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**Vibration Isolation and Transmissibility
**

Vibration Isolation When oscillatory forces arise unavoidably in machines it is usually desired to prevent these forces from being transmitted to the surroundings. For example, some unbalanced forces are inevitable in a car engine, and it is uncomfortable if these are wholly transmitted to the car body. The usual solution is to mount the source of vibration on sprung supports. Vibration isolation is measured in terms of the motion or force transmitted to the foundation. The lesser the force or motion transmitted the greater the vibration isolation Suppose that the foundation is effectively rigid and that only one direction of movement is effectively excited so that the system can be treated as having only one degree of freedom, as illustrated in the following diagram. Response without damping The amplitude of the force transmitted to the foundations is stiffness of the support and x(t) is the displacement of the mass m. applied force where k is the

mass m

restoring force

support The governing equation can be determined by considering that the total forcing on the machine is equal to its mass multiplied by its acceleration (Newton’s second law 1) giving a second order ordinary differential equation 2: (1)

1 2

Newton’s Laws of Motion Ordinary Differential Equations

) Substituting the phasor quantities into equation (1) gives the equation: Removing the factor gives the following Hence Hence (2) Since the natural frequency is given by then equation (2) can be written as From the diagram above. In the analysis.me. (Note that a Fourier series3 approximation to a periodic forcing reduces it to a series of sinusoidal (or phasor) quantities. each frequency can be considered independently. We note that the response 3 Fourier Series . we note that the force transmitted to the support is : Let be the amplitude of the transmitted force. but is exactly out of phase when ω > is infinite when ω = ωn. but switches to the opposite sign when is exactly in phase with when ω < ωn . Then We note ω > ωn.www.engineering. has the same sign as when ω < ωn .uk Assume also that the forcing and the displacement can be written in terms of phasors: and . ωn.

engineering. The transmissibility can never be zero but will be less than 1 providing otherwise it will be greater than 1. . or The following graph plots transmissibility against ω for ωn=10.www.me.uk In the following graph is plotted against ω for F=1 and ωn=10. The ratio (transmitted force amplitude) / (applied force amplitude) is called the transmissibility.

Since .8.2 = 0.engineering. . Hence Hence .93 = 93%.07. interest centres on the isolation provided by the spring mass system. (a) What is the percentage isolation. Example A vibration isolation platform has a transmissibility of 0. Isolation In practical terms. (b) What ratio of forcing frequency to undamped natural frequency would give this isolation.07=0. the isolation is 1 – 0. If the transmissibility is 0.me.2 transmissibility as 20%.www.uk 6 5 t r a n s m i s s i v i t y 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 omega 15 20 25 Good vibration isolation requires ωn to be small compared to ω. therefore the isolation is 80%.2. Answer (a) Isolation = 1 –transmissibility =1-0. to achieve this the foundations need to be extremely flexible which opposes the need to hold the equipment firmly in place so some compromise is inevitable. Another way is to quote the 0.

By substituting phasor quantities. If we include velocity damping then this resists the applied force and equation (1) is generalised as follows where c is the damping coefficient. give us the following equation Making X the subject of the equation gives the following: Hence where is the damping ratio4.www.the 4 5 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion Complex Arithmetic . for example. exhibits a considerable amount of internal damping. and the damping force .uk Damped response Most anti-vibrational mountings in current use include damping.me. Using the rule for dividing complex numbers5 Since . Rubber.engineering. as before.the resultant of amplitude of the transmitted force.

but the reduction is less than that in an undamped system. 0.7 with .uk The ratio (transmitted force amplitude) / (applied force amplitude) is called the transmissibility. In the following graph the transmissibility is plotted against ω for damping ratios of 0. .1.me.5 and 0. Thus the force transmitted to the foundations is still reduced by the mounting provided .3. 0.engineering.www.

. but in practice several modes of vibration are usually possible.www.uk We have only considered the simple case of systems with only one degree of freedom. but generally you should keep where is the resonant frequency in the relevant mode. In other words you should provide a flexible mounting for the machine in order that is as small as possible.engineering. The problems of isolating several modes of vibration while still managing to keep a reasonably firm foundation is far from simple.me. worse still the foundation itself may be flexible (consider and aircraft engine bolted to a wing).

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A guide to vibration isolation and transmissibility

A guide to vibration isolation and transmissibility

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