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Veli YILDIRIM

2004513039

**Mithat Sacit ATAR
**

2004513026

Prof. Dr. A.Hamit SERBEST

Contents

Traveling wave antennas .................................................................................... 2

Calculation of radiation resistance .......................................................................................................6 Pattern function of traveling wave segments ......................................................................................8 Traveling wave antenna Terminations .............................................................................................. 11 Vee traveling wave antenna .............................................................................................................. 14 Rhombic antenna ............................................................................................................................... 16

**Broadband Antennas……………………………………………………………………..18 Helical Antenna ................................................................................................ 19
**

Normal(Broadside) mode .................................................................................................................. 21 Axial (end-fire) Mode ........................................................................................................................ 24 Design Procedure .......................................................................................................................... 25 Feed Design ................................................................................................................................... 28

**Yagi-uda antenna ............................................................................................. 29
**

History ............................................................................................................................................... 29 Effects of Elements ............................................................................................................................ 30 Optimization ...................................................................................................................................... 33 Input Impedance and Matching Techniques………............................................................................. 34 Design Procedure………. ..................................................................................................................... 37 References………................................................................................................................................. 39

1

Traveling Wave Antennas Antennas with open-ended wires where the current must go to zero (dipoles, monopoles, etc.) can be characterized as standing wave antennas or resonant antennas. The current on these antennas can be written as a sum of waves traveling in opposite directions (waves which travel toward the end of the wire and are reflected in the opposite direction). For example, the current on a dipole of length l is given by

The current on the upper arm of the dipole can be written as

2

Traveling wave antennas are characterized by matched terminations (not open circuits) so that the current is defined in terms of waves traveling in only one direction (a complex exponential as opposed to a sine or cosine). A traveling wave antenna can be formed by a single wire transmission line (single wire over ground) which is terminated with a matched load (no reflection). Typically, the length of the transmission line is several wavelengths.

The antenna shown above is commonly called a Beverage or wave antenna. This antenna can be analyzed as a rectangular loop, according to image theory. However, the effects of an imperfect ground may be significant and can be included using the reflection coefficient approach. The contribution to the far fields due to the vertical conductors is typically neglected since it is small if l >> h. Note that the antenna does not radiate efficiently if the height h is small relative to wavelength. In an alternative technique of analyzing this antenna, the far field produced by a long isolated wire of length l can be determined and the overall far field found using the 2 element array factor. Traveling wave antennas are commonly formed using wire segments with different geometries. Therefore, the antenna far field can be obtained by superposition using the far fields of the individual segments. Thus, the radiation characteristics of a long straight segment of wire carrying a traveling wave type of current are necessary to analyze the typical traveling wave antenna. Consider a segment of a traveling wave antenna (an electrically long wire of length l lying along the z-axis) as shown below. A traveling wave current flows in the z-direction.

3

If the losses for the antenna are negligible (ohmic loss in the conductors, loss due to imperfect ground, etc.), then the current can be written as

The far field vector potential is

4

5

**Calculation of radiation resistance
**

The far fields in terms of the far field vector potential are

We know that the phase constant of a transmission line wave (guided wave) can be very different than that of an unbounded medium (unguided wave). However, for a traveling wave antenna, the electrical height of the conductor above ground is typically large and the phase constant approaches that of an unbounded medium (k). If we assume that the phase constant of the traveling wave antenna is the same as an unbounded medium (β = k), then

Given the far field of the traveling wave segment, we may determine the time-average radiated power density according to the definition of the Poynting vector such that

6

The total power radiated by the traveling wave segment is found by integrating the Poynting vector.

The radiation resistance of the ideal traveling wave antenna (VSWR = 1) is purely real just as the input impedance of a matched transmission line is purely real. Below is a plot of the radiation resistance of the traveling wave segment as a function of segment length.

7

The radiation resistance of the traveling wave antenna is much more uniform than that seen in resonant antennas. Thus, the traveling wave antenna is classified as a broadband antenna.

**Pattern function of traveling wave segments
**

The pattern function of the traveling wave antenna segment is given by

The normalized pattern function can be written as

The normalized pattern function of the traveling wave segment is shown below for segment lengths of 5λ, 10 λ, 15 λ and 20 λ.

8

As the electrical length of the traveling wave segment increases, the main beam becomes slightly sharper while the angle of the main beam moves slightly toward the axis of the antenna. Note that the pattern function of the traveling wave segment always has a null at θ = 0 . Also note that with l >> λ, the sine function in the normalized pattern function varies much more rapidly (more peaks and

o

9

nulls) than the cotangent function. The approximate angle of the main lobe for the traveling wave segment is found by determining the first peak of the sine function in the normalized pattern function.

The values of m which yield 0 ≤θm≤180o (visible region) are negative values of m. The smallest value of _m in the visible region defines the location of main beam (m = -1)

o

If we also account for the cotangent function in the determination of the main beam angle, we find

10

The maximum directivity can be approximated by

where the sine term in the numerator of the directivity function is assumed to be unity at the main beam.

**Traveling Wave Antenna Terminations
**

Given a traveling wave antenna segment located horizontally above a ground plane, the termination RL required to match the uniform transmission line formed by the cylindrical conductor over ground (radius = a, height over ground = s/2) is the characteristic impedance of the corresponding one-wire transmission line. If the conductor height above the ground plane varies with position, the conductor and the ground plane form a non-uniform transmission line. The characteristic impedance of a non-uniform transmission line is a

11

function of position. In either case, image theory may be employed to determine the overall performance characteristics of the traveling wave antenna.

12

13

Vee Traveling Wave Antenna The main beam of a single electrically long wire guiding waves in one direction (traveling wave segment) was found to be inclined at an angle relative to the axis of the wire. Traveling wave antennas are typically formed by multiple traveling wave segments. These traveling wave segments can be oriented such that the main beams of the component wires combine to enhance the directivity of the overall antenna. A vee traveling wave antenna is formed by connecting two matched traveling wave segments to the end of a transmission line feed at an angle of 2θ relative to each other.

o

The beam angle of a traveling wave segment relative to the axis of the wire (θmax) has been shown to be dependent on the length of the wire. Given the length of the wires in the vee traveling wave antenna, the angle 2θo may be chosen such that the main beams of the two tilted wires combine to form an antenna with increased directivity over that of a single wire.

14

A complete analysis which takes into account the spatial separation effects of the antenna arms (the two wires are not colocated) reveals that by choosing θo≈ 0.8 θmax, the total directivity of the vee traveling wave antenna is approximately twice that of a single conductor. Note that the overall pattern of the vee antenna is essentially unidirectional given matched conductors. If, on the other hand, the conductors of the vee traveling wave antenna are resonant conductors (vee dipole antenna), there are reflected waves which produce significant beams in the opposite direction. Thus, traveling wave antennas, in general, have the advantage of essentially unidirectional patterns when compared to the patterns of most resonant antennas.

15

Rhombic Antenna A rhombic antenna is formed by connecting two vee traveling wave antennas at their open ends. The antenna feed is located at one end of the rhombus and a matched termination is located at the opposite end. As with all traveling wave antennas, we assume that the reflections from the load are negligible. Typically, all four conductors of the rhombic antenna are assumed to be the same length. Note that the rhombic antenna is an example of a non-uniform transmission line.

A rhombic antenna can also be constructed using an inverted vee antenna over a ground plane. The termination resistance is one-half that required for the isolated rhombic antenna.

16

To produce an single antenna main lobe along the axis of the rhombic antenna, the individual conductors of the rhombic antenna should be aligned such that the components lobes numbered 2, 3, 5 and 8 are aligned (accounting for spatial separation effects). Beam pairs (1, 7) and (4,6) combine to form significant sidelobes but at a level smaller than the main lobe.

17

Broadband Antennas Wideband antennas refer to a category of antennas with a relatively constant performance over a wide frequency band. Historically, this referred to an octave or more. However, this is a general statement as an antenna has several electrical parameters like the input impedance, gain, polarization, sidelobe level, loss, and aperture efficiencies. This is due to the fact that an antenna can have very diverse applications and its desirable parameters can vary significantly. Even the size of its bandwidth can depend on the application and the term broadband can mean a different frequency range for different applications. Similar difficulties can also be experienced in considering a specific antenna type, where the bandwidth can depend on the design goals. For instance, a microstrip antenna can be narrowband in one design and wideband in another. Thus the antenna bandwidth definition, and classification of antennas using the bandwidth. A helical antenna is a quasi-broadband antenna, since its geometry is angular dependent, which is the main requirement for frequency-independent antennas. However, it has a finite length that limits its bandwidth. It is shown that the antenna has two distinct parts. One part is its input end, the first couple of turns, which acts as a transducer and converts the input electrical power to radiated wave. For this reason, this section is known as the launcher section. The remaining turns act as the directors and guide the wave energy. As one might expect, the launcher section primarily influences the antenna input parameters and its impedance bandwidth. The director section mostly controls the radiation characteristics. This knowledge facilitates the antenna design and optimization. The rotational nature of the helix geometry can also be used to generate multifilar helices, which offers additional benefits in both input impedance and radiation characteristics. These antennas are also discussed, and we show that they can be designed for better performance or geometrical simplicity. The special case is the quadrifilar helix design, which can provide diverse performance ranges and thus is used in many applications. It is discussed only briefly, as historically it was not a wideband antenna. Yagi–Uda antenna is shown that its operation is very similar to the helix antenna and can also be viewed as having two distinct parts,

18

the launcher and the director sections. Because this antenna does not enjoy an angular geometrical character, its bandwidth is not high, especially in high gain applications. The gain optimization further reduces its effective bandwidth. Helical Antennas Helical antennas consist of a conducting wire wound into a helix. Its cross section, or view from its axis, can be circular, elliptical, square, or any other shape, but the circular helix is the most common antenna type. Its concept was established experimentally by Kraus who also developed empirical rules for its design, also described by others. It is one of the most important circularly polarized antennas and relatively easy to design or fabricate. In addition, the simple geometry of the helix also makes it convenient for numerical investigation and optimization. Consequently, it is extensively investigated and practically utilized.

19

**Ln= the total length of the wire
**

D= Diameter A helix has an interesting geometry and in the limit can be a loop antenna (for S = 0) or dipole antenna (for D = d). As such, it enjoys their properties but avoids some of their limitations. A circular loop has a rotational symmetry and can support infinite azimuthal modes. However, because of its finite size, it is a resonant structure and has a narrow impedance bandwidth for each mode. The helix, on the other hand, has many turns N and the mode currents can run along its length as they radiate. Thus it behaves more like a traveling-wave antenna than a resonant one and is significantly more wideband. In fact, as will be shown later, it can be designed to have almost constant input impedance for its modes. Another difference between the two antennas is due to the pitch angle or the spacing between turns of the helix. Because of this axial length, the helix current has an axial component and can radiate a wideband circularly polarized wave with a single feed. In this respect, the helix behaves as a combination of loop and dipole antennas, fed in phase quadrature. The interrelationship between the circular and axial components of the current also provides the ability for beam shaping. This property becomes an important tool for designing multifilar helices with shaped conical beams. For a uniform helical antenna, the conducting wire is wound over a cylinder of constant diameter and its current distribution has both axial and circumferential components. Thus, in general, its components can be written I (z,φ)n = An exp(jβnz) exp(jnφ), n = 0, 1, 2, . . . where n is the mode number in the azimuthal direction φ, In is the nth component of the helix current, βn is the axial propagation constant, and An is the mode excitation constant. The axial propagation constant

20

can be related to the propagation constant along the helix wire by its geometry. As is known in loop antennas, the nth azimuthal mode resonates, when the circumference of the loop becomes about nλ, where λ is the wavelength of the signal propagating through the helix wire. In reality, the nth mode excites within a bandwidth around nλ, the size of which depends on the antenna type. Since the loop antenna is generally narrowband, the mode excitation is restricted to a small frequency band around its resonance. These modes are well separated from each other and provide appropriate modal radiation patterns and characteristics. The situation, however, is different for a helical antenna. Its bandwidth is wider, and adjacent modes can be excited simultaneously, which will affect its performance, especially in shaping its radiation pattern and causing large sidelobes. In both loop and microstrip antennas, only the n = 1 mode radiates axially. Other modes generate a boresight null. However, this is not necessarily the case for helical antennas, as multifilar helices can be used effectively to generate conical beams with the n = 1 mode, with much smaller diameters. Since they are more compact and simpler in design, they are preferred in communication applications, especially in mobile communications. The geometry of the helix also detrimentally affects the radiation beam of the higher order modes. Its consecutive turns act as an endfire array and force the antenna beam toward the axis, which counters the design goal of generating a conical beam. Thus higher order modes of helix have not seen widespread applications. The zero-order mode, known as the normal mode, is different because it requires small helix dimensions in wavelength and is an ideal antenna for circular polarization. Normal Mode Helix (Broadside) In the normal mode of operation the field radiated by the antenna is maximum in a plane normal to the helix axis and minimum along its axis. To achieve the normal mode of operation, the dimensions of the helix are usually small compared to the wavelength (i.e., NL0 << λ0). The geometry of the helix reduces to a loop of diameter D whenthe pitch angle approaches zero and to a linear wire of length S whenit approaches 90◦. Since the limiting geometries of the helix are a loop and a dipole, the far field radiated by a small helix inthe normal mode

21

can be described interms of Eθ and Eφ components of the dipole and loop, respectively. In the normal mode, the helix can be simulated approximately by N small loops and N short dipoles connected together in series

The fields are obtained by superposition of the fields from these elemental radiators. The planes of the loops are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axes of the vertical dipoles. The axes of the loops and dipoles coincide with the axis of the helix. Since in the normal mode the helix dimensions are small, the current throughout its length can be assumed to be constant and its relative far-field pattern to be independent of the number of loops and short dipoles. Thus its operation can be described accurately by the sum of the fields radiated by a small loop of radius D and a short dipole of length S, with its axis perpendicular to the plane of the loop, and each with the same constant current distribution. The far-zone electric field radiated by a short dipole of length S and constant current I0 is Eθ

where l is being replaced by S. Inadditionthe electric field radiated by a loop is Eφ

22

where D/2 is substituted for a. The ratio of the magnitudes of the Eθ and Eφ components is defined here as the axial ratio (AR), and it is given by

By varying the D and/or S the axial ratio attains values of 0 ≤ AR≤∞. The value of AR = 0 is a special case and occurs when Eθ = 0 leading to a linearly polarized wave of horizontal polarization (the helix is a loop). When AR=∞, Eφ = 0 and the radiated wave is linearly polarized with vertical polarization (the helix is a vertical dipole). Another special case is the one when AR is unity (AR = 1) and occurs when

When the dimensional parameters of the helix satisfy the above relation, the radiated field is circularly polarized in all directions other than θ = 0◦ where the fields vanish. When the dimensions of the helix do not satisfy any of the above special cases, the field radiated by the antenna is not circularly polarized. The progression of polarization change can be described geometrically by beginning with the pitch angle of zero degrees (α = 0◦), which reduces the helix to a loop with linear horizontal polarization. As α increases, the polarization becomes elliptical with the major axis being horizontally polarized. When α, is such that C/λ0 = √2S/λ0,AR = 1 and we have circular polarization. For greater values of α, the polarizationagain becomes elliptical but with the major axis vertically polarized. Finally when α = 90◦ the helix reduces to a linearly polarized vertical dipole. To achieve the normal mode of operation, it has been assumed that the current throughout the length of the helix is of constant magnitude and phase. This is satisfied to a large extent provided the total length of the helix wire NL0 is very small compared to the wavelength (Ln << λ0) and its end is terminated properly to reduce multiple reflections. Because of the critical dependence of its radiation

23

characteristics on its geometrical dimensions, which must be very small compared to the wavelength, this mode of operation is very narrow in bandwidth and its radiation efficiency is very small. Practically this mode of operationis limited, and it is seldom utilized.

Axial Mode (End-Fire) A more practical mode of operation, which can be generated with great ease, is the axial or end-fire mode. In this mode of operation, there is only one major lobe and its maximum radiation intensity is along the axis of the helix, The minor lobes are at oblique angles to the axis. To excite this mode, the diameter D and spacing S must be large fractions of the wavelength. To achieve circular polarization, primarily in the major lobe, the circumference of the helix must be in the 3/4 < C/λ0 < 4/3 range (with C/λ0 = 1 near optimum), and the spacing about S λ0/4. The pitch angle is usually 12◦ ≤ α ≤ 14◦. Most often the antenna is used in conjunction with a ground plane, whose diameter is at least λ0/2, and it is fed by a coaxial line. However, other types of feeds (such as waveguides and dielectric rods) are possible, especially at microwave frequencies. The dimensions of the helix for this mode of operation are not as critical, thus resulting in a greater bandwidth.

24

A monofilar helix, with mode index n = 1, radiates in the axial direction, similar to other antennas supporting such a mode like a loop, microstrip, or horn antenna. In its simplest form, it is a constant diameter helix, having a circumference of about one wavelength, C ≈ λ, wound in either right-hand or left-hand, similar to a screw. When placed over a ground plane, it can be fed easily by a coaxial input connector or microstrip line. An axial feeding maintains the symmetry and can facilitate rotation, and microstrip feding can be useful for impedance matching. In either case, the current induced on the helix conductor radiates as it rotates and progresses along its length, with the polarization being controlled by the direction of its winding. Design Procedure The terminal impedance of a helix radiating in the axial mode is nearly resistive with values between 100 and 200 ohms. Smaller values, even near 50 ohms, can be obtained by properly designing the feed. Empirical expressions, based on a large number of

25

measurements, have been derived, and they are used to determine a number of parameters. The input impedance (purely resistive) is obtained by which is accurate to about ±20%, the half-power beamwidth by

the beamwidth betweenn ulls by

the directivity by

the axial ratio (for the condition of increased directivity) by

and the normalized far-field pattern by

Where

For ordinary end-fire radiation

For Hansen-Woodyard end-fire radiation

26

All these relations are approximately valid provided 12◦ < α < 14◦, 3/4 < C/λ0 < 4/3, and N >3. The cos θ term in represents the field pattern of a single turn, and the last term in is the array factor of a uniform array of N elements. The total field is obtained by multiplying the field from one turn with the array factor (pattern multiplication ). The value of p in is the ratio of the velocity with which the wave travels along the helix wire to that in free space, and it is selected according to for ordinary end-fire radiation or for Hansen-Woodyard end-fire radiation. These are derived as follows. For ordinary end-fire the relative phase ψ among the various turns of the helix (elements of the array) is given by where d = S is the spacing between the turns of the helix. For an end-fire design, the radiation from each one of the turns along θ = 0◦ must be inphase. Since the wave along the helix wire between turns travels a distance L0 with a wave velocity v = pv0 (p < 1 where v0 is the wave velocity infree space) and the desired maximum radiation is along θ = 0◦, for ordinary end-fire radiationis equal to

For m = 0 an dp = 1, L0 = S. This corresponds to a straight wire (α = 90◦ ), and not a helix. Therefore the next value is m = 1, and it corresponds to the first transmission mode for a helix. Substituting m=1

In a similar manner, it can be shown that for Hansen-Woodyard end-fire radiation is equal to

which when solved for p leads to

27

Feed Design The nominal impedance of a helical antenna operating in the axial mode, computed using, is 100–200 ohms. However, many practical transmission lines (such as a coax) have characteristic impedance of about 50 ohms. In order to provide a beter match, the input impedance of the helix must be reduced to near that value. There may be a number of ways by which this can be accomplished. One way to effectively control the input impedance of the helix is to properly design the first 1/4 turn of the helix which is next to the feed. To bring the input impedance of the helix from nearly 150 ohms downto 50 ohms, the wire of the first 1/4 turnshould be flat in the form of a strip and the transition into a helix should be very gradual. This is accomplished by making the wire from the feed, at the beginning of the formation of the helix, inthe form of a strip of width w by flattening it and nearly touching the ground plane which is covered with a dielectric slab of height

where w = width of strip conductor of the helix starting at the feed Ir = dielectric constant of the dielectric slab covering the ground plane Z0 = characteristic impedance of the input transmission line Typically the strip configuration of the helix transitions from the strip to the regular circular wire and the designed pitch angle of the helix very gradually within the first 1/4–1/2 turn. This modification decreases the characteristic impedance of the conductor-ground plane effective transmission line, and it provides a lower impedance over a substantial but reduced bandwidth. For example, a 50-ohm helix has a VSWR of less than 2:1 over a 40% bandwidth compared to a 70% bandwidth for a 140-ohm helix. In

28

addition, the 50-ohm helix has a VSWR of less than 1.2:1 over a 12% bandwidth as contrasted to a 20% bandwidth for one of 140 ohms. A simple and effective way of increasing the thickness of the conductor near the feed point will be to bond a thin metal strip to the helix conductor. For example, a metal strip 70-mm wide was used to provide a 50-ohm impedance in a helix whose conducting wire was 13-mm in diameter and it was operating at 230.77 MHz.

Yagi-Uda History of Yagi-Uda The original design and operating principles of this radiator were first described inJapan ese inarticles published inthe Journal of I.E.E. of Japan by S. Uda of the Tohoku Imperial University in Japan. In a later, but more widely circulated and read article, one of Professor Uda’s colleagues, H. Yagi, described the operation of the same radiator in English. This paper has been considered a classic, and it was reprinted in1984 inits original form inthe Proceedings of the IEEE, as part of IEEE’s centennial celebration. Despite the fact that Yagi in his English written paper acknowledged the work of Professor Uda on beam radiators at a wavelength of 4.4 m, it became customary throughout the world to refer to this radiator as a Yagi antenna, a generic term in the antenna dictionary. However, in order for the name

29

to reflect more appropriately the contributions of both inventors, it should be called a Yagi-Uda antenna, a name that will be adopted in this book. Although the work of Uda and Yagi was done in the early 1920s and published in the middle 1920s, full acclaim in the United States was not received until 1928 when Yagi visited the United States and presented papers at meetings of the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) in New York, Washington, and Hartford. In addition, his work was published in the Proceedings of IRE, June 1928, where J. H. Dellinger, Chief of Radio Division, Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., and himself a pioneer of radio waves, characterized it as “exceptionally fundamental” and wrote “I have never listened to a paper that I felt so sure was destined to be a classic.” In 1984, IEEE celebrated its centennial year (1884–1984). Actually, IEEE was formed in 1963 when the IRE and AIEE united to form IEEE. During 1984, the Proceedings of the IEEE republished some classic papers, intheir original form, in the different areas of electrical engineering that had appeared previously either in the Proceeding of the IRE or IEEE. In antennas, the only paper that was republished was that by Yagi. Not only that, in 1997, the Proceedings of the IEEE republished for the second time the original paper by Yagi. That in itself tells us something of the impact this particular classic antenna design had on the electrical engineering profession. Effects of Elements Another very practical radiator in the HF (3–30 MHz), VHF (30–300 MHz), and UHF (300–3,000 MHz) ranges is the Yagi-Uda antenna. This antenna consists of a number of linear dipole elements, one of which is energized directly by a feed transmission line while the others act as parasitic radiators whose currents are induced by mutual coupling. A common feed element for a Yagi-Uda antenna is a folded dipole. This radiator is exclusively designed to operate as an end-fire array, and it is accomplished by having the parasitic elements in the forward beam act as directors while those inthe rear act as reflectors. Yagi designated the row of directors as a “wave canal.” The Yagi-Uda array has been widely used as a home TV antenna

30

All of the elements in the array were assumed to be driven with some source. A Yagi-Uda array is an example of a parasitic array. Any element in an array which is not connected to the source (in the case of a transmitting antenna) or the receiver (in the case of a receiving antenna) is defined as a parasitic element. A parasitic array is any array which employs parasitic elements. Driven element - usually a resonant dipole or folded dipole. Reflector - slightly longer than the driven element so that it is inductive (its current lags that of the driven element). Director - slightly shorter than the driven element so that it is capacitive (its current leads that of the driven element). Yagi-Uda Array Advantages _ Lightweight _ Low cost _ Simple construction _ Unidirectional beam (front-to-back ratio) _ Increased directivity over other simple wire antennas _ Practical for use at HF (3-30 MHz), VHF (30-300 MHz), and UHF (300 MHz - 3 GHz)

31

Typical Yagi-Uda Array Parameters Driven element - half-wave resonant dipole or folded dipole, (Length = 0.45λ to 0.49λ, dependent on radius), folded dipoles are employed as driven elements to increase the array input impedance. Director - Length = 0.4λ to 0.45λ (approximately 10 to 20 % shorter than the driven element), not necessarily uniform. Reflector - Length ≈ 0.5λ (approximately 5 to 10 % longer than the driven element). Director spacing - approximately 0.2 to 0.4λ, not necessarily uniform. Reflector spacing - 0.1 to 0.25λ Since the length of each director is smaller than its corresponding resonant length, the impedance of each is capacitive and its current leads the induced emf. Similarly the impedances of the reflectors is inductive and the phases of the currents lag those of the induced emfs. The total phase of the currents in the directors and reflectors is not determined solely by their lengths but also by their spacing to the adjacent elements. Thus, properly spaced elements with lengths slightly less than their corresponding resonant lengths (less than λ/2) act as directors because they form anarray with currents approximately equal in magnitude and with equal progressive phase shifts which will reinforce the field of the energized element toward the directors. Similarly, a properly spaced element with a length of λ/2 or slightly greater will act as a reflector. Thus a Yagi-Uda array may be regarded as a structure supporting a traveling wave whose performance is determined by the current distribution in each element and the phase velocity of the traveling wave. It should be noted that the previous discussion on the lengths of the directors, reflectors, and driven elements is based on the first resonance. Higher resonances are available near lengths of λ, 3λ/2, and so forth, but are seldom used. The radiation characteristics that are usually of interest in a Yagi-Uda antenna are the forward and backward gains, input impedance, bandwidth, front-to-back ratio, and magnitude of minor lobes. The lengths and diameters of the directors and reflectors, as well as their respective spacings, determine the optimum characteristics. For a number of years optimum designs were accomplished experimentally. However, with the advent of high-speed

32

computers many different numerical techniques, based on analytical formulations, have been utilized to derive the geometrical dimensions of the array for optimum operational performance. Usually Yagi-Uda arrays have low input impedance and relatively narrow bandwidth (on the order of about 2%). Improvements in both can be achieved at the expense of others (such as gain, magnitude of minor lobes, etc.). Usually a compromise is made, and it depends on the particular design. One way to increase the input impedance without affecting the performance of other parameters is to use an impedance step-up element as a feed (such as a two-element folded dipole with a step-up ratio of about 4). Front-toback ratios of about 30 (≈15 dB) can be achieved at wider than optimum element spacings, but they usually are compromised somewhat to improve other desirable characteristics. Optimization The radiation characteristics of the array can be adjusted by controlling the geometrical parameters of the array. for the 15-element array using uniform lengths and making uniform variations in spacings. However, these and other array characteristics can be optimized by using nonuniform director lengths and spacings between the directors. For example, the spacing between the directors can be varied while holding the reflector–exciter spacing and the lengths of all elements constant. Such a procedure was used by Cheng and Chen to optimize the directivity of a six-element (four-director, reflector, exciter) array using a perturbational technique. The results of the initial and the optimized (perturbed) array are showninT able 10.1. For the same array, they allowed all the spacings to vary while maintaining constant all other parameters.

33

Another optimization procedure is to maintain the spacings between all the elements constant and vary the lengths so as to optimize the directivity.

Input Impedance and Matching Techniques The input impedance of a Yagi-Uda array, measured at the center of the driven element, is usually small and it is strongly influenced by the spacing between the reflector and feed element. For a 13-element array using a resonant driven element. There are many techniques that can be used to match a Yagi-Uda array to a transmission line and eventually to the receiver, which in many cases is a television set which has a large impedance (on the order of 300 ohms). Two common matching techniques are the use of the folded dipole, as a driven element and simultaneously as an impedance transformer, and the Gamma-match Which one of the two is used depends primarily on the transmission line from the antenna to the receiver. The coaxial cable is now widely used as the primary transmission line for television, especially with the wide spread and use of cable TV; infact, most television sets are already prewired with coaxial cable connections. Therefore, if the coax with a characteristic impedance of about 78 ohms is the transmission line used from the Yagi-Uda antenna to the receiver and since the input impedance of the

34

antenna is typically 30–70 ohms the Gamma-match is the most prudent matching technique to use. This has been widely used in commercial designs where a clamp is usually employed to vary the positionof the short to achieve a best match.

Gamma Match

35

Omega Match

T-Match

Beta Match (Hair pin)

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Design Procedure The basis of the designis the data included in 1. Table 10.6 which represents optimized antenna parameters for six different lengths and for a d/λ = 0.0085 2.Uncompansated director and reflector lengths for 0.001 ≤ d/λ ≤ 0.04 3. compensation length increase for all the parasitic elements (directors and reflectors) as a function of boom-to-wavelength ratio 0.001 ≤ D/λ ≤ 0.04 The specified information is usually the center frequency, antenna directivity, d/λ and D/λ ratios, and it is required to find the optimum parasitic element lengths (directors and reflectors). The spacing between the directors is uniform but not the same for all designs. However, there is only one reflector and its spacing is s = 0.2λ for all designs.

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REFERENCES:

-ANTENNA THEORY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN (Constantine A. Balanis)3th Edition -MODERN ANTENNA HANDBOOK (Constantine A. Balanis) -ANTENNAS FOR ALL APPLICATIONS (John D. Kraus)3th Edition -http://www3.dogus.edu.tr/lsevgi/ (Prof. Dr. Levent Sevgi) - http://www.educypedia.be/electronics/antennas.htm -http://antenna-theory.com -http://yagi-uda.com/

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