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2.1 Individual task
Discussion of learning theory with reference to the lesson observed.

After observing the class of Mrs Sim, we realized the teacher applied behaviourism
theory in teaching and learning activities. There are a few contributors of behaviourism
theory. The teacher applied the theory which were contributed by Ivan Pavlov, J.B.
Watson and B.F. Skinner.
Guy R. Lefrancois (2011) claimed that one of the most useful education implications of
Pavlovs classical conditioning is teacher need to try to minimize the unpleasant aspects
of classroom learning. During observation, I realized the teacher emphasized on the
quietness in the classroom. She used body language such as gesture to ensure that the
students did not make unnecessary noise. Apart from this, Mok Soon Sang (2008) stated
that the teacher can use skill to make discrimination. For the example that had been
used by Mrs Sim was emphasizing on the differences between because and and. She
kept on repeating because was used to join the sentences that show reason. The
conjunction and is used when the sentences stated two things.
John B. Watson contributed stimulus generalization for behaviourism theory. One of the
implication stated, in order to consolidate what has been learned in the memory, more
exercise should be carried out after learning. During the teaching lesson of the teacher,
she gave more than one activities. She started the activities with the group work and
then scoped down into individual task. For those who could not catch up on what she
instructed, she did extra explanation to them. From here, we realized that she focused
on the crucial of repetition as the reinforcement.
Professor Dr. Peek (2004) stated that Skinners theory showed two kinds of learning,
respondent behavior and operant behavior. Skinner also encouraged continuous
reinforcement, followed by intermittent reinforcement. This is because intermittent
reinforcement will have higher resistance for response. The evidence of the learning
activity of Mrs Sim was the frequency of the students being praised. The teacher did not
praised for every moment of the correct answer. She did it as she wanted students to
appreciate the reinforcement and improved themselves.
Besides using behaviourism theory, Mrs Sim also applied Stephen Krashens Monitor
Model. One of the hypothesis that had been applied in the teaching lesson is input

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hypothesis. The class which was taught by her was the less advanced group when
compared to the others. In order to teach more efficiently, she tried to match the content
standard to their level. This was important for language acquisition to take place.
Krashen stated that the content level must be in i+1. In other words, the content must
be one level higher than where they are now. If the level is too easy, the students will
learn nothing. If the level is too difficult to understand, the learners will not pay attention.
Mrs Sim classified the class into group A, B and C. The group A students were more
advanced so the worksheet was completing the sentences. The group B will need to fill
in the blank. The last group, will get the extra drilling from teacher before having the
worksheet. This showed that the teacher took heed on the individual differences of the
students.
Apart from this, Mrs Sim also applied Acquisition- learning hypothesis. Krashen stated
that it is more important to acquire the language rather than learn the language. This is
because the learned language is not equal to acquire language. Language is learned
through formal instruction while language is acquired through real interaction. Language
acquisition is developing the skill to understand and speak English. Language learning is
the process of learning about the language. With this, Krashen encouraged teacher to
used targeted language in the class. For instance, Mrs Sim communicate in English
while teaching. If only the students really could not understand, she will use limited
mother tongue.

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2.2 Individual task
Discussion of learning theory with reference to the lesson observed.

Besides entering the class that was conducted by Mrs Sim, we also observed the class
of Mrs Lau. From the observation, we concluded that she used behaviourism theory and
Krashens Monitor model in teaching. The students in the class are average in English
academic level. The observation that we carried out in the class is language lesson. The
teacher taught the shape to the students.
At first, the teacher greeted the class on how are you? The students welcomed the
teacher with greeting words as well. The teacher then introduced the students on the
todays topic which are regarding shape. Mrs Lau interacted with students with a jovial
smile on her face. After communicating with pupils, she played a song named The
Shape Song. This showed the implication of Krashens Monitor Model. From the
Affective filter hypothesis of Krashen, he claimed that one of the obstacle that manifest
itself is affective filter hypothesis. This hypothesis displayed that the external factors
played as a filter that impede the comprehensible input from entering the mind. These
factors are motivation, anxiety and self-confidence. From the environment conducted by
the teacher, we realized that she tried to minimize the anxiety in the class. This is to
prevent the anxiety to form a mental block that prevent language learning from taking
place.
The song was repeated for several times. After the students had listed out the type of
shape, she checked the answer. The teacher gave an applause for those who answered
the correct answer. From the applause, the students will get more involved in the
learning activities. According to the theory of Skinner, he emphasized positive
reinforcement. With the positive reinforcement, the students will repeat on what made
them being praised. They will also improve themselves in terms of behavior as well as
academic. So, it is important to appreciate on the effort done by the students. The
teacher in this class showed gratitude toward the effort of the students in answering by
giving applause.

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Besides, the teacher also repeat on what had been taught in the one hour class. She
repeated the song for several times. After this, she ordered the students to look into the
textbook. The textbook activity also regarding the shapes. The activity was then followed
by the activity worksheet on making sentences by using the shapes. From here, we
knew the importance of reinforcement to prevent the students from forgetting. This can
be further justified by the classical theory of Ivan Pavlov. The theorist associated the two
subjects to enable the dog to give the planned response. From this teacher, we realized
that the word round is associated with the picture round for a period of time. After
conditioning, the students will know the adjective round, even though with only the
picture of it or with only the word of it.

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2.3 Comparison between two teaching lesson.
From the two learning activities conducted by Mrs Sim and Mrs Lau. Even though both
of them using behavioursim theory and Krashens monitor model, I found out their
teaching method were different with each other.
For Krashens Monitor model, Mrs Sims focused more on the Acquisition Learning
Hypothesis. She interacted with her students in English. If the students really could not
understand the explanation in English, she will use mother tongue to explain it. Overall,
the communication by using mother tongue was really limited in her class. She used a
lot of target language. This was due to Krashen statement that, it was better to acquire a
language rather than learn the language. With this, the teacher had to increase the
opportunity for authentic teaching by using target language. However, in the class of Mrs
Lau, she spoke more in mother tongue. She did this as she wished to explain the
phrases more efficiently,
For Mrs Laus class, she preferred more to the Affective filter hypothesis. She tried to
minimize the anxiety among the students. One of the method of her was playing the
song before conducting activity and brought the smile on her face. Once the anxiety in
the class had been minimize, the learning can be take place involuntary. On the other
hand, Mr Sim had a different character with hers. Mr Sim raised up her voice in often.
The students who did not understand on what she had instructed, such as hold the
paper, will be scolded in front of their friends.
For the theory of behaviourism, both of the teachers emphasized on repetition and
reinforcement. Mr Sim repeated the explaination of because and but for several times.
She also gave a lot of question to repeat on what they had learned. For Mrs Lau she
repeated the name of the shapes for a couples of time. The repetition was done by
playing the song of shape, textbook exercise and activity exercise.