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TENSES 1. Present Simple 1.1. Form: Tense Present Simple (Hiện tại đơn) S + V (s/ es). S + don’t/ doesn’t + V. Do/ Does + S + V? 1.2. Usage: We use present simple: - To refer to something which happens often or for a habit that we have  I usually do my homework immediately after school. Form Example The postman always comes at eleven. The postman doesn’t always come at eleven. Does the postman always come at eleven?

- To refer to permanent states  They live in England.

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- To talk about general truths or natural laws.  Water boils at 1000 Celsius.

- When we refer to programs (cinema, theatre, etc.) or timetables (for ships, trains, etc.)   The film starts at 8.00 pm. Our plane leaves at half past six.

- To describe a sports fact or to tell the story of a film or a book.   Andy Wilson scores his first goal! Sean Jameson, who plays the part of the detective, dies in a car crash.

1.3. Time markers: Some time markers (dấu hiệu thời gian) which we often use with the present simple are:  Adverbs of frequency (trạng từ tần xuất): always, sometimes, often, usually, occasionally, never, rarely, seldom, etc.  Other time markers such as everyday/ week/ month, on Mondays, Tuesdays, at the weekend, once a week/ year etc.

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Note: Adverbs of frequency usually go before the main verb.    He usually goes to bed early. He doesn’t usually go to bed early. Does he usually go to bed early?

The rest of time markers usually go at the end or at the beginning of the sentence.   She goes to bed early every day. In the mornings, we have some cereal for breakfast.

2. Present Continuous 2.1. Form: Tense Present Continuous (Hiện tại tiếp diễn) Form S + am/ is/ are + Ving. S + am/ is/ are not + Ving. Am/ Is/ Are + S + Ving? 2.2. Usage: We use present continuous: - To describe something that is happening now  Be quiet! I’m doing my homework. Example They are sleeping at the moment. They aren’t sleeping at the moment. Are they sleeping at the moment?

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- To describe temporary states and actions  She’s staying with her grandparents this week.

- To describe states that are changing or developing  Prices are rising very fast these days.

- To describe something that we plan to do in the immediate future  We’ve leaving for France tomorrow.

- To describe actions that are repeated and are annoying. In this case, we usually use adverbs such as always, constantly, etc  You’re always borrowing my things without asking!

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2.3. Time markers Some time markers that we often use with the present continuous are: now, at the moment, at present, today, these days, this month/ week, etc. 3. Present Perfect Simple 3.1. Form: Tense Present Perfect Simple (Hiện tại hoàn thành) Form S + have/ has + P2. S + have/ has not + P2. Have/ Has + S + P2? 3.2 Usage: We use the present perfect simple: - For an action that happened in the past at an indeterminable time (thời gian không xác định). We do not refer to when the action happened because we do not know or it does not concern us.  I’ve met Sarah. She’s a nice girl. Example We have known them since last year. We haven’t known them since last year. Have we known them since last year?

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- To describe an action that happened in the past but influences or has a visible effect on the present.  Dad was washed the car. It’s clean.

- To refer to an action that started in the past and is continuing in the present.  Mr Allan has been a teacher for twenty – five years.

- To refer an action that happened during a period of time that has not ended yet.  I’ve read three books this month.

- To talk about experiences that we have or have not had in our life.    Have you ever met anyone famous? She’s never funniest story that I’ve ever heard. This is the first time I’ve seen a lion.

- To refer to an action which has just been completed. In this case, we usually use just.  We have just had lunch.

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3.3. Time markers Some time markers that we often use with the Present Continuous are: - for: (khoảng, theo sau là một khoảng thời gian)  We’ve known them for years.

- since: (từ khi, theo sau là mốc thời gian)  We’ve known them since 1992.

- already:  - yet:  - just:  - ever:  Have you ever eaten frogs’ legs before. She isn’t here. She has just left the building. Have you finished yet? They haven’t called us yet. It’s only four o’clock, but he’s already left.

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- lately/ recently:  - so far:  They haven’t made any mistakes so far. We haven’t seen them lately.

- today/ this morning:  I have had two cups of coffee this morning.

- How long…?  How long have you been here?

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4. Present Perfect Continuous 4.1. Form Tense Present Perfect Continuous (Hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn) Form S + have/ has been + Ving. S + have/ has not been + Ving. Have/ Has + S + been + Ving? Example She has been studying English for six months. She hasn’t been studying English for six months. Has she been studying English for six months? 4.2. Usage We use the Present Perfect Continuous: - for an action that started in the past and being repeated or is continuing until the present time. - for an action that has recently been completed. There is usually some indications in the present that this action has happened.  His clothes are dirty. He’s been repairing the car.

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4.3. Time markers Some time markers that we often use with the Present Perfect Continuous are: How long? For, since, recently, lately… 5. Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Simple With the Present Perfect Simple, we refer to an action that has been completed. What interests us most is the result of this action (quan tâm đến kết quả của hành động).  She has washed the car. It’s clean now. With the Present Perfect Simple, we are not interested in the duration of the action but in
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Present Perfect Continuous With the Present Perfect Continuous, the action may or may not have been completed. What interests us most is the action itself, not whether it has been completed. (Quan tâm đến bản thân hành động, không quan tâm xem hành động đó được hoàn thành hay chưa)  She has been washing the car.

With the Present Perfect Continuous, we emphasize the duration of the action that is continuing in the present.

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the fact that it has been completed. (Không quan tâm đến thời gian diễn ra hành động, chỉ quan tâm tính hòan thành)  She has typed six letters today. (Nhấn mạnh thời gian, tính liên tục của hành động ở hiện tại)  She has been typing letters all morning and still has a lot to do.

6. Stative verbs (Động từ trạng thái) There are some verbs that do not usually form continuous tenses because they describe states, not actions. Some of these verbs are: - verbs of the sense: see, hear, smell, feel, taste, sound, look, seem, notice, appear. - verbs of perception: know, understand, think, believe, remember, forget, expect, etc. - verbs that express likes or dislikes: like, dislike, love, hate, prefer, etc. - other verbs such as: be, belong, have, need, want, cost, mean, wish, hope, include, contain, weigh, etc. Some of the above verbs may also be used with continuous tenses. In this case, they have a different meaning since they describe actions, not states. Let’s compare the example below. Have you seen the film? (see= see) Her skin feels soft. (feel = it has a (soft) texture Sugar tastes sweet. (taste = taste) These flowers smell nice. (smell = be fragrant) I think he’s right. (think = believe, consider) Jack has two brothers. (have = have) I’m seeing Lucy after school. (see = meet) She’s feeling his face to see if it’s hot. (feel = touch) She’s tasting the sauce. (taste = try) She’s smelling the flower. (smell = smell) I’m thinking about my new job. (think = think) Jack is having a bath. (have = have (a bath))

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That picture looks nice (look = appear) That appears to be very friendly. (appear = appear/ give the impression) He’s selfish. (be = be) 7. Simple Past 7.1. Form: Tense Past Simple (Quá khứ đơn) Form S + V (ed)/irregular verbs S + didn’t + V. Did + S + V? 7.2. Usage: We use the Simple Past: - To express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. (Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind).  Last year, I traveled to Japan.  Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.  She washed her car.  He didn't wash his car. - To list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.  I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.  He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.  Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs? Example You called Debbie. I didn't see a play yesterday. Did you have dinner last night? He’s looking at the picture. (look = look) He is appearing as Hamlet for the first time. (appear = make an appearance) He’s being selfish. (be = behave, in a specific situation)

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The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.  Shauna studied Japanese for five years.  They sat at the beach all day.  They did not stay at the party the entire time.  We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.  A: How long did you wait for them? B: We waited for one hour. - To describe a habit which stopped in the past.  I studied French when I was a child.  He didn't play the piano.  Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?  She worked at the movie theater after school.  They never went to school, they always skipped class. - To describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true.  She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.  He didn't like tomatoes before.  Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?  People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past. 7.3. Time markers        Yesterday three weeks ago last year in 2002 from March to June for a long time for 6 weeks

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   in the 1980s in the last century in the past

7. 4. IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First - Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.  When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.  She answered my question when I paid her one dollar. - When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether "when I paid her one dollar" is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.  I paid her one dollar when she answered my question. 8. Past Continuous 8.1. Form: Tense Past Continuous (Quá khứ tiếp diễn) Form S + were/was + Ving S + weren’t/wasn’t + Ving Were/was + S + Ving? Example You were studying when she called. You were not studying when she called. Were you studying when she called?

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8.2. Usage: We use the Past Continuous: - To indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted.  I was watching TV when she called.  When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.  While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.  What were you doing when the earthquake started?
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 I was listening to my iPod, so I didn't hear the fire alarm. The Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.  Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.  At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.  Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work. - To describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past:  When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service. - To expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past:  She was always coming to class late.  He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.  I didn't like them because they were always complaining. 8.3.IMPORTANT - In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the action.  Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner. I STARTED EATING AT 6 PM.  Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner. I
EATING DINNER. STARTED EARLIER; AND AT

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6 PM, I

WAS IN THE PROCESS OF

- When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.  I was studying while he was making dinner.  While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.  I wasn't paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes.  What were you doing while you were waiting?  They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time. 9. Past Simple or Continuous
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Past Simple Most of the time when we are talking about such actions, we use the past simple. This is by far the most common way of talking about the past.     I lived there for 6 years.  I only found out a few moments ago.  I asked her but she didn't know anything.  The company made 100 people When we use these two forms in the same sentence, we use the past continuous to talk about the "background action" and the past simple to talk about the shorter completed action.     10. Past Perfect 10.1.Form: Tense Past Perfect (Quá thành) khứ hoàn Form S + had + P2. S + had not + P2. Had + S + P2? Example You had studied English before you moved to New York. You had not studied English before you moved to New York. Had you studied English before you moved to New York? 10.2 Usage: We use the Past Perfect: - To expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
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Past Continuous Only use the past continuous when you want to emphasize the continuity of the action.  Everybody was talking about it all evening. They were really trying hard but couldn't do it. I was thinking about you the other day. Were you expecting that to happen?

redundant last year.

It was raining hard when we left the building. I was reading the report when you rang. He was going out to lunch when I saw him. The company was doing well when I last visited it.

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 I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.  I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.  Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.  Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?  She only understood the movie because she had read the book. - To show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.  We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.  By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.  They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years. Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.  She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996. 11. Past Perfect Continuous 11.1. Form

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Tense Past Continuous (Quá khứ hoàn Perfect Form S + had been + Ving. S + had not been + Ving. Had + S + been + Ving? Example You had been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. You had not been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived. Had you been waiting there for more than two hours when she finally arrived? 11.2. Usage We use the Past Perfect Continuous: - To show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past.  They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.  She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.  How long had you been waiting to get on the bus?
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 Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work. - To show cause and effect.  Jason was tired because he had been jogging.  Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.  Betty failed the final test because she had not been attending class. 12. Past Continuous vs Past Perfect Continuous If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study the examples below to understand the difference.  He was tired because he was exercising so hard. THIS
BECAUSE HE WAS EXERCISING AT THAT EXACT MOMENT. SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WAS TIRED

 He was tired because he had been exercising so hard. THIS

SENTENCE EMPHASIZES THAT HE WAS

TIRED BECAUSE HE HAD BEEN EXERCISING OVER A PERIOD OF TIME. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT HE WAS STILL EXERCISING AT THAT MOMENT OR THAT HE HAD JUST FINISHED.

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13. Future Simple 13.1. Form Tense Future Simple (Tương lai đơn) Form S + shall/will + V. S + shan’t/won’t + V. Shall/Will + S + V? 13.2. Usage: We use future simple: - When there is no plan or decision to do something before we speak. We make the decision spontaneously (một cách bộc phát) at the time of speaking.   Hold on. I'll get a pen. We will see what we can do to help you. Example You will finish the exercise before me. We won’t be at school tomorrow. Will they arrive on time?

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 Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.

- To make a prediction about the future (there is no firm plan. We are saying what we think will happen).    It will rain tomorrow. People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century. Who do you think will get the job?

- When the main verb is ‘be’, we can use the simple future tense even if we have a firm plan (kế hoạch chắc chắn) or decision (quyết định) before speaking.    I'll be in London tomorrow. I'm going shopping. I won't be very long. Will you be at work tomorrow?

- To express willingness/ unwillingness.   I'll do the washing-up. He'll carry your bag for you. The baby won't eat his soup.

- To give orders:  You will do exactly as I say.

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- To make an offer  Shall I open the window?

- To make a suggestion:  Shall we go to the cinema tonight?

- To give an invitation:  Will you come to the dance with me? Will you marry me?

Note: In modern English will is preferred to shall.  Shall is mainly used with I and we to make an offer or suggestion or to ask for advice. With the other persons (you, he, she, they) shall is only used in literary (văn chương) or poetic (thơ ca) situations.  "With rings on her fingers and bells on her toes, she shall have music wherever she goes."

13.3. Time markers
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Some time markers that we often use with the future simple are: tonight, tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, later, next week/month/year, in 2011, for the next 2 years/days/months etc.   John Smith will be the next President. I think I'll go to the gym tomorrow.

14. Future Continuous 14.1. Form: Tense Future Continuous (Tương lai tiếp diễn) Form S + will + be + Ving. S + won’t be + Ving. Will + S + be + Ving? 14.2. Usage: The future continuous refers to an unfinished action or event that will be in progress at a time later than now. It is used: - To project ourselves into the future and see something happening:  This time next week I will be sun-bathing in Bali. Example I will be working at 10 a.m. She will not be using the car. Will you be playing football?

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- To refer to actions/events that will happen in the normal course of events:   I'll be seeing Jim at the conference next week. In the interrogative form, especially with 'you', to distinguish between a simple request for information and an invitation:   Will you be coming to the party tonight? (= request for information) Will you come to the party? (= invitation)

- To predict or guess about someone's actions or feelings, now or in the future:  You'll be feeling tired after that long walk, I expect.

- Events in progress in the future:    When you are in Australia will you be staying with friends? This time next week you will be working in your new job. At four thirty on Tuesday afternoon I will be signing the contract.

- Events/actions in normal course of events:  I'll be going into town this afternoon, is there anything you want from the shops?

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  Will you be using the car tomorrow? - No, you can take it. I'll be seeing Jane this evening - I'll give her the message.

- Asking for information:   Will you be bringing your friend to the pub tonight? Will Jim be coming with us?

- Predicting or guessing:    You'll be feeling thirsty after working in the sun. He'll be coming to the meeting, I expect. You'll be missing the sunshine now you're back in England.

14.3. Time markers We can use time markers with future continuous like: next week/month/year, in 2015, for the next 2 years/days/months etc.      I will be at that party on Monday night. You will not be singing in the concert in July. We'll be flying over the Atlantic Ocean for three hours. Tom will be attending the conference next month. Will I be working this weekend?

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15. Future with “going to” 15.1. Form Tense Future with ‘going to’ (Tương lai dự định) Form S + am/is/are + going to + V. S + am/is/are not + going to + V. Are/Is + S + going to + V? Example I’m going to take a few days off. They aren’t going to visit our parents at the weekend. Is she going to leave? 15.2. Usage: The use of 'going to' to refer to future events suggests a very strong association with the present. The time is not important - it is later than now, but the attitude is that the event depends on a present situation, that we know about. So it is used: - To refer to our plans.   We're going to move to London next year. (= the plan is in our minds now.) They are going to university next year

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- To make predictions based on the fact.   Look at those clouds - it's going to pour with rain! (= It's clear from what I can see now.) The test next week is going to be really hard

- To state the something that is intended to take place in the future.    Is Freddy going to buy a new car soon? Are John and Pam going to visit Milan when they are in Italy? I think Nigel and Mary are going to have a party next week.

Note: Future simple vs Future with “going to” We use Future simple and Future with “going to” to predict future events, but ‘going to” is used to make predictions about events when there is a concrete evidence (dấu hiệu cụ thể): Example:  Look at those dark clouds in the sky. It is going to rain soon.

16. Future Perfect 16.1. Form Tense Future Perfect (Tương lai hoàn thành) Form S + will have + P2. S + will not have + P2. Will + S + have + P2? Example You will have forgotten me by then.

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She will not have gone to school. Will they have received the present?

16.2. Usage: We use the future perfect tense to say that something will have been done, completed or achieved by a certain time in the future.      We will have completed half the course by Christmas. The builders say they will have finished the roof by Monday. By next November, I will have received my promotion. By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house. Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing?

16.3. Time markers It is often used with a time expression using ‘by + a point in future time’.   I'll have been here for six months on June 23rd. By the time you read this I'll have left.

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 You will have finished your work by this time next week.

17. Future Perfect Continuous 17.1. Form Tense Future Perfect Continuous (Tương lai hoàn thành tiếp diễn) Form S + will have been + Ving. S + will not have been + Ving. Will + S + have been + Ving? Example You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives. We will not have been waiting long. Will they have been watching TV?

17.2. Usage:  To emphasize the duration (quãng thời gian) of an activity that will be in progress before another time or event in the future.      She will have been sleeping for only four hours when the alarm goes off. We will have been driving for fifteen hours by the time we arrive in Los Angeles. At midnight, I will have been studying English grammar tenses for three hours. I will have been working here for ten years next week. He will be tired when he arrives. He will have been traveling for 24 hours.

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 To show cause and effect when the Future Perfect Continuous goes before another action in the future.  Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.

17.3. Time markers “For five minutes”, “for two weeks”, and “since Friday” are time markers which can be used in Future Perfect Continuous.  A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over a year? B: No, I will not have been living here that long. Note: Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect Continuous Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the examples below to understand the difference. Examples:  He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard. (This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will be exercising at that exact moment in the future.)
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 He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard. (This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will have been exercising for a period of time. It is possible that he will still be exercising at that moment OR that he will just have finished.) 18. Other ways of expressing the future 18.1. The use of “be to” Form: Form S + am/is/are + to + V. S + am/is/are not + to + V. Are/is + S + to + V? Usage:  To refers to an obligation to do something at a time later than now. It is similar to 'must', but there is a suggestion that something has been arranged or organized for us.  You aren’t to tell him anything about our plans (= You mustn’t tell him) Example Police officers are to visit every home in the area. You are not to leave the school with my permission. Are you to travel?

18.2. The use of “be about to” Form: Form S + am/is/are + about to + V. Usage:  To refer to a time immediately after the moment of speaking  Look! The rave is about to start. She is about to arrive. Example

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 To emphasis that the event or action will happen very soon   You are about to see something very unusual. I am about to go to a meeting - can I talk to you later?

 It is often used with the word 'just', which emphasises the immediacy of the action:   We are just about to go to sleep. Sally is just about to take an exam.

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Note: This form can also be used in the simple past tense to refer to an action that was imminent, but was interrupted. In such cases it is often followed by a 'when - clause':   She was about to leave when he arrived. I was just about to telephone her when she walked into the house.

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