99

KAPITEL

A HANDBOOK ON THE ENVIRONMENT FOR THE TEXTILE AND FASHION INDUSTRY

SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION DESIGN ASSOCIATION

1

KAPITEL

"Like any other piece of art, clothes are reflections of the times creating them. Unsuspectingly a man of his time reveals himself in the art he accepts and rejects. And no branch of art is more subtle than the changes rung on the most tempting of all themes: the human body".
by R. Broby-Johansen

2

PREFACE

3

PREFACE

by Svend Auken, Danish Minister for the Environment and Energy

(from 1993 to 2001)

It does not take much to make a minister for the environment happy. All you need to do is to present him with a project which makes it realistic for a wide range of people to respect the environment during their daily work. Such a project has now been carried out – in the form of this attractive environmental handbook for textile designers and buyers. Designers and buyers have a considerable influence on the way textiles affect the environment. If a designer chooses to work with qualities and dyes which are inappropriate from an environmental perspective, or if the buyer has chosen to disregard these issues, nature will foot the bill. In contrast only a few environmentally sound decisions need to be made during the design and procurement phase to increase the environmental benefit considerably. The production of textiles is one of the most polluting processes in the world. Even so, it has been difficult for environmental ideas to break through in the industry. But that attitude has gone. Today the environmental industry is as fashionable as the fashion industry itself, and this trend will gather momentum in the years ahead. The three authors of this handbook are all designers who have worked with textiles and the environment for a number of years and they are aware that it can be difficult to solve the puzzle. We of the Danish Ministry of the Environment and Energy are happy that they will share their experience with the rest of the industry. And it is my hope that this book will inspire a growing circle of talented designers and clever buyers so that related industries will also take up the challenge. So far Denmark has been renowned throughout the world for the high-quality of its design of clothes, art, craft and furniture. If we choose to incorporate the environmental dimension as well the phrase line, “Made in Denmark” will have a quality dimension which we can truly be proud of.

4

INTRODUCTION

5

This book is intended as a handbook on the environment to help and inspire designers, buyers and other players within the textile and clothes industries to whom it may be of relevance. The hope is that it will stimulate the industry to endeavour to achieve a more environmentally friendly and thus a more sustainable production. The book is published with subsidies from the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Miljøstyrelsen). The book was created through cooperation between the Sustainable Solution Design Association (Foreningen til Fremme af Bæredygtigt Design) and the consultancy RAMBØLL. For many years the Sustainable Solution Design Association has been working to communicate, promote and develop sustainable design. The aim of the association is based on the attitudes and conclusions drawn from the Brundtland Commission which defines sustainable development as follows: “A development which satisfies the present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. It can be difficult to work in accordance with the above definition especially in the fashion industry where trends change rapidly. This is why it is so interesting that futurologists believe that consumers increasingly require knowledge about how a specific product has come into existence – i.e. the story behind it all. This is a time-consuming process both in terms of production research and communicating with the consumer. In this context it should also be mentioned that man’s need to decorate himself is a fact that cannot be ignored even if you work with environmental issues. Design and procurement should meet today’s trend so that sustainability is associated with something positive instead of something negative. The book examines the responsibility and role of the designer and buyer when they consider sustainability and ethics in their work. At the beginning of the book you will find a number of case studies describing how a number of Danish and foreign companies have tried to tackle the issue. The following chapters describe the most significant environmental impact in the production of textiles. The user part of the book is intended as a checklist including environmentally related questions about cotton, wool, acrylic, polyester and viscose. The checklist deals with how the environment will be affected by the production of the different types of materials – from fibres to end-fabrics. The checklist is intended as a tool for the designer and the buyer to include environmental considerations in their daily routines. The last chapter in the book describes the different environmental labelling schemes that are relevant to the textile and clothing industry. Finally, further research can be carried out and more information and guidelines can be sought from the list of participants and the bibliography at the back of the book. Enjoy your reading!

PHOTOGRAPHY: P. WESSEL

8

CASE STUDIES

9

CASE STUDIES

We have thought to emphasise the fact that environmentally friendly production and design is not impossible. This section describes a number of companies that have already taken steps towards more environmentally friendly production. Each of the above-mentioned companies has had its own approach to and interest in producing more environmentally friendly products, whether it has been for personal and idealistic reasons or simply for economic reasons. The motives of the different companies are not the reasons why they are described in this book. The point is that it is possible to change to more environmentally friendly production! This is why it makes sense to focus on all types of businesses: from global organisations to quite small local firms. It is one thing to emphasise that trends and styles have nothing to do with sustainability but the fact remains that for both large and small businesses it has clearly been possible to combine the two - despite all the complications encountered by all during the process. Since cotton accounts for most of the total global consumption of fibres, we have decided to put our main focus on this produce. Today research in cotton/organic cotton is open and accessible to most people and in this area there are so many tools and types of certification that it is far more manageable to tackle than other types of fibres. E.g. synthetic fibres are often patented by companies who have done a lot of research for many years in the properties of one single fibre. This can make it difficult to create an open dialogue since much of the information is considered a trade secret.

10

CASE STUDIES

11

CASE STUDIES

BUSINESS: Marks & Spencer was established in the UK in 1884. Through its worldwide department stores and shops Marks & Spencer sells clothing, foods and homeware. On 31 March 2000 Marks & Spencer had an annual turnover of approximately GBP 8,195m employing a total of 75,500 people worldwide. LOCATION: Marks & Spencer’s has its headquarters in London and has 702 stores worldwide. COTTON: Marks and Spencer tested organic and naturally dyed cotton in the early 1990s without much success. The items were too expensive, the Marks & Spencer marketing of the product was minimal and the public was not nearly as aware of the benefits of organic agriculture as they are now. Nowadays, Marks & Spencer has a promising organic food business. In addition, there is widespread consumer concern in the UK about GM crops including cotton. With this increased awareness and interest in organic produce, the largest retailer in the UK, launched an organic cotton line for the Easter of 2000. Targeted for 12 stores, the garments were clearly labelled and certified organic. Marks & Spencer’s organic cotton products were 30% more expensive than their conventional equivalents. Modelled on the Marks & Spencer food division, the garments are made from 100% certified organic cotton, placed next to other items made from conventional cotton. In the early 1990s this model was avoided, the biggest fear being: “How will this reflect on the rest of our range”? “Our business is

so large,” says a Marks & Spencer’s spokesperson “and there is only so much organic cotton per season that we can phase into the store. We have to steadily build up a supply to ensure long term stability and consistency of the programme”. “We considered a blend but felt that a 100% pure product was more appropriate for Marks & Spencer. Our customers expect trust in the brand implicitly. Anything less than 100% organic would fall below our customers’ expectations. Just as we offer our customers a choice between organic and conventional produce, so we are offering the same choice for our fibre products”. Marks and Spencer needs to consider carefully its raw material sources for future organic cotton products. Some farmers have certified organic land and can move straight into organic cotton crops. Others need to have their land in a certification programme for three years before the crop can be labelled organic. Crops within this three-year time limit are termed ‘transitional’ organic. One idea thought through by a Marks and Spencer Cotton technologist suggested maintaining the organic products marketed as organic with a 100% organic content, whilst using transitional cotton in a given percentage blend across the Marks and Spencer conventional range. This steady market would encourage more farmers to put their conventional crop into transition, and after the three year requirement period become certified, and build up a future supply of organic fibre for the M&S programme. Sales results of the first organic cotton test have not been particularly good. This may be partly because of the minimal use of organic cotton marketing materials at point of sale. Though Marks and Spencer, at the time of writing, has been going through major restructuring and market repositioning for their conventional business, they continue to explore and develop organic cotton as an important part of the business. Representing the true mainstream, Marks and Spencer will be an interesting case study to watch.

PHOTOGRAPHY: P. WESSEL

12

CASE STUDIES

13

CASE STUDIES

BUSINESS: Patagonia is an American - formerly French - business generating an annual turnover of $163m. Patagonia is a private company. Cotton represents 20% of the company’s consumption. LOCATION: U.S.A. HISTORY: After the company’s founder Yvon Chouinard saw for himself the devastating environmental effects of Californian cotton production whilst on a farm tour hosted by SCP (Sustainable Cotton Project), he decided the company would convert to organic cotton fibres or shut down it’s cotton sportswear business altogether. In 1992-1994, Patagonia started to test out organic cotton T-shirts and sweatshirts and in 1995 other cotton accessories were added to the range. COTTON: As a result, fabric development teams set about researching how they could implement the commitment. By 1996, after 4 years of trials, Patagonia had converted all its cotton sportswear knits and wovens to 100% organic. Initially, Patagonia had to change many of its regular suppliers, in order to ensure that only 100% organic cotton was used. As a consequence, some of the other factors a company considers when selecting suppliers were initially challenging: delivery, reliability, and some quality issues arose (from changing suppliers, rather than using organic cotton) and it took two seasons to iron out these obstacles. In the first season, Patagonia incurred some erosion of its profit margin on its cotton sportwear line. To accommodate the higher prices, it took a three-tier approach. It streamlined the product range, decreased its profit margins slightly and increased its retail prices. Over the years since the initial streamlining the product range has grown beyond where it was before the change to organic cotton.

As the organic industry becomes more established, the number of suppliers steadily increases from year to year. Patagonia explained to its customers the reason for the increased retail price, and why it was important to change to organic cotton. Customer loyalty increased and its organic cotton sales are now even higher than when the range was conventional. POLYESTER: Patagonia also carried out other environmental activities in the product areas. Patagonia was the first company to use recycled polyester fleece fabric: a programme that was implemented in 1993. Since polyester is extracted from a non-renewable source and is not biodegradable, keeping it in an industrial loop system is one of the best ways to reduce its impact on the environment. Polyester is recyclable from used consumer products, though a certain percentage of virgin fibre may be needed to achieve finer polyester yarn. Patagonia’s polyester fleece is recycled from used consumer plastic bottles. The fabric was developed by one of Patagonia’s suppliers knowing this ecological approach to fabric would be of interest to the company. Recycled soda bottles are chopped, washed and converted into small flakes which are then melted to form a viscose liquid. The recycled polyester is mixed with virgin polyester to maintain the integrity of the fibre. The new fibres are extruded from the liquid, and then compressed and formed into bales. The bales of fibre are then shipped to mills to be knitted, dyed and made into clothes. The final recycled content of the product varies from 50%-90% and virgin polyester forms the balance. Between the spring of 1993 and the spring of 1996, Patagonia diverted over 54m plastic bottles from landfills and saved over 600,000 gallons of oil from being used. DYES: Patagonia has done extensive research on the environmental impact of dyes, but has yet to decide on the best approach for a dye programme that truly reduces the impact on the environment. Patagonia has found that besides the content of the dyestuffs, other mitigating factors on environmental impact include: fabric type, weight, colour, the dyeing facilities, equipment, and the environmental location of the dye facility itself. All the factors make a truly ecological approach to dyes very highly complex and time consuming to implement.
PHOTOGRAPHY: MIKKEL BACHE

14

CASE STUDIES

15

CASE STUDIES

PATAGONIA'S "CODE OF CONDUCT"
FORCED LABOUR Nobody should be allowed to subject others to forced labour whether in the form of convict labour, long-term labour contracts on hard terms for the labourer or tying individuals to particular areas or the like. CHILD LABOUR Nobody under the age of 15 years (or 14 years of age under present production laws) or individuals under the compulsory school age in countries where this age exceeds 15, shall be employed. HARRASSMENT OR ABUSE All employees shall be treated with respect and dignity. No employees shall be subjected to physical, sexual, mental or verbal harassment or abuse. DISCRIMINATION No employees shall be subjected to any forms of discrimination during employment, i.e. in connection with the employment process, wages and salaries, perks, promotion, working assignments, dismissals or retirements due to gender, race, religion, age, disability, sexual orientation, nationality, political orientation, social or ethnic background. HEALTH AND SAFETY The employer shall endeavour to ensure a safe and healthy environment safeguarding against accidents and destruction when work is performed and/or as a result of the use of the facilities at the said workplace. FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION Employers shall accept and respect the employees’ right to freedom of association and collective bargaining. PAY AND PERKS The employer shall accept that the pay is essential for the employee to meet his/her basic needs. As a minimum the employer shall pay the employees minimum payment according to current legislation or industrial payments in force – whichever is highest – and shall see to payment of statutory perks. WORKING HOURS Other than in special business related circumstances, employees shall (i) not be requested to work for more than (a) 48 hours per week including 12 hours’ overtime work or (b) more than the limit for general working hours and overtime work under present law or, where the law contains no provision pertaining to a limitation of the working hours, than the general, national working week plus 12 hours’ overtime work and (ii) shall be entitled to not less than one day off during each 7-day work period. OVERTIME PAYMENT Apart from compensation/payment for ordinary working hours, employees are entitled to overtime payment under present law, or, where such laws are inexistent, to payment which, as a minimum, is on a par with their general hourly wages.

16

CASE STUDIES

17

CASE STUDIES

BUSINESS: Holstein Flachs employs approximately 20 people. The company is owned by farmers. LOCATION: Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany. HISTORY: In the mid-1980s a group of farmers tried to see if it would be possible to grow flax again as production of this crop had stopped 30 years earlier due to pollution when retting the flax. Despite a difficult start-up Holstein Flachs managed to start growing flax again and today more than 5,000 hectares of land has been cultivated on approximately 1,000 different plots. HIGH QUALITY FLAX: Having tested a wide range of varieties such as elephant grass, hemp and nettles, Holstein Flachs has succeeded in growing high-quality European flax with help from the faculty of cultivation of plants at the University of Kiel. There has been severe competition from Belgium and France, amongst others, and it has been difficult for a small company like Holstein Flachs that has to pay high wages and salaries and expenses. Even so Holstein Flachs has managed to use some of the waste products from the flax stems for useful by-products which have generated a considerable and important extra income from the sale of flax. CERTIFIED/APPROVED FLAX: Holstein Flachs has enjoyed international respect and recognition for its production of flax

for clothing with all the raw materials originating from certified organic cultivation. All products are certified by IMO (Institut Für Marktökologi) in accordance with IFOAM’s (International Federation Of Organic Culture Movements) regulations and the strict provisions of the International Natural Textile Association which means that organic flax is grown without using any forms of pesticides and fertilisers. A field will be designated as organic if no pesticides or mineral fertilizers have been used for three years. The interesting design and the new techniques for processing the organic flax from Schleswig-Holstein have helped single out the characteristics and benefits of this specific flax. These are the reasons why a young business without considerable financial resources has been able to survive in a part of the conventional industry which otherwise would move its production to countries which can produce the items more cheaply. This proves that if you stick to local traditions and sustainable farming methods, a small business can penetrate the global market with a clear profile and business philosophy despite meeting opposition from all sides.

PHOTOGRAPHY: ROBIN SKJOLDBORG

18

CASE STUDIES

19

CASE STUDIES

BUSINESS: Nike is an American company with an annual turnover of $7bn. A large part of Nike’s production is cotton. LOCATION: Head office in U.S.A. COTTON: Nike is a member of an organisation named Natural Step which provides a framework for companies to become more ecologically sustainable businesses. Nike’s use of organic cotton was included in its company wide initiatives to implement the principles of sustainability. Nike targeted the high volume promotional t-shirt area of the company. In 1998, the company introduced 4 models in 5.4-ounce jersey using a 3% blend of organic cotton with conventional cotton. This was through one US vendor only and the total volume at that time was 30 million T-shirts. By 1999, volume was 75 million units, and the programme had extended to sweatshirts and socks. Since the programme began in 1997, Nike has used 2.2 million pounds of organic cotton which has eliminated 330 tonnes of toxic chemicals from contaminating the environment (Calculations by SCP). Nike’s choice of a 3% blend of organic cotton with conventional cotton was based on price; the conversion amounted to an increase in FOB cost of just 2 cents per t-shirt. By 2010, Nike is aiming for 3% of the cotton consumption for the entire company to be organic. This would include European and Asian vendors as well as the initial US vendor. Conversion to 100% organic cotton across the whole range would not be immediately possible due to the limited supply of organic fibre and the economic risk at that volume of eroded margin. Nike is carefully planning the increase in the organic percentage both

through special product design and a broader product range in order to balance supply with demand. LABOUR: Nike operates in 50 countries, in factories totalling 708 worldwide. As a corporation, NIKE does not use child or under-aged labour in any of its manufacturing operations. Several years ago there were stories in the press that under age workers were believed to be involved in the production of NIKE soccer balls in Pakistan at the Saga Sport Ball factory. To combat further bad publicity, NIKE worked with the Saga Sport Ball Company to set up dedicated stitching centres close to the workers’ homes to produce their products. Since that time, NIKE has set the highest minimum acceptable working age standard in the industry. The minimum acceptable age for workers in a footwear factory is 18, and the minimum age for workers in factories producing any other NIKE product is 16. This is even higher than the minimum age set by the ILO. (International Labor Organisation). In addition, in 1994, NIKE was the first company in the Sports and Fitness and/or apparel industry to conduct continuous third party monitoring. Today NIKE has developed this programme further to involve not only companies like Price WaterhouseCoopers, who conduct Code of Conduct Compliance Monitoring visits, but also NGOs and other outside organizations who engage workers, listen to their voice, and make sure that the standards that have been set are not only being met, but are continually improving. In addition to the opportunities the jobs themselves provide, 85% of the footwear factories currently offer after-hours education to workers. Many factories have set up recreation and activity centres, and all footwear factories, and many of the larger apparel and equipment factories, have on-site medical clinics. OTHER RESEARCH: Nike says that by 2001, nine out of 10 shoes it manufactures will be made without toxic glues, cleaners, or solvents. The company has also pledged to find an alternative to sulphur hexafluoride, a greenhouse gas used in air cushions for its shoes. Ultimately the company says it wants to sell products that are made from recycled materials and are themselves recyclable.

PHOTOGRAPHY: JETTE JØRS

20
PHOTOGRAPHY: THOMAS TOLSTRUP

CASE STUDIES

21

CASE STUDIES

BUSINESS: Sustainable Solution Design Association (Foreningen til fremme af Bæredygtigt Design) and Paradigm employ three people. LOCATION: Denmark HISTORY: Sustainable Solution Design Association was established in 1995 by the designers Tina Hjort and Drude Breds with active participation from the board which amongst others included Helle Krüger. The aim was to gather and communicate knowledge about sustainable clothing. This knowledge was communicated to consumers, designers, manufacturers etc. via lectures, articles, the fashion magazine “Itch” and the fashion show “Organic” at the “First Organic World Trade Fair” in Holmen in 1996. Through Sustainable Solution Design Association’s work the aim is to encourage the target group to integrate sustainable principles when buying and designing clothes and in production at par with other parameters such as quality, design and price. In cooperation with Helle Krüger the efforts to communicate the above vision were in 1999 expanded to establish the company named Paradigm who develops and produces environmentally friendly and exclusive garments. Sales from paradigm’s store have primarily included a unique production manufactured by Paradigm itself. SUSTAINABLE PRINCIPLES: Sustainable Solution Design Association and Paradigm soon realised that there are no definitive solu-

tions when dealing with sustainable clothes. It is an area in constant change and where no answer key is given. From the very beginning the aim was to work with as environmentally friendly textiles as possible. But since only a few textiles are ecolabelled most of the work included to build up and nourish personal contact to the sub-suppliers. Sustainable Solution Design Association and Paradigm could thus personally warrant the textiles that they used and continuously influence the suppliers making requests of environmental principles and asking loads of questions. Sustainable Solution Design Association and Paradigm only use organic cotton and organic flax for their basic collection and in addition they only use materials such as piña (pineapple fibres) and uncultivated silk and wool which has not been sprayed as an exclusive supplement to the collection. Sustainable Solution Design Association and Paradigm have decided to see the immediate limitation to the range of sustainable fabrics as a challenge which has made this work even more interesting since it is no longer just a question of styles and dyes.
SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION DESIGN ASSOCIATION’S ENVIRONMENTAL CODE OF CONDUCT: • to work with materials from environmentally certified producers - or materials produced by already known producers - who work in accordance with environmentally safe processes. • to avoid fabrics of mixed varieties (considering the disposal phase) except from fabrics providing longer wear and abrasion resistance or undergoing a similar degradation phase. • to avoid fabrics which have been subjected to undue additional treatment with chemicals. • to use high-quality fabrics. To include ethics which are at par with the environment and design.

For Sustainable Solution Design Association and Paradigm the design process itself is rather long because you will often keep returning to the idea before it finally comes into shape. Naturally, Sustainable Solution Design Association and Paradigm have opted to put great emphasis on creating a dynamic design compared with the sustainable textiles they are working with. They have taken up the challenge posed by each individual textile and tried to further develop these at a level appropriate to present trends with prints, pegs, embroideries etc. At first the real challenge was to design simple, feminine and well-fitting daily attire made of sustainable fabrics. A basic collection has now been designed having had regard to the environment in the form of different paddings, casting offs, ornaments etc. But in order to put a stop to the myth that organic clothes are boring and unsaleable they have also considered it a challenge to make suggestions to unique wedding, gala and party gowns of the future where especially the crafts involved in the different Fair Trade projects were emphasised in combination with Paradigm’s ideas.
SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION DESIGN ASSOCIATION’S CODE OF DESIGN: • to design garments of a classic and the latest cut. • to base designs on previous years’ models. • to add value to the design through embroideries and details of good craftsmanship. • to combine the materials to obtain lightness and consistency between the materials. • to reuse excess materials as insertions in different models. • to find solutions to avoid interlining materials – or to use environmentally friendly fabrics as interlining materials.

DESIGN PRINCIPLES: Sustainable Solution Design Association and Paradigm have attached main importance to the use of natural textiles because they are the most suitable for the company’s designs. This is not to say that synthetic textiles will not be used or that Sustainable Solution Design Association and Paradigm believe that natural fibres are always more environmentally friendly than synthetic fibres.

22

CASE STUDIES

23

BUSINESS: The Sustainable Cotton Project (SCP) is a non-profit based group of farmers who help cotton growers to convert from conventional to organic farming. LOCATION: U.S.A. HISTORY: Through their programme named BASIC (Biological agricultural systems in Cotton) farmers who have already converted to organic farming mentor new farmers through the transition. BASIC is not a certification system, it is a programme developed by farmers for farmers to take steps to reduce their use of chemicals and eventually convert to organic farming systems. SCP’s pilot project is in California, and is now expanding to Missouri,

USA. Organic cotton acreage in California is currently at 3,000 acres, but could increase to whatever the market demands, as long as farmers have pre-harvest contracts. In 1998, SCP launched its Cleaner Cotton Campaign, an initiative aiming to increase the markets for organic cotton in the textile industry. Will Allen, executive director of SCP, and a farmer himself, and Lynda Grose, fashion designer, give presentations to companies in the textile industry, to educate them about conventional cotton farming, the organic alternatives, and to present successful models for implementing organic cotton production in the industry. The presentation takes the form of a slide show covering market trends, increased consumer awareness about ecology and graphic representation of strategies which a company might adopt or implement in their own production. Contacts in the organic industry are supplied to the companies to help initiate research into the possibilities of developing their own organic cotton fabrics. Company owners and managers are encouraged to join farm tours of the Californian organic and conventional cotton farms to witness the difference between the two methods of farming for themselves. The farm tours are held from October to November each year, just as the cotton crop is being harvested. This is when the contrast between organic and conventional farming methods is at it’s starkest. Defoliants, which are used to strip the leaves from the plant to enable easier picking of the bolls are amongst the most toxic chemicals used in conventional cotton farming. The combination of a farmer and a designer giving presentations to the industry has turned out to be quite a success. Will Allen is talking from personal experience about the toxic chemicals used on cotton crops and the effect they have on the local communities, where cancer clusters are a common occurrence (Cancer rates in farming communities are 50% higher than those in the rest of California). Lynda Grose who knows the difficulties inside companies and in the textile industry in developing organic cotton products, talks from personal experience in working for Esprit and other companies.

COMPANIES WHICH HAVE SHOWN INTEREST IN ORGANIC PROGRAMMES SO FAR INCLUDE:
Next (/*), Adidas (/), Target (/x), Mervyns (/), L.L. Beans (::), Hanna Anderson (*/), Norm Thompson (*::) and Eddie Bauer (: :), USA, and Jigsaw (x) and Mothercare (x), UK.
SYMBOLS * = developing organic cotton programmes x = testing organic cotton fabric :: = have been on a farm tour / = have seen an SCP presentation

Recently, Marks and Spencer launched an organic cotton program in 10 of its stores - the sales results of which are unknown at time of writing. Every year Patagonia sends busloads of their staff on farm tours to educate them about Patagonia’s conversion to organic cotton. Last year Nike also sponsored a bus for the same reason. This year Norm Thompson is sponsoring a bus.

PHOTOGRAPHY: ROBIN SKJOLDBORG

26

KAPITEL

27

THE ROLE OF THE DESIGNER/BUYER

Many players in the textile and clothing industry believe that there is a contradiction in working with sustainability and fashion. Firstly, because fashion equals excessive consumption controlled by fast-changing trends and, secondly, because many people associate environmentally friendly clothes with unbleached, undyed and shapeless items which are thus unsaleable. Ideas of fanaticism, holiness and other forms of negative attitudes could also be a great barrier. But many consumers are also open to the issue following the general trend which increasingly puts an emphasis on the origin of a product. Today it is to a large extent the designer and the buyer who are able to change attitudes and take part in a new sustainable development of the production. Making their options and purchases they often have far more power and thus far more responsibility than would be attributed to today’s conscious consumer. People still disagree whether environmental behaviour is a trend which has come to stay; or whether the trend is reserved for a specific part of the population the “politically correct” buyers. Designers and buyers may therefore launch products on the market which are not necessarily perceived to be environmentally friendly and thus cater for a much larger target group. The sustainable element will thus become a natural part of the production itself and will no longer be accredited as a shortterm trend. This will also put pressure on the producers so that the influence will also have an effect the other way and it may gradually stimulate more environmentally friendly production. This is illustrated in Fig. X (The Old Model) and Fig. Y (The New Model) where Environmental Resources Management in cooperation with the designer Lynda Grose has prepared a chart describing how industry operates today and how it may change and improve. In Fig. X it appears quite clearly that the designer’s field of activity is limited to relating to current trends i.e. exclusively to movements in cultural trends: colours, shapes, styles and possibly also sales potential. The designers and the buyers do not relate at all to any information submitted before then regarding the production itself. If you take a closer look at Fig. Y you will see that they are actually not mutually exclusive which therefore puts far more responsibility on the designer. Trends, colours and cultural changes in society should not exclude a fundamental awareness and interest in the development and production of the various products. This process will of course take many years. Both to incorporate the fundamental awareness and sense of responsibility into the educational system but also to introduce new systems into work places which have been operating as seen in Fig. X for many, many years. An example of this could be as mentioned in “Case studies”

about how Nike and Patagonia have introduced 100% or 50% use of organic cotton instead of conventional cotton. This has not changed their style or their target groups in any way. It will of course require an open mind and a wish to gain knowledge of the subject before it is possible to do anything at all. This is why the designer, who has the ability to adjust ideas to current trends, company styles, economy etc., is very well-qualified to seamlessly integrate sustainable principles. Today it is not a natural part of the working process to consider sustainability. It will therefore require much of the individual member of staff to introduce these principles to his/her workplace and/or incorporate them in his/her daily routines. But designers/ buyers should not feel discouraged. Many different suggestions are presented as to which correct environmentally friendly options to make. Sometimes these issues become confusing. But instead of becoming confused or losing the plot – face up to the challenge! If you understand how to turn the process round, you will experience that the limitations can become an interesting challenge which will only make you wiser. Please note that there is no such thing as asking stupid questions – it is better to ask one too many questions than one too few! The most important point is to be persistent and take small steps at the time. It can make the process simpler if, in the beginning, only one issue is investigated: e.g. dyeing. And if for example it is desirable to use a synthetic fibre due to resistance to wear and tear, the sustainable option will of course be the synthetic fibre in stead of a natural fibre that is not durable. It is also possible to receive professional guidance and assistance. Today there are many institutions and organisations – both Danish and international ones – who are offering assistance and guidance on the different options. In the back of this book we refer to some of the best known organisations etc. that are willing to offer their assistance and guidance on organic cotton or chemical processes.

PHOTOGRAPHY: THOMAS TOLSTRUP

LIVSSTIL RELATERET BILLED

Assembly 28 Food industry

Seed

Advertising

Consumer

Social trends, culture & subculture

THE ROLE OF THE DESIGNER/BUYER

Farmers
Fibre

Ginners Converter

Textile manufacturers & finishers
Printing & finishing specifications

Retailer

Trend analysis

Pallets & rangers Operating parameters Operating parameters Product specifications

Designer

Colour, style, material and texture

FIG. X THE OLD MODEL

Environmental legislation
Operating parameters

Dyestuff manufacturers

Customer

29

FIG. Y THE NEW MODEL

Advertising

Consumer awareness

Social trends, culture & subculture

Government Recycling companies Farmers Retailer
Labelling

Dyestuff manufacturers Spinners Knitters Weavers Research organisations Educational establishments Environmental forum Finishers Assemblers Trade associations
Information exchange

THE ROLE OF THE DESIGNER/BUYER Trend analysis

Pallets & rangers

Constraints & opportunities

Colour, style, material and texture

Designer

30

ETHICS

31

KAPITEL

We must behave ethically to achieve sustainability but our ethic values are not always in the best interest of others. Ethics means a way of living and all individuals have a set of values according to which they should live. We will have to evaluate our product from cradle to grave. According to which principles do we want to live? What are our attitudes to society?

when they are at work but they never talk about it. It is considered very shameful to be laid off and they will be laid off if they make the slightest complaints.

Some of the mills have very few toilets for many hundreds of people and the workers have to fill in forms to monitor how often they go to the toilet. Therefore many of the Textile mills throughout the world use cheap labour and create workers avoid using the toilets by skipping jobs and generate export earnings for the poorer countries. breakfast or not having a drink all day. But it is often at the expense of the environment and human rights. Far too many people work in poor working conditions The press hardly ever reports criticism of that are damaging to their physical and mental health. the clothing industry in Bangladesh to avoid accusations of attempting to ruin the biggest There are about 120m inhabitants in Bangladesh and by export success Bangladesh has experienced. 1998 approximately 1.4m people were employed in more The clothing manufacturers have a strong than 2,000 textiles mills. If the administrative staff were union with powerful political connections included, such as clerks, cleaners and drivers etc. the figure so they are therefore not the ones who will would be approximately 5m people who directly or indirectly attempt to improve working conditions. depend on the clothing industry. CONSUMER DEMANDS IN THE WEST THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY VIOLATES HUMAN RIGHTS However, it has turned out that the demands Clothing accounts for 68% of Bangladesh’s exports. The clothing made by consumers in the rich part of the industry is helping in many ways to develop one of world’s world can make a difference. poorest countries to incorporate it into the global economy. The conscious consumer has existed for many But it is at the expense of the environment and human rights. years and has helped to change history. Examples of the above include Yugoslavia, At the mills the factory workers are often not allowed to Burma and the Shell ban during apartheid speak to each other while they are working unless they want in South Africa and also the drop in sales of to discuss job-related issues. The factory owners claim that French wine and cheese to Danish consumit will reduce the efficiency. ers as a response to the nuclear tests. According to a survey made by the organisation Action Aid, 20% of unmarried women who work at the country’s textile mills have sex with their supervisors. 15% of the women only have sex with these men because they want to achieve something, e.g. to receive their wages on time or simply to receive all the DKK 180 which is the average monthly wages for a sewing machinist. The women work in wretched conditions and many are raped Nike is also a good example. By and large Nike itself has no production plants. Practically everything it sells is made by its suppliers and sub-suppliers throughout the world – especially in third-world countries. Previously Nike had not formulated its ethical values. Nike had not undertaken social or environmental responsibility. Nike was therefore constantly criticised because its

PHOTOGRAPHY: RED BARNET FOTO: ...

32

KAPITEL

33

ETHICS

suppliers or sub-suppliers employed child labour. Nike lost billions due to this criticism and because the consumers imposed a massive boycott of its goods. This resulted in Nike changing its course radically. COMPANY HEALTH-CHECKS More and more companies have now implemented ethical guidelines because it is too expensive to have a bad reputation and a bad reputation can take a long time to remedy. Many large companies therefore try to build up a good image and avoid a poor one. And therefore it has become crucial to check that the good intentions are actually met. Many international audit firms and consultancies are engaged in overseeing that the companies’ suppliers in developing countries meet the requirements. Not only do they prepare a “Code of Conduct” for the companies to follow but they also work out procedures for checking that the code is adhered by the company and by the suppliers. They also prepare contingency plans for the company in case breaches of the guidelines should occur. THE BUYERS SHOULD BE CHECKED There may be many suppliers and sub-suppliers in many different countries behind one product. This means that the buyers acting for companies with ethical guidelines should be geared to inspect the sub-suppliers and to ask the right questions. The buyers are important because once the contract is signed it can be difficult to set new requirements. It is therefore important for the companies to train their buyers so they are able to assess whether the suppliers can and will meet the ethical guidelines and that for example they do not employ children. COMPLEX CHILD LABOUR Many companies have made it a requirement of their supplier that they do not use child labour. Child labour in the developing coun-

tries is described – according to the ILO (International Labour Organisation) Convention – as general labour performed by any one under the age of 14 years or for hazardous work by any one under 18 years. However, the above-mentioned convention is still being interpreted in many different ways and many international businesses have even stricter requirements to age limits than those set by the ILO. Our ethical attitudes to child labour may be right for us in the rich part of the world but the same attitudes might have serious consequences for families in the third world. If for example child labour is experienced with one supplier and the company therefore decides to terminate the relationship the livelihood for an entire family might disappear with disastrous consequences for many children who are forced into prostitution because they have to earn money to support their family somehow. One solution might be to accept that human rights can only be met through opportunities for education and then tell the supplier that light child labour is acceptable but only after school. Nike has for example established schools where their suppliers employ child labour. ANIMALS AND THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY As with human beings there are many aspects to consider on the use of animals in the clothing industry. The industry uses for example hides, leather, fur, feathers and wool from many different animal species. But in contrast to human beings for whom a number of rules are set worldwide on how humans should live and be treated, no such set of rules has been set for animals. The consumer organisations have to put pressure on this and legislation has to be introduced in this area. We could emphasise certain points of resemblance between animal ethics within the food industry and the textile and clothing industry. This could for example be the number of animals cramped in a specific area and a set of rules for how we should treat animals bred for the clothing industry. Animal ethics is an emotive topic. The limit on what is right and what is wrong – or good or bad – can be a very personal issue which each designer, buyer or company should form an opinion on. The only thing, which can be said to be under present legislation worldwide, is that it is prohibited to kill and use the hides or fur from endangered species.

34

FROM CRADLE TO GRAVE

35

FROM CRADLE TO GRAVE

Not only do textiles affect the environment during production of the fabrics but also during the cultivation and manufacturing process of the fibres and not least during the consumption phase where laundry and disposal has a considerable effect on the environment. It will be important to consider the entire process »from cradle to grave« when assessing a textile’s impact on the environment. The figures give a clear overview of the environmental impact of textile products made from polyester and from cotton. In the section below we will give a more detailed description of the environmental impact of a textile product.

36

FROM CRADLE TO GRAVE

37

FROM CRADLE TO GRAVE

USE AND LAUNDRY COTTON GROWING AND HARVESTING
The environment will be affected when conventional cotton is grown and harvested due to the large amounts of fertilizers, pesticides and defoliants used.

DISPOSAL

CLEANING RAW COTTON

When the cotton has been picked, unwanted impurities (hulls etc.) will be separated from the cotton fibre. This process is also called cotton ginning. When a large amount of cotton dust and toxic fumes are emitted it can cause the lung disease byssinosis in cotton workers.

Large amounts of clothes are disposed of each year. The clothes may either be used as second hand or it may end up in the waste bin and then hauled to waste incineration plants or landfills.

When consumers buy clothes, the clothes often contain residuals from the chemicals that were used during the various production processes and in some cases these residuals can cause irritation of the skin or eczema. The laundry process also affects the environment. A textile product only needs to be washed a few times for more energy to have been used for this process than for the production of the product itself.

TRANSPORT AND SALES

The fabrics and the finished clothing are often transported from one end of the world and back again. The heavy consumption of fuel affects the environment. Furthermore, the environment is affected because the cotton is treated with certain chemicals to prevent it from disintegrating. Many resources are also used for packaging for example which affects the environment when disposed.

COTTON FIBRE SPINNING

The spinning of cotton fibres also cause problems with dust. For the spinning process some producers use spinning oils which do not easily break down. These oils will be washed out of the cotton during the subsequent processes and they will thus pollute the wastewater.

YARN WEAVING

SEWING WET TREATMENT
Wet treatment of raw yarns, knitted or woven raw materials includes a number of processes: desizing, prewashing, bleaching, mercerising, dying, printing and after treatment. All the above-mentioned processes have an impact on the environment in different ways. For example any remains from potential pesticides, defoliants and other agents (e.g. sizing oils and spinning oils) will be washed out if they have been added during previous processes. Other substances which are dangerous to the environment and health are used; they include amongst others chlorine-containing products which are used for bleaching and dyes containing heavy metal. All processes used in wet treatment include a large consumption of water.

During the weaving process the environment will in some cases be affected by the use of sizing agents which are used to reinforce the longitudinal yarns so that they can survive the weaving process. The size will be washed out during the subsequent processes.

YARN KNITTING

The sewing process affects the external environment especially since large amounts of fibre, textile and packaging waste are disposed. The most difficult issue in the sewing process is working conditions, particularly the risk of repetitive strain injuries and exposure to toxic fumes from the residual chemicals in the textiles such as for example formaldehyde.

In some cases needle oils which do not break down easily are used during the knitting process and will be washed out during the subsequent process polluting the wastewater. Besides this process will produce yarn, packaging material and textile waste.

38

FROM CRADLE TO GRAVE

39

FROM CRADLE TO GRAVE

POLYESTER MANUFACTURING

Polyester is a man-made fibre which is manufactured from refined raw oil. Raw oil is not a renewable resource. The fibre is made from raw oil passing through a number of processes during which chemicals are added many of which are suspected of being carcinogenic.

SPINNING

The noise level is very high when the fibres are spun and much waste from the fibres and yarns is seen. Spinning oils are also used and these do not easily break down when they are washed out later and discharged into the wastewater.

DISPOSAL

Large amounts of clothes are disposed of each year. The clothes may either be recycled or they may end up in the waste bin for later to be taken to waste incineration plants or landfills.

WEAVING

Like the spinning process the weaving one is very noisy. Sizing agents are used for the weaving process to reinforce the longitudinal yarns. When the size is flushed during later processes, it will affect the surrounding water environment (lake, river and sea) because of the high contents of organic compounds, which for example can cause oxygen depletion and kill off fish.

USE AND LAUNDRY

When consumers buy clothes, the clothes often contain residuals from the chemicals that were used during the separate production processes and in some cases may cause irritation of the skin or eczema. The laundry process also affects the environment. A textile product only needs to be washed a few times for more energy to have been used for this process than for the production of the product itself.

WET TREATMENT

Wet treatment includes a large number of processes: desizing, prewashing and bleaching, dying, printing, after treatment and heat treatment. The spinning oils and sizing agents are washed out of the fabrics during the wet treatment process and various chemicals, e.g. detergents, dyes and solvents, many of which may damage the environment and human health, are added during the separate processes.

TRANSPORT AND SALES SEWING

The sewing process affects the external environment especially because of disposal of large amounts of fibre, textile and packaging waste. The most difficult issue in the sewing process is working conditions, particularly the risk of repetitive strain injuries and exposure to toxic fumes from the residual chemicals in the textiles such as for example formaldehyde.

The fabrics and the finished clothing are often transported from one end of the world and back again. The heavy consumption of fuel affects the environment. Many resources are also used for packaging which when disposed of affects the environment.

PHOTOGRAPHY: JETTE JØRS

42

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

43

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

44

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

45

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

The path from cotton seed or extraction of raw oil to the end product is a long one and there are many links in the chain which affect the environment. The aim of this section is to give an understanding of the scale of the environmental difficulties from the very beginning when the fibre is grown or manufactured until disposal of the end product when it is worn or has become obsolete. CHOOSING TYPES OF TEXTILES When the designer chooses his/her fabrics for a new product range and the buyer purchases the fabrics from the supplier, the type

of fibre/textile chosen for the product will have a significant impact on the environment Today there are so many different types of textiles on the market that it can be very difficult to keep track of all of them and know their effect on the environment during the manufacturing process. In the table below a number of fibres are listed and divided into categories according to their properties as natural or chemical fibres. Natural fibres are fibres from either plants or animals. Chemical fibres are man-made fibres which can be made from either plant fibres which are regenerated (reclaimed) e.g. viscose or which can be pure synthetic fibres that are extracted from raw oil, such as for example polyester. In Table 1 under chemical fibres the names in italics are brand names. For example for polyester we have listed five different brand names. The list

is not complete and even more brand names are likely to be found at trade fairs and with suppliers. There are many different environmental difficulties connected with the manufacturing process of a textile whether it is based on natural or artificial fibres. It is by no means only the manufacturing process of the fabric which puts pressure on the environment which we indicated above in the description of the life cycle of polyester and cotton. It is difficult to generalise and claim that the

same environmental effects are related to the production of all types of natural fibres or all types of chemical fibres. Each type of fibre has its “own” environmental impact. In this section examples will be given of some of the environmental problems associated with the production of a selection of both natural fibres and chemical fibres. In Table 2 below a number of environmental effects caused by the production of natural and chemical fibres are described. In general it could be argued, however, that the difference in environmental terms between natural fibres and synthetic

TABLE 2:
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT NATURE FIBRES NATURAL REGENERATED Flax etc. bast fibres 1 Wool etc. animal fibres CHEMICAL FIBRES SYNTHETIC Polyamide (Nylon) Acrylic

TABLE 1:
NATURAL FIBRES Plant fibres Animal fibres CHEMICAL FIBRES Regenerated fibres are fibres made from natural regenerated (reclaimed) plant fibres Viscose Floxan Swelan Modal Avril Polynosic Vincel Cupro Lyocell Tencel Acetate Dicel Rhodia Triacetate Arnel Tricel Synthetic fibres are made from sythetic polymers extracted from raw oil

Cotton

Viscose and Polyester similar fibres cellulose fibres 2

Cotton Flax Hemp Jute Ramie Manila Sisal Coco Pineapple Banana

Wool Camel Alpaca Angora Cashmere Mohair Silk Hair

Polyamide or nylon Enkalon Perlon Rilsan Tactel Polyester Dacron Diolon Tergal Teteron Trevira Acrylic or polyacrylic Acrilan Cashmilon Courtelle Dralon Modacrylic Vonnel Dynel Chlorofibres or polychloride Rhovyl Polypropylene Elasthane Lycra Polyurethane Vinylal

GROWING / FIBRE MANUFACTURING Water consumption Pesticides Wastewater Air emission PRODUCTION OF FABRICS Water consumption Wastewater PCP/TeCP Chlorine bleaching Metal complex dyes Allergy-provoking dyes Carrier Petrol-based printing AFTERTREATMENT / FINISH Formaldehyde Flame retardants

  -

   -

   -

 







     

     

     

     

    -

   

  

 

 



 

: Significantly relevant environmental impact by the fibre in question  : Partly relevant - : Not relevant
1 2

: The category of bast fibres includes ramie, jute and hemp, for example : Including amongst others acetate, triacetate, cupro, lyocell and modal

46

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

47

MILJØPROBLEMER

fibres is that natural fibres occupy fertile soil which could otherwise have been used for food production whereas synthetic fibres use non renewable resources in the form of oil. However, the regenerated fibres, such as for example viscose, may in this context be considered a natural fibre since it is extracted from wood. Unfortunately, things cannot be measured entirely accurately sincere there is no ideal solution to the problem of choosing between natural or chemical fibres. Many different issues need to be taken into consideration to make an environmentally safe choice.

Pesticider og andre agrokemikalier, der bliver brugt på store farme, bliver ofte spredt fra fly, og der er lavet undersøgelser, der viser, at i visse tilfælde er det kun 25%, der rammer målet. (Rainey, 1994)

EXAMPLE OF HOW THE ENVIRONMENT IS AFFECTED BY THE PRODUCTION OF TEXTILE FIBRES
MANY PESTICIDES ARE USED The use of pesticides for conventional (traditional) cotton growing causes many problems throughout the world because of the large amount involved. Almost 25% of the global sales of pesticides are used for cotton growing. The cotton plant is sprayed because it is a very fragile plant and particularly vulnerable to attacks from diseases, various types of fungi, insects etc. In third-world countries large amounts are being used and insecticides, such as for example DDT is still being used although the use of such pesticides is banned in the EU and Scandinavia.

Every year 300m kilograms of pesticides are used in the third world and half of them are used for cotton. It is claimed that India, where the cotton production only comprises 5% of the total acreage of cultivated land, uses up to 55% of the total amount of pesticides, which are sprayed. (Dinham, 1992)
For picking the cotton so-called defoliants are used in many cases, because they make the leaves fall off the bushes thus making it easier to harvest the cotton by using machinery. Although the pesticides and the defoliants are only used for the cotton, other crops are contaminated because they are grown close to the cotton fields. The cotton fields are often sprayed from aircrafts and a large percentage of the chemicals never hit the target, thus causing pollution of the ground water and the accumulation of harmful substances in the food chain. It is possible to buy cotton without pesticides on the global market, both as organic cotton and as cotton grown without

PHOTOGRAPHY: ZACK GRIFFIN

48

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

49

MILJØPROBLEMER

the use of pesticides. But in 1996 the organic cotton production amounted to approximately 20,000 tonnes, which corresponds to approximately 0.1% of the total global cotton production. So there is still long way to go! In Australia and New Zealand sheep are often sprayed with or immersed in pesticides to kill the parasites, lice and fleas, found in their wool. However, it should be emphasised that Danish sheep farmers rarely use this form of chemical treatment. At present there is very little pesticide-free wool available on the global market and apparently the farming of organic wool is mostly connected with production of organic mutton and lamb. COTTON GROWING REQUIRES LARGE QUANTITIES OF WATER Another big environmental problem connected with cotton growing is that for optimum growth the cotton plant requires large quantities of water which can only be achieved by irrigation. This puts considerable demand on the water resources and soil erosion is often seen due to uncontrolled use of irrigation. A frightening example of the consequences of large consumption of water is from the Aral Lake in Russia where the water level in the lake has fallen by 50% due to irrigation of large areas of land being used for growing cotton. Due to heavy use of pesticides and fertilisers, polluted soil and ground water have caused large problems for animals and humans; among other things it has had an effect on the world’s highest child mortality rate in the area and a large number of spontaneous abortions, cancer of the stomach and the like.

PRODUCTION OF NATURAL FIBRES ALSO AFFECTS THE WATER ENVIRONMENT Wool comes primarily from sheep. The raw wool is full of natural impurities and grease which will be removed during the washing process. The wastewater from the washing process contains large amounts of grease which, when discharged into the wastewater, is favourable to the growth of algae which may cause oxygen depletion and kill off fish. When the wastewater has a large content of grease (organic substance) it is known as having a high COD/BOD level. When flax is extracted from the stalks of the flax plant, the stalks undergo a process to soften them. This process is called retting and if it is carried out in basins without appropriate cleaning facilities for the wastewater, the process can cause pollution due to the oxygen depleting substances discharged into the aquatic environment. The retting process for flax can also be carried out in the field itself (field retting) where the dew will help bringing about the natural disintegration of the flax. This process is considered the most environmentally friendly.

FOTO: CARY S. WOLINSKY

EXAMPLES OF HOW THE ENVIRONMENT IS AFFECTED BY THE PRODUCTION OF FABRICS During recent years many Danish textile producers have introduced new, cleaner technological solutions in their production. This has had the effect that production in THE PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL FIBRES many areas has become more environmenAFFECTS THE AIR AND WATERS tally friendly. However, there are still many During the production of chemical fibres, i.e. both regenerareas in which the environmental measures ated and synthetic fibres, the environment will especially be could be improved and naturally this espeaffected because substances that are harmful for the envicially applies to the large number of foreign ronment and human health are emitted into the air and the sub-suppliers. water. For example during the production of polyester volatile The production of the textile, i.e. the producorganic substances and hazardous chemicals are emitted tion of the fabric, covers many processes which are classified as being possibly carcinogenic. ranging from spinning, weaving, knitting, wet Viscose is extracted by dividing wood into fine particles treatment and sewing. Various environmental which are dissolved in a water solution. This process also problems are attributed to all these procproduces large quantities of wastewater with high contents esses for all the different types of fibres. of organic substances and hydrogen-sulphide and carbon For example some of the problems are sulphide, both substances are classified as environmentally caused during the spinning, weaving and hazardous. knitting processes by the use of various chemicals, especially spinning oils, wax and

50

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

51

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

PHOTOGRAPHY: HELLE KRÜGER

52

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

53

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

sizing agents. The spinning oils do not easily break down naturally, i.e. they are slowly degradable. The sizing agents cause many difficulties because they are flushed out during subsequent processes and cause a large content of organic substances in the wastewater. Besides, environmentally harmful preservative such as for example PCH (pentachloridephenole) may have been added to the size which should not be used in production if you want to be able to use the eco-label “the EU Flower” for your textiles. CHEMICALS AND DYES WHICH AFFECT THE ENVIRONMENT ARE USED IN PRODUCTION When a fabric is produced it will undergo many processes generally called wet treatment. Wet treatment includes the following processes: desizing, prewashing, bleaching, mercerising, dying and printing. A number of chemicals and dyes are used which are considered to have an adverse effect on the environment and human health. Since these materials increase the toxicity of the wastewater they may accumulate in the food chain or be difficult to degrade. Natural fibres are often bleached before they are dyed. They are bleached to make the dyeing process as effective as possible. Unfortunately, in many countries the bleaching process involves chlorine-containing bleaching materials (though these are rarely used in Denmark), which cause a high chlorine content in the wastewater. The high content of chloride makes it difficult to clean the wastewater. However, in most cases chlorine bleaching can be replaced by other less destructive forms of bleaching, mainly peroxide bleaching. Azo dyes belong to the largest main group of textile dyes. It is therefore impossible to avoid using them in the production. But a few of the azo dyes separate the so-called arylamines that may cause cancer. The criteria laid down for the EU Flower include a list of the arylamines which can be used if the producers want their textiles to be labelled with the EU Flower. Other dyes may cause other problems as they can contain impurities of heavy metals. If for example the designers/ buyers choose turquoise textiles they will have automatically chosen to use heavy metals in their production since turquoise shades can generally only be obtained by using dyes containing heavy metals. These metal complex dyes are especially used for cotton, flax and other bast fibres and viscose and other regenerated cellulose fibres. Wool and polyamide are often dyed with special dyes that all contain one or more metal complexes regardless of shades.

There is a special group of dyes for wool called chrome-mordant dyes. These are used for very dark shades, especially black and marine. They pollute the wastewater with chrome and the dichromate in the finished textile which is harmful to human health (although they are used in very small quantities in Denmark). There are a number of dyes that are suspected of causing allergy. These types of dyes are called dispersion dyes and are primarily used for polyester and sometimes for triacetate. Polyester is normally dyed at 130°C and at a pressure of several atmospheres. For several reasons this is not always possible and therefore the dyeing process has to be carried out at 98°C. Especially polyester/wool mixtures require such temperatures because the wool is unable to tolerate the high temperatures. A so-called carrier therefore has to be used which is a chemical substance that helps the dyes to penetrate the polyester fibre. Some of these carriers may be more harmful to the environment than others, i.e. the so-called halogenated carriers. On the whole the group of carrier chemicals should, however, be avoided. Some printing houses still use petrol based printing systems especially for cellulose fibres, which from an environmental point of view are quite unacceptable. It is now possible to print by using entirely water-based systems. THE PRODUCTION OF FABRICS ALSO AFFECTS THE WASTEWATER As with the production of fibres problems also occur to the wastewater when producing fabrics. In general you might say that the fibres made from natural materials (including viscose etc.) require far more water during the refinement process and they will therefore create more wastewater. The wastewater contains residuals especially from spinning oils, needle oils and sizing agents, which are washed out as described above (needle oils are only discharged from

knitwear and sizing agents are only discharged from woven items). Excess dyes are discharged from the dyeing process. Excess dyes can affect the microorganisms at the sewage plants to such a degree that they are unable to clean the water. EXAMPLES OF HOW THE ENVIRONMENT IS AFFECTED BY THE AFTER TREATMENT OF FABRICS There are many different forms of after treatment aimed at altering some of the fibre’s properties and providing it with new ones. For example, it can be made less flammable, water and oil resistant, dirt-repelling, softer, superwash (wool), antistatic, resistant to moth etc. For after treatment of cotton the following processes are used: crease fastness finishing also called “easy care”, “no iron”, “wash and wear” etc. This form of finishing may contain large amounts of formaldehyde which is on the list of substances considered to be carcinogenic. However, it is possible with the use of modern technology and chemicals to reduce the contents of formaldehyde to very little, if necessary even to zero. In order to make clothing less flammable they are treated with so-called flame-retardants. They can be based on a number of different chemicals all of which are more or less damaging to the environment. In synthetic fibres, especially polyester, there are some fibres which are naturally fireretardant. USE AND LAUNDRY New clothes may contain chemical residues which can irritate the skin. A lot of children’s wear have printed pictures made with pigment dyes which may contain softeners such as the phthalates which are on the Danish National Working Environment Authority’s list of carcinogenic substances. In some cases they may also contain glycols which can irritate the skin. Although the industry has endeavoured to limit the amount of chemical residues in the finished clothes they are unfortunately still found in many finished products. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency therefore recommends that new clothes are washed before being worn. We tend to wash and tumble dry our clothes quite often and that is of great relevance to the impact we cause on the environment. A textile product only need to have been washed a few times for more energy to have been used for this process than for the production of the product itself. It is important that the designers/buyers choose a type of textile which will retain its quality even after frequent washing.

DISPOSAL OF CLOTHES MAY ALSO AFFECT THE ENVIRONMENT When our clothes become worn and unfashionable, we throw them away. From an environmental perspective it seems that the best thing to do is to recycle them, either by giving them to the Red Cross or to sort and reuse the clothes for e.g. production of yarn, cotton waste, mattresses etc. However, there may also be problems with sending them to the Red Cross for reuse since the clothes will eventually end up as waste somewhere in the world and it might be in a place with no incineration facilities where the waste will end up in landfills. If the clothes are not reused they will end up in the waste bin and often hauled to the incineration plant. At worst the clothes will end up in landfills. Clothes containing PVC are harmful to the environment after disposal. PVC is made from raw oil and chlorine and during the production of PVC vinyl chloride is discharged which may cause cancer in human beings. Softeners are added to the PVC. The most common softeners are Phthalates which are on the Danish Environmental Protection Agency’s list of unwanted substances due to the harmful effects on the water environment and human beings. The PVC often ends at the incineration plant and when PVC is burnt, toxic smoke, which contains hydrochloric acid, will be discharged. The smoke will therefore have to be cleaned but this process will create other environmental problems. Each time two kilograms of PVC are incinerated, another two kilograms of environmentally hazardous waste will be discharged which will have to be disposed of. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has therefore decided that PVC shall no longer be incinerated at the ordinary municipal incineration plants. Instead it will have to be taken to the waste recycling sites as environmentally hazardous waste. Polyurethane and nylon (polyamide) are good alternatives to PVC since they are less harmful to the environment and humans.

PHOTOGRAPHY: MIKKEL BACHE

56

SPØRGEGUIDE

57

CHECKLIST

GUIDELINES FOR INDDRAGELSE AF MILJØHENSYN
As you can see from pages 34 to 39 and 42 to 52 the environment is affected in many different ways during the production of textiles, right from the beginning of the manufacturing of the fibres until the finished fabric is ready to be used. Much can be done to reduce the impact on the environment. On the following pages you will find guidelines which will help buyers or designers so that the fabrics chosen for the range will have affected the environment as little as possible during the production process. It would be wise to start with a selected part of your production and only to focus on one or two types of materials to begin with.

58

59

CHECKLIST

The guidelines have been made for the following five types of materials: • Cotton • Wool • Viscose • Polyester • Acrylic There are two types of guidelines: • “The quickies” which can help you to quickly make a good environmental choice. • The Checklist which will give you a number of essential questions to ask your suppliers. “The quickies” and the Checklist can be found on the Internet at www.guidelines.dk. You can always make a new print out whenever you need one. You will also find a checklist for your own use, which is not completed, so you can add your own questions. Both types of guidelines are described in more details below. “THE QUICKIES” You will find “The quickies” on the first pages. This contains a few vital details describing each type of material to quickly help you form an impression of a specific product and to see if it meets certain essential environmental requirements. “The quickies” can be used as the first step towards incorporation of the environment in your production. “The quickies” can also be used e.g. when you come across a specific textile at a trade fair and you want to find out whether it is environmentally friendly. THE CHECKLIST On the following pages below you can use the Checklist to go into further details on the environmental issues regarding the individual types of materials. The Checklist can be used if you have decided to incorporate the environment more systematically into your production. Since a large part of the textile production is made abroad you may have to direct your questions at the Danish or the international supplier at first. However, in some cases it might be wise to take a shortcut and contact the producer directly. You can also use the Checklist for appointments with the supplier or over the telephone. You can also send the questions to your suppliers. Finally, you can use the checklist at trade fairs when you want to ask the supplier how a specific fabric has affected the environment from the production of the fabric fibres to the presentation at the trade fair. At the top of each checklist there is an empty box where you can write the name of the supplier you have talked to and the names of materials/fabrics you have discussed.

THE STRUCTURE OF THE CHECKLIST The checklist contains questions about the production of the various textile fibres and also questions about all five different types of materials. The list is structured in this way because the production of the different fibres affects the environment quite differently depending on whether you produce cotton, wool, viscose, acrylic or polyester fibres. For each of the five types of materials there will be one or more pages with questions about the environment in relation to the production of fibres. The environmental impact from the spinning mills, weaving mills, knitting mills and dye-works, on the other hand, is more or less the same whether cotton, wool, viscose, acrylic or polyester is produced. This is why the same questions were listed for all five materials under the headings: Spinning mills, Weaving mills, Knitting mills and Dye-works/Prints. However, the materials differ also at these stages of the production. Therefore a few questions specifically about one or more of the materials have been inserted. HOW TO USE THE CHECKLIST When you are to assess a specific material you may choose to use all the relevant questions or you may choose to “pick” questions at random and thereby compose your own environmental requirements. If for example you want to assess a cotton fabric you should proceed as follows: • First, use the questions about cotton growing and harvesting. Either use all the questions or select a few. • Next, use the questions about spinning mills, weaving mills and dye-works/ print. You can for example decide only to use the general questions or only the questions about cotton. HOW TO ASSESS THE MATERIAL The questions included in the checklist are inserted in tables and you must tick one of the three fields:  Light blue  Medium blue  Dark blue On black/white photocopies the shades will off course appear as grey. After having completed the table add up all your ticks for each colour and you will be able to assess whether a specific material/fabric is a good environmental choice: • If you have ticked most light blue  fields, the product will be a good environmental choice. • If you have ticked most medium  blue fields, you should ask for more documentation before you choose this product. • If you have ticked most dark blue  fields, the product will be a poor environmental choice and you should find another product. The colour is therefore important when you add them all up, and not whether the answer is Yes, No or N/A.

60

CHECKLIST

61

CHECKLIST

On these pages you will find some essential details that can help you to assess whether a specific textile is good environmental choice. Under each heading the details are divided into the products you should choose and the products you should avoid if you want to make a choice that considers the environment. “The quickies” can be used as the first step to better understand where it is important to make a choice. In this way you can select the questionnaires in the Checklist which you want to start using.
POLYESTER

You can also choose to use “The quickies” as the first questions to ask of the supplier about the textile you are interested in buying. You can either rewrite the details as questions or find them at the back in the Checklist.

CHOOSE FABRICS WHERE:

AVOID FABRICS WHERE:

• the wastewater discharged from all polyester fibre production stages is cleaned before discharge • the air emitted from all polyester fibre production stages is cleaned before discharge • the chemicals used for the production of polyester fibres are collected and recycled if possible

• catalytic agents containing cobalt or manganese are used for the production of the polyester fibre • the catalytic agent antimontrioxide is used for the production of the polyester fibre.

COTTON CHOOSE FABRICS WHERE: AVOID FABRICS WHERE:

• the cotton is 100% organically grown according to organic principles • the cotton is grown without using pesticides.

• defoliants are used before the cotton is picked • solvents are used in the prewashing of the fabric (prior to dyeing)

ACRYLIC WOOL CHOOSE FABRICS WHERE: AVOID FABRICS WHERE: CHOOSE FABRICS WHERE: AVOID FABRICS WHERE:

• the wastewater discharged from all acrylic fibre production stages is cleaned before discharge • the air emitted from all acrylic fibre production stages is cleaned before discharge • the chemicals used for the production of acrylic fibres are collected and recycled if possible

• vinyl acetate (VA) is used for the production of acrylic fibres • acrylicamide (AA) is used for the production of acrylic fibres • N,N-dimethyl-formamid is used as a solvent for the production of acrylic fibres

• the sheep are 100% organically bred according to organic principles

• pesticides are used to control external parasites in the sheep • solvents are used in washing of the raw wool • PER (perchloroethylene) is used as a cleaner for washing the raw wool • solvents are used in the prewashing of the fabric (prior to dyeing)

ALL TYPES OF FIBRE CHOOSE FABRICS WHERE: AVOID FABRICS WHERE:

• spinning oils are used which easily break down
VISCOSE CHOOSE FABRICS WHERE: AVOID FABRICS WHERE:

• the size used for weaving is collected and recycled • dyes of high fixation rates are used (high dyeability) • the wastewater from the dye works is cleaned biologically before it is discharged • a printing process based on water is used instead of a process based on solvents

• preservatives (e.g. PCP) that are harmful to the environment and human health are used for the sizing agent for weaving • dyes and pigments that may cause allergy or that are carcinogenic are used • heavy metal containing dyes are used • after treatment agents containing formaldehyde are used for the dyeing process.

• the wood used is grown according to sustainability principles • the wastewater from the production of viscose fibres undergoes biological purification before discharge • the air emitted from all viscose fibre production stages is cleaned before discharge

• chlorine-containing bleachers are used for the production of viscose fibres • zinc sulphate is used for the production of viscose fibres • catalytic agents containing cobalt or manganese are used for the production of viscose fibres

62

CHECKLIST

63

CHECKLIST
SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

COTTON FIBRE – GROWING AND HARVESTING (cont.)

The production of cotton fibres involves growing, harvesting and ginning during which process the cotton fibres are separated from the residual parts of the plant. The production of cotton takes place abroad. Your questions and requirements should therefore be directed at the distributor from whom your business buys the spun cotton or the finished cotton fabrics. The word »supplier« in the table shall be referred to as the supplier of the product you want to buy.

9. Has the cotton been hand picked although defoliants have been used? 10. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on how the cotton is grown and harvested? COTTON FIBRE – GINNING 11. Are the processes/machinery emitting particularly large amounts of dust sealed during the ginning of the fibres?

SUPPLIER
Name of business: Contact: Phone: Address: E-mail: Website:

FABRIC/MATERIAL

12. Is the waste from ginning separated into fibre, plant parts and dust so the useable parts can be recycled? 13. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on how the cotton is ginned? NOTE: * Read more about eco-labels on page 78

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING PESTICIDES* HAVE BEEN USED? (See question 4) SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

COTTON FIBRE – GROWING AND HARVESTING

SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

INSECTICIDES: • Aldrin • Chlorinated camphene (toxaphen)
TICK ONLY ONE FIELD

(INSECTICIDES cont.:) • Permethrine • Pirimicarb • Malathion • Methyl Parathione • Parathione HERBICIDES: • Atrazin • Fluazifop butyl • Simazin • Trifluraline FUNGICIDES AND PESTICIDES: • Hexachlorbenzene (HCB) • Pentachlorbenzene (PCP) • Captan • Quintozen • Metyhyl bromide

1. Is the cotton fabric made from organically grown cotton awarded any of the following eco-labels? * • The international label Certified Organic (OCIA) • The Dutch eco-label SKAL – EKO • The international eco-label Demeter • Other eco-lables? 2. Is the cotton fabric awarded any of the following eco-labels? *
TICK ONLY ONE FIELD

• Captafol • Chlordane • DDT • Dieldrin • Endrin • Heptachlor, incl. heptachlorepoxide • Carbaryl (Sevin) • Cyflurthrine • Diazinone • Dichlorvos • Dicofole • Endosulfane • Fenvalerate • Lambda-cyhalotrine • Methoxychlore

• The EU Flower • The Nordic Swan label • The Swedish label ”Bra Miljöval” (Good Environmental Choice) Other eco-lables? 3. Have pesticides been used for growing the cotton? 4. Have one or more pesticides listed in the table on page 3 been used? (This question is optional) 5. Have fertilisers been used for the growing of the cotton? 6. Has irrigation been used for the growing of the cotton? 7. Have defoliants been used prior to the harvesting? 8. Have one or more of the following defoliants been used? • 2,4, 5-T • Arsenic and its mineral salts • 2-4-D

NOTE: *All the above listed pesticides have been banned or subjected to rigorous restrictions in the EU and/or Scandinavia.

64

CHECKLIST
WOOL

65

CHECKLIST
SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

• The Swedish eco-label KRAV • The Dutch eco-label SKAL – EKO • Other eco-lables? 2. Is the wool fabric awarded any of the following eco-labels *? • The EU Flower • The Nordic Swan label • The Swedish label ”Bra Miljöval” (Good Environmental Choice) • Other eco-lables? 3. Have pesticides been used to control parasites in the sheep? 4. Have one or more of the listed pesticides on page 3 been used to control parasites? (This question is optional) 5. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on how the sheep are bred and trimmed? USE OF WATER IN THE WASHING OF THE RAW WOOL 6. Is the wastewater cleaned biologically before it is discharged? 7. Is the wastewater cleaned for residuals of pesticides? (Question should only be asked if pesticides are used) 8. Is the grease from the wool removed from the wastewater? 9. Is the removed grease from the wool refined into lanolin and sold for the production of other products (e.g. beauty products)? 10. Is the washing detergent APEO used? 11. Is the washing detergent LAS used? 12. Is the complexing agent NTA used? 13. Is the complexing agent EDTA used? 14. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on the use of water in the washing of the wool? THE USE OF SOLVENTS IN THE WASHING OF THE RAW WOOL 15. Are all the solvents used in the washing collected and recycled? 16. Is the air emitted from the washing cleaned before discharge? 17. Are the different types of waste (e.g. grease from the wool and residues from pesticides) collected separately and recycled? 18. Are the factory workers protected against dusty processes and fumes from the solvents? 19. Is PER (perchloroethylene) used as a cleaner? 20. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on the use of solvents in the washing of the wool? CARBONISATION 21. Is the wastewater neutralised before discharge? 22. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on the carbonisation process? (Footnotes) * For more details about eco-labels see page 78

SUPPLIER
Name of business: Contact: Phone: Address: E-mail: Website:

FABRIC/MATERIAL

ASK ABOUT THE USE OF WATER OR SOLVENTS IN THE WASHING OF THE WOOL

TICK ONLY ONE FIELD

TICK ONLY ONE FIELD

The production of wool fibres involves breeding of sheep, cutting and washing the raw wool which may be carried out either with the help of water or solvents. Sometimes the wool may also go through a so-called carbonisation process. Most of the wool used in Denmark is produced overseas. Your questions and requirements should therefore be put to the distributor from whom your business buys the spun wool or the finished wool fabrics. The word »supplier« in the table shall be referred to as the supplier of the product you want to buy.

BREEDING AND TRIMMING 1. Is the fabric made from organically grown wool awarded any of the following eco-labels *?2

66

CHECKLIST

67

CHECKLIST

WOOL – USE OF PESTICIDES*

SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

WHICH PESTICIDES HAVE BEEN USED (See question 4) • Aldrin • Arsenic and its mineral salts • Carbophenotion • Chlorfenvinphos • Chlorpyrifos • Coumaphos • Cyhalothrine • Cypermethrine • DDT • DDD • DDE • Deltametrin • Dieldrin • Diazinone • Dichlorfenthion • Endrin • Fenchlorphos • Fenvalerate • Heptachlore, (incl. heptachlorepoxide) • Hexachlorocyclohexane (incl. all isomers and lindane) • Malathion • Methoxychlore • Parathione • Propetamphos

The production of viscose is based on wood. The production of viscose fibres involves manufacturing of the wood i.e. the viscose mass is extracted and the viscose fibres they go through a spinning and after treatment process. The questions in the table do not distinguish between the different processes of the production. The production of viscose takes place overseas. Your questions and requirements should therefore be put to the distributor from whom your business buys the spun viscose or the finished viscose fabrics. The word “supplier” in the table shall be referred to as the supplier of the product you want to buy.

SUPPLIER
Name of business: Contact: Phone: Address: E-mail: Website:

FABRIC/MATERIAL

VISCOSE

SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

1. Is the wood grown according to sustainability principles? 2. Is the wastewater cleaned at biological water purification plants before discharge (river, lake, sea)? 3. Is the wastewater cleaned from carbon disulphide, hydrogen sulphide and AOX? 4. Is the air emitted from all production stages purified before discharge? 5. Is the air emitted from the manufacturing process purified especially from carbon disulphide and hydrogen sulphide? 6. Are the chemicals used for the production recycled? 7. Are catalytic agents containing cobalt or manganese used? 8. Are chlorine-containing bleachers used? 9. Are chlorine-containing bleachers used for the production? 10. Are spinning oils used which do not easily break down? 11. Are products used for the after treatment of the textiles which can affect the environment? 12. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on the production of viscose?

(Footnotes) * *All the above listed pesticides have been banned or subjected to rigorous restrictions in the EU and/or in Scandinavia.

68

CHECKLIST

69

CHECKLIST

The production of polyester is based on refined crude oil. The production of polyester fibres involves the development of various chemical intermediate products and synthesis of the polyester fibres when the polyester mass is extracted. At the end of the process the polyester fibres are spun and given after treatment. The questions in the table do not distinguish between the different processes of the production. The production of polyester takes place overseas. Your questions and requirements should therefore be put to the distributor from whom your business buys the spun polyester or the finished polyester fabrics. The word “supplier” in the table shall be referred to as the supplier of the product you want to buy.

The production of acrylics is based on refined crude oil. The production of acrylic fibres involves the development of various chemical intermediate products and synthesis of the acrylic fibres when the acrylic mass is extracted. At the end of the process the acrylic fibres are spun and given after treatment. The questions in the table do not distinguish between the different processes of the production. The production of acrylics takes place overseas. Your questions and requirements should therefore be put to the distributor from whom your business buys the spun acrylics or the finished acrylic fabrics. The word “supplier” in the table shall be referred to as the supplier of the product you want to buy.

SUPPLIER
Name of business: Contact: Phone: Address: E-mail: Website:

FABRIC/MATERIAL

SUPPLIER
Name of business: Contact: Phone: Address: E-mail: Website:

FABRIC/MATERIAL

POLYESTER (PET)

SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

ACRYLIC

SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

1. Is the air emitted from all production stages purified before discharge? 2. Is the air emitted especially purified from acetaldehyde and 1.4-di-oxane? 3. Is the wastewater from all production stages cleaned before discharge? 4. Is the wastewater specially cleaned from acetaldehyde and 1,4-di-oxane? 5. Is the wastewater from the spinning and the after treatment process biologically cleaned before discharge? 6. Are the chemicals used for the production collected and recycled? 7. Are catalytic agents containing cobalt or manganese used? 8. Is the catalytic agent antimontrioxide used for the production? 9. Are catalytic agents that affect the environment used for the production? 10. Are spinning oils used which do not easily break down? 11. Are products used for the after treatment of the textiles which can affect the environment? 12. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on the production of polyester?

1. Is the air emitted from all production stages purified before discharge? 2. Is the wastewater from all production stages cleaned before discharge? 3. Are the chemicals used for the production collected and recycled? 4. Is vinyl acetate (VA) used for the production of the product? 5. Is acrylamide (AA) used for the production of the product? 6. Is N, N-dimethylformamide used as a solvent for the production of the product? 7. Are catalytic agents that affect the environment used for the production? 8. Are spinning oils used which do not easily break down? 9. Are products used for the after treatment of the textiles during the spinning process which can affect the environment? 10. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on the production of polyester?

70

CHECKLIST

71

CHECKLIST

The crude fibres are spun into crude yarn at the spinning mill. There are eight or nine spinning mills in Denmark. A considerable amount of the crude yarn is spun overseas. The table starts with questions about all five types of fibres and then follows questions about the individual types of fibres.

The most significant environmental effects from the weaving process more or less apply to all five types of fibre. The questions asked in the table therefore apply to textiles made of all the above types of fibre.

SUPPLIER
Name of business: Contact: Phone: Address: E-mail: Website:

FABRIC/MATERIAL

SUPPLIER
Name of business: Contact: Phone: Address: E-mail: Website:

FABRIC/MATERIAL

SPINNING

SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

WEAVING – ALL TYPES OF FIBRE

SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

ALL TYPES OF FIBRE 1. Are the machines that emit large amounts of dust sealed in order that the fibre dust emitted can be collected? 2. Are only spinning oils used that do easily break down? 3. Is the fibre and yarn waste collected and separated so it can be recycled? 4. Are the factory workers protected from the considerable noise level? 5. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on the conditions laid down for the spinning of the yarn? COTTON 6. Are any precautions taken to protect the workers from being exposed to the dangerous mixture of cotton dust and endotoxines? POLYESTER 7. Is the air emitted from the texturisation process cleaned before discharge? 8. Are texturisation oils used which do not easily break down?

1. Is the used size collected and recycled? 2. Is the waste from fibres, textiles and packaging materials collected and separated into categories according to type and then recycled? 3. Are the factory workers protected from the considerable noise level? 4. Are preservatives used for the size agents which are harmful to the environment and human health, e.g. PCP? 5. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on the conditions laid down for the woven fabric?

72

CHECKLIST

73

CHECKLIST

The most significant environmental effects from the knitting process more or less apply to all five types of fibre. The questions asked in the table therefore apply to textiles made of all the above types of fibre.

At the dye-works the fabric will go through the following processes: desizing, prewashing, prebleaching, dying and after treatment. The table starts with questions about all five types of fibre and then follows questions about the individual types of fibre.

SUPPLIER
Name of business: Contact: Phone: Address: E-mail: Website:

FABRIC/MATERIAL

SUPPLIER
Name of business: Contact: Phone: Address: E-mail: Website:

FABRIC/MATERIAL

KNITTING – ALL TYPES OF FIBRE

SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

DYEING – ALL TYPES OF FIBRE

SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

1. Are only needle oils that do easily break down used? 2. Is the waste from yarns, fabrics and packaging materials collected and separated into categories according to type and then recycled? 3. Are the factory workers protected from the considerable noise level? 4. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on the conditions laid down for the knitting of the products?

1. Is the wastewater cleaned biologically before discharge? 2. Is the desizing of the sizing agents based on size made from enzymes? 3. If enzymes are used for the desizing, is the wastewater cleaned by membrane filtration? 4. If membrane filtration is used for the cleaning of the wastewater, are the cleaned products then recycled? 5. Are synthetic size agents recycled and concentrated by membrane filtration? 6. Are dyes of high fixation rates mainly used (high dyeability)? 7. Is prewashing combined with bleaching? 8. Are after treatment agents containing formaldehyde used for the process? 9. Are heavy metal containing dyes used? 10. Are dyes used which are toxic or which may cause cancer or allergy? 11. Are the detergents APEO or LAS used for the pre-treatment, dyeing or after treatment processes? 12. Are the complexing agents NTA or EDTA used for the pre-treatment, dyeing or after treatment processes? 13. Are the softeners DTDMAC, DSDMAC or DHTDMAC used as softeners after dyeing? 14. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on the dyeing of the products?

74

CHECKLIST

75

CHECKLIST

FARVERI (FORTSAT)

SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

»Printing« involves printing and after treatment processes. The table starts with questions about all five types of fibre and then follows questions about the individual types of fibre.

COTTON 1. Is the water discharged from the pre-washing/bleaching recycled by membrane filtration? 2. Are the most concentrated alkali baths from mercerisation recycled? 3. Is the energy, salt and water used for the dye bath from reactive dyeing recycled by coal absorption? 4. Is the energy and water used for flushing after reactive dyeing recycled by membrane filtration? 5. Is equilibrium rinsing used as an alternative to overflow rinsing after reactive dyeing? 6. Are mainly low-salt dyes used for the reactive dying process? 7. Is hydrogen peroxide used for bleaching as an alternative to chlorine? 8. Are detergents used for flushing after reactive dyeing? 9. Is pre-washing based on solvents? 10. Are chrome and copper salts used for the direct dyeing process? 11. Are dichromates used for the vat dyeing? WOOL 12. Is the pre-washing process based on solvents? 13. Is after chromation used for the dyeing? VISCOSE 14. Is hydrogen peroxide used for the bleaching as an alternative to chlorine? 15. Are chrome and copper salts used for direct dyeing? 16. Are dichromates used for the vat dyeing? POLYESTER 17. Are high-temperature processes used for the dyeing of polyester? 18. Are chlorinated carriers used for low-temperature dyeing of the polyester? 1. Is the wastewater cleaned biologically or chemically before discharge? 2. Are dyes with a high rate of fixation mainly used (high dyeability)? 3. Is the printing process mainly based on water instead of a process based on solvents? 4. Is the excess printing paste recycled if possible? 5. Is the cleanest water from the cleaning of the templates, doctor blades etc. recycled for the first temporary rinse of the cleaning process? 6. Are products used for the after treatment which contain or emit only small amounts of free formaldehyde or none? 7. Are heavy metal containing dyes used? 8. Are dyes and pigments used which are toxic or which may cause cancer or allergy? 9. Are dyes and pigments used which can separate out carcinogenic arylamines? 10. Are the detergents APEO or LAS used for the washing or other after treatment processes? 11. Are the complexing agents NTA or EDTA used for the washing or after treatment processes? 12. Are the softeners DTDMAC, DSDMAC or DHTDMAC used as softeners after printing? 13. Has the supplier any documentation about the details on the printing of the products? WOOL 14. Are agents containing chlorine used for the anti-felting after treatment? POLYESTER 15. Is the air emitted from high-temperature hardening purified before discharge? ACRYLIC 16. Is the air emitted from high-temperature hardening purified before discharge? PRINTING – ALL TYPES OF FIBRE SUPPLIER'S ANSWERS
YES N/A NO

SUPPLIER
Name of business: Contact: Phone: Address: E-mail: Website:

FABRIC/MATERIAL

PHOTOGRAPHY: CHRISTIAN RUD ANDERSEN

78

ECO-LABELLING

79

ECO-LABELLING

It can be difficult to figure out what the various eco-labels, both European and international ones, that textiles are labelled with today involve. The aim of this section is to make a brief description of the most prevalent environmental labels and/or eco-labels which also apply for textiles.

The main function of the EU Flower is to stimulate both the supply and demand of products with a reduced environmental impact compared to conventional products. The objective is to provide simple and reliable information for the consumer that the product is among the group of products with a reduced environmental impact. All producers and importers who market their products throughout the member states of the European Union and in Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein may use the Scheme. The aim of the criteria for receiving the eco-label is defined so that 5 to 30% of the products marketed will be able to meet the criteria. The specific criteria are defined according to the stages in the life cycle of the products taken into consideration the most essential environmental problems. Based on the above in the case of textiles the focus is put on a reduction of wastewater pollution during the various links in the chain of production. There are also requirements for emissions into the air, toxicology and the properties of the product when put into use. There are no requirements that the production of the fibres should be organic. New criteria are laid down every third year which requires that new applications be submitted proving that the product meet the new criteria. A fee will be charged when the new application is submitted. A fee will also be charged for the use of the label. The fee is set according to the turnover.

THE EU FLOWER

The scheme was established in 1989 by the Nordic Council of Ministers, and both Nordic and non-Nordic organisations may apply for the Nordic Swan Label. The aim of the scheme is to stimulate more environmentally friendly consumption by guiding the consumers in their purchases and to stimulate the development, marketing and use of products with less environmental impact than other similar products. The criteria may involve all stages throughout the life cycle and the aim of the criteria stipulated is that they are met by not more than one-third of the products marketed in Scandinavia. Specific criteria are set for textiles throughout all the production stages including the end product. No criteria are set that the fibres shall be organic but if organic fibres are used the criteria for wet treatment are easier to meet. An application fee and a fee based on turnover will be charged when using the Nordic Swan label.

THE NORDIC SWAN LABEL

The EKO-label is the official quality label in the Netherlands awarded for organic production. The aim of the label is to meet the consumers’ demand for products that are produced according to the principle of sustainability. Farming, animal breeding and forestry and also manufacturers of food products, textiles, trade associations and importers are involved in this scheme. The scheme applies for textiles made of natural fibres. The fibres must be produced in accordance with the EU standards for organic production. The products shall also meet a specific standard for sustainable textile production, which is a supplement to the EU regulations as it includes all the production processes from weaving to after treatment. The criteria also include the company’s internal environmental conditions including also an environmental management system, wastewater discharge, and the EKOlabel is the only eco-label which also includes criteria for working conditions.

The EKO-label

Environmental Choice is a Canadian eco-label which is awarded to both products and services. The purpose of the Environmental Choice programme is to encourage a more environmentally friendly development and to help consumers gain more knowledge about the environment and to give consumers a basis for identifying the most environmentally friendly products. When prioritising product groups, focus is put on avoiding major longterm environmental impact. The criteria are based on a life-cycle assessment although the criteria are often limited to one stage. The aim is to award the label to no more than 20% of the marketed products. The label involves exclusively organic cotton textiles. Apart from the organic growing standards and certification of the cotton, the product must be made from 100% organic cotton. In addition, it must not contain dyes and only additives which are on a positive list may be used for the production.

ENVIRONMENTAL CHOICE

80

ECO-LABELLING

81

ECO-LABELLING

Oeko-Tex differs from other labels since it involves only standards for the ready to sell product. The standards are stipulated as maximum concentrations of specific chemical agents and physical/chemical parameters. The permissible values depend on whether the products are in direct contact with the skin. Standards for products for babies are especially rigorous. It is an international programme but the label is primarily renowned throughout Europe. A new standard was developed in 1995 that involved production but so far only a few companies have been accredited this certification.

OEKO-TEX 100

The purpose of the Demeter programme is to encourage, support and improve biodynamic methods throughout the cultivation, production and manufacturing primarily of foods. Demeter has established a label for organic wool fibres. In general the standards for biodynamic farming resemble the standards set for organic cultivation. However, there are certain areas where the standards are higher for biodynamic produce. For example, the Demeter programme requires that the farms shall be self-sufficient in nutrients and that 80% of the animal feed shall derive from the farm.

DEMETER

The Blue Angle is the official German eco-label, which gives guidance to consumers on buying products which pollute less than other comparable products. There are no requirements that products should be made from organic materials to receive the label. On the other hand, the focus is on other aspects for example that the product can be reused or is made from recycled materials and that it does not contain polluting agents or that it contains as few polluting agents as possible.

THE BLUE ANGLE LABEL

OCIA was established in 1984 by organic farmers to stimulate and improve organic farming. The association operates worldwide and certifies its members by awarding the label “certified organic”. The label gives the consumer a guarantee that the product is organically grown. The certification applies to all the production stages and is adjusted at regular intervals e.g. to meet new knowledge. OCIA is IFOAM certified.

ORGANIC CROP IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION (OCIA)

The Good Environmental Choice label was developed in cooperation between the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (Naturskyddsförening) and Swedish retailers to help environmentally conscious Swedish consumers. The programme means that the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (Naturskyddsföreningen) lends its name to approved products’ environmental properties. It means in practice that the programme excludes agents, which the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation finds unwanted, e.g. laundry softeners for textiles. A general requirement is that the contents of the products must be easily degradable. The requirements are divided into three categories covering fibres, manufacture and end product. The standards for the fibres are optional whereas the standards for the manufacturing and the end product must always be met. The aim is that 10-15% of the marketed products shall be qualified for the label.

BRA MILJÖVAL (Good Environmental Choice)

The purpose of the KRAVlabel is to establish a reliable labelling of organic products and thereby making it simpler for the consumers to improve their environmental performance in their daily shopping. The KRAV programme is Swedish and differs from other eco-labels as both companies and products can be certified. The criteria involve the production stage and also manufacturing. Requirements are also made to storage and distribution. The KRAV-label is divided into two levels: A-products comprising 95% KRAVcertified raw materials which may use the label “Organic” and B-products comprising 75-95% KRAV-certified raw materials. The Bproducts may not use the label “organic”.

KRAV

The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM)

IFOAM differs from the above-mentioned programmes by not being an eco-label. On the other hand, IFOAM is an NGO operating worldwide and by sharing knowledge between the members, the federation has gained considerable knowledge about organic farming, including also organic cotton growing. The purpose is among other things to inform the general public about organic farming and to establish an international guarantee for the quality of organic produce. IFOAM has issued detailed standards both for the growing, manufacturing, packaging and storing of organic produce to ensure the quality and other certification programmes are accredited and evaluated from these standards.

82

LIST OF ADDRESSES

83

LIST OF ADDRESSES

FOR INFORMATION ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS:
The Sustainable Solution Design Association (FORENINGEN TIL FREMME AF BÆREDYGTIGT DESIGN) www.guidelines.dk Green Info (GRØN INFORMATION) Nørregade 36, 2. sal DK - 1165 København K T: (+45) 33 13 66 88 F: (+45) 33 13 66 87 E: greeninfo@greeninfo.dk www.greeninfo.dk The Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre Section for Ecology (LANDBRUGETS RÅDGIVNINGSCENTER SEKTION FOR ØKOLOGI) Udkærsvej 15 DK - 8200 Århus N. T: (+45) 87 40 50 00 F: (+45) 87 40 50 10 E: info@okologi-kongres.dk The Office for Eco-labelling The EU Flower and The Nordic Swan Label (MILJØMÆRKESEKRETARIATET BLOMSTEN OG SVANEN) Gladsaxe Møllevej 15 DK - 2860 Søborg T: (+45) 39 69 35 36 F: (+45) 39 69 21 22 E: info@ecolabel.dk www.ecolabel.dk MILJØBUTIKKEN Læderstræde 1-3 DK - 1201 København K T : (+45) 33 95 40 00 E: butik@mem.dk

The Danish Plant Directorate (PLANTEDIREKTORATET) Skovbrynet 20 DK - 2800 Lyngby T: (+45) 45 26 36 00 F: (+45) 45 26 36 10 www.plantedirektoratet.dk The Danish Technological Institute, Clothing and Textile (Oeko-Tex 100/1000; LCA) (TEKNOLOGISK INSTITUT, BEKLÆDNING OG TEKSTIL (ØKO-TEX 100/1000; LCA)) Contact: Mr John Hansen Gregersensvej Postboks 141 DK - 2630 Taastrup T: (+45) 72 20 21 20 F: (+45) 72 20 21 40 E: tekstile@teknologisk.dk www.teknologisk.dk The TEKO Centre in Denmark (TEKO CENTER DANMARK) Centre for Environmentally friendly textiles Birk Centerpark 5 Birk DK - 7400 Herning T: (+45) 97 12 70 22 F: (+45) 97 12 32 56 E: teko@teko.dk www.teko.dk The Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (VETERINÆRDIREKTORATET) Mørkhøj Bygade 19 DK – 2860 Søborg T: (+45) 33 95 60 00

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS:
DANISH OFFICES:
The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) DANSK IFOAM Secretary: Mrs Mette Meldgaard Organic Denmark (Økologisk Landsforening) Frederiksgade 72 DK - 8000 Århus C. T: (+45) 87 32 27 07 F: (+45) 87 32 27 10 E: mm@okologiens-hus.dk DEMETER-FORBUNDET Birkum Bygade 20 DK - 5220 Odense SØ T: (+45) 65 97 30 50 F: (+45) 65 97 32 50 www.demeter.net The Danish Save the Children Organisation (RED BARNET) Rantzausgade 60 DK - 2200 København N T: (+45) 35 36 55 55 F: (+45) 35 39 11 19 E: redbarnet@redbarnet.dk

Good Environmental Choice (BRA MILJÖVAL) The Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (Svenska Naturskyddsföreningen) Norre Állegaten 5 Box 7005 Se - 402 31 Göteborg. T: (+46) 31 711 64 50 F: (+46) 31 711 64 30 E: gbg@snf.se www.snf.se CCOF, CALIFORNIA CERTIFIED ORGANIC FARMERS 115 Mission Street Santa Cruz, California 95060 T: (+001) 408 423 2263 F: )+001) 408 423 4528 CLEAN CLOTHES KAMPAGNE c/o Südwind Agentur Laudongasse 40 A-1080 Vienna Austria T: (+43) 1 405 5515 306 F: (+43) 1 405 55 19 E: cck@oneworld.at, stefan.kerl@oneworld.at www.oneworld.at/cleanclothes.html ECO BALANCE SUSTAINABLE DESIGN CONSULTANCY PTY LTD Kirsty Máté, Managing Director PO Box 93 Croydon Park NSW 2133 Australia T: (+61) 2 9554 6655 F: (+61) 2 9554 6688 E: kirsty@ecobalance.com.au INSTITUT FÜR MARKTÖKOLOGI West Strasse 51 8570 Weinfelden Switzerland T: +41 (0) 71 626 0 626 F: +41 (0) 71 626 0 623 www.IMO.ch

INTERNATIONAL OFFICES:
BIOLOGICAL FARMERS OF AUSTRALIA PO Box 3404 Toowoomba Village Fair Level 1, 456 Ruthven St. TOOWOOMBA QLD 4350 Australia T: +61 (0)7 4639 3299 F: +61 (0)7 4639 3755 E: bfa@icr.com.au www.bfa.com.au

84

LIST OF ADDRESSES

85 LIST OF ADDRESSES

INTERNATIONALER VERBAND DER NATURTEXTILWIRTSCHAFT Haussmann 1 70188 Stuttgart T: (+49) 0711 232752 F: (+49) 0711232755 E: info@naturtextil.com www.naturtextil.com KRAV Box 1940 751 49 Uppsala Sweden T: +46 (0) 18 10 02 90 F: +46 (0) 18 10 03 66 E: info@krav.se www.krav.se NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AUSTRALIA (NASAA) PO.Box 768 Stirling, SA 5152 Australia T: +61 (0)8 8370 8455 F: +61 (0)8 8370 8381 E: enquiries@nasaa.com.au www.nasaa.com.au NATURAL COTTON COLOURS, INC. P.O. Box 69 Guinda, California 95637 T: (+001) 530 796 3007 F: (+001) 530 796 3836 E: sally@vreseis.com NATURLAND-VERBAND Kleinhaderner Weg 1 D - 82166 Gräfeling Germany T: (+49) 89 898 08 20 F: (+49) 89 8980 82 90 E: naturland@naturland.de www.naturland.de Organic Crop Improvement Association OCIA, INTERNATIONAL 1001 Y Street, Suite B Lincoln, NE 68508-1172 USA T: (+001) 402 477 2323 F: (+001) 402 477 4325 E: info@ocia.org www.ocia.org

PESTIDE ACTION NETWORK UK Eurolink Centre 49 Effra Road London SW2 1BZ UK T: (+44) 20 7274 8895 F: (+44) 20 7274 9084 E: admin@pan-uk.org www.pan-uk.org SKAL P.O. Box 161 8000 AD Zwolle The Netherlands T: +31 (0) 38 426 01 00 F: +31 (0) 38 423 70 40 E: info@skalint.com www.skalint.com SCIENTIFIC CERTIFICATION SYSTEMS (SCS) Lifecycle or cradle to grave study of a product and its packaging. The Ordway Building One Kaiser Plaza Ste 901 Oakland, CA 94612 T: (+001) 510 832 1415 TEN Textile Environment Network c/o National Centre for Business & Sustainability Giant’s Basin Potato Wharf Castlefield Manchester M3 4NB T: (+44) 0161 834 8842 F: (+44) 0161 819 1102 Chat: ten@jiscmail.ac.uk E: thencbs@thencbs.co.uk www.ncbe.co.uk THE ORGANIC TRADE ASSOCIATION (OTA) PO Box 547 Greenfield, MA 01301 T: (+001) 413 774 7511 F: (+001) 413 774 6432 E: ofc@igc.org www.ota.com

TRADE FAIRS:
BIOFACH öko Welt Veranstaltungs GmbH Industriestrasse 12 D-91186 Büchenbach, T: (+49) 9171 - 9610 -0 F: (+49) 9171 - 4016 E: info@biofach.de www.oekowelt.de www.biofach.de ÖKOTEX MESSE Wiesbaden-Wallau Wirtschaftgemeinschaft der Hessen Attn. Frau Heike Scheuer Stresemannallee 35-37 60596 Frankfurt am Main T: (+49) 69 - 6 30 09 10 F: (+49) 69 - 6 30 092299 INTERCOT International Conference on Organic Textiles www.intercot.org

PATAGONIA, INC. Jill Vlahos Fabric Development 259 W. Santa Clara Ventura, CA 93001 T: (+001) 888 344 4567 or (+001) 805 667 4640 F: (+001) 805 653 6355 E: jill_vlahos@patagonia.com LYNDA GROSE E: lyndagr@aol.com SUSTAINABLE COTTON PROJECT Allen Will Director 6176 Old Olive Hwy Oroville Ca 95966 T: (+001) 530 589 2686 F: (+001) 503 589 2688 E: info@sustainablecotton.org WELMAN, INC (Recycling of plastic bottles) 1133 Avenue of Americas New York 10036 USA T: (+001) 212 642 0740

BUSINESSES/DESIGNERS:
MARKS AND SPENCER Press Office Soujourner E: soujourner.jones@marks-and-spencer.com Deborah Sharpe Technical Spec for cotton Michael House, Baker Street London, UK T: (+44) 171-268-6587 F: (+44) 171-5268-2355 E: deborah.sharpe@marks-and-spencer.com NIKE, INC Heidi Holt Global Environmental Director 1 Bowesman Drive Beaverton OR 97005 T: (+001) 503-671-6414 F: (+001) 503-671-2536 E: heidi.holt@nike.com www.nikebiz.com/labor/index.shtml www.oregonlive.com/news/index.ssf?/news/ oregonian/00/08/lc 21n

DESIGN AWARDS:
ECOLOGICAL DESIGN ASSOCIATION c/o Designers for sustainability research group Kingston University Knight Park Kingston Upon Thames Surrey KT1 2QJ, UK INTERNATIONAL DESIGN ECO AWARD IDEA Joy McKenzie, Awards Director c/o Windsor Fellowship 47 Hackney Rd, London E2 7NX T: (+44) 171 613 0373 E: ideawindsor-fellow.demond.co.uk www.blacknet.co.uk/idea

86

MY OWN NOTES

87

MY OWN NOTES

88

MY OWN NOTES

89

MY OWN NOTES

90

MY OWN NOTES

91

MY OWN NOTES

92

MY OWN NOTES

93

MY OWN NOTES

94

ORDLISTE

95

ORDLISTE

ABSORPTION Adhesion of gasses and liquids to the surface of solids. ACETALDEHYDE - or ethanal. May be used in the manufacture of polyester. ACRYLAMIDE - or propenamide. May be used in the manufacture of acrylics. ALKALI BATH Bath with a high pH; used in many places for wet treatment of textiles. ANTIMONOTRIOXIDE Can be used as a flame retardant. AOX - or adsorbable organic halogens. Especially used as a measure of wastewater contents of chlorine-containing substances, e.g. in connection with bleaching. APEO - or alkyl phenol ethoxylates. Group of detergents that are broken down into substances toxic to fish. ARSENIC Toxic compound. Salts derived from arsenic compounds can among other things be used as defoliants.

BOD Biological Oxygen Demand or biological oxygen utilisation. Measure of the contamination level of wastewater. CARBONISATION Chemical acid treatment of raw wool to remove vegetable matter. CARBON SULPHIDE Carbon sulphide is used to produce viscose. CARRIERS Carriers are substances used for the dyeing processes of polyester. Some carriers are chlorinated. CATALYST Substance changing/increasing a reaction but itself remaining unchanged. CHROMATION End-treatment used for chrome mordant dyeing. Sodium dicromates or potassium dicromates are generally used for this process. COBALT The salts of the heavy metal cobalt may appear in textile dyes. Some metal complex dyes also contain cobalt. COD Chemical Oxygen Demand or chemical oxygen utilisation. Measure of the contamination level of wastewater.

COMPLEXING AGENTS Agents which can anchor metal salt e.g. in crude water or which are discharged from the raw cotton when it is washed. DEFOLIANTS Defoliants are applied to cotton before harvest causing the leaves of the plant to abscise or fall off. DESIZING Removal of size from woven crude yarns prior to dyeing or aftertreatment. DETERGENTS Detergents which have the ability to release the dirt from the surface and to resist the dyestuff solution. DICROMATE (See Chromation) DIOXANES Group of cyclic organic oxygen compounds. Some of them may be used for the production of polyester. EDTA - or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. EDTA is used as a complexing agent in wet treatment of textiles. ENDOTOXINES Toxic by-products from dead bacteria.

EQUILIBRIUM RINSE Rinsing procedure conducted to establish balance between impurities in the fabric and the rinsing liquid used. FORMALDEHYDE Formaldehyde may be emitted from certain product used for the after treatment of textiles, especially certain crease-resistant finishing products. Formaldehyde can cause allergy or cancer. GINNING Separation of seed hulls from raw cotton. GLYCOLS - or aliphatic dioles. HYDROGEN LAS Linear alkyl benzene sulfonates. Detergents which are suspected of being hazardous to the aquatic environment. MANGANESE Manganese is a heavy metal. Manganese can be used for the production of viscose as a catalytic agent. MERCERISING Treatment of cotton products using a strong alkali for improving strength, finish and the absorption of dyes.

METAL COMPLEX DYES Group of dyes involving a metal atom in the molecule. Metal complex dyes are especially used for wool and nylon but may also be used in dye ranges for cellulose fibres. NEEDLE OILS Needle oil is use as a lubricant for knitting machines. NTA - or nitrilotriacetic acid. NTA is used as a complexing agent in wet treatment of textiles. OVERFLOW RINSE Rinsing procedure involving water inflow during the entire flushing programme thus making water overflow. The water consumption used for this process will usually be unnecessarily excessive. PEROXIDES Group of oxidizing agents. As an example hydrogen peroxide is used as a bleaching agent for wet treatment of textiles. PESTICIDES Agents used as a disease control for crops or animals to control fungal attacks, weeds, insects or pests. PHTHALATES Group of organic agents used as softeners for PVCs. A number of these phthalates have an adverse effect on health and environment.

PIGMENT DYES Dyes which are insoluble in water. These dyes are especially used for textile printing. RATE OF FIXATION The percentage of added dyes for example deposited on the fabric. REACTIVE DYEING Dyeing processes involving reactive dyes primarily used for cellulose fibres but there are also certain ranges for the dyeing of wool and nylon. REFINED RAW OIL At the refinery the raw oil is separated into fractions according to their properties and the purpose they serve. SIZE Natural or synthetic polymer material used to reinforce the yarn prior to weaving. SULPHIDE Sulphur compounds. Sulphide can be used for sulphide dyeing. TEXTURISATION The processing of creasing chemical fibres to make them better look more like natural fibres. VINYL ACETATE - or acetic acid ethylene ester.

96

THANKS TO THE CONTRIBUTORS

97

BIBLIOGRAPHY KAPITEL

THE AUTHORS WISH TO THANK THE FOLLOWING CONTRIBUTORS WHO HAVE HELPED US PREPARE THIS BOOK: Anette Tristan Anne Mette Zachariassen, TEKO Centre Anker Ørum, Tina Larsen, Tina Garsdal, Bestseller Wholesale A/S Benedikte Utzon Charlotte Sparre, Charlotte Sparre A/S Charlotte Vadum, MpH ApS Grethe Helmersen, Buksesnedkeren, ApS Helle Bay Jørgensen, Price Waterhouse Janne Mikkelsen, Part Two John Hansen, The Danish Technological Institute Lynda Grose Mads Nørgaard Mette Styrbæk Pernille Powell Sune Skadegård Thorsen, Novo Nordisk A/S Tatjana Brockenhuus-Schack, T. BROCKENHUUS Vita Søborg Pedersen, The Danish Save the Children Organisation

BIBLIOGRAPHY • ”Design, materials and the environment” Handbook by 02 Denmark, 1993 • Scandinavian Eco-labelling. ”Eco-labelling of textiles, document describing the criteria. Version 1.6” • Criteria for the award of the EU label to textiles. The EU Commission, 1999. • ”The path to a better environment during the production of textiles” Miljønyt no. 50. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency. 2000. • Environmental assessment of textiles”, Environmental project no. 369. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency, 1997 • Green Info. Miljøfakta no. 15 Green Info. ”Clothing and the Environment”. October, 2000.

100

COLOPHONE KAPITEL

GUIDELINES

A handbook on the environment for the textile and fashion industry
PUBLISHED BY: The Sustainable Solution Design Association: Drude Breds Tina Hjort Helle Krüger CONSULTANTS: Rambøll: Eva Himmelstrup Dahl Peter Engel TRANSLATED BY: Anette V. Christensen/Language Consult “GUIDELINES” HAS BEEN FUNDED BY: The Danish Environmentral Protection Agency’s Programme for Cleaner Products PUBLISHED: November 2002 (English version) February 2001 (Danish version) DESIGN: Kenneth Schultz / www.kennethschultz.dk PHOTOGRAPHS: Christian Rud Andersen Mikkel Bache Jette Jørs Zack Griffin / zgrif3@aol.com Robin Skjoldborg Thomas Tolstrup P. Wessel FRONT PAGE: Photograph: Robin Skjoldborg, model: Iben/Unique make-up: Anja Poulsen/Unique Look PRINTED BY: Special-Trykkeriet Viborg a-s EMAS – Miljøregistret NUMBER PRINTED: 1000 PAPER: Munken Lynx ISBN 87-988309-0-2

98

KAPITEL

00 02 04 06 08 10 12 16 18 20 22 24 26 30 34 40 42

MASTHEAD PREFACE by Svend Auken, Danish Minister for the Environment and Energy (from 1993 to 2001) INTRODUCTION ‘inspiration’ by P. Wessel, Photographer CASE STUDIES: Introduction Marks & Spencer Patagonia Holstein Flachs Nike The Sustainable Solution Design Association The Sustainable Cotton Project (SCP) ‘inspiration’ by Robin Skjoldborg, Photographer THE ROLE OF THE DESIGNER/BUYER ETHICS FROM CRADLE TO GRAVE – a clear overview of the environmental impact of the production, use and disposal of fabrics made from cotton and polyester. ‘inspiration’ by Jette Jørs, Photographer THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN THE PRODUCTION OF TEXTILES – a thorough description of how the environment is affected by the production, use and disposal of textiles made from, e.g. cotton, wool, polyester and flax. ‘inspiration, by Mikkel Bache, Photographer FROM FIBRES TO FINISHED FABRICS – Checklist for how you should make a choice Introduction “The quickies” Questions about the production of cotton fibres Questions about the production of wool fibres Questions about the production of viscose fibres Questions about the production of polyester fibres Questions about the production of acrylic fibres Questions about spinning mills Questions about weaving mills Questions about knitting mills Questions about dye works Questions about print works ‘inspiration’ by Christian Rud Andersen, Photographer ENVIRONMENTAL LABELLING SCHEMES LIST OF ADDRESSES NOTES – for your own notes WORD LIST THANKS TO THE CONTRIBUTORS ISBN: 87-988309-0-2

54 56 58 60 62 64 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 75 76 78 82 86 94 96

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful