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ALI M E NTACI N

DE

LA VACA

DE

D O B L E

P R O P O S I T O

Tabla R I
R e q u e r i m i e n t o s de las Vacas L e c h e r a s ( N R C , 1989)
EM

PC

Ca

(Mcal)

(g)

(g)

(g)

Mantenimiento de una vaca adulta*


Peso (kg);

400

12.0

318

16

11

500

14.2

364

20

14

600

16.3

406

24

17

Mantenimiento m s dos ltimos meses


de gestacin
Peso:

400

15.3

890

26

16

500

18.0

1053

33

20

600

20.7

1207

39

24

Produccin de leche (por kg)


Grasa (%):

3.0

1.07

78

2.73

4.0

1.24

90

3.21

1.98

5.0

1.40

101

3.69

2.28

-8.25

-320

8.55

320

1.68

C a m b i o de peso en la lactancia
Prdida de 0.5 kg/da
G a n a n c i a de 0.5 kg/da

* Incrementar los requerimientos de mantenimiento de todos"los nutrientes en 20% para


vacas de primerparto y en 10% para vacas de segundo parto. Incrementar los requerimientos
energticos de mantenimiento en 20 % en animales en pastoreo.

177

T A B L A S

Tabla R2
R e q u e r i m i e n t o s de Vacas L e c h e r a s
( C a l c u l a d o s de la Tabla R l )
a.

Vacas adultas en pastoreo y sin variar de peso


Peso 4 0 0 kg

Peso 500 kg

Prod.

Grasa

leche

leche

Consumo

EM

PC

Ca

Consumo

EM

PC

Ca

(%)

kg MS

Meal

kg MS

Meal

7.2
8.6

17.7
18.7
19.4
20.0

890
630
678
722

26
27
29

8.0
9.6

31

16
18
19
20

20.8
21.3
22.0
22.6

1053
676
724
768

33
31
33
35

20
21
22
23

20.8
21.8
22.8

786
858
924

32
35
38

21
23
24

10.4

23.4
24.4
25.4

832
904
970

36
39
42

24
26
28
27
30
32

(kg/dia)

Seca, final
de gestacin
4
3
4
5
6

3
4
5

9.4

3
4
5

10.1

23.0 942
24.3 1038
25.6 1126

38
42
46

24
27
29

11.2

25.6
26.9
28.2

988
1084
1172

42
46
50

10

3
4
5

10.8

25.1 1098
26.8 1218
28.4 1328

43 28
48 31
53 34

12.0

27.7
29.4
31.0

1144
1264
1374

47 31
52 34
57 37

12

3
4
5

11.5

27.2 1254
29.3 1398
31.2 1530

49
55
60

31
35
38

12.8

29.8
31.9
33.8

1300
1444
1576

53 34
59 38
64 41

14

3
4
5

12.2

29.4 1410
31.8 1578
34.0 1732

54
61
68

35
39
43

13.6

32.0
34.4
36.6

1456
1624
1778

58
65
72

16

3
4
5

13.0

31.5 1566
34.2 1758
36.8 1934

60
67
75

38
43
47

14.4

34.1
36.4

1612
1804

39.4

1980

64 41
71 46
79 50

3
4
5

13.7

33.7 1722
36.6 1938
39.2 2136

65
74
82

41
47
52

15.2

36.3
39.3
42.2

1768
1984
2182

18

178

69
78
86

38
42
46

45
50
55

ALIMENTACIN

b.

DE

LAVACA

DE

D O B L E

P R O P O S I T O

Vacas de segundo parto en pastoreo y ganando 0.5 kg/da


Peso 400 kg

Prod.
Grasa
leche
leche Consumo
(kg/da) (%)
kg MS

EM PC
Meal g

Peso 500 kg
Ca
g

P
g

Consumo
kg MS

EM
Meal

16

8.0

20.8

9.6

PC
g

Ca
g

P
g

1053

33

20

Seca, final
de j'estacin

7.2

17.7

8.6

10

12

14

16

18

890

26

28.5

982

29

19

31.3

1032

33

22

29.2

1030

30

20

32.0

1080

35

23

29.8

1074

33

21

32.6

1124

37

24

30.6

1138

34

22

33.4

1188

38

25

31.6

1210

37

24

34.4

1260

41

27

32.6

1276

40

25

35.4

1326

44

29

9.4

10.4

32.8

1294

40

25

35.6

1344

44

28

34.1

1390

44

28

36.9

1440

48

31

35.4

1478

48

30

38.2

1528

52

33

10.1

11.2

34.9

1450

45

29

37.7

1500

49

32

36.6

1570

50

32

39.4

1620

54

35

38.2

1680

55

35

41.0

1730

59

38
35

10.8

12.0

37.0

1606

51

32

39.8

1656

55

39.1

1750

57

36

41.9

1800

61

39

41.0

1882

62

39

43.8

1932

66

42

11.5

12.8

39.2

1762

56

36

42.0

1812

60

39

41.6

1930

63

40

44.4

1980

67

43

43.8

2084

70

44

46.6

2134

74

47

12.2

13.6

41.3

1918

62

39

44.1

1968

66

42

44.0

2110

69

44

46.4

2160

73

47

46.6

2286

77

48

49.4

2336

81

51

13.0

14.4

43.5

2074

67

42

46.3

2124

71

46

46.4

2290

76

48

49.3

2340

80

51

49.0

2488

84

53

52.2

2538

88

56

13.7

15.2

179

T A B L A S

Tabla R 3
R e q u e r i m i e n t o s de h e m b r a s y machos en c r e c i m i e n t o
(NRC,1989)

Becerros

Peso

Ganancia

Consumo MS

EM

PC

Ca

(kg)

(g/da)

#)

(Mcal)

(g)

(g)

(g)

45

300

0.54

2.86

120

100

400

2.24

6.00

359

16

2.63

17

3.03

7.03
7.89

421

150

600
400

485

18

10

600

3.51

9.14

562

19

11

200

400

3.81

9.66

521

18

13

600

4.39

11.14

631

20

14

400

4.63

11.41

548

19

15

600

5.31

13.10

637

22

16

300

400

5.46

13.13

656

21

15

6.26
6.37

15.05
14.84

752

350

600
400

23
22

17
16

600

7.29
7.32

17.01
16.62

874

24
24

18

300
600

8.39

19.03

1007

450

300

8.36

18.43

1004

25
27

600

9.59

21.12

1151

28

500

300

9.53

20.32

1142

27

19

600

10.93

23.32

1311

28

20

400

2.47

6.60

395

16

800

2.80

7.48

448

18

10

400
800

3.21

8.49

513

18

11

3.60

9.52

576

20

12

400

3.97

10.30

20

14

800

4.43

11.48

636
709

22

15

400

4.74

12.04

659

22

16

800

5.27

13.37

778

24

17

400

5.53

13.74

658

24

18

800

6.13

15.22

771

25

19

400

6.34

15.42

762

25

19

800

7.02

17.06

843

26

20

400

7.20

17.11

864

25

20

Hembras

250

400

763
879

17
19
17
19

Machos
100
150
200
250
300
350
400

180

'

ALIMENTACIN

D E L A VACA D E D O B L E P R O P O S I T O

(Continuacin...)
Peso

Ganancia

Consumo MS

EM

PC

Ca

(kg)

(g/da)

(g)

(Mcal)

(g)

(g)

(g)

800

955

26

21

400

7.96
8.10

18.91

450

18.81

972

28

20

29

9.05

20.78
20.54

1074

500

800
400

1088

28

21
20

800

10.00

22.69

1201

29

21

550

400

10.09

22.32

1209

28

20

800

11.14

24.66

1336

29

21

400

11.18

24.17

1342

28

20

800

12.36

26.71

1483

29

21

600

8.95

181

T A B L A S

Tabla R4
C o n t e n i d o a p r o x i m a d o de n u t r i e n t e s en la MS de las dietas
Vacas*
Vacas B e c e r r o s L e v a n t e (hembras y machos)
Produccin de leche (kg/da) S e c a s ,
Pesos (kg)**
7
14
preadas
150
250
400

EM (Mcal/kg)
PC (%)

2.35
12

2.53
15

2.04
12

3.78
22

2.60
17

2.47
12

2.27
12

Ca (%)

0.43

0.51

0.39

0.70

0.52

0.41

0.29

P (%)

0.28

0.33

0.24

0.60

0.31

0.30

0.23

M g (%)

0.20

0.20

0.16

0.07

0.16

0.16

0.16

N a (%)

0.18

0.18

0.10

0.10

0.10

.10

0.10

N a Cl (Sal, %)

0.46

0.46

0.25

0.25

0.25

.25

0.25

S (%)
Fe (mg/kg)
C o (mg/kg)

0.20
50
0.10

0.20
50
0.10

0.16
50
0.10

0.29
100
0.10

0.16
50
0.10

.16
0
0.10

0.16
50
0.10

Cu (mg/kg)

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

M n (mg/kg)

40

40

40

40

40

40

40

Zn (mg/kg)

40

40

40

40

40

40

40

I (mg/kg)

0.60

0.60

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Se (mg/kg)

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30.

0.30

0.30

0.30

* Vacas en produccin de 400 kg de peso, 5 % de grasa en la leche y ganando 0.22 kg/da,


** Levante: animales en crecimiento ganando 700 g/da.

182

ALIMENTACIN

D E LA VACA DE D O B L E P R O P O S I T O

Tabla A l
C O M P O S I C I N D E LOS A L I M E N T O S
En base seca
Materia prima

MS

EM

PC

Ca

(%)

(Mcal/kg)

(%)

(%)

(%)

Ajonjol, harina

92

3.18

46.8

3.18

1.05

Alemn,

32 d

17

2.10

11.4

0.68

0.52

41 d

2.03

10.3

0.68

0.44

48 d

18
19

2.00

9.1

0.68

0.36

55 d

20

1.94

8.9

0.68

0.28

41.4
2.39

0.19
34.0

1.23
0.20

1.09

91

1.09

4.8

28.3

0.15

0.73

Algodn, h a r i n a 9 2

2.56

h + cascarilla

93

cascarilla
0.150.12
semilla

93

3.68

32 d
45 d

23

2.17

9.7

0.63

0.17

25

2.03

7.1

0.40

0.15

56 d

26

1.79

5.5

0.40

0.12

Arachis pintoi (hojas)

24

2.20

15.5

1.77

0.18

Arroz,

pulidura

89

3.27

14.3

0.18

1.19

paja

89

1.29

3.5

0.29

grano

90

3.13

9.8

0.23

0.36
0.34

cascarilla

91

0.72

4.2

0.13

0.09

81

1.89
1.72

22.6

40

28.7

2.43
7.08

1.75
2.03

92

3.78

84.0

0.22

0.22

Angleton,

Aves, c a m a de pollos
estircol ponedoras
h plumas hidrolizada
Bermuda,

22 d

26

2.22

13.1

0.43

0.25

30 d

27

2.10

12.4

0.43

0.24

39 d

27

2.03

11.7

0.43

0.23

46 d

28

1.84

11.5

0.43

0.23

53 d

29

1.84

11.3

0.43

0.20

60 d

30

1.77

10.6

0.43

0.19

23

2.17

10.9

0.63

0.32

25

1.96

5.6

0.63

0.17

Brach. ruziziensis, j o v e n
madura

183

T A B L A S

(Continuacin...)
En base seca
Materia prima

Brach. Brizantha, j o v e n
madura
Buriel,

MS

EM

PC

Ca

(%)

(Mcal/kg)

(%)

(%)

(%)

22

2.13

11.4

30

1.84

4.0

25

16

2.25

17.3

0.37

0.48

32
39

d
d

18

2.08

0.37

0.44

20

2.06

13.7
11.4

0.37

0.38

46

0.37

0.31

1.98
1.89

9.0

53

22
25

8.0

0.37

0.28

Cacao, cascara

92

1.43

7.0

0.42

0.20

Caf, pulpa

37

1.56

10.8

1.14

0.24

Caa,

bagacillo

68

0.96

1.5

0.15

0.12

bagazo
cogollo

94
34

0.79

1.5

0.04

1.82

5.3

0.76

0.02
0.21

melaza

73

2.70

3.1

0.88

0.12

planta entera

23

2.22

3.0

0.35

0.30

92

3.20

31.0

0.16

0.46

Capin m e l a o , 21 d

25

2.17

8.5

0.41

0.30

28 d

26

7.7

27

7.0

0.41
0.41

0.21

50 d

2.13
1.91

Carne, harina

93

2.94

57.1

8.49

4.31

Carne-hueso, harina

93

3.08

54.4

14.18

6.55

C e n t r o s e m a pubescens

20

1.90

23.6

1.03

0.41

Cervecera, nepe

21

1.94

27.9

0.33

0.38

93

2.89

48.3

0.14

1.54

Ctricas, p u l p a

89

2.96

8.3

1.87

0.02

C o c o , torta

94

2.75

23.2

0.23

0.66

Canavalia, grano

0.12
>

levadura

Elefante,

Estrella,

184

56 d

19

2.13

8.7

0.36

0.22

63 d

20

2.01

8.3

0.36

0.20

31 d

26

1.98

11.4

0.64

0.27

ALIMENTACIN

DE

LAVACA

DE

D O B L E

P R O P O S I T O

(Continuacin...)
En base seca
Materia prima

MS

EM

PC

Ca

(%)

(Mcal/kg)

(%)

(%)

(%)

45 d

28

1.89

7.5

0.64

0.16

Gliricidia sepium

25

2.17

23.8

1.96

0.29

Guinea,

21 d

18

2.27

17.1

0.54

0.41

28 d

19

2.22

15.5

0.54

0.40

35 d
42 d

19
22

2.06
1.98

12.4
10.9

0.54
0.54

0.39
0.37

49 d
56 d

25
27

1.96
1.91

9.8

0.54

8.8

0.54

0.35
0.34

Hueso, harina

95

0.26

22.8

27.20

12.40

Kikuyo,

22 d

17

2.32

17.0

0.65

0.40

42 d

19

2.13

15.0

0.59

0.32

64 d

22

1.67

10.2

0.53

0.25

Leucaena leucocephala

26

2.13

24.2

1.04

0.29

Leche, suero

3.01

13.6

0.63

0.62

descremada

92
94

2.55

34.4

1.26

0.98

deshidratada

93

3.97

29.7

2.78

0.27

27

8.5

0.19

89

2.20
3.51

8.8

0.07

0.22
0.37

Maz, ensilaje
grano

Man,

h. de residuos

90

3.44

11.6

0.05

0.30

paja

75

1.36

6.0

0.39

0.04

tusa

80

1.51

3.0

0.02

0.02

cascara

90

0.60

9.4

0.34

0.06

harina

94

2.82

56.7

0.26

0.64

heno

91

2.13

9.7

1.23

0.17

Morera, hojas

34

2.40

14.2

3.08

0.38

Palma africana, palmiste

92

2.92

15.7

0.31

0.58

Pangla,

22 d

20

2.27

11.4

0.61

0.40

31 d

23

2.10

10.2

0.61

0.26

45 d

26

2.08

10.0

0.61

0.22

185

T A B L A S

(Continuacin...)
En base seca
Materia prima

Para,

MS
(%)

EM
(Mcal/kg)

PC
(%)

Ca
(%)

P
(%)

0.44

31 d

19

2.01

15.0

0.48

38 d

19

1.96

13.2

0.48

0.44

45 d

21

1.96

10.6

0.48

0.40

52 d

23

1.94

9.7

24

1.86

8.5

0.48
0.48

0.39

59 d

92

3.47

60.1

6.21

3.93

91

3.32

60.1

8.68

3.69

Pltano, hoja

75

2.13

12.5

0.51

0.19

Q u i n c h o n c h o , follaje

24

2.08

23.6

0.89

0.24

Rhodes,

Pescado, harina
visceras

22 d

22

2.37

14.7

0.47

0.31

35 d

24

2.13

11.5

0.47

0.30

45 d

27

1.96

9.8

0.47

0.28

50 d

28

1.86

7.5

0.47

0.24

83
87

2.90

16.0

0.32

0.16

28.5

0.31

0.27

Samn, fruto
Semilla
Setaria,

0.37

22 d

15

2.10

12.0

0.35

0.32

32 d
42 d

16

2.06

0.35

0.28

17

2.01

11.0
10.5

0.35

0.23

50 d

18

1.96

7.8

0.35

0.20

Sorgo, grano

89

3.35

10.9

0.03

0.28

ensilaje

27

2.03

6.7

0.36

0.18

paja

70

2.22

5.5

0.86

0.17

89

3.39

44.0

0.29

0.65

Soya, harina
Cascarilla

90

2.98

12.1

0.49

0.21
Stylosanthes guianensis
Swazi,

186

24

2.28

16.7

1.55

0.56

28 d

18

2.27

12.3

0.35

0.20

42 d

21

9.3

0.35

0.17

56 d

21

2.15
1.89

7.0

0.35

0.15

ALIMENTACIN

DE

LAVACA

DE

D O B L E

P R O P O S I T O

(Continuacin...)
En base seca
Materia prima

Tomate, residuo proces.


Trigo, afrechillo89

Yuca, harina

23
2.75
100

Urea
Yaragu,

MS
(%)

EM
(Mcal/kg)

2.06
19.1
0

PC
(%)

Ca
(%)

P
(%)

19.2

0.50

0.47

0.62
287

1.17
0

21 d

21

2.13

10.3

0.39

0.20

28 d
42 d

23

2.01

8.9

0.39

0.18

24

1.91

8.0

0.39

0.16

50 d

27

1.84

7.5

0.39

0.14

87

3.06

2.8

0.27

0.16

d: das

187