basic principles and dealt with map projection and globe
construction. The next six volumes carried a list of the
names of some 8,000 places and their approximate
latitudes and longitudes. Except for a few that were
made by observations, the greater number of these
locations were determined from older maps, with
approximations of distances and directions taken from
travelers. They were accurate enough to show relative
locations on the very small-scale, rudimentary maps
that existed.

Aerial photography makes it possible to


map even the most accessible areas of the world with
great speed and accuracy. It enables us to see the earth
from above, as the maps show it.
6.
Basic Features of Maps
1.

SCALE. The ration of a distance on


a map to its corresponding distance on the ground.
The most common ways to represent the map scale
are the fraction or ratio; the verbal statements; and
the graphical, or linear, representation.
a.

Airplane Photography

Orientation it refers to the


direction, and if indicated, is usually shown at the top
or at the side of the title/subject of the map. On the
map, direction is sometimes indicated by a compass
rose and sometimes by a north pointing arrow.

c.
2.

3.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

purpose of the survey


name
of
owner
or
organization for whom the survey is made
location of the lot (barangay,
municipality/city, province, island)
area of the lot
name of the geodetic
engineer who executed the survey
contour interval
reference horizontal and
vertical datum (if applicable)
scale used
meridian (magnetic, true,
grid, etc.)
geodetic engineers notes

Titles should be constructed that they will readily


catch the eye. The space occupied by the map
should be proportionate to the size of the map.
Emphasis is placed on the most important parts of
the title by increasing their height and using upper
case letters.
4.

5.

1.

The BL Survey Number is assigned by the


Bureau of Lands (LMB/LMS). A survey symbol is
used to designate the various kinds of surveys.

2.

A claimant may be an individual, a


corporation or any recognized organization.

3.

The site, barrio, municipality, province and


island are indicated to locate the land.

4.

Date of survey and approval are indicated.

5.

A geodetic engineer signs the map.

6.

Area is determined by Double Meridian


Distance rounded off to the nearest whole
number. Use standard Lot Data Computation
form to compute for the area.

Graphical/Bar scale:

Title it designates the name of


the land represented, the type of map, the scale, the
year of preparation, pertinent remarks, etc. In the
typical survey plans, the title usually includes the
following:

Lettering

a
considerable
proportion of the information presented on map is
conveyed by the lettered names. Lettering is a
necessary addition for the identification of maps
features.
Notes and Legends explanatory
notes or legends are often of assistance in
interpreting a drawing. They should be as brief as
circumstances will allow, but at the same time should
include sufficient information as to leave no doubt in

13.

A point of reference has known


geographic coordinates: latitude and longitude.
Its Northing and Easting may be true or
assumed.
A point of reference may be a
triangulation station or Bureau of Lands Location
Monument (BLLM). This point is not shown on
the map simply because it is far from the area
surveyed.
A tie line is a line joining the point of reference
and corner 1 of the lot. There are two methods
to write the description of the point of reference
and the bearing and distance of the tie line:
a. Tabulated
b. Graphical (when there is open space)

14.

Boundaries between adjoining surveyed


properties are indicated by broken lines.
Owners name and BL Survey number are also
indicated.

15.

All important features and improvements


(ex. Streams, rivers, bridges, roads) are drawn
true to scale, in black ink (without color) and
represented by standard mapping symbols.
Width of roads and rivers are indicated. Direction
of the flow of water on a river is indicated by an
arrow with the arrowhead in the direction of the
flow.

16.

Lettering must be simple, uniform and


mechanical.
Use of a lettering machine is
imperative.

17.

Lot numbers, corner numbers, notes,


titles, etc. are drawn parallel to the horizontal axis
of the map. Names of rivers, roads, bridges and
the like follow the shape of the feature.
Sometimes, names of adjoining owners follow
the shape of the lot.

18.

The central orthogonal axes and the


coordinates of the center are drawn in red ink.
Ncenter is drawn slightly above the horizontal axis
near the left edge of the map. E center is drawn
slightly to the left of the vertical axis near the
lower edge of the map. Ecenter is drawn
vertically.
Plans are drawn on the authorized BL Form
having the following dimensions:

19.

If a lot is subdivided into several lots, the


subdivided lots will be designated as A, B, C, etc.

20.

The boundary, as in isolated surveys, has


a Technical Description.
In addition, each
subdivided lot has its own description.
Tie lines are observed/computed to corner 1 of
the boundary and each of the subdivided lot.
If the upper left or right-hand corners are not
sufficient, technical descriptions are placed on
separate authorized sheets.

21.

Numbering of lots:
For boundary:
Numbers are drawn clockwise outside the
boundary and in red ink.

PLOTTING OF SURVEY PLANS


(ISOLATED AND SUBDIVISION)

Verbal Statement. 1 cm.

System of Projection all


computations, maps and plans submitted to the
DENR for verification and approval shall be prepared
using the Philippine Plane Coordinate System
(PPCS)/ Philippine Reference System of 1992 (PRS
92).

crowded). The table is usually placed in the


upper left-hand corner of the map. If this
space is crowded, the right-hand corner may
be used.

Border lines it adds to the


appearance of a map to have a suitable border line.
This may be a single heavy line or double line,
consisting of one heavy and one light line drawn
close together. The weight of the border lines should
not be so heavy as to detract the attention from the
map.

equals 100 meters

American Cartography
The map of the American continent
gradually emerged and by the eighteenth century a
great number of fairly detailed maps were available.
These maps were American on subject only. They were
made by English, French, Dutch or Spanish
cartographers. Colonial cartography developed slowly in
the eighteenth century. British and Spanish army
officers produced many excellent maps and some of
these men were employed later by Washington and
Jefferson, both expert surveyors.
In the early nineteenth century. Army explorers
added much to the knowledge of the newly acquired
territories, and the older states were engaged in surveys
that were more or less detailed. Private map makers
were busy publishing maps and school atlases.
Outstanding is Henry S. Tanners New American Atlas
of 1823, published in Philadelphia. In the mid century,
American cartography was influenced by the
introduction of wax engraving and lithography. The
lithograph country atlases are typical American Atlases.

7.

Ratio. 1:10,000 or 1/10,000,


one unit on the map is equal to 10,000 units on
the earth. Such as 1 centimeter on the map is
equal to 10,000 cm. or 100 m. on the ground.

b.
HISTORY OF CARTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES:
The Reformation of cartography began with the
longitude measurements of the French academy at the
end of the seventeenth century. We refer to the
eighteenth century as the age of reason: the spirit of the
period is reflected in its maps. They are far less
decorative, but much more accurate, than their
seventeenth century Dutch predecessors.
The greatest achievement of the West was the
triangulation and topographic mapping of France,
directed by members of the Cassini family.
This series set the pattern for the national surveys
at the nineteenth century. Large scale topographic maps
and charts of a nation can be produced only by a large
organization. The task of the independent cartographers
was narrowed mostly to small scale maps, a division
which still persists.
The nineteenth century witnessed a great
diversification
of
maps.
Geologic,
economic,
educational, transportation, and other maps required
new approaches to the great enrichment of cartography.
New engraving processes, lithography, wax engraving,
photoengraving, and color printing made new
techniques possible. Map making has become
concentrated in large governmental and private offices,
producing maps by the millions, reaching great masses
of people.

the mind of the person using the drawing. A key to


the symbols representing various details ought to be
shown unless the symbols are conventional.

7.

Bearings may be grid, assumed, true or


magnetic. True bearings, however, are more
usual for property surveys. If bearings are
magnetic, the declination is indicated.

8.

Both the graphic scale and representative


fraction are indicated.

9.

North-South line is drawn in standard


form.

10.

Lot corners are small circles 2mm in


diameter drawn in black ink.
Corners are
numbered clockwise. Numbers are inside the lot.
Boundary lines dont pass through the small
circle.

11.

The description of each corner as marked


on the ground is written preferably at the bottom
left corner of the map. If this space is crowded, it
is written in any open space.

12.

Boundary lines are full black lines heavier


than those adjoining properties. Bearing and
distance of each line are in black ink and may be
written in either the following methods:
a.
Bearing and distance along
boundary line (inside the lot)
b.
Tabulated
bearings
and
distances (when features and distances are
too numerous and bearings and distances
written along bondaries, will make the map

For subdivided lots:


Numbers are drawn clockwise inside the
boundary and in black ink. The assignment of
corner 1 is discretionary unless the subdivided lot
has a corner that is tied to a reference point.
22.
23.

3.

There should be sufficient space between


the name and the related symbol.
Recommendation: There should be at least upper
case character space between the name and the
symbol
Name should not overlap with symbol

4.

There should be unambiguous reference


between the symbol and its associated name.

5.

The point symbol should be seen first and


its name immediately to its right, but not on the same
horizontal line.

6.

Name should be adequately centered and


should extend over the full area to which it should
refer.
Recommendation:

Name
should stretch over approximately 2/3 of the area
to which it relates.

Name
should serve as a central axis of the region.

For
long
linear features, reduce spacing and repeat name.

12.

Name referring to an area is normally


placed horizontally.

13.

Letters forming a name/title should be


appreciated as a whole.
Recommendation: Size of type may be increased.

Area of each subdivided lots must be


indicated inside the lot.
This area is not
necessarily a whole number.
Corners are plotted by the Coordinate
Method.

MAP NAME PLACEMENT


1.
Name should be aligned horizontally
whenever possible.
Recommendation: Use regular grid as guide
Exception:

Align name
with a straight-line feature that is not
horizontal (e.g. road, pier, railroad)

Align name
parallel to the lines of graticule
2.

11.

Locate the name within the territory to


which it refers.
Exception:

If the name
is placed outside a relatively linear feature, align
the name along the features trend.

If
the
feature is compact, place the name horizontally
beside it (but not on the horizontal line).

14.

Arrange curved lettering along a regular


baseline.

15.

Names should cross at or as near to a


right angle as much as possible.

16.

Name relating to an area and having a


straight baseline should not be positioned at an
oblique angle.
Recommendation: Use curved lettering.

17.

Name should not be unnecessarily


hyphenated and displayed on separate lines.

18.

Names should read from the middle of the


bottom edge of the map (not to be oriented towards
the other edges).
Exception: Vertical names (for road, railroads, etc.)
should be turned so that it can be read from the right
side of the page.

19.

Name should not fall across a line symbol.


Recommendation: Interrupt line so that the name is
clearly visible.
Exception: Print line work without interruption when
a line is very fine or has a lighter color.

20.

Name should
associated symbol.

21.

Names of harbors should be preferably


toward the sea.

22.

Do not spread the letters all along a river,


but keep them close together. Name may be
repeated.

Names and numbers must not be


positioned on sharp curves, but rather where the
shape of a feature is relatively smooth.

23.

Names of lakes and islands can either be


outside or inside, but only in an emergency is the
shoreline cut with the name.

9.

Words incorporating characters which


reach below the normal baseline (eg. g, p, q, j)
should be positioned where bends in a line symbol
make their placement appropriate or below the line.

24.

10.

In areas which are congested with


quantities of names and symbols, arrange names
around the highly detailed area.

7.

8.

Name should not be placed directly on top


of the line to which it relates.
Recommendation:There should be sufficient space
(at least lower case character) between the
bottom of the name and its associated line symbol.

be

placed

above

of the earth's surface or to show areas of medium size


with accuracy, the map must be drawn in such a way as
to compromise among distortions of areas, distances,
and direction.
The various methods of preparing a flat map of
the earth's surface are known as projections and are
classified as geometric or analytic, depending on the
technique of development. Geometric projections are
classified according to the type of surface on which the
map is assumed to be developed, such as cylinders,
cones, or planes; plane projections are also known as
azimuthal
or
zenithal
projections.
Analytical
projections
are
developed
by
mathematical
computation.
CRITERIA IN CHOOSING A MAP PROJECTION
1.
AREA
Many map projections are designed to be equal
area, that is, one part on the map covers exactly the
same area of the actual earth.

shapes,
angles and scales must be distorted on most
parts

other terms
of equal area: equivalent, homolographic,
homalographic, authalic, equiareal
2.

3.

SCALE
Equidistance scale between one or two points and
every point on the map, or along every meridian, is
shown correctly.

No
map
projection show scales correctly throughout
the map, but there is usually one ormore lines
on the map along which the scale remains
true.

4.

DIRECTION
Azimuthal or Zenithal directions or azimuths of all
points on the map are shown correctly with respect
to the center

its

Names of mountain ranges are spread


along the crest line of the range and should follow
the main trend very exactly.

MAP PROJECTION
For the representation of the entire surface of the
earth without any kind of distortion, a map must have a
spherical surface; a map of this kind is known as a
globe. A flat map cannot accurately represent the
rounded surface of the earth except for very small areas
where the curvature is negligible. To show large portions

SHAPE
The shape of every small feature of the map is
shown correctly

There are
usually one or more singular points at which
the shape is still distorted.

Relative
angles at each point are correct and the local
scale in every direction around any one point
is constant.

Meridians
intersect parallels at 90, just as they do on
earth.

5.

SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS
Mercator Projection all
rhumblines (lines of constant direction are
shown as straight lines)
b.
Gnomonic Projection all
great circle path, orthodrome or geodesic
(shortest route between points on a sphere)
are shown as straight lines
c.
Stereographic all small
circles, as well as great circles, are shown as
circles on the map
a.

KINDS OF MAP PROJECTION

A. Cylindrical Projection
In making a cylindrical projection, the
cartographer regards the surface of the map as a
cylinder that encircles the globe, touching it at the
equator. The parallels of latitude are extended outward
from the globe, parallel to the equator, as parallel planes
intersecting the cylinder. Because of the curvature of the
globe, the parallels of latitude nearest the poles when
projected onto the cylinder are spaced progressively
closer together, and the projected meridians of
longitude are represented as parallel straight lines,
perpendicular to the equator and continuing to the North
and South poles. After the projection is completed, the
cylinder is assumed to be slit vertically and rolled out
flat. The resulting map represents the world's surface as
a rectangle with equally spaced parallel lines of
longitude and unequally spaced parallel lines of latitude.
The shapes of areas are increasingly distorted toward
the poles, but the size relationship of areas on the map
is equivalent to the size relationship of areas on the
globe.
The familiar Mercator projection, developed
mathematically by the Flemish geographer Gerardus
Mercator, is related to the cylindrical projection, with
certain modifications. A Mercator map is accurate in the
equatorial regions but greatly distorts areas in the high
latitudes. Directions are represented faithfully, and this
is especially valuable in navigation. Any line cutting two
or more meridians at the same angle is represented on
a Mercator map as a straight line. Such a line, called a
rhumb line, represents the path of a ship or an airplane
following a steady compass course. Using a Mercator
map, a navigator can plot a course simply by drawing a
line between two points and reading the compass
direction from the map.
B. Azimuthal Projection
This group of map projections is derived by
projecting the globe onto a plane that may be tangent to
it at any point. The group includes the gnomonic,
orthographic, and stereographic plane projections. Two
other types of plane projections are known as the
azimuthal equal area and the azimuthal equidistant;
they cannot be projected but are developed on a
tangent plane. The gnomonic projection is assumed to
be formed by rays projected from the center of the
earth. In the orthographic projection the source of
projecting rays is at infinity, and the resulting map
resembles the earth as it would appear if photographed
from outer space. The source of projecting rays for the
stereographic projection is a point diametrically opposite
the tangent point of the plane on which the projection is
made.
The nature of the projection varies with the
source of the projecting rays. Thus the gnomonic
projection covers areas of less than a hemisphere, the
orthographic covers hemispheres, the azimuthal equal
area and the stereographic projections map larger
areas, and the azimuthal equidistant includes the entire
globe. In all these types of projection, however (except
in the case of the azimuthal equidistant), the portion of
the earth that appears on the map depends on the point
at which the imaginary plane touches the earth. A planeprojection map with the plane tangent to the surface of
the earth at the equator would represent the equatorial
region, but would not show the entire region in one map;
with the plane tangent at either of the poles, the map
would represent the polar regions.
Because the source of the gnomonic projection is
at the center of the earth, all great circles, that is, the

equator, all meridians, and any other circles that divide


the globe into two equal parts, are represented as
straight lines. A great circle that connects any two points
on the earth is always the shortest distance between the
two points. The gnomonic map is therefore a great aid
to navigation when used in conjunction with the
Mercator.
C. Conic Projection
In preparing a conic projection a cone is assumed
to be placed over the top of the globe. After projection,
the cone is assumed to be slit and rolled out to a flat
surface. The cone touches the globe at all points on a
single parallel of latitude, and the resulting map is
extremely accurate for all areas near that parallel, but
becomes increasingly distorted for all other areas in
direct proportion to the distance of the areas from the
standard parallel.
To provide greater accuracy, the Lambert
conformal conic projection assumes a cone that
passes through a part of the surface of the globe,
intersecting two parallels. Because the resulting map is
accurate in the immediate vicinity of both parallels, the
area represented between the two standard parallels is
less distorted than the same area reproduced by a
single conic projection.
The polyconic projection is a considerably more
complicated projection in which a series of cones is
assumed, each cone touching the globe at a different
parallel, and only the area in the immediate vicinity of
each parallel is used. By compiling the results of the
series of limited conic projections, a large area may be
mapped with considerable accuracy. Because a cone
cannot be made to touch the globe in the extreme polar
and equatorial regions, the various conic projections are
used to map comparatively small areas in the temperate
zones. Polyconic maps offer a good compromise in the
representation of area, distance, and direction over
small areas.
CYLINDRICAL MAP PROJECTIONS
1.
Mercator Projection

conformal

meridians
are equally spaced straight lines

parallels
are unequally spaced straight lines, closest
near the equator, cutting meridians at right
angles

scale is true
along the equator, or along two parallels
equidistant from the equator

loxodromes
, or rhumblines, are straight lines

poles are at
infinity; great distortion of area in polar
regions; suitable for east west extents

used
for
navigation
2.

Transverse Mercator
Conformal
Central
meridian, each meridian 90 from central
meridian, and equator are straight lines
Other
meridians and parallels are complex curves
Scale
is
true along central meridian, or along two

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

straight lines equidistant from and parallel to


central meridian
Scale
becomes infinite at 90 from the central
meridian
Best
for
north-south extent maps
Universal Transverse Mercator
ellipsoidal
transverse Mercator
between
latitudes 84 N and 80 S, is divided into 60
zones, each generally 6 wide in longitude
Oblique Mercator Projection
The same
as regular Mercator projection which has
been altered by wrapping a cylinder around
the sphere so that it touches the surface
along the great circle path chosen for the
central line, instead of along the earths
equator
Miller Cylindrical Projection
Resembles
the Mercator projection but shows less
exaggeration of area in higher latitudes
American
version of Galls Projection
Neither
equal-area nor conformal (Aphylactic)
Used only
in spherical form
Meridians
and parallels are straight lines, intersecting at
right angles
Meridians
are equidistant; parallels are spaced farther
apart away from the equator
Poles are
shown as lines
Compromis
e between Mercator and other cylindrical
projections

CONIC MAP PROJECTIONS


1.
Albers Equal-Area

Equal area
form of conic projection using two
standard parallels

Scale along
the parallels is too small between
the standard parallels and too large
beyond them

Parallels
are unequally spaced arcs of
concentric circles, more closely
spaced at the north and the south
edges of the map

Meridians
are equally spaced radii of the
same circles, cutting parallels at
right angles

There is no
distortion in scale or shape along
two standard parallels, normally, or
along just one

Poles are
arc of great circles

East-west
expanse
2.

Equidistant Cylindrical Projection


Probably
the simplest of all map projections to
construct and one of the oldest
Other
names:
Rectangular,
La
Carte
Parallelogrammatique,
Die
Rechteckige
Platkater, Equirectangular
Simple Cylindrical
If
the
equator is made of standard parallel, true to
scale and free of distortion, the meridians are
spaced at the same distances as the
parallels, and the graticules appear as
squares.

Aphylactic

Meridians
and
parallels
are
equidistant
straight
lines,
intersecting at right angles

Poles are shown as lines

Used in spherical form

3.

Lambert Conformal Conic

Also called
Conical Orthomorphic

Parallels
are unequally spaced arcs of
concentric circles, more closely
spaced at the north and the south
edges of the map

Meridians
are equally spaced radii of the
same circles, cutting parallels at
right angles

Scale
is
true along two standard parallels,
normally, or along just one

Pole in the
same hemisphere as standard
parallel is a point; other pole is at
infinity

Conformity
fails at each point

East-west
expanse

No angular
distortion at any parallels, except at
the poles
Bipolar Oblique Conic Conformal

Two oblique
conic projections, side by side, but
with poles 104 apart

Meridians
and parallels are complex curves,
intersecting at right angles

Scale
is
true
along
two
standard
transformed parallels on each conic
projection, neither of these lines
following any geographical meridian
or parallel

4.

Very small
deviation from conformality, where
the two conic projections join

Specially
developed for a map of the
Americas

Used only
in spherical form
Polyconic Projection
Curvature
of the circular arc for each of the parallel on
the map is the same as it would be following
the unrolling of a cone which had wrapped
around the globe tangent to the particular
parallel of latitude, with the parallel traced
onto the cone
Instead of a
single cone, a series of conical surfaces may
be used
For
the
sphere, each parallel has a radiusproportional
to the cotangent of latitude
Aphylactic
Parallels of
latitude (except for equator) are arcs of circles
but ore not concentric
Central
meridian and equator are straight line; all
other meridians are complex curves
Scale
is
true along each parallel and along the central
meridian, but no parallel is :standard
Free
of
distortion only along the central meridian

AZIMUTHAL PROJECTIONS
1.
Orthographic
2.
Stereographic
3.
Gnomonic
4.
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area
OTHER PROJECTIONS
1.
Heterodral Projection
2.
Cassini
3.
Star Projection
4.
Bonne
5.
Sinusoidal
MAPS AND PLANS OF SURVEYS
STANDARD BASE MAPS
MAPS AND PLANS OF ALL LAND SURVEYS IN THE
PHILIPPINES
SHALL
BE
PLOTTED
ON
APPROPRIATE
STANDARD
BASE
MAPS
PROJECTED UPON SPHEROIDAL QUADRANGLE OF
CLARKES SPHEROID OF 1866. (SEC.349 DAO NO.
9812 S. 1998)
THE STANDARD BASE MAPS OF THE PHILIPPINES
SHALL BE CLASSIFIED INTO: (SEC.350, DAO NO.
9812 S. 1998)
- CADASTRAL MAPS (CM)
- BARANGAY BOUNDARY AND INDEX MAPS
(BBIM)
- MUNICIPAL BOUNDARY AND INDEX MAPS
(MBIM)
- MUNICIPAL BASE MAPS
- PROVINCIAL BASE MAPS
- REGIONAL BASE MAPS

CADASTRAL MAPS
THE CADASTRAL MAPS SHALL COMPRISE
AREAS WITHIN SPHEROIDAL QUADRANGLE OF
ONE MINUTE OF ARC IN LATITUDE AND ONE
MINUTE OF ARC IN LONGITUDE AND SHALL BE
DRAWN IN THE PHILIPPINE PLANE COORDINATE
SYSTEM (PPCS) PRS 92 TO THE STANDARD
SCALE OF 1:4000 ON DRAFTING MATERIAL OF
STABLE
BASE
OF
UNIFORM
SIZE
OF
APPROXIMATELY
54
x
54
CENTIMETERS.
SECTIONAL CADASTRAL MAPS SHALL BE DRAWN
ON LARGER SCALES ON THE SAME MATERIALS
AND OF THE SAME SIZE AS THE STANDARD
CADASTRAL MAPS TO SHOW TRACTS OF LAND
WHICH OTHERWISE WILL APPEAR TOO SMALL ON
THE STANDARD SCALE OF 1:4000.

1.
2.

IRRESPECTIVE OF THE AREA, PERMANENT


STRUCTURES SUCH AS BUILDINGS
WITH
CONCRETE FOUNDATION, STONE WALL, ETC.,
SHALL BE INDICATED BY DOTTED BLACK LINES ON
THE PLANS AND MAPS. (SEC. 379, DAO NO. 98-12
S. 1998)
XXXXXXXXX. FOR UNIFORMITY IN THE
PREPARATION OF ISOLATED SURVEY PLANS,
ONLY INFORMATION THAT CANNOT BE INSCRIBED
ON THE PLAN SHALL BE INDICATED ON THE SPACE
PROVIDED FOR NOTES AT THE BOTTOM LEFT
CORNER. THESE ARE:

CLAIMS

AS

3.

RELATION
WITH
ANY
CADASTRAL OR PUBLIC LAND SUBDIVISION
SURVEY PROJECT OR RESERVATION (IF
SURVEY IS NEAR A KNOWN RESERVATION),
AS XXXXXXXXX

4.

IF LOT IS A PORTION OF
UNDECREED
CADASTRAL
LOT,
THE
CADASTRAL LOT NUMBER PERTAINING TO
SAID PORTION, AS:
LOT 7=LOT 5000, CAD-69

5.

CONTIGUOUS CADASTRAL MAPS (CCM)


CONSISTING OF FOUR OR SIXTEEN SHEETS,
SHALL BE DRAWN ON A SINGLE SHEET OF THE
SAME MATERIAL AND SIZE AS THE STANDARD
CADASTRAL MAP IN THE SCALE OF 1:8000 OR
1:16000, RESPECTIVELY, TO SHOW PARCELS
WHICH WOULD BE TOO BIG ON THE STANDARD
SCALE OF 1:4000. XXXXXX (SEC.354, DAO NO. 98
12 S. 1998)

FOR LOTS LESS THAN ONE HECTARE IN AREA,


A
GENERAL
CLASSIFICATION,
SUCH
AS
RESIDENTIAL LOT, HOME LOT, RICE LAND,
SUGAR CANE LAND, COMMERCIAL LOT SHALL
BE INDICATED ON SAID PLANS. FOR A GROUP OF
LOTS SHOWN ON ONE PLAN IN DIMINUTIVE
GEOMETRICAL FIGURES, A NOTATION ON THE
PLAN REGARDING THE TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES
AND/OR GENERAL CLASSIFICATION FOR EACH
LOT IS SUFFICIENT IN BOTH CASES.

ADVERSE

E)

XXXXXXXXX

THE SECTIONAL CADASTRAL MAPS SHALL BE


IN THE SCALE OF 1:2000; 1:1000; 1:500; 1:250 AND
SHALL COMPRISE AREAS WITHIN SPHEROIDAL
QUADRANGLES OF THIRTY SECONDS, FIFTEEN
SECONDS, SEVEN AND ONE HALF SECONDS OR
THREE AND ONE-FOURTH SECONDS OF ARC,
RESPECTIVELY. (SEC.351, DAO NO. 9812 S. 1998)

ISOLATED SURVEY PLANS


IN ALL LOTS OF ISOLATED LAND SURVEYS WITH
AREAS ON ONE HECTARE OR MORE, THE
APPROXIMATE BOUNDARY OF THE AREA UNDER
CULTIVATION AND THE NATURE OF
ITS
VEGETATION SUCH AS RICE, PASTURES, WOODS,
ETC. WITH A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE
TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES SUCH AS PLAIN,
ROLLING, HILLY OR MOUNTAINOUS SHALL BE
INDICATED IN LIGHT BLACK DOTTED LINES.

DESCRIPTION OF CORNERS AS
XXXXXXXXXX

CLASSIFICATION OF LOT, AS:


A)

FOR
SURVEY
INSIDE
CLASSIFIED / UNCLASSIFIED FOREST:
THIS SURVEY IS WITHIN CLASSIFIED /
UNCLASSIFIED FOREST AND THEREFORE
SHALL NOT BE THE BASIS FOR
REGISTRATION OR TITLING PURPOSES.

B)

FOR ORIGINAL SURVEY:


THIS SURVEY IS INSIDE THE ALIENABLE
AND DISPOSABLE AREA, BLOCK 1,
PROJECT NO. 25, LAND CLASSIFICATION
MAP NO. 329 FOR THE PROVINCE OF
LAGUNA.
THE SURVEY WAS APPROVED BASED ON
THE INVESTIGATION REPORT SUBMITTED
BY DEPUTY PUBLIC LAND INVESTIGATOR
(NAME) DATED ___________.

C)

FOR
COMPLEX
SUBDIVISION: THIS SUBDIVISION SURVEY
IS IN CONFORMITY WITH THE APPROVED
SUBDIVISION SCHEME.
(SEC.378, DAO 98-12 S. 1998)

BUFFER ZONES WITHIN FOREST LANDS


A)

B)

C)

D)

TWENTY-METERS STRIPS OF LAND ALONG


THE EDGE OF NORMAL HIGH WATERLINE ON
RIVERS AND STREAMS WITH CHANNELS OF
AT LEAST FIVE (5) METERS WIDE OR EVEN
LESS
THAN
FIVE
(5)
METERS
IF
CONTINUOUSLY FLOWING;
STRIP OF LAND AT LEAST FIFTY (50)
METERS IN WIDTH FRONTING THE SEA,
OCEAN OR OTHER BODIES OF WATER AND
20 METERS ON BOTH SIDES OF RIVER
CHANNL/BANK
MAINTAINED
AND
DEVELOPED TO ENHANCE THE PROTECTIVE
CAPABILITY
OF
MANGROVE
AGAINST
STRONG CURRENTS, WINDS AND HIGH
WAVES;
IN STORM-PRONE AREAS, MANGROVE
FOREST STRIPS OF 100 METERS WIDE
INWARD ALONG SHORELINE FRONTING THE
SEAS, OCEANS AND OTHER BODIES OF
WATER AND 50 METERS STRIP RIVER BANK
PROTECTION;
TWENTY METERS STRIP OF LAND OUTSIDE
THE
BOUNDARIES
AND
IMMEDIATELY

F)

ADJACENT TO DESIGNATED PROTECTED


AREAS;
TWENTY METERS STRIP OF LAND ALONG
THE BOUNDARIES OF REFORESTATION
PROJECTS
ADJACENT
TO
PRIVATE/ALIENABLE
OR
DISPOSABLE
LANDS; AND
A BUFFER ZONE OF 100 METERS OF
RESIDUAL FOREST SHALL BE ESTABLISHED
IMMEDIATELY SURROUNDING THE OLD
GROWTH FOREST STANDS. HOWEVER,
WHEN THE OLD GROWTH FOREST STAND IS
ADJACENT
TO
NATURAL
GROUND
FEATURES SUCH AS WATERWAYS (RIVERS,
STREAMS, CREEKS), GULLIES, OR RIDGE
TOPS, THESE SHALL BE USED AS
BOUNDARIES. (DAO 13, S. 1992; SEC. 668,
DAO 98-12 S. 1998)