for Students at Baruch College, ANT1001 TV24A Sp 2010
Rev. 5/27/2010 1
Breaking the Silence
TABLE OF CONTENTS (alphabetical order by tag)
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Also see Appendix: Lessons from our Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, p. 42-49.
DEDICATED TO STUDENTS
This is a book for you, written by you. Bet you didn’t know you wrote a book, huh? Well, as
a student you have stress, work, families, ideas, complaints, revelations, experiences, and a number of teachers that you are constantly thinking about. All of this has been hidden inside that head of yours dying to be heard. That’s why students just like you are breaking their silence! Here are 28 accounts of students SPEAKING UP about what really matters to them. By sharing personal and unique stories and connecting them to key anthropological concepts from our textbook Mirror for Humanity by Conrad Kottak (7th ed.), we reveal cultural similarities and connections about being students that are often take for granted not only by us, but definitely by most teachers. We want to inspire students (as well as faculty) to transform their view of who Baruch College is and what college can be about. We have something to say. We hope you relate to these stories like we did. Read them in any order you choose. Begin to speak up about what matters to you to your cohort. Start a book in your class and share it with your college/university. By simply speaking up in a collective way, we believe a small group of students anywhere can transform higher education everywhere. How do you make college an adventure rather than just a requirement for the future? BREAK THE SILENCE.
To faculty: This is a highly recommended text for any course. Empower students to be heard.
Honor Respect Trust
What are you dying to say to your teachers that you have never said before?
Why should I have to spend 10 minutes w/ my Texas Instrument to calculate something that excel can do in 2 minutes? Teach me something I could use and stop babbling about nonsense. Just because you're standing in front of us doesn't mean that we're learning anything from you. Well, I would ask SOME of my teachers: "How will the BullSh@*#t that you teach be applied in real life and help me support my family in the future, huh?" Many people disrespect you as teachers but I really appreciate all the hard work that goes into what you do. Please try to be a little less intimidating! STOP GOING BY THE BOOK! WE DON’T LEARN ANYTHING IF WE LEARN THROUGH A TEXTBOOK. WE ARE NEW YORKERS, WE ARE SOCIAL AND WE LEARN THROUGH EACH OTHER, SO ADAPT OR GO WORK ON A FARM. TY I exist and my ideas matter. Stop giving the workload...teach more in class.... I'm doing a lot more than just school.
"Freedom is acquired by conquest, not by gift. It must be pursued constantly and responsibly. Freedom is not an ideal located outside of man; nor is it an idea which becomes myth. It is rather the indispensable condition for the quest for human completion." (Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed 1968, 47).
\ What Students SAY WOULD MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN COLLEGE
Data from 44 responses collected with a Google Docs Anonymous Survey conducted April-May 2010. We started with members of our class and a random network of friends and students. Despite a small response, we got a glimpse into some useful ethnographic data.
This e-book is a collaborative auto-ethnography examining what is of interest to a small community of students in an Introduction to Cultural Anthropology course. The textbook for our course is Mirror for Humanity by Conrad Kottak (7th ed.) and contextualizes the essays or materials on each page. Ethnography is a key activity that defines cultural anthropology. Traditionally, ethnographers lived in small communities studying local behavior, beliefs, customs, social life, economic activities, politics, and religion (Walcott 2008 quoted in Kottak 2009, 13). We did the same with our classroom culture. A LITTLE ABOUT BARUCH: Baruch has been recognized as the most ethnically diverse campus in the nation by both U.S. News & World Report and the Princeton Review more times than any other college in the United States. Located at 24th and Lexington Avenue in New York City, 160 countries are represented in our undergraduate student body of 13,330. Diversity in my Spring 2010 ANT1001 course is visible but rarely heard. The 27 students collectively speak Punjabi, Hindi, Russian, Spanish, Hebrew, Cantonese, Mandarin, French, Urdu, Bahasa Indonesian, Arabic, Italian, Malayalam, Portuguese, and Sinhalese fluently besides English. ONE DAY after class, a Mexican student sent me this email: “A friend of mine and his father were just killed yesterday; my grandfather used to live there. I feel fear for my mother.” Lecturing on top of such matters contributes to boredom, absenteeism, feeling like you are surviving school; it masks what really matters to adult-learners. This e-book is about engaging what matters to them. I imagine a college classroom as a collaborative space where each and every person pursues what is of interest or matters to them no matter what I teach. A liberal arts education in the 21st century is offering leadership training for mothers, fathers, CEOs, wage laborers, all as global citizens. Let’s start saying we teach young adults rather than subjects. I dedicate this collaboration to the emergent transformation of higher education in the liberal arts. The great students you’ll hear from have become consumers of their own productivity and it’s our job to listen and empower that. Welcome to SPEAK! (Breaking the Silence). Kyra D. Gaunt, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Black Studies and Music at Baruch College, co-editor of SPEAK! 5
• It would be a big relief if attendance was not taken in class. We could show up at our own discretion, with the exception of exams & finals. • Feeling more like adults with a few extra hours a week to cope with stress. • Humor. • A professor that will take the time to make it clear that it is okay to make mistakes. • I don't enjoy most of my classes because the professors have not one clue what my name is. • They give out grades but not one word of encouragement. A simple "good job" would have made all the difference to me. • Nothing. I don't come to school to enjoy class. • Topics relevant to my life and pursuits.
A cow that is given a name generates more milk than a cow that’s treated as an anonymous member of the herd. The very act of naming transforms.
Based on Newcastle University research according to Rob Brenzy quoted in Margolis 2009
"When you control a [student's] thinking you do not have to worry about his actions. You do not have to tell him not to stand here or go yonder. He will find his 'proper place' and will stay in it. You do not need to send him to the back door. He will go without being told. In fact, if there is no back door, he will cut one for his special benefit. His education makes it necessary"
Carter G. Woodson, The Miseducation of the Negro, 1933
Honor Respect Trust
Last fall in 2009, my first presentation in Public Speaking required me to choose a quote, interpret it and discuss its relevance to my personal life. The quote I chose was: There is no such thing as a self made man. - Stendahl After giving my interpretation of the quote, I spoke of my father, who I believe has the most impact on my character and personality. I’m sure many of us have been in a situation where our traits and qualities are compared to others. I was never compared to my parents. My father was a diplomat, and my mother was active in a philanthropic organization within my father’s bureau. Both of my parents were rarely home, and I’m not saying that’s a bad thing. Although I didn’t spend much time with my parents I’ve always admired my father’s character. Who is my father? Well, my father has a history of living on the dangerous side. When he was 16, he created an organization in his village to protest the growth of communism in Indonesia. During the communist purge in 1966, the PKI (Partai Komunis Indonesia, the Communist Party of Indonesia) aimed to murder every leader of the rebellion in every village, including my dad when he was a teen. By his early 20s, he became a diplomat. However, he was considered a threat because unlike his colleagues, he refused into submit to corruption. My father has been a target of assassination and false allegations by men from our own nation. He is not Gandhi nor Nelson Mandela. In fact, he is far from it. But he stood up for what is right and just. Every time a person battles tyranny, hope lingers in the air, and my father was a catalyst of hope. Hope keeps humanity alive. And it is very contagious.
CULTURAL COLONIALISM: within a nation or empire, domination by one ethnic group or nationality and its culture/ ideology over others— e.g., the dominance of Russian people, language, and culture in the former Soviet Union or Ivy League college grads on the Supreme Court. COMMUNISM: spelled with a capital C; prevailed in the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1917 to 1991. Communist systems were authoritarian (promoting obedience to authority rather than individual freedom), and many were totalitarian (banning rival parties and demanding total submission of the individual to the state).
I am Bima Saridjo and I speak for the daring, hopeful, and compassionate.
我是如何学习英文 Learning English
In the U.S. we call a teacher Ms. or Mr. in grade school and “Professor” in college. In Chinese schools, it is forbidden to call a teacher’s name. You may call any teacher 老师, “lao-shi” but never their name. If you speak their name you are breaking the rules and you will get punished. The teacher will call your parents and let them know about your disrespect of the elders. Girls and boys are seated together for greater harmony. Each desk has two drawers where we put our books and we have to change our seat every week. In the U.S. a student will always sit in the chair that they choose on the first day. My seat is always beside another Chinese student, because I feel safe there. In China, students have to show respect to the teacher and Chinese teachers are stricter and more serious than most U.S. teachers. It remind me of a traditional Chinese idiom: “I eat more salt than you had with rice," which means the elders are always right. They know more than those who are younger. As a result, students only listen and are not expected to give opinions. That is why many Chinese students in America do not speak in class. In Chinese schools, a group of about 4 people clean the classroom together. We call that cleaning group the “zhi-ri-sheng.” They have to reset the chairs and the desks, close the windows, throw out the garbage, and erase the board [a sustainable classroom]. The key to the room will be kept by the one who is most responsible, and that person has to come to the class before everybody else. The purpose of all this is to practice diligence. In the U.S., students do not have to do this kind of work. A maintenance staff is hired at a low wages to clean classrooms. In the U.S., many professors give students a grade without any comment. Sometimes they do not return our papers. If I do not understand where I made mistakes, I will never learn right from wrong. Curiously, many Chinese students must learn more about English than their professors learn about Chinese. If English speakers understood more about the Chinese language, it would not only serve students but make for more powerful communication around each subject.
INDIGENIZED: modified to fit the local culture. HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT: as used by James Scott, the critique of power by the oppressed that goes on offstage— in private—where the power holders can't see it. PUBLIC TRANSCRIPT: cf. James Scott, the open, public interactions between dominators and oppressed— the outer shell of power relations.
I am Mei-Ling Chen and I speak for honor and respect for Chinese students, native speakers, and immigrants.
Excerpted from The Audacity of Humanity e-book
Excerpted from What Matters Now
When I was about 13 years old, I had the pleasure of visiting Italy with my mother and sister. My sister, a student of art history at the time, toured us through many of the museums and churches hosting some of Italy’s oldest and most beautiful works of art and representations of the culture of Italy. My most memorable experience was from our visit to the Galleria Borghese in Rome. Walking through and admiring this palace-like gallery filled with some of the worlds most precious and appreciated treasures, my mother and I stopped to adore the statue of “Apollo and Daphne” which was guarded by ropes and security. At the same moment, a guard unhinged one of the ropes to allow a young blind boy and his mother to approach the statue. The boys’ hands were led by his mothers across every surface of the statue as she whispered in his ear. I turned to look at my mother whose eyes were filled with tears. I asked her why she was crying and she said the moment was beautifully overwhelming. This boy’s blindness was not a factor that disabled or limited him from seeing and experiencing the world. From that moment, I realized I wanted to experience everything I can in this lifetime. To touch, taste, smell, feel almost anything I can. I promised myself nothing would limit me from expanding my horizons far and wide, exploring this world and all its wondrous creations and growing boundary less.
Image by BusyBrain at zazzle.ca
I am Esther Kogan and I speak for the observant, curious, and imaginitive.
ANTHROPOLOGY AND E D U C AT I O N : a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l research in classrooms, homes, and neighborhoods, viewing students as total cultural creatures whose enculturation and attitudes toward education belong to a larger context that includes family, peers, and society.
Dealing with Life
Never did listen to what my parents told me as a teenager. You could call me a rebel. Frankly, I didn’t care what they thought about me. I did the bare minimum at school and I stayed out until dawn sometimes. I did what I wanted and liked what I did, but on January 17, 2005, the game changed. I was up by Liberty Ave that cold winter morning. It was negative three degrees and I had just drank half a bottle of liquor and was about half way through a blunt that I rolled up with my own product. I was over there picking up five ounces of marijuana. It was about 10 o’ clock and I was drunk, high, and playing handball with some friends when I got a call from two guys wanting to buy an ounce. So I told them where I was and waited. When they got there, I got the ounce ready and was about to hand it over. As I made the move, three cops showed up in an unmarked car. I was caught redhanded. I remember thinking about my mom at that single moment. I had no shirt on and was getting that cold steel cuffed on my wrists but I didn’t think about my fate. I thought about breaking my mother's heart. After struggling to come here with my father and wanting to see me have a better life than they did, I was well on my way to dealing with the courts on drug charges. I was on my way to the precinct and all I could think about was how I was about to be disowned. For that one moment in my young life, I felt alone. There was no one to turn too. I figured that my parents would just give me the cold shoulder for a few weeks. That was the least of my problems. I was well into my 10th hour sitting in a cell when I gave my sister a call. She informed me that my mother had been hospitalized due to a heart attack. I don’t remember ever crying for my mom until that day. There I was, a thirteen year-old sitting in a cell filled with grown men and I cried ‘til my eyes were dry. When I finally made bail, things were never the same with my parents. They were disappointed in me and I was ashamed of myself. That didn’t matter though, the story stood told and would be remembered. Till this day, I never did apologize. She wouldn’t let me. I think that was her way of punishing me. I always considered this trial to be a blemish in my life. I was a disloyal son. I couldn’t really express my regret for what I did that day, so I’ll leave you with this. I am in college now and I am a candidate for a finance degree. My mother and I go out every first Sunday of every month and I love her. Although our trust may never be the same, we work on it every time we speak. I am the rebel.
CULTURE: Clifford Geertz defined culture as ideas based on cultural learning and symbols, and he characterizes cultures as "control mechanisms" or "programs" that govern behavior. Culture is learned through direct instruction as well as observation, experience, interaction with others, and conscious and unconscious behavior modification. RITES OF PASSAGE: Culturally defined activities associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another. Rebellion is a cultural rite of passage among many American born and assimilated immigrant youth.
I am Bishoy Ayoub from Egypt and I speak for the eager, faithful, and brave.
SHARE THIS. JOIN SPEAK! on Facebook.
SPEAK! is part of an ongoing riff following the free e-book What Matters Now by marketing blogger Seth Godin. In December 2009 Seth wrote, “Now, more than ever, we need to shake things up.” He brought seventy big thinkers together to share one idea for you to think about as we headed into 2010. Godin blogged that “it might be fun to make up your own riff and post it on your blog or [Facebook] profile as well. It's a good exercise. You can find an easy to use version on Scribd as well and from wepapers. Please share.” After being published in a women’s version for International Women’s Day, our professor Kyra Gaunt, who is also a TED Fellow, curated a riff with 39 authors from 5 continents called The Audacity of Humanity released on 3 April 2010. Her book has been viewed by over 6000 people to date. She thought we could reach people with our own audacity. She says, “college should be about people not books.” So this is our riff. Our experiment. In the middle of this project one of us asked how writing about what matters to us individually had anything to do with Baruch College. Our editor Malcolm Johnson replied emphatically, “We are Baruch College!” ‘Nuff said.
Growing up in India, I was one of those kids who got pampered and was loved and spoiled. I got everything I wanted without asking for it. I never felt the need for money or asked for it. Ever since I could remember I have been helping with the family business. I was working since I could see over the counter, for free of course. Even when I moved to America, it was the same, I was working for my family helping them out in the business. Thinking back I still remember my high school days, after school instead of hanging out with my friends, I would go straight to my family owned stores. I always complained about never having enough money to spend because I never got paid for the hours I put in. Even when I was 18 I would have to ask for money to go out or just to have in my pocket. Most of my friends around my age were already driving and working, I was working but for free. My friends would mock me about working for free calling it my social work. Although I would get an allowance or money if I ever needed, it never felt special. I never felt that I had the appreciation for the hours I put in. It was a normal Tuesday; I was working for the new T-mobile store that my family had set up, it had been a long day working to make the customers and my family happy. Business was good and sales were better. Other employees working at the store got paid that day and I was still without a paycheck. After closing up for the day my uncle handed me an envelope and gave me a hug saying he was proud of me. It came as a surprise because my uncle never done that in the past so this was something I will always remember. I didn't know what the envelope had until I got home and opened it, I was surprise to see it amount of the money it had. I still remember I had butterflies in my stomach because it had a note in it along with the money. I still remember reading the note and my name in it along with the words “PAYCHECK” It was a great feeling something I would keep close to my heart. Looking back now I feel like I never got paid, I was getting my hands on experience which will last a life time. Although having the experience along with the paycheck is still a better deal. :-)
I am Pavneet Singh and I speak for the seniors who are glad it’s over.
GENERALIZED RECIPROCITY: principle that characterizes exchanges between closely related individuals. As social distance increases, reciprocity becomes balanced and finally negative. MULTICULTURALISM: the view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable; a multicultural society socializes individuals not only into the dominant (national) culture, but also into an ethnic culture.
Fallar no es una opcion =
I am Hillary Herrera and I speak for the disciplined, passionate and quiet who are dying to speak up. I am an international student whose dream is to travel around the world. I love listening and learning from the experiences of others. (Failing is not an option) Students have forgotten the importance of following their passions. I was one of those who decided on a major for the wrong reasons. While prestige comes with studying here in the States, wealth comes with a business degree in the Dominican Republic. I arrived at Baruch in 2008 with a full scholarship in finance. My parents wanted me to study business so I wouldn’t suffer like they did, but my true passion has always been psychology. I wanted everything to be perfect, but I had culture shock and I wanted to go home. Learning a new culture was difficult. But I studied extremely hard and I loved math, so I thought I was doing well. As soon as the semester was over, I went back home. I still remember the day. It was three in the morning. I got online. I don’t even know for what reason. Then I checked my grade and I saw the F. I started crying and everyone in the house woke up. I spent the entire night crying. I didn’t sleep until 6am. Later on, my Pa came to me and said, “No le digas esto a nadie. Quiero que todos piensen que te va bien en tus estudios. Por lo tanto, mantenlo en secreto.” (http://translate.google.com/#es|en|). The next semester, no matter how hard I tried, my grades were still low.
ADAPTATION: the process by which organisms cope with environmental stresses. ETHNIC GROUP: group distinguished by cultural similarities (shared among members of that group) and differences (between that group and others); ethnic group members share beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms, and a common language, religion, history, geography, kinship, and/or race.
I decided it was time to give up and I went back home at the end of the term. I was going to stay there to start over. But at the end of my break I decided to give it one last try—follow my passion for the first time no matter what others said and I changed my major to psychology. Now I can say I’m following the right path even though some people are not happy with my decision. Psychology is what I am going to do for the rest of my life and I’m doing incredibly well in my classes.
Drug abuse is prevalent in impoverished neighborhoods, but drug abusers also live in middle class, and extremely wealthy, upper class neighborhoods. “Office Work and the Crack Alternative” by Philippe Bourgois (McCurdy and Spradley, 2007) reminded me of the drug problems that exist in Westchester, New York. Westchester is a very diverse county and some areas are extremely wealthy, while others are poor. Most people would not associate many of Westchester’s millionaires with less fortunate, and often homeless, people. However, certain people in all the socioeconomic strata are drug addicts. I live in a town in Westchester called Eastchester, which has fairly wealthy neighborhoods, but also has a terrible drug problem. In the past sixteen months, two friends of mine passed away due to drug overdoses, and unfortunately widespread teen drug usage still exists. Eastchester drug users are willing to pay a lot of money for their drugs, which is incentive for other people to sell drugs. These dealers spend hundreds of dollars to either acquire drugs, or ways to produce drugs in order to sell them to make a profit (Kottak 211, “capital”). Bourgois states, “Why should these young men and women take the subway downtown to work minimum wage jobs…in downtown offices when they can usually earn more, at least in the short run, by selling drugs on the street corner in front of their apartment or schoolyard” (Bourgois, 21). Eastchester kids are not so different from the Puerto Rican subjects of “Office Work and the Crack Alternative” in that they choose to sell drugs instead of laboring for wages (Kottak 216, “Working Class”). Many kids in Eastchester work typical minimum wage jobs; however, there are many who overlook the repercussions of selling drugs to make large profits. For example, I know a nineteen year old cocaine dealer who recently paid for himself and his girlfriend to go to Greece, a trip that most nineteen year olds cannot afford. The United States of America is one of the most powerful nations in the world with a strong economy and high standard of living (Kottak 212, “Core”). It is unfortunate that a powerful, wealthy nation like America has such a large shadow economy which promotes crime and violence. However, according to David Kennedy, director of the Center for Crime Prevention and Control at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, “Big national trends in crime are much more powerfully influenced by things like drug epidemics…than they are by the economy” (Gorman 2010). Bourgois asserts that the younger generations in Harlem become drug dealers to make money without a lot of work. I think that even though Eastchester kids have more money on average than those in Harlem, America’s capitalist society compels people to try to make as much money as possible, and many people will do this in the easiest way possible. As a result, more people commit crimes, and society suffers. Perhaps the government should spend more money on drug rehabilitation centers in hope that less drug abuse will yield less crime.
I am Ian O’Hanlon and I speak for the Eastchester kids who strive for success.
Alan Zale for The New York Times
CAPITAL: wealth or resources invested in business, with the intent of producing a profit. WORKING CLASS (or PROLETARIAT): those who must sell their labor to survive; the antithesis of the bourgeoisie in Marx's class analysis. DIFFERENTIAL ACCESS: unequal access to resources; basic attribute of chiefdoms and states. Superordinates have favored access to such resources, while the access of subordinates is limited by superordinates.
Do The Math
I must stay true to myself, to who I am and to what I believe in. Now that I am in college my world is different. In high school, I always had impeccable grades and now in college it’s as if my world had flipped upside down and I experienced culture shock. Most of my professors don’t know my name. Because I commute and I have a part-time job there really isn’t much time for interaction with others. In my first semester at Baruch I failed a class, but not just any class, I failed MATH! Math is my thing! Math is what my career is based on because that is my passion. How could I have failed a math class? I had NEVER failed a class and now I fail a college class? Something was wrong! I felt lost and disappointed and questioned my abilities. Everyone in my family expects me to be this important person and be perfect, you know, never do wrong. I mean there I am going into college thinking I am this great learner and that it all just comes naturally to me, and I failed a class. WTF?! Thankfully I was able to retake the class and passed it. It made me realize that I can do it and that I still loved math but things were just different now. I spoke with a few students who had been at Baruch and they passed down their knowledge. Teachers no longer “babied” us and I learned that I needed to put forth more effort. I realized I was still the same determined, passionate, math loving student. I just needed to remind myself of who I was and start to study harder (which by the way, I never did in high school! Study!? For what?!). I wasn’t going to let a failing grade determine who I am. Because Daisy Mendez is no failure, no siree! Shoot for the moon, even if you miss you'll land among the stars -- Les Brown
I am Daisy Mendez and I speak for those who have always lived under others expectations and want to break free. I am an independent, stubborn, hopeful Mexican-American. Let me be me!
SYMBOL: something, verbal or nonverbal, that arbitrarily and by convention stands for something else, with which it has no necessary or natural connection. HEGEMONY: as used by Antonio Gramsci, a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing its values and accepting its "naturalness."
I would like to be acknowledged. I had many odds against me, but I made it and I am very proud of myself.
I’d like to be acknowledged. I am first generation in my family to attend college and hopefully graduate.
I’d like to be acknowledged for just being here. Just because I'm undecided doesn't mean I'm stupid or that I'll fail at life.
I was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder at the age of ten. Ever since I can remember, I was given a tiny white pill to help me focus on my schoolwork. At the beginning, it worked like a charm. I found myself able to sit still, concentrate and do well in all my classes. It was an amazing thing. As I started to get older, taking one pill turned into taking two pills, then three pills, and more. The original dosage no longer worked. By adding more medication it helped with my concentration level but new problems arose. Two of the side effects of Ritalin are headaches and irritability. So I was given another pill to decrease the severity of my headaches and irritability. Balancing the doses of these medicines was difficult and frustrating for me and my family. By the time I was eighteen and off to college in Tuscon, Arizona, I was taking at least 4 pills a day to help me get through my work. Freshman year was difficult, as it is for so many students, but I was doing alright. Then I was faced with a devastating experience. I was assaulted. It was the most heartbreaking and traumatic experience I have ever faced in my life. I didn’t believe that it happened to me. I tried to be strong but when I returned to Tuscon for finals I was a complete mess and my grades reflected it. I started experiencing panic attacks. A doctor in Tucson gave me an anti-anxiety pill, which not only added to my frustrating pill regimen; it was also extremely addictive. Although it seemed to help me face my assault and what happened to me, a pill isn’t a permanent fix. I knew that one day I would have to face all the trauma without the pills. After being on the medication for 6 months, I was extremely addicted. The mistake I made, and made my whole life, was to not face my problems, but to take a pill for them instead. The following semester I lost 25 pounds and I don’t think I skipped a day without taking my medications. I used to get mad at the stupidest things and freak out on people. My two best friends contacted my parents. They were scared. When I found out, I refused to speak to them. I was in complete denial like most addicts. Everyone around me was scared for my life and I thought THEY were being crazy. Around finals, I locked myself in my room for a week. I knew I was addicted to my medication and it was changing the person I was. I missed the old outgoing and talkative me. After finals, I refused to go back to Tuscon. This was the best decision I have ever made. Deep down I knew it was because I wanted to get better. I wanted to be the Bari Resnick everyone always knew and loved. Now, I am 5 months clean from all my medications. It was the hardest and most challenging thing I ever had to do, but I did it and I am proud I did. I am facing school at Baruch without medication for the first time since I was 10 years old. It's really hard but it's worth it. I have my old life back with the support of everyone around me. Now, anything is possible.
I am Bari Resnick and I speak for the ambitious, creative and practical.
ILLNESS: an emic condition of poor health felt by individual. DISEASE: an etic or scientifically identified health threat caused by a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasite, or other pathogen. EMIC: the research strategy that focuses on native explanations and criteria of significance. ETIC: the research strategy that emphasizes the observer's rather than the natives' explanations, categories, and criteria of significance.
Becoming a Champion
Everyone on earth wants to feel like their life is worthwhile, sensible, and meaningful. Everyone also has goals set before them that they want to achieve. Accomplishment is one of the significant feelings a person can attain. When someone finally reaches a goal they set for themselves, it puts life in perspective and makes it worthwhile. My older brother Raymond, an accomplished person, is a 26-year-old graduate from Rutgers University. He is married with a child and has his own business. When I asked him what his most accomplished moment was he said, “My most accomplished moment was when I opened up my first store, because all my schooling and everything I learnt in the past finally became a reality.” In high school, sports meant a lot to me but in the beginning I was never able to participate in winning a championship. This came as an extreme disappointment to me because my high school is known for its winning feats. Finally, my senior year came and I promised myself I wasn’t going to leave high school without posting a championship banner on the walls of the gym. In basketball, I had a great season but we fell short of making the championship game, losing to one of our rival schools on our home court, nonetheless. This came as an extreme disappointment to me, because I was afraid I wasn’t going to accomplish my goal. Then spring came around and I participated in baseball, a sport we were not really known for winning. In fact, it is the only sport in which my high school never won a championship. Our season kicked off with a bad loss, however I stayed optimistic. After that loss my team and I won every single game including the championship. After the championship I felt as if my 4 years of playing high school sports was for something. People have different ways of feeling accomplished. For my brother it was opening his business. For me, it was winning a championship. One big part of accomplishing a goal is to stay optimistic. Vince Lombardi said it best “The greatest accomplishment is not in never falling, but in rising again after you fall.” Accomplishment is something that is hard to obtain, but every person should try, and if they keep failing, try harder. That’s what accomplishment means to me.
I am Jeffrey Chera and I speak for my Orthodox Jewish faith, for music and sports, for waking up late and being accomplished.
WEALTH: all a person's material assets, including income, land, and other types of property; the basis of economic status. POWER: the ability to exercise one's will over others—to do what one wants; the basis of political status. PRESTIGE: esteem, respect, or approval for acts, deeds, or qualities considered exemplary; the basis of social status. (Theories of Max Weber)
COMING OF AGE
There are many things that matter to me in life, and this is exactly why it is hard to pinpoint a single aspect. I think that as people get older a lot of things become more important to them as their view of the world changes. I am turning twenty in June 2010 and all the little things that used to seem meaningless are suddenly starting to matter. One of the main things that matters without question is my family. My parents are originally from Moscow, Russia. Shortly after having me, they moved to the United States in the early 90’s and made a new life for themselves. My father was unemployed for a couple of years but eventually found work as a general contractor. My mother found work as a computer programmer in Manhattan. Although we have fallouts at times, it still doesn’t change the fact that I want my parents to be happy and proud of me. They’ve always cared a great deal about my education and did their best to make sure that I thrived in school. My mother and father have always had high hopes for me. The last thing I ever want to do is disappoint them (like I have been lately), because all they want is for me to have a better life than they did. This brings me to another aspect of life that greatly matters to me and that is success. When I say success, I also mean wealth. A majority of people claim that they want to be successful, but give very vague definitions of what success actually means to them. I am one of those people; however, one thing I do know about what success means to me and that it is being welloff financially. To be specific, “well-off” means being a multi-millionaire. In the year 2010, it isn’t enough to be just a millionaire anymore. The point I am trying to make is that I want to be in a financial situation where I can have most of the things I want and not have to live paycheck to paycheck. When I was a child, I wanted to be a lawyer, because I saw a lot of movies where the actors who played the lawyers in the movie made it seem like a fun job. Later on in life, after finding out the specifics of the job and how long it actually takes to become one, I decided that I no longer wanted to be a lawyer. Now that that dream is shattered, I am trying to find my next path to success and it seems much harder than I ever thought it would be. The reality is that you can chase something your whole life and when you finally get it, whatever it is that you got can disappear in a second. My parents worked hard their whole lives hoping that one day it will pay off and here they are at the ages of 47, unemployed due to the recession. So whether I do it through Baruch College, or take an alternate route, as long as I end up where I want to be, I will be satisfied and take it from there because nothing in this life is guaranteed.
I am Grigoriy Rehm and I speak for the bright, concerned and misguided.
AGENCY: the active role that individuals play in interpreting, using, making, and remaking culture. CULTURE IS SHARED: Culture is transmitted in society; it is an attribute not of individuals per se, but of individuals as members of groups. Enculturation tends to unify people by providing them with shared beliefs, values, memories, and expectations. Parents become agents in the enculturation of their children, just as their parents were for them.
The First Fuck-Up
I was the first-born, the first-fuck up. Compared to my siblings who are 7-9 years younger, I was an angel. I never defied my parents even down to the college and degree I was to choose. Everything was chosen for me. I felt as though I was never allowed an opinion. I was raised to respect my parents so I never questioned anything. How foolish of me. Now I have been at Baruch for six years working and paying for a degree that I don’t want. I am here as if I am still 6 years old, because I was told to be here. When I met my husband 7 years ago, we were inseparable. It was only two years ago that we started dating and that shook my parents. I never introduced or shared my relationship with them. My relationship with Rory was such an important part of my life not as a boyfriend or future husband, but as something that I stood for. My family was upset not because they didn't like Rory. It was because things weren't done the way they wanted. My dream wedding with family did a complete 180. I wanted it to be just Rory and I. I didn’t want people around. I didn’t want a dress. And lastly, I didn’t want a wedding the way my parents wanted it. I was given an ultimatum. If I said “I Do,” I would no longer have the only family I knew. Why were my parents doing this to me? Why couldn’t they be happy that I was happy? On April 15, 2009, I said “I Do,” and I will never regret that day. For once in my life, I did what mattered to me and what I wanted). But I paid a price. I was cut off from my parents, even from my own siblings. Taking my little brothers and sister away was a stab to the chest. Was I being childish? Was it really worth it? All these sorts of questions entered my head, but I did nothing about it because I didn’t know what to do. I no longer had my parents' guidance and for once I had to do this on my own. How ironic. It took a 3,500-mile trip back to my hometown Dublin, Ireland and a few hard knocks from my Grandmother to realize how selfish and stubborn I actually was. I knew I hurt my parents, but I didn’t realize the extent to which I hurt them. It had nothing to do with school. It had nothing to do with a wedding. It had nothing to do with DOING what I was told. For the past year, I've been realizing, I was just throwing a tantrum like a 6 year old. My grandmother explained a few things to me. Things I never knew. My parents came from Ireland when they were only 18 for the summer of ‘85. My father and mother had just met and before they knew it, I was on the way. I am beginning to see the bigger picture as an adult. Parents aren’t always wrong. My parents pushed me to go to college because they didn’t have that opportunity. My life was the most important thing to them. My parents wanted me to have a wedding they were involved in. My father wanted to proudly walk me down the isle and I stole that from him. My mother wanted me to have a wedding because she never had one. I selfishly stole that from my parents but I will never regret my fuck up. For I would have never TRULY appreciated my parents and everything they have strived for, for me. So if you ask what matters now, what matters to me is my fuck ups & my family.
I am Tara Harrison and I speak for the ambitious & imaginative Irish Americans.
FAMILY OF ORIENTATION: nuclear family in which one is born and grows up. FAMILY OF PROCREATION: nuclear family established when one marries and has children.
There are 15,700 students at Baruch as of Fall 2009. If the students in this survey are representative of the average student body, then unused textbooks could be costing 20% of the student body something like $400,000 700,000/semester for a loss of up to $200/person. Another 18% may be spending $450,000 more per semester for a loss of over $250 or more per person.
Thatʼs a lotta a cheddar. With those losses
you could pay for 400-600 NY State residents to attend Baruch College fulltime for one semester ($2,300/semester
Data collected from a Google Docs Anonymous Survey (44 respondents) conducted April-May 2010. We started with members of our class and a random network of friends and students.
TOM PETTY & THE HEARTBREAKERS
When I think of what really matters to me, what makes me happy, what got me through the struggles of everyday life, I think of my music, the music that I love. I think of the one band that speaks to me and the songbook of my life. That band is Tom Petty and The Heartbreakers. Whenever I tell people I’m a Heartbreakers fan, they seem confused. How can a 19year-old love an adult contemporary band that has been rocking for the past 30 years? I’ll tell them to listen to American Girl, the second single from Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers' self-titled debut album in 1977. Whenever I hear that first riff, everything is okay. Nothing else matters in the world. I am at peace. Their music speaks about a simpler time, when Rock N’ Roll was at its peak. The Heartbreakers began as a band that was influenced by Bo Diddley, the Beatles and Bob Dylan but they weren’t considered an old wave band. They were considered part of the punk rock wave along with the Sex Pistols, the Patti Smith Group, and The Ramones. Even though they wouldn’t fit that description today, they still had the short punchy songs with a little hint of anger. Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers would continue to rock on. Though simple and straightforward, every song Tom Petty has written has significance behind it. He can’t stand when songwriters sit down and say they wrote a song about dogs. Tom Petty said it isn’t that easy. He sits down and allows the words to come to him. He creates some of the most amazing lyrics I ever heard. Johnny Depp said it best about their music: it was smart, even if you didn’t know it at the time. That’s Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers’ music—smart. When I ask people who Tom Petty is and I get blank stares. Maybe they will say he did "Free Fallin’" (1989) or by chance they’ll say he did "Refugee" (1980). It makes me frustrated that this band is not appreciated the way they should be. People recognize their music, but they just can’t put the name of the band with the song. Still, I appreciate their music and so do millions of others out there in the world. I’m so tired of being tired Sure as night will follow day Most things I worry about Never happen anyway "Crawling Back to You"
I am Jonathan Sabal and I speak for the “Refugees,” “The Rebels,” and the “Last DJs” in the world.
ANTIMODERNISM: the rejection of the modern in favor of what is perceived as an earlier, purer, and better way of life; based on disillusionment with industrialization, globalization, and developments in science, technology, and consumption patterns
Race for Change
I am Malcolm Johnson and I speak for the misunderstood, ambitious and the impatient. What am I passionate about? That question is so wonderful, because it makes me think about things that I get emotional about. I think one thing that I have strong feelings for is the plight of people, African-Americans to be exact. I understand that we are not the only ethnic or social group on this earth facing hardships, but sometimes it sure seems like we are. We seem to be second if not third class citizens in a society that would not be if it weren’t for us; from the way people that look like me are portrayed in the media to the looks and occasional mistreatment I receive because of my skin color. It is not just because I’m African-American, I am also judged because of the traditions and subcultures I choose to associate myself with. It’s a catch 22 when I sit and talk with someone and they express their shock that I am so articulate and knowledgeable. I want to feel appreciation for the recognition of my intelligence, but I also feel disgust because it should not be seen as a phenomenon. A lot of my peers have accepted the status quo society has placed on them; though many of them are extremely intelligent, they follow this artificial standard about themselves. My passion would be to change the self-destructive mentality that sometimes we all have as a result of what is feed to us. Have people ask questions they have never asked before, question why things are like this or that and most importantly look within them without fear and ask who I am and what do I truly want? I believe that once we can truly begin to search who we are, we can see that there are no boundaries and we can accomplish whatever we’d like. It would be amazing if more people reach their dreams, rather than follow a laid track. I want to provide media that can influence people to ask more questions, begin to help people see themselves in a new light and combat some of the negative images we receive. I want to reach my full potential, I want to have no fear of succeeding and I want to be more than just a stereotype in the eyes of others. And I want the same for my peers and everyone for that matter.
RACE, like ethnicity, is a cultural category rather than a biological reality. Separate "races" derive from contrasts perceived and perpetuated in particular societies, rather than from our DNA. Only cultural constructions of race are possible, though the average person conceptualizes "race" in biological terms. ACHIEVED STATUS: social status that comes through talents, actions, efforts, activities, and accomplishments, rather than ascription. ASCRIBED STATUS: social status (e.g., race or gender) that people have little or no choice about occupying.
I am Megan Byrne and I speak for peace, change and smiles. I love you and you are special.
The HAPPINESS ;i Project
I created a happiness website as a counter-offer for my final ethnographic project in this course. I invited people to send me a photograph that makes them happy. I've received a number of unsolicited stories. I didn't tell anyone to send me an explanation with their picture, but they wanted to share their happiness which in return made me happy! : ) The next page is one of the first pictures sent to me and the very first photo that helped me realize my own ethnocentric cultural lens were very real. In the five seconds that it took to look at the photograph, I thought my happiness project was to forever be taken as a joke. Here was a friend pretending to eat a parakeet, thinking it was funny. I thought I would get maybe two more pictures out of the thirty I asked for. Great. What a bad day! Less than a minute after sending the photo, I got message from him. The bird was a pet that recently passed away and this picture “warms my heart,” as he put it. I judged a beautiful memory my friend chose to share while degrading my entire project within a two-minute period. Isn’t it funny how a person can share something so special to them and we completely miss it? (see “cultural relativism” p. 40). The human race is so dramatic! Life gives us things to smile about each and every day and we miss them, referring to an entire 24-hour day as “bad” or “ruined.” I look at this picture almost every day now, reminding myself that every situation is not perfect, but every day is and has “good” in it. I now have over fifty pictures from people that shared their happiness; some funny, some sentimental, all unique and perfect to the person they came from. So, if you take anything from this story let it be this: FIND. YOUR. HAPPY. Stress gets overwhelming and causes us to radiate negativity, but don’t let it take your smile. If it does, you might take someone else’s and not even realize it. I want more people to send pictures. If anyone's interested in taking some time to think about what you love feel free to email a photograph. Next, the photo.
COMMUNITAS: intense community spirit, a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness; characteristic of people experiencing liminality together. ETHNOCENTRISM: the tendency to view one's own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one's own standards.
Mezzanine Level, Section 3, Row G, Seat 8 I spent over 150 Sunday afternoons at Shea Stadium with my grandfather. My first game was Game 6 of the 1986 World Series when my mom was seven and a half months pregnant and blew off a Lamaze class. Every Sunday Mets’ home game, I traveled to Flushing with my grandfather. When I was ten, grandpa fought two other guys to get my first foul ball and we waited outside the clubhouse for two hours after the game to get Butch Huskey’s signature. I went to every playoff game in 2000 and Grandpa got me on the train at 5:00 AM to make sure I got to school on time in New Jersey. My grandpa had season tickets for 36 years until 2005 when I left for school and we couldn’t be there most Sundays. My grandfather was the most reliable and important person in my life. When my parents got a divorce and made life hell, he gave me a safe place to land and forget about my problems. He welcomed me into his home so I could go to Stuyvesant High School and went to every one of my football games in high school and college, even when that meant driving seven hours to Albany and back. He taught me all the back roads in Brooklyn and Queens to avoid traffic. He would take me for sushi on my birthday even when he couldn’t stand the sight of raw fish. I learned how important family is and about forgiveness from him. I also got my size from him thankfully. (My father’s a short man at 5’8, the bastard.) He was the chief of our clan and kept my mother’s side of my family together. Grandpa Garvey passed away in February of 2009. I don’t handle death well, especially the Catholic traditions. His death hit me hard and almost caused me to fail my last semester at RPI. Adjusting to life without him is still difficult because he was the rock in my life no matter what I did or where I was. He was my best friend while keeping me on the right path. I would always hear it when he thought I was making the wrong decision. I try to live up to his standards and principles for life because I believe in them. Family first, work hard and be happy.
I am Matt Augen and I speak for the annoyed, the ambitious and the abused Met fans. Just trying to take enough accounting courses to qualify for the CPA.
RITUALS: convey information about the participants and their traditions, and translate enduring messages, values, and sentiments into action. Rituals are inherently social, and by participating in them, performers signal that they accept a common social and moral order.
I am Troyster Joseph and I speak for the seekers and the misunderstood. I like listening to music, daydreaming and relaxing.
STYLE SHIFTS: variations in speech or communication in different contexts. SOCIOLINGUISTICS: study of relationships between social and linguistic variation; study of language in its social context.
Collage created with Wordle.net
I feel that this word collage gave me an opportunity to break away from the conventional methods of expressing oneself through writing. Sometimes, I feel that writing constricts you mentally in a way that prevents you from properly letting your ideas flow out of you freely, without hesitation. While creating the word collage, I realized that the collage itself could be used a tool by students who find it difficult to brainstorm ideas for an essay or any other type of written assignment. The collage is an easy way to let your ideas flow out of you without any hesitation. When writing a paper, you worry about whether or not your choice of punctuation or use of vocabulary is good enough, not for yourself, but good enough for the teacher. When you begin to think this way you restrict yourself from writing freely and expressing the ideas you feel are important to you. Rather you end up writing an essay based on the expectations of the teacher, what the teachers themselves feel is important for the essay.
Doing a word collage is an easy and fun way to release ideas or words you feel are important or hold some type of value. I felt relieved and challenged while doing the collage. I was not constricted or hesitant, because I knew the words written by me are my own. The keywords I chose for my collage, are in some ways a representation of my existence, c h a r a c t e r, h o p e s , d r e a m s , aspirations and expectations as a young Black, African-American, Haitian-American, American, student, older brother and a son.
This may sound frivolous to others, especially to those who don’t know me well but sports are of great interest to me. My first and biggest passion is sports. Sports are something I have been involved in since I was young child. They were a big deal in my household because my brother, father, and mother were all avid fans and participants. This love of sports was not just limited to being physically involved in competition. I was always intrigued by the managerial side of things. Evaluating and assembling talent is an art form like painting abstract art. In my mind, there is no difference. Whether it’s putting together a championship caliber football team or scouting the next great welterweight boxer, there is something truly amazing about seeing the potential in someone and helping to show it to the masses. This is true for other things in life but sports makes this real to me. It’s shows me things in a way that makes sense to me and in a way that matters. My dad knew this when I was young and taught me math via football terminology, using first downs in football to teach me addition and subtraction. Like any other art form, there is the component of hubris involved. Everyone likes to say “look what I made or did or created” but besides that, there is true fulfillment felt by this accomplishment. I am fortunate enough to have a brother who has created his own sports management firm and is attempting to establish himself in the industry. I have already been exposed to knowledge that many others with similar aspirations have not. It matters to me in so many different ways that I myself am continually amazed every day. I just know that it’s what I want to do and what I will do. I’ve always known that I would be involved in this art.
I am Mitchell Roy and I speak for myself whose passion is sports and for those who are obsessed with what they love.
CORE VALUES: key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture and help distinguish it from others. MAGIC: use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims. MODE OF PRODUCTION: way of organizing production—a set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, and knowledge.
Fill in the blanks.
44 anonymous responses collected from a Google Docs Anonymous Survey conducted April-May 2010. We started with our class and a random network of friends and anonymous students.
"On a census form I would mark that I am _______________, but personally or culturally I identify myself as _________________".
I am Latino, but personally I identify myself as unique. I am Black, but personally I identify myself as Haitian American. I am Brazilian, but personally I identify myself as a super brazilian. I am Asian, but personally I identify myself as Black. I am Asian, but personally I identify myself as white. I am Asian, but personally I identify myself a person.
Baruch Fall 2009, Office of Inst. Research and Program Assessment
I am Iryna Kouratnik and I speak for the aware, concerned and courageous.
As a little girl, living in Lviv, Ukraine, I often told my mother that I am going to marry a black man. “Chocolates” I called them whenever I saw a group of African students in my city. Whether it simply was my curiosity or somehow I was rejecting the accepted notion that one should choose a partner within “one’s own kind” – I had made my choice then. In 1993 my father left to go the United States and six years later my family and I followed. I was about to turn 18 years old. I met Julius at the age of 19, while getting acculturated to New York. I broke the rules and the rejection began. My father’s view of a “perfect future” for his daughter crumbled once he saw Julius. “He’s black!!!” were my father’s words. There was so much more to his “blackness” than just skin color – I was doomed and there was no light at the end of the tunnel. He thought I was destined to get pregnant and be left alone with a black baby, not being able to attend college, and to become an embarrassment to the family. I’m in college now, no child – still with Julius. The stereotypical ideas of my father were meaningless to me. It hurt to have to go through so much fighting but the more we argued the closer I became with Julius. I’ve been with Julius for almost nine years now. My father’s acceptance of Julius and I as a unit followed after all the arguments and my refusal to conform to his rules and ideals. I am proud of my dad for letting go of his stereotypes and allowing me to build my own values in life. After all, it is my life – so the choice is mine.
You have to know how to accept rejection and reject acceptance. -- Ray Bradbury
ACCULTURATION: the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact; the original cultural patterns of either or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct. EXOGAMY: mating or marriage outside one's kin group; Said to be a cultural universal [except when skin color is involved among other traits]. RACE: an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis; a social construct that seems natural but is arbitrarily based on phenotypical traits.
I belong to a middle class, Pakistani family but my parents provided me with something I didn’t imagine. Being the youngest one among my siblings, I was least interested in my studies and in working. I was a lazy dumb ass, sleeping 14 hours a day, hanging out with friends. All I wanted was a luxurious life but still I love my family a lot. I can’t live without them. My life changed on May 8, 2009, when I arrived at JFK airport holding a bunch of papers about my identification, about my past. I didn't know what was going to happen next. But I was determined and confident to conquer this new world. I was told to beware of very white colored people who always think that a guy from Pakistan is a terrorist or extremist. After 3 hours of screening and verification at U.S. Customs, I came out of the lobby holding my luggage, trying to smell the new air of this “Land of Opportunities.” Surrounded by very white and very dark people I felt odd and for the first time I noticed that all whites are not American or European. Some are Russian, some are Spanish, and some are Irish. Within two weeks I made up my mind--I have to grow up. I am an adult now. I had to show my family that I can do something extraordinary. After all, I am the son of Mir. Mir is a caste in Pakistan, whose descendants are from the Kashmir Valley of pure blood. Kashmiris are considered intelligent and hard working (which I was not). My father was called Mir in his society, so it was my wish to be called Mir and I could only prove that by working hard. It was a big day for me when I got a job on my own and my parents were arriving the same day. Instead of bringing them flowers I would surprise them with my news--I start working soon and I am not the same Nokhaiz. My manager told me 'we cannot call you Nokhaiz. It is too difficult.' So she gave me a name tag for Mir. I was excited that I would be called by my father’s name. It was honor for me. As I came home I got a call from my brother that my father had a heart attack and he is no longer in this world. For three days I cried like a baby. I didn’t eat a thing. I didn’t talk to anyone. I had lost one of the most important persons of my life. Suddenly, I looked at my name tag and I started understanding that God had given me a chance to stand in my father's shoes, take on his name, his status to prove that I am hard worker and a devoted man, like him. From that day on, I changed. I was a trouble maker and now I am trouble taker, going from hardly working to working hard. Before, I use to give up in the worst situations, but now I stand up against them.
I am Mir, Nokhaiz and I speak for the inspired, the ambitious, and the practical.
ETHNOCENTRISM: the tendency to view one's own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one's own standards. VILLAGE HEAD: The village head cannot issue orders, nor can he force or coerce people to do things. Rather, the village head must lead by example; he can only persuade, harangue, try to influence people to do things, and act as a mediator in disputes, but he has no authority to back his decision or impose punishments. URBAN ANTHROPOLOGY: the anthropological study of life in and around world cities, including urban social problems, differences between urban and other environments, and adaptation to city life.
"There is an old Chinese saying: [屎坑 刀−无张利] Many broadswords abandoned on the dunghill but none of them has a keen edge. The old saying means that when we try to do too many tasks at once, and none of the tasks will be finished beautifully. Just like the greedy blacksmith who cannot forge a single excellent sword while forging too many swords at once. In my childhood, my mom always accused me with this saying when I was trying to become a "brilliant child"--having dinner, reading textbook, and watching cartoon simultaneously. I finished my homework with many mistakes, and I couldn't enjoy dinner nor the cartoon. I know that everyone has faced this situation at one time or another in their lives. You have a college assignment due tomorrow, but your favorite documentary is on tonight. While you compromise your time to do both, your mother calls and decides to have a long conversation with you about your priorities. How well can you finish your work, enjoy the show, and satisfy your child-missing mother? Or you might choose to sleep less to have more time to do what people in the U.S. call having your cake and eating it too, but you will be in low spirits in school and at work the next day. We are college students, we are adults, and we are multi-taskers. Multitasking sounds like a good idea, but most college students are not successful at it. We do so many things at once, but most of us cannot manage to do just one task well. Chinese culture admires undivided attention. No matter what you are doing, you are required to direct all your attention on that particular task. Once in my sociology class, my professor asked about the American stereotype of Chinese students. The students answered that the Chinese were considered smarter. It seemed to be a myth that most of the Chinese do well in the class, but I think the truth is that Chinese students pay more attention in class than many other students. Have you ever had eight classes a day for five days a week? I have studied under this stressful condition since primary school; so have other students in China. There is rarely a chance for students to review the textbook to get through the knowledge after class, so they have to pay great attention to what the teacher has taught in class and to understand it at the same time. When I come to America, I can maintain my concentration in class even if the lecture and the teacher are boring. No phone messages, games, parties, good friends, dating, weather, shopping, and sport events (These are what I see many of American students doing.) Only my studies are on my mind. There is no major difference in human brains for studying and working but the difference lies in how we behave. College is a stage leading children as young adults into the great world. We can learn to succeed in our position as a students, but not in multitasking. That has a limit.
I am Peizhi Feng and I speak for the misunderstood people, the grown-up but not yet mature students and our colorful lives under the same sky.
ENCULTURATION: the social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations. FOCAL VOCABULARY: a set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience or activity), such as types of snow to Eskimos or skiers.
I am John Virom Lumbera and I speak for the athletes, artists and observers.
When I was young, both of my parents went to the States for work while me and my siblings were raised by my grandparents for 10 years in the Philippines. Although my grandparents guided and loved us, there were moments where we really missed our parents. Every time I saw how my aunts and uncles spent time with my cousins, I really got jealous of how happy I would be if our family was complete too--laughing, eating meals together, going to watch a movie, helping us with our homework. In addition, being separated from my parents put me in a difficult position. I was the only guy. I had to look after my 3 sisters and I was only 8 when my parents left us. Every time my dad called and asked about my sisters I couldn't just say “maybe” or “I don't know.” I thought to myself, I can't lie or make up a reason. I had to know exactly what my sisters were up to. Imagine the obligation, the burden, that put on they shoulders of an 8 year old boy. When I entered high school I joined the men's volleyball team. It was like another challenge was given to me. How would I handle my studies, practice AND the responsibility of my sisters? Every decision I made had to be precise so it wouldn't be out of balance with my time and focus for each one of my priorities. On weekdays, I had school from 7:25am to 4:30pm. Then volleyball practice after school. So I got home around 8pm everyday. Most of my homework was done during my breaks between each class so I could rest at night and bond with my sisters and relatives. Saturdays I had practice again for the whole day and then on Sundays me and my siblings went out to eat and watch movies. In October 2007, my mom informed us that we were going to be living with them in New York. I know I should feel grateful and overjoyed, but to be honest, I don't know what it felt like to have parents around telling me what to do, face to face. During my first year of living with them, I tried to understand every decision they made for me even though it was against my will. I knew that they had more experience in life and were used to the lifestyle here. After spending almost two years in college at Baruch, I slowly assimilated to life here in NY. But every time my parents advised me about something I found it hard to swallow and sometimes I argued with them, especially when I already knew what to do. Even though I didn't have a chance to experience a "normal" childhood, I learned how to be a responsible person and became a positive thinker to ease the stress of my everyday life. As the result, I can proudly say that since kindergarten I have never failed a course and I now know what being with my parents feels like. Now I can say that what matters to me is that no matter how hard life gets, I can get through it if I just keep my mind on the right track.
ENCULTURATION: the social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations. DIASPORA: the offspring of an area who have spread to many lands.
I was born in Washington State and lived there until I was six years old. My mother is from Hong Kong and moved to the states about six years before she married my father, who is from Oregon. We lived in Ellensburg (population: 15,000; 9,000 of them college students at Central Washington University) and she was the only Chinese person in town. Looking back, I have so much respect for the discomfort she must have faced living in a sea of people who shared no resemblance with her and couldn't speak her native tongue. She never mentions it, but I'm sure she faced prejudice in a town that was that small and conservative. Society makes it very difficult for people to assimilate if they are a little different from the cultural norm. My mother has taught me to always be headstrong and that it is possible to acclimate to uncomfortable situations. Her situation is so much more extreme than anything I have faced, but it gives me hope that I, too, will have the inner strength to face the hurdles created by society. Over the summer my sister and I went to a village in Sichuan, China to teach English to children for a couple weeks. While we were there, we noticed that all the village people had flags of Mao. We asked the students what they thought of Mao Zedong, China’s first Communist leader and the founder of the People’s Republic of China and Hu Jintao, China’s current leader, and they all replied, "We love him. He has done so much for us." After our teaching assignment, we took a 36-hour train ride to Shanghai. On the train, there are 6 beds to a compartment. We shared a compartment with a Chinese man who spoke very good English. He had attended graduate school in New York twenty years ago. He later told us that he was at the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 but had left a couple days before the actual massacre happened. This was so hard for me to grasp. He was the only person we had met so far on the trip who saw the Chinese government from a different perspective and understood that it wasn't necessarily helping the people. I thought I learned the difference between those with exposure to outside information and the “less educated” village people. It made me realize people may have no choice but to accept the government's word. I realize the same thing is probably happening right underneath my nose. This experience taught me to appreciate that I do have access to information, but it also taught me that I can’t always accept everything at face value. I am Katie Cannell and I speak for the inquisitive, stubbornminded, and spirited. I love exploring New York City and reliving my childhood outdoors.
Tacoma's "Anti-Chinese Movement," 1679
PREJUDICE: devaluing (looking down on) a group because of its assumed behavior, values, capabilities, or attributes. DISCRIMINATION: policies and practices that harm a group and its members. CULTURE IS ALL-ENCOMPASSING: The anthropological concept of culture encompasses all aspects of human group behavior. All people are cultured, not just those who are formally educated.
From a very young age, my parents have repeatedly told me about the importance of a college education. I suppose this was primarily out of a sense of regret, since neither my mom nor my dad finished college. They blamed all their failures of their adult years on their decision to drop out of college. As one can reasonably expect, I’m under a great deal of pressure to graduate from college. While my parents mean well, I can’t help but wonder whether they are misguided. Back in their day, a bachelor degree really was the ticket to a higher-paying career. Nowadays, everybody and their mother are getting bachelor’s degrees. According to the US Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences, the graduating class of 1980-1981 received 935,140 bachelor’s degrees.The class of 2007-2008 received 1,563,000 bachelor’s degrees, and that number is projected to increase in the years to come. With so many more people getting degrees, not to mention the current recession, a college degree just isn’t worth as much as it used to be. Marty Nemko, a career and education expert who has taught at the University of California, Berkeley, has stated “that piece of paper [bachelor’s degree] no longer means very much, and employers know that. Everybody’s got it, so it’s watered down.” In a way, my parents are right, in that I will almost certainly need a postsecondary education if I wish to make good money. However, I feel as if they don’t understand that a degree doesn’t promise one a good job. The companies surveyed by the National Association for Colleges and Employers indicated they were planning to hire 22% fewer grads from the class of 2009 than they did from the class of 2008. I can almost imagine my parents’ disappointment when they find out that I might not get a job in spite of my degree because of the sheer number of qualified individuals. In an attempt to prevent this from happening to me, I chose to attend Baruch College, a public business school with tuition so cheap that I will never have to worry about student loans, and picked an accounting major, considered by many to have excellent job prospects. The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics even states that accountants and auditors are expected to experience much faster than average employment growth from 2008 to 2018, and I still don’t feel secure. All I can do at this point is to keep stumbling along, rack up those internships, and hope that I hit the career jackpot.
I am Richardson Antoine and I speak for the pragmatic, the apprehensive, and secondgeneration immigrants.
LEVELING MECHANISMS: customs and social actions that operate to reduce differences in wealth and thus to bring standouts in line with community norms. MARKET PRINCIPLE: profit-oriented principle of exchange that dominates in states, particularly industrial states. Goods and services are bought and sold, and values are determined by supply and demand.
I've been trying to stay on task, doing my work to avoid stress. That is my goal everyday, but something goes wrong. My mother tried to stop me from even going to school today. She begged me to tell her what's wrong. My brother persuaded her to let me go. I cried on the subway to school. I tried not to but the tears wouldn’t stop. It seems like nothing matters to me anymore, like the hidden rules of society have made my life hell. In India as a child, I went to two boarding schools. I attended my first boarding school in first grade and second grade. I was just a kid and being away from my mom was hard. I cried a lot in the beginning. Then there was my fear of ghosts and strict teachers. My first year I got very sick because my fear of Bloody Mary and being homesick made me cry constantly. I had a fever, my body temperature was 105 °F. They say if you have a temperature of 108 °F you can die. The second year I got the chicken pox. Life was stressful enough as a child but now it's the cultural clash of being a 20 yearold Sikh woman in America going back and forth between America and India. Once I became a permanent resident, I put all my efforts into doing well and in high school, I became valedictorian. When I started at Baruch, falling in love was last thing on my mind. This came with its own problems—the rules of religion and gender. I am Sikh and my boyfriend is Muslim. My family practices the tradition of arranged marriage. Sikhism seemed to grow out of our fighting Muslims for the right to practice the faith. Religion, in my thinking, divides mankind. Having a religion is not bad but it shouldn’t hold us back from our desires, from who we love. Wasn't Religion created to give people hope and a sense of direction in uncertain times and circumstances? I don’t believe in Religion anymore. Don’t get me wrong, I believe in God. But people don't follow religions to a "t," we pick and choose the rules we follow. Every since my parents found out about my Muslim boyfriend, there has been this divide between us. I don't follow their beliefs and that hurts them. If they let me do whatever I want, there would be no respect within our religious community, and respect is important. I feel like an outcast because I have different view than my culture. So, I still have a lot to figure out. Everything I want and believed in is up in the air. The only thing I want now is freedom. At some point in life, we all look for this freedom. There’s a saying in my religion, आ"श $ हा'सल कर, - िलए आप को खो 'दया 5. I order to gain you have to lose. My goal is to get trough this hardship and gain long-term happiness.
I am Guneet Kaur and I speak for the uncertain, relationships, and change. I can't wait to find a solution for my uncertainties.
RELIGION: is a cultural universal, although different societies conceptualize divinity, supernatural entities, and ultimate realities very differently. It can be used as a means of social control and as a leveling mechanism in many societies. To ensure proper behavior, religions offer rewards and punishments, and many prescribe a code of ethics and morality. ETHNICITY: identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group, and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation.
I have more memories with my grandmother in the early years of my life, than I have with my parents. My parents were constantly working at their grocery store. They were motivated to succeed after they immigrated from South Korea to the United States. I had an objection. I was so young. I could not understand why I only saw my parents one hour a day. I viewed myself as an invisible kid, pushed aside by my parent’s grocery store. When my parents came home every night, the smell of groceries triggered my jealousy. It was my grandmother who put me to bed and when I had trouble sleeping, it was my grandmother who soothed me. My grandmother was not blood-related. She was an old lady who had lived with my family for many years. She followed us to the United States. She took care, fed, and dressed me every day while also having to do most of the house chores. In New York City, she might be called a “nanny” or “au pair.” I followed her everywhere she went. I felt secure around her. We went to fish markets, supermarkets, the laundromat, and sometimes stopped by the convenient store when I begged her to buy me a Power Ranger action figure. She always had a dollar in hand in the afternoon. She knew the ice cream truck made its daily stop in front of our house. When its song soared through the neighborhood, she was the first person out the front door. I ate my favorite chocolate ice cream on the front porch while she smiled in satisfaction. She tried very hard to be a second mother to me. I had a difficult time accepting it. Years went by and nothing had changed. I grew frustrated and began to see myself changing. I was no longer the joyful and active little boy I used to be. I stopped following my grandmother around and resented her efforts in trying to act as my mother. “You are not my mother!”, I screamed out of frustration after she complained of how dirty my room was. I began to spill words that I knew I would regret. I stormed out of the house, slammed the door, only to pause when I heard the sounds of her weeping through the kitchen window. I looked inside and saw an old lady who seemed to have lost everything she owned. She covered both eyes with her tear-soaked hands and sat motionless for several hours. A couple of months had passed when I woke to an unusually quiet morning. I was struck with the news; my grandmother had left for Korea. Sure, she had traveled to Korea many times before, but this time I was hit with feelings of guilt and remorse that I would never see her again. My mother gave me a letter that she had left. In it were words that summarized her love for me. The memory of my regretful words were nowhere to be found. Rather, the letter symbolized our good times. My tears dripped on the letter I was holding as I realized it could well have been her last words. Five years after she left, I was given the news she had passed away. I always knew that that day would come. However, I did not cry as much as I expected. Maybe it was because the letter she left gave me comfort. Or it could be that even to this day I am in denial of her existence.
I am Samuel Lee and I speak for forgiveness, generosity and the power of language.
FAMILY: a group of people (e.g., parents, children, siblings, grandparents, grandchildren, uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, cousins, spouses, siblings-in-law, parents-inlaw, children-in-law) who are considered to be related in some way, for example, by "blood" (common ancestry or descent) or marriage. LIFE HISTORY: of a cultural consultant; provides a personal cultural portrait of existence or change in a culture.
Serving Honesty c
I grew up in a conservative Indo-Guyanese household where my family does not believe in dating. First you get married, and then you get to go on dates. I remember it like it was yesterday, it was my 19th birthday. I was home relaxing with my family when our doorbell rang; it was a flower delivery. I was freaking out, I knew who it was from but my parents had no idea, or so I thought. How do I tell my parents that I have a boyfriend? I did not know where to start explaining but I had to start from somewhere. There were two possible reactions: my parents would either be upset and they would not let me out of their sight anymore, or they would understand and everything would be fine. It was one of the most uncomfortable conversations I have ever had with my parents (particularly my mom). Even though we were in the same room, I could not gather the courage to say a word. I sent my mom an e-mail explaining everything. After my mom read the e-mail, her response was "I knew all along." She started telling me about every time she knew I lied in the past and snuck out to be with my boyfriend, she's even seen us together. She expressed how disappointed she was in me for lying to her for so long. As scared as I was, I felt somewhat relieved. After I spoke with my mom, she told my dad everything. He was not fond of the idea of his daughter(s) having boyfriend(s); my sister and myself. I did not blame him, it was definitely a culture shock from what he was used to and what he was now faced with. For me to continue being in a relationship, I had to promise my parents that I would not do anything stupid and I would graduate from college. My mom decided it would be a great idea to have dinner and get to know my boyfriend better. My dad did not want to go; he still has not accepted the fact that I have a boyfriend. Also, I was afraid of how awkward it would have been. After many cancellations, the dinnerdate was finally here. My entire family begged my dad to go and he finally agreed. At the dinner table, it was a bit silent in the beginning but as time progressed, my dad and my boyfriend hardly even noticed there were other people there. This entire event has definitely changed the relationship I have with my parents. In the past, I was always afraid of being honest and open with them. Now, we have a much better relationship, I even go to my mother for advice (something I would have never have done in the past).
I am Radha Ramoutar and I speak for the practical, fun-loving, and graceful. I love my family.
PATRILOCALITY: customary residence with the husband's relatives after marriage, so that children grow up in their father's community. BRIDEWEALTH: a customary gift before, at, or after marriage from the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin; see also progeny price.
A Senior Moment
"You're late, again!" This is what I heard when I walked into his class. Being punctual has always been issue for especially when going to class. No matter how hard I tried, I was late. When the Spring 2010 semester rolled around, I decided to take some late classes, thinking getting to them on time would be nice-and-easy but this semester was no exception to my lack of punctuality. To add salt to the wound, one of my professors marked you absent when you were just one minute late. I despised him for doing that and a lot of my peers think I'm right. Out of doing this Speak project, I decided to have a word my professor to find out why he wants to make life even more miserable than it already is. As we walked from the 7th to 11th floor, I asked what he thinks about students who come to class late. He said it shows they are irresponsible, that they don't care for their own, the other students' and the professor’s time. Then I asked why he incorporates such a strict tardy policy. His response was that it’s important for students to be on time. It creates a better student and a better learning environment. Then I asked, “Don’t you think that living in NYC, where most students have to take the train or several trains to get to class, that having such a strict tardy policy is unfair?” His immediate response, to paraphrase, was “NO! Life is uncertain and if a student is late once, I can understand and ignore it. If the behavior continues than it’s not the train's fault, it’s the student. That’s when a student needs to plan their trip and day better.” My last question was: "What are you hoping to achieve when you decided what you wanted to use this tardy policy?" The professor said, paraphrasing again, “If students start to focus on punctuality, they will develop a personality that will help them in the future. Ethics should be important because they help build a foundation for their future.” This informal interview with him had a big impact on me. It changed my point view about ethics. Hearing how passionate this professor was about teaching and building a foundation for students, I felt a moral duty towards him and the class for the first time. Ethics have always been important to me but being on time was something I never thought was a big deal. Since the interview I’ve been trying to be early, not just in his class but every other place I need to be. This was not all that I learned from him. I also found out that this professor has been teaching since 1952. He’s 82 years old and he enjoys teaching so much that the word "retirement" isn’t in his vocabulary. He shared with me how one of his colleagues died while teaching his class. My professor thought it was a great way to go out. This guy really loves what he's doing. I had walked into the interview with a grudge for this professor and his tardy policy. I walked out with more respect for him, an appreciation for his policies, and a new relationship to being on time.
I am Pavneet Singh and I speak for the seniors who are glad it’s over.
Double Droste Clock by ©2008 David C. Pearson, M.D.
CULTURAL RELATIVISM: the position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect. Anthropology is characterized by methodological rather than moral relativism: In order to understand another culture fully, anthropologists try to understand its members' beliefs and motivations. Methodological relativism does not preclude making moral judgments or taking action.
Play Your Game !
"Put the chess pieces in order and plan your game, its time for you to stop fucking around." That is what my dad said on the phone at the beginning of the spring semester 2010. Born in Mexico, since the age of 6 I‘ve traveled from Mexico to the US, Canada, Korea, and France. My parents expect me to do certain things but they are no longer part of my plans. I’ve grown far apart from them. They don’t even ask me about school anymore. What does all this mean? I don’t know yet but I do know is that it will blossom into something of its own. My dad wants me to be reliable and have a good job. He wants me to have a life like the one he does full of benefits and stability, but what is stability? Waiting to pay off your mortgage? Not me. I do have a piggybank. I’m not a slacker. I just don’t want to play that game. New York City has been my home for the past 2 years and I cannot deny that this city is all about workaholics, partying, prejudice--love or hate, and appearances —bohemian or preppy. Often what overwhelms me and distracts me from my success as a student. I get confused about what to do next. Perhaps it's the lack of structure in college. But everyday while riding my bicycle to school, I admire every single detail that I pass on my way—the trees, the wind, the sea, even the same person sleeping on a bench—and it gets me thinking about how great my day is going to be. These little things are the ones that are most valuable to me. All the things we see have a lesson of their own. Professor Gaunt said, “There is always something to contribute and something to learn from.” With thousands of possibilities, there are also an infinite amount of risky conclusions. As a result, uncertainty remains for the future. To my lovely classmates and to the student body, what I can say is simple: to give and be true to what matters to you is the game we all want to play. Even though my chess game is not complete, I know how I want to play the game and so do you. I am Esteben “Pedro” Rosas and I speak for the stolen blood in the fight for my people and the dust in my hands.
RITES OF PASSAGE have three phases: Separation—when participants withdraw from the group and begin moving from one place or status to another. Liminality—the period between states, during which the participants have left one place or state but have not yet entered or joined the next. Incorporation—when participants reenter society with a new status, having completed the rite.
APPENDIX: Lessons from our Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
“Something happens to the myths of motherhood when, in a land of terrible scarcity, infants die of mortal neglect. Nancy Scheper-Hughes argues for a ‘political economy of the emotions’ that replaces poetics with pragmatism” (New Internationalist, 1994). Our class read her mini-ethnography titled “Mother’s Love: Death Without Weeping” in McCurdy and Spradley’s Conformity and Conflict reader (2007).
When reading both Kottak’s Mirror for Humanity (2009) and the essays in Conformity & Conflict (2007), I learned that my culture is not the only one out there. Now I knew there were other cultures, but I never thought about it. I lived inside my little upper-middle class suburbanite bubble and nothing else. I didn’t need to think of the “outside” world. I had never been outside of the U.S.. Once I started to read each of these books, it opened up my eyes; not every place in the world has a 3 bedroom and 3 bathroom house. In fairness, most of the world doesn’t have these types of houses. After reading these books, it allowed me to stop looking at the world through lenses that I made, and begin to view it from tons of different lenses. I don’t think it would have been possible without reading so many of the amazing stories in these books. -- Jon Sabal EACH STUDENT WAS ASSIGNED TO PARTICIPATE IN A GROUP ORAL PRESENTATION BASED ON CHAPTER TOPICS SUCH AS FAMILY, THE WORLD ECONOMIC SYSTEM AND GLOBAL ISSUES TODAY. EACH WAS ASKED TO EXAMINE THEIR OWN CULTURAL BACKGROUND. THE FOLLOWING PAGES ARE SAMPLES OF THEIR SLIDES.
RELIGION: Religion is a cultural universal, although different societies conceptualize divinity, supernatural entities, and ultimate realities very differently. One perspective is that it focuses on bodies of people who gather together regularly for worship, and who accept a set of doctrines involving the relationship between the individual and divinity, the supernatural, or whatever is taken to be the ultimate nature of reality
Slide on vodou from Richardson Antoine’s part of group oral presentation on chapter 9: “Religion” in Kottak’s Mirror for Humanity, 7th ed.
STEREOTYPES: Fixed ideas—often unfavorable—about what members of a group are like.
The fictional character Natalia Romanova, also known as the Black Widow or Чёрная вдова, 'Chyornaya vdova' (first appearing in the comic book Tales of Suspense #52), was born in Stalingrad, Russia during the Cold War. Marvel Comics created her character to be a Russian black operations agent who would go up against America’s heroes. The story was that the Russian government trained her from a very young age and deployed false memories in her head so that she would remain loyal to their cause. It was a stereotype of the Russian government and Communism. The Black Widow would later defect to the U.S in 1970, the height of the Cold War, and would later join the Avengers and S.H.I.E.L.D to help against the fight against communism. This is a more modern image of the Black Widow.
Slide from Jon Sabal as part of a group oral presentation on chapter 10: “The World System and Colonialization” in Kottak’s Mirror for Humanity, 7th ed. showing transmission of communist stereotypes and preconceptions through popular culture
CULTURE: Traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs; distinctly human; transmitted through learning. CULTURE MAY BE ADAPTIVE: Although humans continue to adapt biologically, reliance on social and cultural means of adaptation has increased during human evolution and plays a crucial role.
Slide from Mitchell Roy’s part of group oral presentation on chapter 10: “The World System and Colonialization” in Kottak’s Mirror for Humanity, 7th ed. on the retentions from the era of slavery on African American food culture.
CLIMATE CHANGE: Scientists prefer the term “climate change” to “global warming.” The former points out that, beyond rising temperatures, there have been changes in sea levels, precipitation, storms, and ecosystems effects. The precise effects of climate change on regional weather patterns have yet to be determined. While global warming may benefit those living in higher latitudes, many more people worldwide probably will be harmed.
Slide from Iryna Kouratnik’s part of group oral presentation on chapter 13: “Global Issues Today” in Kottak’s Mirror for Humanity, 7th ed.
ECOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: Anthropology always has been concerned with how environmental forces influence humans and how human activities affect the biosphere and the Earth itself. ‘ The 1950s-1970s witnessed the emergence of ecological anthropology, which focused on how cultural beliefs and practices helped human populations adapt to their environments, and how people used elements of their culture to maintain their ecosystems. Ancient Chinese saying--“the earth gives birth, but the sky feeds us.” The sky here means the climate, such as the temperature and rain, which helps grow plants and crops in traditional cultivation. Used for at least twenty-five thousand years, the Chinese established an emic system, the “twenty-four fortnightly periods,” to guide the process of cultivation each year. The twenty-four fortnightly periods told peasants when each season came--the rainy period or the cold. These indications helped them plan when to prepare the seeds, to loosen the soil, to sow seeds, to irrigate, and to harvest different kinds of crops. However, these twenty-four fortnightly periods have been challenged by global climate change in recent decades. The peasants cannot determine well the best season for planting winter wheat, for example, an important crop in the northern part of China. Slide from Peizhi Feng’s part of group oral presentation on chapter 13: “Global Issues Today” in Kottak’s Mirror for Humanity, 7th ed.
GENDER: Gender roles and stratification have varied widely across cultures and through history. Gender is flexible and varies with cultural, social, political, and economic factors. The variability of gender in time and space suggests that it will continue to change.
Slide from Stevan Rosas’s part of group oral presentation on chapter 7: “Gemder” in Kottak’s Mirror for Humanity, 7th ed. on the retentions from the era of slavery on African American food culture.
Co-Editors & Production by Malcolm Johnson, Esther Kogan, Megan Byrne, Katie Cannell, Bishoy Ayoub, Troyster Joseph, and Hillary Herrera. Managing Director: Kyra Gaunt. Book title conceived by Bishoy Ayoub Cover art by "Uncertainty" by Ana Cisneros Ana is a children’s book animator and graduate of UDEM de Monterrey Mexico. She is a friend of Steván Rosas. Cover Graphics by Steván Rosas and Kyra Gaunt Dedication by Megan Byrne and Kyra Gaunt Marketing by Daisy Mendez and Malcolm Johnson
Thank YOU for reading! We also want to thank the TEDsters and other inspiring visitors to our course including:
Honor Respect Trust
Josh Klein and Bill Jensen (authors of Hacking Work) Anya Kamenetz of Fast Company (author of DIY-U: Edupunks, Edupreneurs and the Coming Transformation of Higher Education), Deanna Zandt (author of Share This! How You Will Change the World with Social Networking) Dora Maynard (of The Maynard Institute) Also thanks to Lisa Fraser and The Ticker for reporting on our project in May 2010. P.S. We miss you Lisa Odie.