ICTs and Good Governance: The Contribution of Information and Communication Technologies to Local Governance in Latin America

By Carlos Batista carlos@finatec.com.br NP³ - Núcleo de Pesquisa em Políticas Públicas Universidade de Brasilia, Brazil January, 2003

Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 4 2. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK.............................................................. 9 2.1 Assumptions.............................................................................................. 9 2.2 Aspects considered................................................................................. 10 2.3 Case Studies........................................................................................... 11 2.4 Web site Studies ..................................................................................... 11 3. CASE STUDIES ............................................................................................ 13 3.1 Case Study: Brazil................................................................................... 13 3.1.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 13 3.1.2 Municipality - Sant’Ana do Livramento ............................................ 13 3.1.3 Municipality - Barra do Ribeiro ........................................................ 14 3.1.4 Municipality – Guaíba ...................................................................... 16 3.1.5 Experiences and reports.................................................................. 19 3.2 Case Study: Uruguay............................................................................. 25 3.2.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 25 3.2.2 City of Rivera ................................................................................... 25 3.2.3 Experiences and Reports ................................................................ 26 3.3 Case Study: Peru.................................................................................... 28 3.3.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 28 3.3.2 Municipality – Lima .......................................................................... 28 3.3.3 Municipality – Villa El Salvador........................................................ 29 3.3.4 Municipality of Surco ...................................................................... 30 3.3.5 Experiences and Reports ................................................................ 32 3.4 Case Study: Ecuador .............................................................................. 41 3.4.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 41 3.4.2 Municipality – Quito ......................................................................... 41 3.4.3. Municipality - Cantón Cotacachi ..................................................... 45 3.4.4 Experiences and reports.................................................................. 46 3.5 Case Study: Mexico ................................................................................ 50 3.5.1 Introduction...................................................................................... 50 3.5.2 Municipality – Santiago de Querétaro ............................................. 51 3.5.3 México City / Delegación de Iztapalapa .......................................... 56 3.5.4 Experiences and reports.................................................................. 59 4. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PRESENCE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE60 FACTORS ON LATIN-AMERICAN LEGISLATIVE WEB SITES....................... 60 4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 60 4.2 Methodology............................................................................................ 60 2

4.3 Analysis and results ................................................................................ 62 Tukey,s ..................................................................................................... 62 4.4 Conclusions............................................................................................. 70 5. GUIDELINES FOR ELABORATING A TRAINING PROGRAM FOR ICT UTILIZATION ................................................................................................ 72 5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 72 5.2 Background ............................................................................................. 72 5.3 Justification ............................................................................................. 73 5.4 Objectives ............................................................................................... 74 5.5 Assumptions............................................................................................ 74 5.6 Guidelines ............................................................................................... 75 5.7 Target Population.................................................................................... 77 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ................................................................ 80 7. BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................ 87 7.1 Digital Bibliography – Eletronic Media .................................................... 96 7.2 Digital Bibliography - Internet Sites......................................................... 97 ANNEX 1: GLOSSARY ................................................................................... 103 ANNEX 2: LIST OF INTERVIEWEES ............................................................. 121 List of Interviewees – Brazil ........................................................................ 121 List of Interviewees – Uruguay.................................................................... 121 List of Interviewees – Peru.......................................................................... 121 List of Interviewees – Ecuador.................................................................... 122 List of Interviewees – Mexico...................................................................... 123 ANNEX 3: LIST OF SITES .............................................................................. 125

3

1. INTRODUCTION This work is a survey of the conditions for the use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in five countries in Latin America: Brazil, Uruguay, Peru, Ecuador and Mexico. In several municipalities, mayors, leaders and authorities were interviewed and many local organizations visited. Both the factors determining good governance at the local level and their relatedness to ICT were examined in order to increase knowledge on this relationship. Aspects considered were: decentralization, citizen participation, transparency and grassroots movements, alternative experiences, popular participation and socialmovements networks In interviews and group meetings information was collected on whether these aspects were present or not in the communities or in government guidelines, and whether, in some way, there was a link between these social expressions and the use of ICT. The research tried to evaluate the opportunity of, and the interest in, the implementation of a Training Programme in order to make ICT use more effective and thereby to improve good governance involving all social actors. Another point examined was whether certain factors were present or not in web sites of Municipal Assemblies in some Latin American municipalities. These factors could be conducive to the presence or absence of good governance. Some of the factors of good governance adopted in this research took in consideration the possibility of citizens to interact with their legislators and to obtain information on legislative procedures. One hundred and twenty (120) municipal web sites were analyzed, focusing on the web sites of municipal legislative organs. This research project's main task was to explore the link between ICT use and the improvement of local good governance as found in Latin American municipal legislative and executive organs. The answer to this question necessarily involves the study of alternatives and possibilities of increasing good governance based on ICT use. One of the proposals derived from this research is the formulation of a training programme directed to personnel who will use ICT having in mind the improvement of good governance at the local level. Today, society is demanding more transparency on the part of governments, more decentralization, more independence to express demands, desires, prerogatives and priorities. Citizen participation is one of the more important components of local governments where leaders are effectively concerned and engaged in the satisfaction 4

of community needs. Independently of the size of populations or the importance of governments, expressions such as “itinerant government”, participative administration”, “popular ombudsman”, “participatory budget and management” have become frequently heard, spoken of and implemented in many municipalities. Today, one can see that in many parts of Latin America popular participation and organized social movements in the process of governmental decision-making have increased, and one can see an effort to reach public decisions in co-operation with the population. All these instruments of management point to a common phenomenon – which is the possibility of consolidating and strengthening democracy in Latin America. Evidently, when one speaks of Latin America, one refers to a complex, heterogeneous set of countries with diverse experiences that cannot always can be compared. However, these experiences point to common roads and similar behaviours. Digital democracy is clearly one of them. One can be partially optimistic that good governance will improve with ICT introduction and expanded use. The presence of ICT is likely to invigorate political relations by allowing direct citizen participation in government, by avoiding mediations and by thus optimizing the representative process and expanding participative democracy. One can also see how the use of these new management instruments, in addition to increased citizen participation, is correlated with good governance. The discrepancy from which political structures in Latin America tend to suffer (with occasional political variations) is well-known, so certainly many additional conditions must be met for good governance and effective institutional activity. In this study, 'good governance' is understood to denote an interaction process between government and society. Good governance is safeguarded as long as governmental processes are transparent, individuals organize themselves, express their priorities and demands to government offices. In other words, good governance manifests itself in the successful interaction with the constituted powers – mainly with the legislative but also with the executive; at the same time, it requires the decentralization of decisions and of institutions and budgets. The notion of citizenship has grown and has been stimulated in Latin America and it is certainly a basic prerequisite for good governance.

5

It is clear that demanding popular movements are trying to participate in decision-making or in the management of decisions, and this is (whether we like it or not) a new form of power-sharing. This is valid for both movements which are moving towards power, and for those movements which already participate in power through representation by their leaders. Both types of movements have tried to reduce the centralization of decision-making and to augment their participation in governments. Conditions for good governance have improved with ICT use in the last few years in Latin America. This can be proved historically by a few examples, such as the use of the press for political mobilization, the mandatory literacy campaigns, the expansion of telephone, radio and TV networks, the increasing number of personal computers, and finally the spread of the world wide web allowing interactivity between society and constituted powers. Information technologies are the benchmark of the 20th Century and the main feature of the beginning 21st Century. The dissemination of their tools (computers, internet, mobile communication) has enabled society to achieve the necessary instruments to make knowledge accessible to the masses, and to augment productivity in industry, in agriculture, in services, and expanded cultural activity. The greatest challenge of the information era is to avoid a gap between those who have and those who do not have access to the goods and skills required in the digital era. Information technology can be a powerful tool for the development of a new critical and participation-oriented citizen consciousness. One of the greatest challenges put on the agenda by technological innovation is the narrowing of the 'digital gap'. If technology has provided huge advances, it has also accentuated the distance between those who are (or can be) and those who are not yet prepared to use it. The 'network society' or 'information society' has been lauded by optimists as enhancing the chances for growth and development through ICT. They are considered capable of improving social indicators, of offering new development opportunities, of strengthening democracies, and of improving the life of the poor in underdeveloped countries and regions of the world. However, one should be alert. The profits of technological advances and their advantages for development have not been equitably distributed, so the impacts of the new technologies affect the rich and the poor countries in a different manner. Opportunities and benefits have been generated but also undesirable social risks. The disparities within and among countries are enormous and must not be accepted.

6

However, they can be reduced by using ICT more intensively and in several sectors of the economy. Its link to local good governance can best be illustrated by the expansion of educational services, of distance learning, and of cultural activities; by job incentives; by the expansion of judicial services and the control of justice; by increasing citizenship, public safety, human rights and more interaction with authorities; by the engagement of social groups; by the monitoring of public interest projects; by access to consumer protection agencies; by a more adequate rendering of services to the handicapped; by expanding the services: “Speak to us” - “Avoid waiting lines” (banks, elderly persons, post office); by public safety (police, fire department); social security and assistance; information on the sources and uses of energy and alternative energy; health; public utility services (transportation, transit, housing), and so on. ICT can be very useful for interacting with the legislative, obtaining information on legislative operations – norms, rights, monitoring of legislative proposals, actions pressurizing the legislature and contacts with representatives. For example, the consultation of a 'proposals databank' according to type, number, author, issue, date, and other parameters, would facilitate a follow-up of the projects, of amendments made, of related subjects, and it would allow to register through e-mail to receive data on the progress of proposals of interest. ICT can be used for rendering services to the public, such as obtaining general certificates, personal documents – identity, commercial information, transfers, contracts, deaths, notary information, or facilitating the payment of taxes and dues. In the area of public safety, ICT can be very useful both in infrastructure solutions (equipment and personnel) and in building a network (including a database) for combating drug trafficking and arms smuggling, as well as for the centralized control of criminals and border patrol operations. Most importantly, ICT integration generates a democratization factor. ICT themselves should be a means for creating mechanisms and policies conducive to learning, a new technology facilitating the sharing of solutions among different levels of government and population. The challenges brought about by ICT integration revolve on the question of how to allow the advancement of different segments of society toward innovation and the adaptation of new technologies in order to improve government processes and to reduce economic and social disparities. It is necessary to define public policies which are capable of boosting ICT use, which itself contributes to social inclusion, the expansion of human freedom, and the reduction of the digital divide. One thing is sure: 7

the problem is less of a technical or economic nature, but more on the side of political will and the desire for equality.

8

2. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK 2.1 Assumptions The methodological framework of this research considered the well-known cycle of the integration of new technologies into the public sector. Three different steps can be recognized in the use of information technologies in the public sector. Initially, expanded computer use is restricted to the management. This is still very often the case: particularly in small communities, where the computerization of the administration is the first step to ICT use. The introduction of computers to public management has been the first step for the modernization of mainly the internal services of the municipal executive bodies, i. e. the automation of administrative processes, which then facilitates the organization of information by means of a classification process and which permits to make it available to the public. The second step is implanting e-government (electronic government); in other words, the rendering of public and governmental services to society via electronic (or digital) media. Almost always this procedure is unilateral, i. e. from government to citizen, and in the majority of the cases does not allow interactivity. The third step, the primary object of this study, is the use of Information and Communication Technologies – ICT – for good governance. ICT represents a decisive step in the process of the democratization of public information and in the citizengovernment-citizen interaction. Citizen-government interaction guarantees the recognition of the priorities and demands of the public, the responsiveness of the governing group, and the improvement of multiple operational aspects which are intertwined in government-citizen relations. The introduction of ICT represents, thus, a new form of political relationship in which individuals in society and, among others, their representatives, social groups, social organizations, political organizations, pressure groups, can act directly on public issues. ICT use as an instrument for better governance has also been stimulated by the mediation of organized social movements. The isolated individual tends to make use of ICT only for personal objectives (email, chat, personal interest web sites, consulting commercial services, etc). However, within a social movement, or inside a participation mechanism run by some type of social organization, the individual becomes involved in a finding process for informative

9

material (be it of individual or of community interest) and in interaction with government. Therefore, accomplishing the three phases above is one of the means of leading local governments towards the digital or the information society. This cycle allows the narrowing of the so-called digital exclusion or gap. Vast material on the subject is offered on a number of web sites, a selection of which can be found at the end of this paper. 2.2 Aspects considered Several municipalities were selected according to the criteria of geography and representation so as to examine local good-governance characteristics and their ICTrelatedness. Aspects considered were (as already cited in the Introduction) decentralization, citizen participation, transparency, basic social movement action, alternative experience, popular participation and social movement networks. Interviews and group meetings were the first step to detect whether or not these aspects were present in the community or in the government guidelines, and if there were links between these social expressions and ICT use. We also tried to assess the opportunity for, and the interest in, implementing training programmes for a more effective use of ICT in order to improve local good governance involving all these social and political actors. The concept of good governance varies in different Latin American countries. Brazil, Uruguay, Peru, Ecuador and Mexico present relatively distinct concepts for this term; this and a lack of classification or taxonomy covering different experiences necessitate the adoption of an operational definition of the term for our purposes. One should also draw a distinction between the use that is made of this term in public administration and for official purposes from that in the press, by NGOs and universities. The importance attached to the differences here can be illustrated by an example: in Ecuador there is great public interest today in “making public information transparent”, “the public information is public”, in publishing the budget completely, in maintaining the budget integrally in the internet. This observation is also valid for Peru, where, on the other hand, there is a great concern for making bidding processes more transparent, a concern that is in turn found in Ecuador as well. Generally speaking, many of these concerns are shared, e.g.: decentralization in Peru has been the object of public discussion and occupies a relevant space in public administration. In Brazil 10

legislation on public bidding for products and services already exists, including its availability on the internet. 2.3 Case Studies In considering those aspects, five case studies were carried out regarding the countries of Brazil, Uruguay, Peru, Ecuador and Mexico. The survey was done in two steps: firstly, interviews with authorities, community leaders, representative groups (from the community), and directors of social and political organizations; secondly, an extensive collection of bibliographic material. In Brazil, the relations between ICT and good governance were examined through a field study in three municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul: Sant’Ana do Livramento, Guaíba and Barra do Ribeiro, interviewing the mayors, the presidents of the legislative bodies, and other municipal leaders. In Peru, a field study in Lima and neighbouring towns was the basis for an analysis of ICT use. Some local institutions were visited, while authorities, and community leaders were interviewed. In Ecuador, field studies in Quito and the municipality of Cotacachi were devoted to the connection between ICT use and the improvement of local good governance. Data was collected by interviewing authorities and local leaders, as well as by visits to local institutions. The research in Uruguay was done in the city of Rivera, i.e. in the northern region of the country bordering on Brazil, by interviewing the Intendente (mayor) of Rivera, and the President of the Junta Departamental (local legislative body) and other local authorities. In Mexico, research was done in Mexico City, in the city of Querétaro, and in the Delegacion of Iztapalapa, in co-operation with local authorities and leaders. 2.4 Web site Studies For the purposes of knowing whether or not the web sites of the legislative assemblies of selected Latin American municipalities contain good-governance factors, it is assumed that the use of ICT and the improvement of good governance at the local 11

level are indeed linked. Therefore, 'factors of good governance' as understood in this research paper take into account whether and to what extent citizens can interact with the members of the local legislative bodies and whether and to what extent they can obtain relevant information on the legislative and its work. 120 municipal web sites were scrutinized, giving priority to the web sites of municipal legislative assemblies, including those of the capitals of the Brazilian States and some Latin American national capitals. The research began with approximately 160 municipalities chosen by size and location, before it was found out that some 40 municipalities either did not have a web site at all, or they were unreachable during the search. Finally, the web sites of 120 legislative assemblies were evaluated: 101 web sites of municipal legislative bodies (84.2% of the cases); sixteen web sites of bicameral federal parliaments (13.3%); three web sites of unicameral federal parliaments (2.5%).

12

3. CASE STUDIES 3.1 Case Study: Brazil 3.1.1 Introduction The relations between ICT and good governance in Brazil were analyzed by way of two different procedures. The first of which was based on field studies in three municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul: Sant’Ana do Livramento, Guaíba, and Barra do Ribeiro where interviews with the mayors, the presidents of the municipal legislative bodies, and other municipal leaders were conducted. 3.1.2 Municipality - Sant’Ana do Livramento The Brazilian part of the research began in Sant’Ana do Livramento in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The Vice-Mayor of this city expressed his interest in matters such as “information technologies for planning and budget formulation”, “citizen participation”, a training programme and digital inclusion. The situation of ICT use in this municipality is partially mirrored in his statements, as follows: is community participation in budget formulation, meaning that there is citizen participation; • the introduction of a training programme would help borough and local leaders; • there is no specific concern with “digital inclusion”, a contemporary problem; • it is possible to improve the agenda through the introduction of ICT; however, it is still too early for this process to begin; • communication between the mayor and the people in Sant’Ana do Livramento happens directly and immediately (“people talk directly to me in the streets”); • access to information from the municipal executive can be difficult; • occasionally, information is released on agricultural issues; • it is necessary to leverage development through information for and from the municipal executive. Going into the details of his statements, one can confirm that population initiatives occur through person-to-person interaction. Consequently, increased ICT use could offer incentives to citizen participation and make the local community more dynamic. The Vice-Mayor stressed that personnel training would be essential for his administration. The municipal executive is still in the first phase of ICT use so as to modernize its management and to increase the capacity for interaction and 13
• there

communication with the rest of the community. In our talks with the Assistant Secretary for Planning of Sant’Ana do Livramento, it was confirmed that the process of electronic accounting and the creation of a web site are located within the framework of eadministration. Equipment and material, technical and personnel constraints were the issues raised in a meeting with the President of the Legislative Chamber of Sant’Ana do Livramento. He was very interested in a training project, and it is clear to him that such a project would promote citizen participation. According to him, citizen participation today only occurs through individual demands and personal contacts. The Municipal Legislative Chamber uses the radio to diffuse its proposals, perhaps because of the small number of public workers. Radio is widely used to communicate with the population. The President of the Chamber recognized the need for formation and training, without which it would not be possible to employ ICT facilitating the follow-up of legislative procedures. Civil servants must also be trained. All members of the Chambers have a computer and a printer on the premises of the legislative body, but they do not have internet access. The President of the Chamber suggested that a training programme for the population could use mobile units (trucks or vans) with instructors and pertinent equipment in different boroughs of the city. This would solve the problem of mobilizing people and would stimulate public participation at a lower cost. 3.1.3 Municipality - Barra do Ribeiro The Mayor of Barra do Ribeiro (Rio Grande do Sul) emphasized the difficulties in modernizing his administration that contradicts his own interest in the matter but is brought about by the resistance of the public servants and the residents. He intends to computerize the municipal executive, including an internet site informing the public on events, courses etc., and to publish a bulletin on line, making the municipal budget and other information transparent to the public. He thinks that ICT use would foster the democratization of information, but today such an endeavour is prevented by the high costs of equipment. Convinced that everybody will have to “computerize” themselves and to diminish resistance to this process, the Mayor suggested that citizens should first become familiar with the new technologies in a very general sense and develop an

14

idea of their openings for access and participation, before courses and training are provided. According to the interviewee, there is no public consciousness of, or discussion on, the phenomenon of digital exclusion. In his opinion, the citizens of Barra do Ribeiro think they "are out of the world", unbound by its rules and its market; he speaks of a voluntary exclusion on the part of the citizens of his town. In order to reinforce his hypothesis, the Mayor states that he is confronting many difficulties in training professionally the public servants of the local administration, in modernizing his administration and in creating the idea that decisionmaking starts with proposals from the community. Besides public servants’ great resistance to the introduction of computers, he referred to yet another difficulty: there is no control of tax payers, of who pays or who does not pay the city property tax (Imposto Predial e Territorial Urbano - IPTU), because the municipal administration is not capable of issuing tax-payment slips effectively. Two years ago, there were only four or five computers for all the organizational sub-divisions (secretariats) of the municipal administration, but only one person could handle them (with difficulties). Today there are 24 computers, but maintenance remains a problem. The local executive is determined to fully computerize, to create a network intranet, and to reduce the resistance offered by citizens and public servants alike by making computers seem less unfamiliar and afterwards through training and courses. However, a "Master Plan of Computerization" in the municipality has still to be designed. A web page is under construction for the municipality containing promotion material on events, information from the secretariats, a bulletin publicizing the budget, project summaries, space for publicity and links. If one considers the high costs of hardware and software equipment and bears in mind that computers are conceived for individual use, it is understandable that ICT use for the purposes of citizen participation is still difficult in this municipality. Nevertheless, there are plans for installing a computer at municipal executive office for collective use by the public. The interviewee, who is also the President of the Mayors’ Council of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, mentioned the necessity for all of his State's mayors to become more conscious about the need for computerization and training municipal servants; he

15

recognized, however, the difficulties in implementation owing to the high costs of equipment. He believes that only rarely do mayors base their decisions exclusively on managerial or administrative aspects. Most of the decisions are political, and because most of the municipalities are small, friends, relatives, close friends influence decisionmaking. He thinks it is necessary to increase the number of professional managers within the administration. Computerization is fundamental and will provide a stimulus for public servants to become professional. Research results for the Municipal Legislative Chamber of Barra do Ribeiro show the low level of technology use in the municipality. The Chamber does not have a web site of its own, but it intends to use the web site of the municipal executive board that is still under construction. The Chamber has in mind to provide computers for the public to access ICT, but its budget is too small to acquire these technologies and provide the services. It can be inferred from the interviews that there is a significant increase in the demand for ICT training courses and that – proper incentives provided – local residents may soon profit from the openings for access and participation offered by ICT. The public follows the activities of the Legislative Chamber through newspapers and direct contact with councilpersons, particularly in polemic issues. The lack of professional training within the public service is just another of the many deficiencies that beset the municipal authorities of Barra do Ribeiro. At the Chamber's offices, only little research is done in utilizing the internet. Government needs to invest more money in order to increase the number of computers and make them accessible to the population. Few schools and a small number of people have internet access, but it was suggested that mobilizing school children is the most efficient means to put the population closer to ICT and therefore increase popular participation and to promote participation and transparency. 3.1.4 Municipality – Guaíba According to the Mayor of Guaiba (State of Rio Grande do Sul), a web site of the municipality exists, but it is dated and seldom visited. He intends to build a new web site with accounting and budget reports and other information. There is a relatively 16

high number of machines (90) installed, as the administration confused computerization with just buying machines, without worrying about training public servants on how to use them. These computers are used in a precarious manner, just substituting old typing machines. Health-service workers use the internet most frequently of all. However, interest in training could increase even more through specific campaigns; one could initiate motivation training for ICT use, followed by specialized courses. In this town, resistance is already lower, complemented by a higher concern about the dangers of digital exclusion. The Mayor intends to double the number of computers in the wake of a programme on the administrative and financial modernization of the municipalities run by the Federal Ministry of Planning. ICT are needed as an efficient tool for improved control over the municipalities. At the same time, providing internet access in libraries and health stations would bring ICT closer to the public. More information will be available because of computerization. This is also true of the local community, who will be empowered to perceive the real problems of the municipal executive body (e.g. revenues and expenditures), since they could use these technologies as a "channel", to monitor activities and to make suggestions or complaints. People are looking for courses and hope to overcome digital exclusion. The Mayor stated that the local authorities needed to supply ICT training. However, the most important priority for the municipality is still to provide food for hungry children and dispossessed adults. The Mayor recognizes ICT as a fundamental tool for improving local good governance and firmly believes that a training programme increasing ICT use would be necessary. There is no community radio programme, although he understands radio is an adequate forum for society to express itself. There were a few clandestine radios, but now all radios are in the state capital, Porto Alegre. The Guaíba Legislative Chamber is not capable of communicating with society in a modern form. Newspapers and letters are still used for communication; however, there is a plan to install internet at the Chamber offices. The Mayor considers it an obligation of each member of the Chamber to make information on their activities 17

available to the public in order to promote transparency. The political community of Guaíba does not know, for example, how to obtain information about the 2003 Budget. In order to encourage and train people to use ICT, it is necessary to improve programmes and to raise more resources. One cannot use more technologies at the Chamber simply because they are not available, but there are rising expectations about their use. ICT use by citizens could be encouraged so that the population could learn more about how public office holders work. The President of the Guaíba Legislative Chamber estimates that twenty percent of the Guaíba population are aware of the importance of computers and have a notion of digital exclusion consequences. For the remaining eighty percent, encouragement programmes (such as clarification campaigns, school campaigns) could be implemented by the local Legislature, thus including the whole society in this modernization process. The President of the Industrial Association of Guaíba has no knowledge of ICT related programmes, but recognizes an improvement in computerization. “They are another means of communicating with society”, he says, particularly in a society that is short of channels of communication, therefore making direct communication a relief for local administration. There are no local radios or TV channels. For the president of the Industrial Association, all four local newspapers publicize too few pieces of information, and they should publish more information on the municipal executive. Regarding the issue of exclusion, he said that schools and libraries should have the responsibility of becoming public computer points where equipment could be installed and connected to the net for digital inclusion. He is also convinced that the community would respond well to such an initiative, because the community already uses the Industrial Association equipment, although in a restricted way. A well-drafted programme with a high factor of implementation and penetration would be a real alternative that would also enhance ICT accessibility and the computerization of the population. He stressed the viability of such an initiative, however low the investments are today.

18

3.1.5 Experiences and reports 3.1.5.1 The Executive - the Federal Government At the federal level, an important initiative to reduce the "digital deficit" of the population was the creation of the Fund for the Universalization of Telecommunication Services (FUST). The idea is to democratize telecommunication through installing telephone lines and internet in public schools, post offices and libraries, in addition to subsidizing the telephone bills of these institutions. Resources for this Fund are obtained by charging a tax of 1% of the revenues of the telephone companies that operate the Brazilian Telephone System (fixed, portable and cable TV), without altering the final prices paid by consumers. An important investment of FUST is the Tele-Community Programme, which plans to install 250,000 computers with internet access in 12,500 of the country's public high schools, thereby benefiting 6.6 million students. Telephone companies will be responsible for the costs of connections, and the states and municipalities will be responsible for the costs of training and adapting schools to the needs of computer use. The Federal Government intends to revolutionize computer use through public schools – with immediate consequences for community life. They will serve to computerize hospital services and public libraries: only the computer can provide the facilities of a true and accessible public utility net at the reach of citizens. Although the programme is being developed by the Federal Government, the main users are the States and, more importantly, the municipalities. ICT use – today a powerful pedagogical tool almost exclusively available to private school students – will be extended to public-school students throughout the territory of Brazil: in each TeleCommunity Project school there will be an internet access point. FUST is of double advantage: it facilitates social investments in the areas of education and health, and at the same time it serves as a stimulus and feed-back forum for the telecommunication and computer industries. The National Programme of Computers in Education (Programmea Nacional de Informática na Educação - PROINFO) is an educational programme which considers 19

the introduction of new information and communication technologies in public schools as a tool in support of the teaching-learning process. This is an initiative of the Ministry of Education and is developed in partnership with the State governments and some municipalities. The guidelines are established by the Ministry of Education and by the National Council of the Education Secretaries of the States. In each unit of the federation there is a State Commission of Computers in Education responsible for the introduction of ICT in public elementary and high schools. ICT are increasingly present in day-to-day life, in varying degrees of interaction. PROINFO is an educational programme whose development started in 1997 and whose main objective is to integrate distance computerization (telematics) into pedagogical practice, making it a strong ally to spur an innovation process within the school environment and thus to improve the teachinglearning process. Other objectives are to promote educational approaches taking into account the scientific and technological progress and to prepare students for citizenship and participation in a developed society. The TELENCENTROS (Telecenter for Information and Business) are based on a joint-venture of the Federal Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade with business entities, dedicated to the creation of a business-friendly environment. Persons and companies have access to several opportunities: training, consulting, electronic commerce, WEB information search, and to public and private services in the electronic media. The Telecenters for Information and Business will be installed in representative micro-business entities and small-size companies. This model aims at the so-called digital alphabetization of these entrepreneurs, as well as at assisting them in mastering computer applications and Web navigators. The programme's principal objectives revolve around help for micro-business and small-company entrepreneurs in their businesses, the empowerment of the population to exert their citizenship rights, and the reduction of the technological distance that separates micro and small business from bigger companies. 3.1.5.2 The (Federal) Legislative The federal legislative organs also have experiences with ICT use and its advantages for good governance and for channelling society's demands. The Interlegis programme is an initiative for the modernization and integration of legislative organs at the federal, state and municipal levels. It is based on a partnership of the National Congress (the Federal Parliament) with the IDB – Inter-

20

American Development Bank, which began in 1997 and whose objective consists in promoting greater transparency and interaction with society. New information technologies such as the internet, video-conferences and data transmission facilitate communication and the exchange of experiences among the legislative organs (National Congress, State Legislatures and Municipal Chambers) and between the legislative branch of government and the public, increasing popular participation in the legislative process. The Interlegis web site (www.interlegis.gov.br) is like a "meeting point" of the Federal Senate, the Chamber of Deputies, the Union Accounts Tribunal, the State Legislative Assemblies, the Municipal Chambers and the citizens. The State Assemblies and some Municipal Chambers already have CIP pools, in which 20 computers and a printer are connected to a network, and special rooms prepared for video-conferences, in which federal and state deputies, municipal legislators, legislative staff and the community can debate live issues that interest society. This low-cost system provides for the exchange of experiences, distance education and the discussion of national problems among legislative members. No other country has such a communication and integration process. Interlegis provides distance education, creates a channel of communication among legislators at all levels, democratizes the access to information needed for the legislative process, develops computer technologies to support the modernization of the legislative and is a powerful link between legislators and society. The Senate TV station was created in 1996 to promote institutional broadcasting for the Federal Senate and to offer citizens educational and cultural quality programmes. It covers all plenary sessions of the Federal Senate and of the National Congress, as well as the meetings of permanent and temporary committees. Normally, pictures are also made available to regular commercial TV stations, in real time, via satellite. The legislative activity is the most important part. Newscasts explain senators’ positions on issues and show clearly how proposals which change the dayto-day life of citizens go through the Senate. All weekdays long, "institutional videos" explain the internal structure of the Senate. The TV Câmara (Chamber of Deputies) began operating on 20 January 1998, on a 24-hour basis. Basically of an informative nature, it televises the plenary sessions of the Chamber of Deputies and the meetings of its committees live, and records meetings to be re-broadcast when the Chamber recesses. All the activities of the deputies are followed by journalist teams. In addition to making the activities of the 21

Chamber of Deputies transparent, the TV Câmara intends to serve the promotion of education and Brazilian affairs by broadcasting culture, arts, regional programmes. It is a public TV programme, dedicated to citizenship and the information of the Brazilian people through the diffusion of ethical, moral, social, artistic and cultural Brazilian values. 3.1.5.3 The Judiciary In 2002 Brazil experienced its largest democratic process ever – the general elections for the offices of the President of the Republic, of state governors, senators, state and federal deputies. This peculiar round of elections saw a very wide use of technologies in the processes of the voting itself and of the dissemination of the results. The electronic balloting process diminishes the chances of frauds, increases the transparency of the electoral process and consequently increases the legitimacy of elected governments. Thus, electronic balloting is a technology inserted in this research, even if indirectly, since legitimacy is indispensable for the good conduct of affairs of any government. Transparency of the elections increases the legitimacy of government, consequently increasing the political scope of the elected to obtain the approval and implementation of their policies. One should take in consideration that the use of electronic ballots was widely debated by political actors (society, the three branches of government, media, universities, NGOs) through tests, discussions, simulations, before the old electoral procedure was replaced. Even if there are some doubts about the safety of electronic balloting, specialists hired by the Superior Electoral Tribunal (TSE) approved the new method. The publicizing of the electoral results itself can be considered a legitimate instance of ICT use in the interests of good governance at the local level. If the counting process was quick, the same can be said of the dissemination of the 2002 electoral results. The co-ordinating Superior Electoral Tribunal (TSE) organized an efficient net for issuing the electoral results. Both the provisional and the final results of the several electoral contests were available through the TSE web site (www.tse.gov.br). In addition, any person equipped with an adequate laptop or computer was able to obtain the data almost in real time from their own home through a program called DivNet; the same being true of the final results. The disclosure of the votes took place in a way that would allow for the verification of the number of votes received by any candidate for any position as classified according to his or her electoral session or region. Voters, academics, the 22

media, and society alike were able to follow up the electoral results in detail and in such a way as to increase the transparency of the whole process. If transparency improves good governance and if information is an indispensable component of political education, the availability of electoral information is an instrument for the improvement of good governance and thus of democracy. The Brazilian experience with electronic voting machines was internationally recognized. The United Nations signed an agreement with the Brazilian government that will facilitate the installation of the same technology in other countries that ask for electoral assistance. One of the facts that impressed UN most was the fact that 115 million Brazilians voted electronically without any accusations of fraud. 3.1.5.4 Civil Society Transparência Brasil (www.transparencia.org.br) was established in April 2000 by a group of individuals and non-governmental organizations involved in the anticorruption struggle. It is associated with Transparency International (TI), a Berlinbased unique international organization dedicated exclusively to combat corruption. From an institutional point of view, Brazil has free elections, a freely elected Congress and an independent judiciary, combined with all the constitutional guarantees of a typical representative democracy. However, political reality does not always reflect formal institutional structures. Corruption is evidently a problem in Brazil, as it is elsewhere. For organizations such as Transparência Brasil communication is essential. One of the main tasks of TB is to promote new ideas for combating corruption, with the internet being a strong instrument to maintain TB's incessant interaction with local organizations. Informative material – such as guidelines, project monitoring, local experiences, data on good governance and corruption, databases, modalities of civil-society participation, case studies on integrity systems – can contribute to a dynamic supply of the information needed and to TB's endeavour of "disseminating", so to speak, integrity in the public sector. The Committee for the Democratization of Computerization (Comitê de Democratização da Informática - CDI) was founded in Rio de Janeiro in 1995. The principal activity of the CDI is to create "Schools of Computer and Citizenship" (EICs), and to give individuals in low-income communities and/or with special needs access to ICT. The course programme helps students to become aware of their living conditions. 23

This means that students are stimulated to critically reflect their needs and their struggle for citizenship rights. Each CDI is initially formed by a team of voluntaries, but in the end, a CDI can legally become an NGO. It is thus capable of raising funds and forming partnerships with several foundations so as to build a team of professionals solely dedicated to the democratization of computer use. The CDI targets young residents of low-income communities, but the project was developed in a way that allows for its adaptation to the needs of diverse individuals and groups, to local realities and needs, without loss of quality. Today, Schools of Computer and Citizenship can be found in correctional facilities for adult and juvenile deliquents, but also in mental institutions, in institutions for the hearing impaired, and also in indigenous areas and others.

24

3.2 Case Study: Uruguay 3.2.1 Introduction The research done in Uruguay on ICT use and good governance and on opportunities for a training programme took place in the City of Rivera in the northern region of the country, close to the Brazilian border. Both the Mayor of Rivera (the Intendente), the president of the Local Junta (the municipal legislative body) and other local authorities were interviewed. 3.2.2 City of Rivera The Mayor of Rivera (Uruguay) voiced his interest in an ICT training programme, considering it relevant and appropriate for Latin America, particularly as a follow-up to the Digital Communal Centres (Centros Comunales Digitales) and the Ibero-American NET (RED Iberoamericana). Rivera's Mayor was very receptive to the idea of an ICT training programme for several sectors. Systematic ICT use can lead to synergy with other on-going community projects, facilitating an increase in citizens’ participation in local government activities. He was enthusiastic about the project particularly because it did not only address technological aspects but also good governance, i.e. political factors. Rivera's Mayor informed us that 28 borough-communities commissions had been installed, which would have benefited more if ICT had been available, which would have increased their capacity for social and political participation significantly. Digital inclusion is one of the concerns of Rivera authorities. The progress of on-going files and cases of the local administration can be followed through computers. In addition, Rivera is part of the Ibero-American NET of Digital Cities, soon to be complemented by six Digital Community Centres. Several local factors already contribute to the operationalization of a personnel training programme in Rivera, involving social and community actors in ICT use so as to increase decentralization and popular participation processes. One of these factors is the existence of a computer labouratory providing courses through the Council for Elementary Education (Consejo de Educacion Primária), a public organization in charge of basic education. Another factor was the recent inauguration of a branch of the Universidad de la Republica (the sole public university of the country); a third one 25

is the a video-conference room available at the National Telecommunication Enterprise (ANTEL) is available. The Mayor has installed an internal computer system which could be the embryo of an ICT-implanting process at the local level. A programme improving the qualification of public servants would be welcomed as they already have a certain familiarity with ICT usage. In summary, an ICT training programme could build on existing infrastructure and qualified locals as well as the political will and the dynamic and entrepreneurial approach of the municipal authorities. This programme would aim at increasing citizen participation, and, through it, increasing good governance at the local level. The president of the local legislative body (Junta Departamental) pointed out that there is a strong interest in the interaction between citizens and the legislature, where popular participation, ICT, political demands, and training for Junta personnel are discussed at length. In Rivera citizens and deputies interact directly and personally. The municipal deputies roam the Departamento (the geographical area of the municipality) and talk directly and personally with members of the community. Citizen demands and initiatives are channelled exclusively through political parties. Each of the parties has its own computer at the Junta offices for use by counsellors or advisors. At the Municipal Legislative Chamber, only one of the computers has internet access. Resources being scarce, staff members are not yet familiar with ICT use in a working environment. The President of the Junta thinks that a project stimulating ICT should be implemented as soon as possible. This would facilitate contact with Rivera’s population, and would speed up interaction between municipal legislators and community members. On the other hand, he stressed that the use of ICT will never reduce the importance of political parties in citizen-legislature relations. 3.2.3 Experiences and Reports 3.2.3.1 Programme - ProWoman

26

Among the social-inclusion programmes whose objectives could be fostered by ICT use ranks ProWoman - Promotion of Equal Opportunities for Women Employment and Professional Training Programme (ProMujer – Programmea de Promoción de la Igualdad de Oportunidades para las Mujeres en el Empleo y la Formación Profesional (MTSS - DINAE/JUNAE- Cinterfor/OIT)1. The general objective of the programme is to promote a proactive employment policy, particularly with regard to training, aiming at increasing the quality of women's labour skills, having in mind the new qualifications called for by the labour market. Specific objectives of the programme include the development of skills that would enable women to face the challenges of the labour market and to develop a proactive, adaptive attitude to the market, as well as guaranteeing their employability and presence in the labour market with a personal project through up-to-date knowledge. The programme's goal is to reach a 30% presence of participating women in the market for each of the professional training courses and to improve by 50% the employability of this population. The programme is supported by Cinterfor/ILO (Technical Training Centre /International Labour Organization) and benefits from funds obtained from the FORMUJER - Regional Programme for the Strengthening Professional and Technical Formation of Low-Income Women in Latin America, co-financed by the IDB. The municipal executive bodies are responsible for implementing the Programme within the municipality in linking local actors and the population that would potentially benefit from the programme. Enhancing opportunities in professional formation, one can foresee that ICT skills could open up new possibilities for employment for women, considering their multiplying capacity and the increase in digital inclusion particularly through education.

MTSS – DINAE/JUNAE – Cintefor/ILO - Ministry of Labour and Social Security – National Direction of Employment/Local Administration of Employment – Technical Training Centre/ International Labour Organization
1

27

3.3 Case Study: Peru 3.3.1 Introduction In Peru, the analysis regarding ICT use and improvement of good governance at the local level is divided in two parts: the first deals with a field study done in Lima and neighbouring communities. Local institutions were visited and interviews were held with authorities and leaders. The second part of the survey deals with a set of experiences and reports on ICT use in Peru. 3.3.2 Municipality – Lima Approximately 10 million people live in Lima and surrounding towns. The first meetings took place at the Transitory Council of Regional Administration – CTAR LIMA. Interviews were held with the Technical Secretary, the Chief of Investment Promotion – Regional Management, and the Chief of International Technical Cooperation and Coordination. This Cooperation Unit organized a discussion with approximately 30 representatives of social base organizations which focussed on the advantages of, the opportunity for, and the alternatives of, introducing ICT in their daily activities and on implementing an ICT and good-governance training programme for members of the local public service. This was a remarkable experience where all could freely express their ideas and opinions about digital exclusion and the social and political situation of Peru, particularly with respect to social assistance programmes and citizen participation. In the City of Lima there were other meetings with several community representatives (Mothers’ Club, Popular Self-Managed Restaurants, Glass of Milk Committee), where the focus was on the possibility of introducing ICT in routine activities. They are, in fact, spontaneous initiatives of citizen organizations to render services to the community. Members of these organizations stressed the difficulties of communication and the costs of infrastructure, the difficulties of and the high prices of access to networks. Nevertheless, given the characteristics of their activities, these citizen-participation initiatives could transform themselves into important bridges for ICT use, especially to guarantee their communication with government and society.

28

3.3.3 Municipality – Villa El Salvador This is a famous Lima barriada, and also an example of community collaboration. Many collective initiatives have led to an autonomous and safe development of this urban zone on the outskirts of Lima, which has become today a world benchmark of how collective effort can benefit the community. In addition to collective work for housing and schools construction, for setting up collective restaurants, for organizing voluntary work, there is a strong concern for the modernity of ICT and with digital exclusion; in Villa El Salvador, education for the "society of knowledge" is found everywhere. An example of this concern for digital inclusion in Villa El Salvador is given by the “Faith and Happiness” Secondary School, where a computer room is in operation for children to learn how to use the internet. In doing so, they search for information about citizenship and for information of community interest, such as geographical information, projects of interest to the community, procuring school resources, public interest information, national and international co-operation. In a meeting with Michel Azcueta, a member of the Municipal Council of Lima and a community leader himself, he reported his experiences with the process of popular participation during the creation of the borough Villa El Salvador. In a report entitled “Combate Global contra la Pobreza: las soluciones existen. La experiencia de Villa El Salvador” (Azcueta, 2001) he writes:
“…information is fundamental. Within groups and societies or in regional or world realms. Thus, it is ever important to construct and to maintain open the access to information and, of course, to communication means and technologies. When we refer to strategies to fight poverty, we do it with an integral vision, considering an adequate management of information and of the means of communication at the service of development, of the cultural dimensions, and of building universal relations distinctive from the existing ones”.

In this same report (Azcueta, 2001) one can find some recommendations to stimulate and to promote ICT use along the following guidelines: • “Having in mind that practically all successful experiences in fighting poverty start at the local level or with concrete social groups and then expand their influence to wider levels”.

29

• “Respect for and development of citizen consciousness from knowledge and the distribution of rights and obligations of each inhabitant of our unique planet”. • “To promote communication and information programmes within their own social group with the objective of guaranteeing its cohesion and of strengthening its identity. These programmes must result from specific work with journalists, communication experts, owners of means of communication, so that we generate a new vision of the problems of poverty. Even so, it is imperative to support all community radio and TV stations that belong to local communities and minority social groups, because they represent concrete instances of power in the field of information, of communication, and of image, besides the use of new technologies (ICT), which these sectors use”. The Municipality of Villa El Salvador intends to be a productive district, a solidarity community and a healthy town. The municipality has several objectives for its development, above all good governance. Good governance in the municipality of Villa El Salvador can be improved through a pact between the local government and the community for an effective and efficient management of the municipality. ICT use for improving local good governance is a priority. In view of the resources that are available to the administration and to the population of Villa El Salvador, low-cost alternatives and sophisticated means were employed as an attempt to enter the digital world. 3.3.4 Municipality of Surco In Santiago de Surco, many subject matters were in the focus of the interviews with local authorities held at the municipal executive office: decentralization, transparency, popular movements, support from this office to participatory movements were among the issues discussed with the Chief of the Special Projects Office and with advisors from the Alcadia (the municipal executive office). They reported on adult literacy, citizen participation, and participatory budget programmes. Examining the documentation of Surco one can find a concern with typical issues of municipal administration, but also a tendency to use new technologies. Improved citizen safety through the use of radio or centralized information; urban development supported by greater transparency and the use of computer files to control private companies executing public works; services rendered to the community (civil registration, and civil files); supply of services (itinerant rendering, kiosks for waiting citizen are posts that could be computerized); attention to environmental 30

education through ICT in schools; all these are on-going policies from the municipal administration. Among the community services one should also stress employment skills training (such as ICT training/formal educators, internet, TV Education), the Municipal Children and Teenage Defense Service (DENUMA, where the ICT use facilitates the organization and the implementation of the database, of registrations and communication in several social spheres; and ICT use in education controlling school evasion and student participation. Some suggestions are listed in the official documentation Surco: a computerized and systematic municipal library catalogue; to combat illiteracy with the help of ICT, such as School TV and other itinerant schools with modern equipment; another example is the Environment Bus, an environmentaleducation itinerant school, with ecological and educational nature walks for the children. It is to be said that ICT-concerned social actors are as active in Surco as they are in the rest of Peru. For instance, the Social Support Committee has as its objective the harmonization of the demands for social help, donations and voluntary work, organization and citizen participation with ICT use, educational centres, literacy classes (for elderly and young mothers), organizing the “glass of milk project”. Likewise the programme Serenazgo, an innovative public-safety system established in Surco, where municipal police functions are linked to citizen safety; to implement this initiative, central facilities with a computer (digital telephone centre, GPS) were installed. As for computerized services, the Municipal Executive Office is proposing a Integrated System of Administrative Management, a Bidding Base Project, System Offices and Technological Support (local networks for general services); in addition, it can help to follow up local-assembly bills and to improve ICT use in the control of public accounts, for example, expenditures and receipts. This information on government and services would be available through public telephones in the city. Some of the programmes such as the donations to the needy in the South of Peru and the donations from the citizens of Surco, “Programme of Surcano Voluntary Work”, are examples of how ICT are an important instrument of demand identification. The Municipal Promotion for Entrepreneurial Development Programme – PROMDE allows the design of programmes for implementing joint activities and making use of digital information to promote municipal management improvement.

31

3.3.5 Experiences and Reports 3.3.5.1 On Decentralization Decentralization was a key issue in a meeting with the chief Advisor of the Ministry of Housing, Construction, and Sanitation. He has shown a great concern with the issue, firmly believing that Peru is prepared for digital democracy once all current conditions are favorable to install ICT to improve good governance. He belongs to the optimist party of public administration believing that the conditions for stepping up to the new technologies and for a reduction of the digital gap are there. The Technical Secretary of the National Council of Decentralization also declared in a meeting that there is a firm will in Peru but also some uncertainty as for the procedures of decentralization. The government is promoting a policy of decentralization and opening bureaucratic facilities for the reflection on, the planning and execution of decentralization. The “National Training Plan for the Strengthening of Regional and Local Governments”2 is a compilation of norms that existed in 2002 and proposes to facilitate the decentralization process by promoting more transparency at regional and municipal elections. People are convinced that transparency and freedom are strengthened through knowledge and access to more democratic instruments. The current Peruvian government has committed itself to initiate a process of structural reform of the State. In order to accomplish this objective, it modified the chapter on decentralization in the Constitution of Peru with the objective of establishing regional governmental bodies by introducing regional elections. This was done with the Basic Organic Law of Decentralization (Law N° 277822) that also determined the end of the Ministry of the Presidency itself. In order to push decentralization in Peru, the government is now implementing the Programme for the Development of Regional and Local Capacities for Decentralization – “Perú Descentralizado” – through the Technical Secretariat for the Decentralization Process. The Programme “Perú Descentralizado” was developed to establish provincial, district and “departamentos” capacities in order to foster decentralization. This process comprises four components:

concerted plans for departmental development
2

Ministry of the Presidency of the Republic of Peru, 2002. 32

• • •

regional and municipal training and technical assistance local and regional funds for development local and regional connectivity.

The decentralization of activities creates local public policies adapted to the context of each locality. The objective of the programme is to contribute to the democratic reform of the country and to develop mechanisms capable of stimulating national development. This process involves training of public actors all along. Information and communication technologies (ICT) are used to accelerate communication among government entities and to promote citizen participation. The Training and Technical Assistance Sub-programme encourages municipalities to receive new functions and competencies. New tasks generate more local resources and investments; thus, the quality of life of the population may increase. Courses, seminars, video conferences, and other forms of ICT use help to accomplish that. The Regional and Local Connectivity Sub-Programme basically consists in the technological modernization of public administration. This sub-programme's clear intention is to expand government interaction with other offices through electronic means. The Peruvian Government has signed an agreement with the Government of Quebec (Canada) for a project design to that end. Results are yet unclear, but it seems very likely that decentralization, in combination with training and ICT use, can improve the quality of life of the population and the development of democracy through popular participation, transparency and democratic control. 3.3.5.2 On transparency and means of communication In meetings with the Peruvian Press Council and other representatives of the press, the problems of access to public information, transparency, the role of the press in obtaining public information and collective interest were discussed. The representative of the Institute for the Press and Society stressed their vigilant anticorruption role and the role of other NGOs related to anti-corruption, as well as the opportunity to act together as focal points in an ICT training programme. He stressed the function of the Veedurias Ciudadanas ("Citizens as mass media observers") organization . The objective of the Veeduria Ciudadana is to monitor mass communication. It has already evaluated four TV programmes which emphasized political issues. The 33

Veeduria Ciudadana is in support of a law that would make the social responsibility of the means of communication mandatory by promoting ethical and democratic policies. A National Council for Radio and Television would be created, attracting members from civil society and from the State, to regulate, to conduct and to monitor operations of the media. Of course, the promotion of social responsibility among businesspeople should be accompanied by other developments and responsibilities. By means of these and other topical proposals ICT can contribute to the construction of full citizenship. When asked in which institutions there is particularly high or a very low degree of participation or no participation whatsoever, the Peruvians affirm that local institutions and the press are more accessible than the national institutions. In a country where a Law of Citizen’s Rights to Participation and Control exists communication media can have a function of controlling power, promoting access to government decisions, including popular participation through debates and exposing these decisions to public opinion and social demands. The means of communication can diminish existing digital and political exclusion in society. The cultural exchange and the production of knowledge such as interactivity, multimedia and hypertext supply new forms of acquiring knowledge. But not only these technologies can make a difference in training and in people's participation. More accessible means, such as television, can convey knowledge, turn citizens more conscious and train them, depending, of course, on the content transmitted. A seminar promoted by the Peruvian Press Council in Lima had as its main theme the use of ICT for good governance. Strong concern for matters related to transparency and information was to be observed on the part of the Peruvian Press. The opening session of the seminar dealt with the “Law of Transparency and Access to Public Information”, with participants from People’s Defence and from the Legal Defence Institute. The presentation and discussion in the workshop “Access to Information and the Use of New Technologies” treated exhaustively problems of transparency and access to information in Peru using ICT. A second workshop dealt with “Transparency and Access to Information in the Hands of the State: the use of new technologies and the pending agenda of transparency”, participated by the Coordinator of the SYIAF Project - Integrated System of Financial Administration of the Ministry of Economy and Finances. After that, provincial cases were presented – “The Line of Access to Information”, by a representative of the Peruvian Press Council. Other matters treated were “New Technologies of Information and Digital Journalism” , and “Investigative Journalism and the New Technologies of Information”.

34

3.3.5.3 On citizen participation Some Peruvian experiences have shown that there is a growing degree of social participation in this country and that many of these experiences could become even more attractive through ICT use. It is worth mentioning the “The Citizen Caravan”, which consists of an educational and communicative show promoting debates on the democratic process in the country and on citizen participation. They use a big, colourful cabin for people to come and express their wants and needs. Commentaries, “show and tell” and protests (‘grafichanga”) are exposed in strategic points, in such a way that all see the complaints and needs of the population. There is a great clay pot where people can deposit suggestions, initiatives and proposals on how to make authorities more accountable. Another form of expression are the “Educational Workshops” where a group reflects on citizenship culture, and promotes conscious, free and valid voting. Several towns of different "departments” of the country hosted these workshops. Positive results were obtained as shown by the questionnaires filled in before and after the workshops. In addition to this process of evaluation of how much the local population had learned in the workshop, each participant could express their opinion in a ballot, anonymously. Opinions expressed in “Educational Workshops” ballots showed that Peruvians recommend the following as mechanisms of consulting the population during decisionmaking: • telephone, electronic mail, regular mail (21%), • cabins and voting in public spaces (19%), • the frequent organization of the public forum (19.1%). (MORENO, 2002) Peruvians maintain that values such as respect to human rights, autonomy and independence from the powers of the State, transparency and communication of the acts of government, decentralization of power, participation and citizen supervision, well-developed political parties and efficient mechanisms of controlling the State, are indispensable for a Peruvian democracy. A policy of the constant evaluation of supervision actions enabled the Association of Social Communicators – Calandria – to create a report showing the results and the impacts of their activities. Programmes in which the population can voice their thoughts created links between social demand and politics. People 35

experienced dialogues with members of the legislative bodies and believed in their own capacity of influencing them. Above all, the population hopes for good government as a result of their participation. It becomes evident that if these social actors had new technologies, in addition to the social involvement process, they could also have access to organized information, have accelerated transmission of knowledge, and, most of all, have the possibility of operating in networks. 3.3.5.4 The “National Programme of Food Assistance – PRONAA” The National Programme of Food Assistance (PRONAA) deals with food security through a food distribution programme with strong popular participation which manages the distribution of food at the national level. Besides having many channels of communication with society through the “Club de Madres” (Mothers’ Club) and the popular restaurants, this programme is creating a “management committee” open to the community. It also intends to create a “users’ commission” and a “beneficiaries’ commission”. The PRONAA has a web site and is working on its improvement in such a manner as to incorporate information technologies for the resolution of logistic and communication problems with society. Thus, PRONAA intends to solve its procurement problems and make the whole process more transparent – given the number of transactions involved – through on-line operation, publishing the bidding invitation list for products and services on-line and direct buying from small size producers. In an interview with PRONAA´s National Head Officer and his advisors it was possible to confirm that PRONAA is a public, decentralized organism and tries to improve dangerous nutritional situations. Infant population is PRONAA’s priority as a nutritional risk group as well as those in emergency situations and organized groups (“Mothers' Club”, “Popular Self-Managed Restaurants”, “Campesinos Communities”, schools and hostels). As for the improvement of good governance as understood in this report, one of PRONAA´s most important objectives is to promote the active participation of the population in the execution of the programme, as well as in its supervision and control bodies. PRONAA aims at institutional strengthening in the acquisition processes, management and organizational restructuring, including budgetary, as well as introducing principles of transparency, neutrality, and efficiency in institutions, making intensive use of ICT. Main current activities are: the Infant Food Programme; the Children and Adolescent Food Programme; the School Food Programme; the Popular

36

Restaurants Programme; the Food for Work Programme; and the Emergencies Programme.

37

3.3.5.5 The “Huascarán Programme” The Huascarán Programme is a Peruvian government initiative for applying ICT to education in the period of 2002-2006. The programme was created in October 2001 in the Province of Huancayo, Departamento of Junin. This education centre is representative of how the Huascarán Programme works in remote areas of the country. Its objective consists in expanding and improving education in the Peruvian countryside by using ICT. Smaller investments and a shorter implementation time thanks to the use of ICT will help to realize advanced networks of communication that reduce obstacles like distance and poverty, characteristics of vast rural areas of the country. The application of ICT will contribute to the optimization of the administrative processes within the Ministry of Education, thus promoting exchange of information that will foster intelligent organizational interaction and favour development and integration of knowledge sector. Specific objectives of the Huascarán Programme are to interconnect state entities to optimize the educational services that rendered to the community; to improve the quality of education through ICT use in pedagogical practices; to promote the training and specialization of teachers through ICT use; to increase and improve access to educational services in the poorest and more remote areas of the country; to integrate and to support projects from other sectors and multi-sectoral projects which have educational purposes; to promote the integration of public education centres into private ones everywhere in the country; to support and to stimulate the democratization of internet access; to enhance the efficiency of the process of administering education through ICT use (evaluation, monitoring, control, coordination, communication) and thereby to improve the results and to reduce the costs; to support and to align ICT use in the communities to make development possible and making local markets more dynamic. In order to obtain higher benefits from ICT at the local level in countries such as Peru, two basic conditions must be met: 1) ample access to these resources by the population guaranteed by increased ICT infrastructure; 2) the development of adequate applications to various socio-cultural segments. In summary, the Huascarán Programme tries to reduce inequalities of access and ICT use and also to diminish the scarcity of knowledge on the day-to-day use of ICT as a tool for social and personal progress. Those involved in the Huascarán Project expect that within five years a learning environment and a sustainable structure should be established through the application 38

of ICT. Students, teachers, and the administrative staff of the educational centres should by then be skilled for ICT use. Information transfer between the headquarters of the Ministry of Education and its several sectoral branches could then be rapid and efficient; and the education centres and the intermediary organs could be connected in order to better achieve their objectives. ICT use should facilitate intelligent organizational interaction. The target-public of the Huascarán Project are students, teachers, family, parents, administrative personnel and the community in general. Participants will receive electronic mail accounts, access to on-line tools, participate in chats and conferences, but, above all, they will have the opportunity to intervene directly in the preparation of the pedagogical content and educational material. 3.3.5.6 Electronic Cabins in Peru According to Sandro Venturo, in “Cabinas, acesso y redes sociales” (www.yachay.com.pe/especiales/cabinas/2b.htm), internet access in public cabins in Peru has become an important example of narrowing the digital gap in underdeveloped countries. Experts even speak of a “Peruvian Model”. Public cabins were developed so as to enable anybody to be connected to the internet, even if they do not have a computer or access to networks. In Lima, “cabinas” are the same concept as “telecenters” or “public cabins to access the internet”, i.e. an locality equipped with a certain number of computers offering internet access, including a number of small services rendered, like text printing, copies, fax, and eventually long-distance phone calls. There are small differences in the modes of services. The so-called cyber cafes are essentially commercial enterprises. The public cabins promoted by municipal or by teaching institutions have a community character. But the idea is the same: to provide ample, unhindered access to internet. The original proposal of the Peruvian Scientific Network (RCP – Red Cientifica Peruana) was to provide universal access to information and communication technologies, beginning by training more than 50,000 persons through courses. The first “cabineros” (small cabin entrepreneurs) who saw an opportunity for business, are participating in a new model of the economy in which information is a primary resource, the principal capital.

39

However, the idea was to turn cabins into something more than just a connection point. They should be a centre for training and producing local knowledge that would assist persons and organizations to expand their potential to sustain their own development. Therefore, the problem was not only being connected, but also to generate knowledge which, in the context of globalization, would increase the productivity of the local economy and the transparency of public administration, and which would make the social and cultural services more effective. In fact, the Peruvian internet cabins have become a factor of spreading ICT given that more than 70% of Peruvian users make use of these cabins. This very popular model has some peculiar characteristics which leaves open the question of their sustainability and continuity. In many cases, the cabins are very close to the informal market, with improvised, second-hand equipment, pirate software and doubtful quality control. This is an intensive-demand market which leads to reduced prices, which then keep profits low and difficult to sustain with adequate quality control. The intriguing question is that of how 2,000 low cost cabins can operate in a brutal, competitive market, and continue to guarantee internet access to a large population. If the Peruvian cabins experience is a success thanks to the initiative of small entrepreneurs, without regular support, then this is a clear signal of the deep interest that the Peruvian society has in being connected to the digital world. Therefore, it is possible to imagine ICT use spreading and including the improvement of local good governance, once popular participation movements start seeing this instrument as a tool for interaction with the government. Cabins are no longer just a connection point but are beginning to be knowledge-generating instruments, for training and for negotiations, in support of negotiations fora and in support of small business companies. Above all, they are a mechanism for establishing social networks which need and live for information. ICT were only recently introduced to the government's agenda, while the independent development of the cabins evinced an incredible entrepreneurial capacity of the private sector, at the same time that it showed an immense capacity of social mobilization. Today, the cabins in Peru are faced with many problems, from brutal competition to security concerns. Many believe that they have arrived at a saturation point. However, the cabins have permitted that social segments totally unlinked to modern technologies begin to have access to ICT. The role of the public cabins in combating social digital exclusion was responsible for the digital inclusion of groups and local organizations, like indigenous groups, beginning to use ICT on networks.

40

For the general public to benefit even more from ICT it is important that all social actors be involved in a large process of participation and training. The cabins or the telecenters can be the articulating place for this process, given their low costs and their multiplying effect, as the Peruvian experience very well demonstrates. 3.4 Case Study: Ecuador 3.4.1 Introduction The study of the relationship between ICT use and the improvement of good governance in Ecuador is divided into two parts: first, a field study done in this country, in the city of Quito and in the municipality of Cotacachi, presents interviews with local authorities and leaders, as well as reports on the visits made to local institutions. The second part of the Ecuador study is an account of experiences and reports on the ICT use in the country. 3.4.2 Municipality – Quito Strategic planning was the focus of discussion in an interview with the Director of Strategic Prospective and Competitiveness of the City of Quito, as well as an evaluation of the current status of the QUITO XXI CENTURY DEVELOPMENT PLAN – ADJUSTMENT (2002-2004). This interview included a discussion on the possibilities of ICT use considering their inclusion in the development plan as an accepted and important promoter of good governance. A meeting at the Pichincha Provincial Government's Directorate for Production Support was dedicated to progress recently experienced in governmental planning, to how ICT were incorporated into the decision-making process, and to how its use can become routine. The feasibility of, and the opportunity for, a training programme for the improvement of good governance at the local level were also discussed. Great effort is being taken at the Co-ordination of Management System of the Presidency of the Ecuadorian Republic towards developing a management system integrating the presidency and the ministries, that would guarantee the quality of information for political co-ordination and for decision-making. Nevertheless, it is still an internal system for the exclusive use of the Presidency.

41

In Ecuador, the ODEPLAN (Planning Office of the Presidency) is an autonomous entity and an important state instrument for planning development, and for institutional and political co-ordination. The importance of planned actions are highly valued, therefore strengthening the legitimacy of the planning process. ODEPLAN’s mission is to structure and to coordinate the SNPDP (Participatory Decentralized National Planning System), a set of integrated principles, norms, processes, actors, and institutions arranged in an inter-institutional network, which tries to go beyond simple bilateral relationships. It also provides for institutional capacities (and thereby favours an "organized" society) which aim at promoting co-ordinated efforts for long-term, systemic perspectives on local, regional, and national development. ODEPLAN regards social organization in networks that would bring together persons from different categories or institutions of differing nature, in which reciprocity, participation and democracy are adopted values. For their activities ODEPLAN considers three types of networks: information networks, research networks, and action networks. Thus, among ODEPLAN documents one could examine training modules for experts, public workers in planning, gubernatorial offices, provincial councils, municipalities, rights councils, NGOs, and civil-society organizations related to specific themes for the formation of personnel organized in networks who can eventually generate a new model of planning. The Public Investment Programming and Follow-up System (SPSIP) is a latest generation computer management tool operating in a network (in the internet platform) that manages the Geo-Reference Bank of Social Investment and Infrastructure Projects, facilitating the consultation of data and information in tabular and graphical form, and permitting to cross different variables. The INFOPLAN (Planning Information) System is a geo-referenced statistical information application in co-operation with the National Statistics and Census Institute (INEC) and the Municipalities Association of Ecuador (AME). INFOPLAN offers a plethora of processed data, which can be used in project development, monitoring and evaluation. As can be seen, Ecuador's interest in planning relates to the formation of a participatory mentality based on ICT use.

42

In an interview conducted at the Municipalities Association of Ecuador (AME) the stress laid on the role of municipalities in the development of the country to guarantee decentralization, budget decentralization, and the role of AME in supporting training programmes using ICT as a preferred tool for good governance. The case of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MRE )of Ecuador illustrates how one's effort to introduce information technologies can improve one's Internal Management System and communication with other offices of public administration. Starting with a “zero paper” policy the MRE intends to reach all Ecuador consulates through automated means as well as all Ecuadorians living out of the country. There are social movements that try to guarantee the right to vote for all migrants (many without papers) and to allow them to invest their money earned abroad in Ecuador. Universities in Ecuador also have demonstrated their interest in ICT. Studies performed at the Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar show developments in facilitating conditions for good governance introduced by the local experiences of social participation in the cities of Guayaquil, Quito, Babahoyo, Santo Domingo, Esmeraldas, and Tena. The integration of ICT locally has enhanced this better governance process. FLACSO-Quito also maintains a Programme in Communication with post-graduate studies concentrating in virtual instruments. In the same line of thought, the work done by BONILLA e CLICHÉ (2001), Internet y Sociedad en America Latina y el Caribe: investigaciones para sustentar el dialogo, discusses various ICT implementation studies and their results in strategic areas for regional development such as: education, culture, health, environment, human rights, productivity, administration, good governance, and democracy itself. The book emphasizes equity problems and shows how social, economic, and technological divisions affect excluded groups. In addition, the authors analyze the implementation of public policies via internet and a conceivable link with processes of citizen participation and the construction of a new political culture through free access to information. References to literature on ICT can be found in Ecuador: su realidad (2002) which show elements for better understanding the Ecuadorian society, from its physical and historical characteristics to its current population, economic model and the realities and issues of the international context. As for information and communication technologies, the book contains a chapter on culture and communication which is a reflection on the power that these technologies have over the societies they act upon. In this informational society, the means of communication are having a prevalent role in the economic, political, and administrative processes. 43

The authors call for greater social control of communication media as participation and consensus increases. This work deals with the power of television in building public opinion and how the print media reaches the public, particularly on urban areas, in addition to audio and visual media and their possible political use. Citizen participation has been stimulated and practised in Ecuador as a form of improving democracy. RIVAS and DONOVAN (2001) in El Diagnóstico Participativo show that training for participation is a form of insertion in the actions which transform reality. Their proposal is first directed to the leaders, to those responsible for education, and to the people from popular organizations that aspire to overcome mere voluntarism, immediacy, and the “cortoplacismo” (short-term nature) of organization practice; how to improve the knowledge of reality; how to plan long-term work; how to design new methods for an extended participation of organization members in decision-making; how to contribute through training to higher self-esteem and how to develop the skills of organization members; finally, how to strengthen the selfmanagement of education, the autonomy and democratization of organizations. They suggest that training should be done through "participatory diagnostic proposals" – by “information” and “motivation”–, in which ICT use could have a prevalent role, and through research assuming primordial importance. The authors draw the reader's attention to the success and failures of the experiences made in "participatory diagnosis". They also warn about the difficulties arising from leaders' patronage which makes the creation of democratic channels impossible, as well as about the lack of cohesion among members impairing people and organizations to participate in a co-ordinated manner by going beyond the motivation phase. In Ecuador there is a strong effort to expand the physical basis necessary to the implementation of ICT. The National Telecommunications Council – CONATEL – is acting along this line through the Nation´s Connectivity Commission. The UNDP – Ecuador (United Nations Development Programme - Ecuador), has published, among other contributions to the ICT debate, a study on Las Tecnologias de Informacion y Comunicacion para el Desarrollo Humano (2001)– Informe sobre el Desarrollo Humano Ecuador.

44

3.4.3. Municipality - Cantón Cotacachi Cantón Cotacachi in Ecuador has been designated as an example of participatory democracy. An interview with the local mayor stressed the concern of the current administration with issues such as citizenship and citizen participation; indigenous participation in the administration; decentralization; local development plans preparing provinces for decentralization; participatory planning; elabourating a plan regularly, inclusion of all citizens in the local decision-making process; local participatory management experiences; local councils, and local development. An effective demonstration of this new orientation was the fact that a computer was installed on the sidewalk in front of the Municipal Executive for public access with a public employee to help inhabitants access information where they should vote in the elections that took place on 20 October 2002. Another initiative is the School of Leaders, a pioneer experience thanks to which local leadership receives information about citizenship, rights, local administration, community action; as soon as they finish, they can proceed proactively in the community, passing knowledge on to other members included. The School of Leaders is a good example of how a training programme in information and communication technologies can improve good governance. The participants receive training on ICT use, on the possibilities of ICT in relating citizens to their local government, and on how ICT could intervene to improve good governance. In addition, they act as multipliers of these ideas and tools in their community. Beginning in 1996, the local government of the city of Cotacachi, Ecuador began an ample process of social participation promoting citizen participation as well as establishing a policy to make local administration compatible with local development. Furthermore, Cotacachi is such a diverse territory from the ecological, social, and technological points of view that this compatibility becomes all-important. Citizen participation is realized through the representatives of several organizations involved, in the rural or urban areas, congregated at the Assembly of Canton’s Unity. Canton Cotacachi has a development plan drawn up through a lengthy process of debating local sectoral problems, in it several projects were implemented. An interview with the mayor focused on how the city began gathering information on priority problems and areas detected by the "participatory diagnosis". Some recommendations such as ICT use in Cotacachi were made by the diagnosis 45

experts, similarly on how to associate citizen participation experiences and participatory budget in Cotacachi with ICT use for improving good governance at the local level. Regarding the diagnosed problems, some potential solutions were proposed. Local illiteracy could be tackled with ICT use. Sanitation and hygiene issues, and local health concerns and problems could be improved with ICT use. Racism and the absence of “bridges” between different ethnic groups could be addressed via internet, distance education, and community radios. The isolation of Cotacachi communities owing to a lack of communication infrastructure could be overcome by expanding the network of communication and connectivity. There is a large and unexplored tourism potential (environment and cultural) which could be expanded with ICT use. Finally, greater ICT use can correct patronage municipal policies that reduce citizen participation. One great concern of this municipality is to improve the population's quality of life and to reach an equitable human development based on intercultural relations. An additional concern is to consolidate organized participation in social sectors into decision–making processes in issues of interest to the region as a whole. The stability of this new model of participatory municipal management is a local concern. Another local concern is to have an up-dated and effective management system capable of fostering cantonal development by incorporating new technologies and considering the changes that take place in this new century. Sustainability of this kind is based on the following aspects: 1- Social: through consolidating the organization of civil society; 2 – Legal: through consolidating the local legislative body; 3- Institutional: by means of structuring permanent committees for cantonal development; 4-Generational: by an active integration of the youth into the management process and into planning of the canton; 5 – Economic: through the rational use of local resources and obtaining external resources. 3.4.4 Experiences and reports 3.4.4.1 CORAPE – Coordination of Popular Radios of Ecuador Experiences with popular radios in Ecuador have been successful up to the point that radios certainly broadcast to isolated regions that are difficult to leave, are relatively inexpensive to run and can be operated by local people. The Co-ordination Association of Popular Radios of Ecuador prepared in its Quito headquarters short 46

announcements (“cunias”) on the electoral process mentioning the importance of voting as an exercise of democracy, the seriousness of the decision to be taken and the weight of the vote. These announcements were distributed to all 51 members of the Coordenadora at zero cost and were broadcast by the Community Radios. Many radio station collaborate in preparing informative material including training courses. Eight radio stations broadcast in Quechua language to facilitate communication with Quechua-speaking natives. AMAZONIA NETWORK (RED AMAZONIA) was created to report on ecological issues and cultural themes of that region. These are indicators of population participation warranting good governance thanks to the use of communication technologies. CORAPE has been airing programmes which well illustrate the use of radio as a technological instrument for citizenship. The following themes are examples of the approach used: “Quality of services and products including ‘political products’”; “Ecuadorian Consumer Protection Law”; “Education through political platforms”; “Don’t be a Frustrated Consumer”; “Make the Vote an Instrument of Power”. 3.4.4.2 Foundation ChasquiNet The ChasquiNet Foundation is dedicated to provide internet solutions to individuals and institutions engaged in the social change in Ecuador. It contributes to improve the living conditions, education, and cultural life of the people through ICT use. ChasquiNet is a sophisticated project intending to provide visibility to all groups and communities which did not yet have, or do not have, the opportunity of using modern instruments to make their activities more dynamic, to divulge their ideas, to motivate participation and to be present in national and international scene. ChasquiNet was created in 1998, and has the seal of approval from the Ministry of Education of Ecuador, aiming at being a resource centre, a space for promote and strengthen the community, and of a diffusion of activities, all having the ultimate goal of social change. The ChasquiNet Foundation promotes a productive work environment in non-profit organizations and works in reducing the gap of information and communication. In order to accomplish its objectives, ChasquiNet has entered several agreements and partnerships with other institutions. These strategic alliances can

47

provide solutions for access and connectivity to excluded population sectors in Ecuador. The ChasquiNet Foundation also has developed some other projects such as community telecenters. Given that the majority of the population does not have access to computers nor to telephone lines, ChasquiNet and the communities themselves have adopted and spread the concept of “telecentro”. ChasquiNet supported the creation of telecenters and handed them to user communities which manage them like micro-business. 3.4.4.3 UNORCAC – Cotacachi Indigenous Campesinos Union UNOCARC is a class organization constituted by 41 communities and several indigenous and mestizo campesino grassroots organizations, located in the Andean Region (Canton of Cotacachi in the Province of Imbabura). It was created in 1977 by a group of academically trained Cotacachi Indians, struggling to change poverty and the discrimination suffered by the majority of the indigenous campesino population of the region. UNOCARC is striving to obtain extensive participation of campesinos and indigenous people in the construction of a more equitable and just society. Guided by this purpose, UNORCAC tries to accomplish the following objectives: Provide unity and solidarity among “comunas”(communes) and “comuneros” (commune members) in order to impel their economic and social development • To defend and restore indigenous and mestizo cultural values. • To train community members in the management of agricultural production and the methods of cattle-breeding, as well as artisan and commercial ones. • To foster recreational activities and sports as well as other techniques improving the formation of the “comuneros”. • To require the government to create educational, technical, and artisan community centres.

UNORCAC implements programmes, projects and activities with related community action in the areas of health, environment, education, communication, construction of community infrastructure, training, agricultural production and cattleraising, culture, recreation and sports.

48

Among UNORCAC projects with ICT use, Sumac Ñan is worth mentioning for its communication in education and development through the radio.

49

3.5 Case Study: Mexico 3.5.1 Introduction In Mexico research on ICT use and improvement of good governance is also divided into two parts: the first deals with field studies in Mexico City and Santiago de Querétaro. Local institutions were visited, local authorities and leaders were interviewed. The second part deals with a set of experiences and reports on ICT use in Mexico. The main conclusions on the use of ICT are presented here, starting with the interviews done with government political and social actors and from in loco observations in the municipality of Querétaro and in the Delegación de Iztapalapa (delegación is a kind of regional administration of the city within the Government of the Federal District). Elements of Mexican administrative organization, the political context of the country and of the places studied are also presented. In the federal plan, political parties offer different perspectives and proposals for the organization of the public administration, of transparency on public information and for the relationship with society. PAN identifies itself with structural adjustment policies and opening to foreign trade, accompanied by the modernization of the management of the State. Starting with a concern with State transparency, the Federal Law of Transparency and Access to Public Governmental Information was initiated, making it mandatory for government offices to make sufficient information available so that citizens can analyse public management, using necessary mechanisms and technologies. It also establishes that any citizen can access information, through the internet, from his home or by computers made available by government (CHAVEZ, 2002). The case studies chosen to represent action from PAN – “Partido de Acción Nacional” and PRD – “Partido Revolucionário Democrático” are office holders: the municipality of Querétaro is now governed by PAN while the Delegación of Iztapalapa is governed by the PRD. These examples cannot be considered as a pattern for parties’ behaviour, but they indicate the existence of certain patterns of public policies.

50

3.5.2 Municipality – Santiago de Querétaro The municipality of Santiago de Querétaro is situated 200 kilometers north of Mexico City. Throughout its history, Querétaro was the center of national political articulations. Today Querétaro is a Historical and Cultural Patrimony of Humanity. Currently administered by a PAN mayor who had prior experience in the private sector, the municipal administration undergoes a profound reform based on the application of principles under the model “Customer Relationship Management” (CRM) to the public sector. These changes presuppose not only the creation of a new administrative structure, but also generate a new culture that places priority on the citizen’s access to information and public decisions. Santiago de Querétaro presents, in a similar manner to other investigated municipalities, a strong strategic concern for citizen participation. Local authorities are striving to effectively administer this municipality on the basis of social welfare, sustained by the capacity of acting jointly with society. In fact, the Municipality programme called “Citizen’s Attention” reports investments to acquire a tool called CRM (Citizen Relationship Management) that would allow prompt electronic follow up of the several demands of the population. Other actions by the municipality are:
• • • • •

Citizen Wednesday Personalized Attention Attention to the Communication Media Citizen Mail Electronic Mail

As it can be seen in details later, the procedures for obtaining citizen participation are based on consultations by different citizens through various channels: meetings and seminars, meetings of the thematic councils, invitations to civil organizations, educative institutions and sectoral chambers, invitation to the public in general through communication media. Reported conclusions point to a clear and ample citizen proposal regarding adopted concepts and wanted objectives. In addition to citizen consultation, Querétaro promoted studies of public opinion trying to sense what were the expectations of the population with respect to Government activities, and to have a feeling of which sectors should receive more investments from the municipal government. The Director of Citizen Attention, appointed by the Municipal President, explained the relations between citizen and administration. The Social Participation Head (Jefia de Participación Social), in charge of coordinating the Municipal Council’s 51

System, formed by the Thematic Councils and by the Delegacion Councils is part of them. The Thematic Councils meet every month and they operate informally due to the fact that they were not foreseen in the legislation. When they were created, all citizens participating in meetings had a voice and voted, but there was a norm instituted by which it is necessary to participate in at least 50% of the meetings held in the prior six month period in order to have a voting right. The Jefe de Participacion Social stated, in an interview, that the fact of the meeting being just consultative in character and of aiding/supporting the government, it is a disincentive to experts in specific themes. The following existing Councils were cited: Environment, Health, Sports, Public Safety, Culture, Tourism, Urbanism, Youth, and Rural Development The Delegacion Councils put together the legal representatives of the Association of Borough Residents and the Communitarian Councils located in respective Delegacion (a kind of regional administration of the city). Presently the administration is being decentralized; the Councils of Delegacion are becoming responsible for establishing priorities for the resources meant for the so-called social works (urbanization, electrification, drainage, water, schools, sports playing fields, etc). One can observe that the running of these councils does not utilize ICT. Even though people´s participation is considered very important, the Ayuntamiento (the Municipal Executive) still convokes people to council meetings using leaflets, posters and direct invitation to specialists and community leaders. The councils do not have a structure of their own, nor internet web sites or Radio/TV programmes, or another appropriate means of communication. Councils operation also does not rely on a computer system to monitor debates and register in tapes suggestions presented to the administration. The Thematic Councils and the Councils of Delegación have an important role in city planning, particularly in recent years. Long-term planning is a concern of the current administration forecasting what the city will be in 2025. The fact that counsellors’ mandate does not coincide with the municipal administration´s mandate was raised. No permanent links can be established, provoking an endless debate between different administrations. An important participation experience in Delegacional Councils and other forms of participation of society in city decisions was the Zoning Project and Dignification of Public Street Commerce in the City of Santiago de Querétaro, developed during the 1997-2000 administration.

52

The project promoted the organization of street vendors in the Historic Center, and was a prize-winning project in a competition promoted by CIDE-Center of Economic Research and Teaching. It was among the ten best administrative experiences of the country. However, it did not use intensively ICT. Meetings were convoked through leaflets, posters, sound cars and through press releases to private communication media (radio, TV and newspapers). In this case, one can observe that substituting traditional means by ICT could bring obvious benefits to citizenship practices. The Redesigning Government Structure Project aims at placing the citizen at the center of attention by having as a principal objective the promotion of full attention to the citizen by means of personal access, by telephone and by internet. In this way, Miercoles Ciudadano (Citizen Wednesday) is an unique experience, where the Mayor (the Presidente) of the Ayutamiento (City) and his main department heads (first echelon secretaries of municipal executive) receive directly on working tables the population at the doors of the Municipal Government Palace. Thus, the population can be promptly served, having their answer, or their demand expedited to competent sectors. In 27 December 2002, when the field research was done in the City of Querétaro, there were 21 tables organized, involving different municipal and state secretaries. There were 7 tables referring to different delegaciones (regional administration) of the municipality. In order to facilitate coordination of government offices and citizen access to all sectors of municipal administration a “Civic Center” is being built where all administrative offices will be housed. Today 28 different rented offices are spread out throughout the city. The objective is to facilitate citizen access simultaneously to all offices he/she needs, as well as to facilitate and to expedite the decision-making process. Decision-making is already more agile as more graduated public workers have special cellular phones, which work as radios. In this way, they can easily talk to each other. With the construction of the Civic Center, 7 regional delegaciones of the Ayuntamiento will be strengthened with a greater number and variety of citizen services. The citizens will not have to recur to central offices for filing demands and seeing them solved. Within the “Miercoles Ciudadano” Project, the “System of Municipal Windows” will be implemented; the citizens can do whatever they need at the Civic Center to solve their problems. The citizen can monitor his/her demands or file via internet or through 070 phone-service. It is worth mentioning that the 070 service (“acciones... la responsabilidad de estar bien informados”. Ano 2, nº 22, 53

noviembre de 2002) is utilized for both municipal information (72% of the cases in 2001) and reports, denouncing or complaints (11% of the cases in 2001). To follow-up on demands, a data base was created through which it is possible to monitor the person responsible for the office of the demand, and the schedule for its processing. If the schedule is not met, the system shows an alert so that the person responsible has to act in order to correct the problem. Access of the population to information on how demands are being processed is made easier by a new data base allowing use of internet and should be operative by March 2003. The availability of this new data base on the internet will also contribute to the administrative decentralization of the municipality. Other computer information systems to facilitate follow-up of internal processes and communication between central administration and regional delegacion administrations are now being created. It was stressed by the Director of Atención Ciudadana that while implementing this project the administration understood the necessity of training and enabling public servants to use new technologies. According to the interview done with the vice-director of the Social Communication General Directorate it was clear that this unit is in charge of having contact with and explain to the citizen what the administration does, particularly through communication means. This effort takes two forms: daily contact with the press and ample institutional diffusion. The first is done through bulletins directed to different communication media (to increase diffusion), and also prepared in a specific internet version. Institutional diffusion is used for specific information and campaigns, such as the use of “public garbage cans” being installed throughout the city, which is for the interviewed “a citizen consciousness campaign and a service to citizenship at the same time”. Information is disseminated through leaflets and fliers (volantes) or through a CD-Rom. A good example of the activities developed by the Direccion is its involvement with the publication of the “Annual Report from Municipal Government to the Citizenship”, which is obligatorily sent to legislators every year. Public presentations of this report are organized by EXPO Informe, which lasts one week, where all government offices provide stands to open the account of their activities directly to the population. There were several different exhibitions in 2001 and 2003. For each of the exhibits, audio-visual material was prepared for citizens accountability, distributed quickly to the persons who were there. In the first year, audio-visual material was elaborated in video format and distributed in VHS tape. In the second 54

year, a CD-Rom was utilized. In both years, the exhibition was advertised through radio stations. The presentation of the report by Alcaide was televised in a space bought by the administration. To develop their activities, the Directorate of Communication has a small Video Production sector and another of graphic design. A bulletin directed toward citizens and an internal review for administration are published monthly. The dedication in using ICT was credited to the Mayor’s belief that ICT should be at the avail of citizenship. But those interviewed remembered that “at the end, in the relationship with citizen - no technology substitutes affection”. An interview with the Director of Cabildo Affairs showed that the Municipal Legislative Power – the Cabildo (a word which also means negotiation)–, is presided by the Municipal President and does not have its own technical structure capable of distributing information with more independence in relation to the Executive offices. In relation to the above-described initiatives regarding access and citizen participation, the members of the Cabildo also participate in meetings of the Thematic Councils and of the Councils of Delegacion. The Cabildo meetings area is open to the public, without a separation between public and plenary. The table of the Cabildo is located in a large room where additional chairs can be provided for the public, when needed. Legislation is approved and published in the Gaceta Municipal. This information is also available through internet in the Ayuntamiento web site. In the front page of the document of the municipality of Querétaro called “actions ... the responsibility of being well informed”, a monthly publication of Querétaro Municipal Presidency – Mexico, (n° 22, 2002) one can observe two interesting ICT calls:
• • •

“Visit our web page – www.mqro.gob.mx”. and also: “We want to listen to you! Your citizen attention line ... Dial ... 070”.

These citations denote the importance Mexican local government is giving to ICT use as a form of interacting with the communities. Inside this publication, one can find an article on the Municipality Transparency Commission, which is a consultation entity and a citizen participation organization instituted to help internal control of the municipality and to secure principles of legality, impartiality, loyalty, efficiency and honour in municipal public administration.

55

3.5.3 México City / Delegación de Iztapalapa The largest city of the Americas, Mexico City is located in the central Mexican highlands, with approximately 20 million inhabitants. Its administration is divided into 17 delegaciones. Iztapalapa Delegación is subdivided into 7 Territorial Directions, amounting to circa 2 million people. In addition to a very heterogeneous social composition, there is a chaotic irregular soil occupation by poor migrant families – mostly coming from State of Oaxaca. Administered by a PRD delegate—this Delegación is subject to intense political disputes by different power groups –mostly from the same party, PRD. Unlike in Querétaro, one could not observe such a strong concern with citizen participation, even if it was mentioned by members of the administrative structure of the delegación interviewed. On the other hand, one could observe the use of clientele mechanisms to obtain support of power groups who represent the residents of different colonias (boroughs). This form of relationship is rebutted by borough associations that simply do not accept interference from the Delegación administration; these borough associations constitute themselves as a form of popular self-government experiences inspired by the Zapatista movement. This is the case with the Union de Residents San Miguel de Teotongo (San Miguel de Teotongo Colonos Union) or with the Francisco Villa Popular Front, based in the Colonia San Lorenzo de Tesongo. In Iztapalapa Delegación, the Coordinator of the Unidad de Atención Ciudadana and the Project Coordinator of the “Coordinación de Participación Ciudadana” were interviewed. Both coordinations are subordinated to the “Planning Direction” of the ‘Dirección de Desarollo Delegacional’. The creation of the Unit of Citizen Attention resulted from the problems raised by the fragmentation of services rendered to citizen, in which for each demand or a document application he/she should look for specific sectors of the administration. After the Unit was created, all services were concentrated in a sole sector, operating from 9:00 to 14:00 hours; the citizen is sent to the competent area, and public servants monitor the whole process until a final answer is given to the demand. The existence of these services is made public through circulating folders, radio and internet notes. On Saturdays, the Delegación also has 30 minutes available on a commercial radio station to communicate with the population. The execution of the services demanded is done through Ventanilla Única. In total there are 70 demands, such as construction licenses, operating permits for commercial establishments, authorizations for public events, among others After 56

demands are filed, they are sent on the same day to competent sectors; these sectors have a schedule to answer which varies according to the type of demand. In most cases the citizen needs to return to Ventanilla Única to get the result. Only 4 types of demands can be made directly to the Dirección Territorial: a) permits for markets; b) permits for public events; c) residential certificates; and d) licenses to build residences. The paper work is monitored by a computer system which is not yet integrated to the database of the Delegación and Dirección Territorial, with a periodical general report printed to follow-up the demands. A new integrated system is being implemented to speed up communication of each demand process. Demands for public services (fixing public light, fixing public street potholes, public safety, other) are done through CESAC – Center of Citizen Attention and Services. The Delegación’s information system is connected with Direcciones Territoriales, which allows finding where cases are located and verifying them in real time. In order to obtain answers on filed demands, the citizen can return to CESAC or check directly with the responsible sector. Another way to find answers is by furnishing a code number received when the demand was filed, through dialing 070. Regarding citizen participation, the Coordination of Citizen Participation incites organized sectors of the society to dialogue with the Delegación, and fosters the capacity of the population to organize itself. To accomplish this, the Delegación promotes meetings with the population in the Direcciones Territoriales, in the Comites Vecinales (Neighborhood Committees) and with Father´s-, Youth-, Third Age Associations, and others. This stimuli to the organization of Iztapalapa population is considered important because only 5% of the population is currently organized, according to an estimate from the Project Coordinator. Six Thematic Fora are organized annually, four of them being Social Development, Public Safety, Urban Development, and Citizen Participation. The recommendations resulting from these Fora are partially adopted in the Annual Operational Programme ( POA ) of the Delegación, but are not always implemented. This is the case with the working tables to evaluate transparency, the so-called “Social Controllership”. As for daily life in the boroughs, the administration performs the so-called “Consulta Vecinal” (Neighborhood Consultation) which serves, for example, to ask neighbors about the convenience of opening bars or permits for parties and events. In 2002, 200 of these consultations took place. Another administration’s incentive was a project called “Citizen participation for the Improvement of Life Conditions”. This was an initiative convoking people for collective work on the “Periphery Ring” (the 57

expressway which circulates around Mexico City) and the distribution of 15,000 (fifteen thousand) pamphlets for the prevention of mudslides in the rainy season. The Direction for Citizen Participation is further related to the General Direction of Citizen Participation of the Government of the Federal District in Mexico, which develops the Integral Territorial Programme, with two annual general assemblies involving the local population. The first, in March, is to inform about common programmes that are being developed; the second, in October, is to give an account on how they are evolving. The delegate is also reached directly by the population through an Annual Report, published and presented to the population in a public square. The date and hour of the Assemblies are announced through radio, posters, and sound cars. Despite the administration´s efforts, a member of the Union of Residents of San Miguel Teotongo was blunt:
“in the Delegación, persons are not well received and the problems are not solved. The administration is bureaucratic and not transparent, as there is no Cabildo. The administration does what it wants to do, and is only responsible to the Distrito Federal Assembly”.

In order to respond to the needs of the residents, the Union implements integral self-development projects administered by the local community, which includes 4 clinics, 5 popular restaurants, a plant nursery with a 50,000 plant production per year for reforestation journeys at the ecological park, children daycare, a library, the production and installation of urban equipment, among other things. The Union is directed by a council and by specific committees. Regarding communication with the population, assemblies are convoked by sound cars and pamphlets. Posters are also used to announce events and campaigns (anniversary of the Union, political consciousness campaigns). A community radio project was initiated in September 2002 with sound boxes, 3 days a week, 2 hours a day. Radio transmission is planned to take place regularly by February 2003. When asked about the uses of computer communication, the Union leader interviewed responded that even the Union does not have a computer, and the poor population of the Borough does not have the means to acquire a personal computer.

58

3.5.4 Experiences and reports 3.5.4.1 Municipality: Tlalnepantla de Baz In a CD called “Experiences in the Municipal Administrative Modernization”(2002), the Municipality of Tlalnepantla de Baz describes characteristics of its municipal management systems, the “Integral System of Administration”, the “System for Human Resources Planning”, the “System for Administering Citizen Relations”, “System of Geographical Information”, the “System for Document Control” and refers to its electronic web site. One of the main concerns of the municipality has been the creation of a network infrastructure in such a way as to allow all inhabitants to have integral, on-line access to the services rendered. In its advertisement document the municipality claims to have improved the quality of the local services and citizen attention; to have reduced the administrative costs and to have improved trust on the part of citizens; to have made more transparent and accountable the whole process of municipal budget and make sure the files proceed on line. Like Tlanepantla, many Mexican municipalities have adopted innovative procedures in the public administration, like the construction of databases for the automatic treatment of taxpayers’ files, for facilitating bureaucratic procedures in the mayorships, for urban zoning, for optimizing tax collection, and other e-government processes. However, very little of ICT was introduced, which did not encourage local good governance. In fact, there was a strengthening of the citizen-government relations but not in the sense studied here, i.e. the interaction citizen-governants for democratic participation in decision-making.

59

4. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE PRESENCE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE FACTORS ON LATIN-AMERICAN LEGISLATIVE WEB SITES 4.1 Introduction The realization of this study on the presence or absence of factors indicating good governance in web sites of Municipal Legislative Chambers in selected towns in Latin America begins with the principle that a link exists between the introduction and use of ICT and the improvement of good governance at local level. It assumes that the introduction of ICT increases interaction among citizens and government. Thus, some criteria of good governance were established relating to the legislative branches, and these factors were transformed in variables that were examined in all the investigated web sites. Good governance is an interaction process in which demands and priorities of the society intervene. Thus, factors of good governance adopted in this research took into consideration the possibility for citizens to interact with legislators, to obtain information on the Legislative work and to obtain relevant information on its operation. 4.2 Methodology One hundred and twenty municipal web sites were consulted with priority to the web sites of Municipal Legislative Chambers. Given the difficulties inherent to this search, web sites from Legislative Chambers of Brazilian State capitals and Legislative Chambers of some Latin American capitals were adopted as reference. The search began with approximately 160 municipalities chosen by their size and location. However, it was seen that forty of them either did not have a web site, or that these web sites were unavailable. 120 web sites remained, whose sample included Latin American capitals, Brazilian State capitals, and a group of Brazilian municipalities. Finally, one hundred twenty Legislative Power web sites were evaluated. These web sites can be classified according to their geographic distribution and their power level, as shown below:

60

Web sites evaluated by geographical region and power level Municipal Legislatures Brazil Latin America Total 101 0 101 1 15 16
National Legislatures Senate

Unicameral Congress Total 0 102 3 18 3 120

Having in mind that the principal interest of this study is to analyze good governance at the local level, the majority of web sites (84.2%) studied were Brazilian municipalities, because of two essential motives: first, local government web sites in other Latin American countries were unavailable – power structures in different countries vary and many countries do not have a “municipal legislatures”; second, because in the Brazilian municipalities it was possible to better verify the adopted variables in function of a similar political structure of these municipalities – all 101 of them had a municipal chamber with similar characteristics to their correspondents in Latin America (19 web sites or 15.8% of the sample) Given the sharp differences in political structure of the countries examined, the adopted assumption was that national legislative web sites – in general well built – should present all required information. Therefore, in case the information requested was not found by benchmarking in these bigger web sites, the probability of finding them in smaller web sites would be reduced. In addition, inclusion of units of observation on different levels of power in the same database, in different countries, increasing variability, guaranteed better ways of comparing them. All adopted variables are nominal and qualitative with two categories: “characteristic found” or “characteristic not found”. Data collection in web sites attempted to detect if the Web Page of the observed legislature had indications or links containing the researched variable: for example, if the variable “access to bidding and contracts” was present or not, or if there were any links indicating if this variable could be found in other web sites. If at least one other link was indicated, the variable was marked “characteristic found”. For better comprehension the variables can be grouped in six categories: 1. Institutional information, (“level of power”, “structure, organization, and composition”, “list of representatives”, “internal statutes”, “organic law or constitution”); 61

2. Process information, “daily agenda”; 3. Interactive information (interaction citizen-legislature), “consultation to legislative proposals (integral text)”, “contact or denunciations”, “suggestions and criticisms”, “lists of parties, leadership and access”; 4. Organizational information, “intranet”; 5. Access to communication, “newspaper”, “radio”, “TV”; “publications, technical text, library”;

6. Citizenship information, “voting results per representative”, “accounting and financial reports/ fiscal management report”, “access to bidding and contracts”. 4.3 Analysis and results One can observe that examined variables found in visited web sites are generally relevant. The proportion of observations indicating good governance variables oscillated between 5.8% and 90%. Median was 35 percent: it can therefore be said that in 35% of the cases one can find good governance variables in the visited web sites. That is, 50% of the variables have more (or less) of the observations in the visited web sites. Adopting a more rigorous estimator like “Hampel’s M Estimator” (which is 40%), one can safely say that when a proportion of occurrences is above 40%, the variable being analyzed will be considered relevant or satisfactory. Among 17 (seventeen) descriptive variables adopted, 9 (nine) were found above 35% of the cases, and 8 (eight) occurred above 40%, considered a critical value or typical for accepting relevancy. Estimator Proportion of the Factor found Huber’s M-Estimator 39,363 Tukey,s Hampel’s Biweight M-Estimator 39,511 40,267 Andrews’Wave 39,547

62

The first variable studied was “Structure, organization and composition of the Legislative Chamber”. It is interesting to observe that this variable was present in 72% of the web sites visited, absent in 28% of the cases. Information about the structure of the chambers is present in the majority of the examined web sites. The second variable, “List of the representatives” refers to whether or not one can find the list of the elected representatives of a Legislative Chamber in its web site. The List of representatives was found in 89.2% of the cases. The variable “Internal Rules” is present in 53.3 % of the observations. This high estimate shows that more than half of the web sites inform on internal operations of their respective legislative chambers. The variable “Organic Law or Constitution” occurs 63.3% of the cases, showing a concern with informing the public regarding the major legal instrument regulating spheres and levels of power. As for “Daily Agenda” the proportion of cases found (30.8%) is smaller than the cases not found (69.2%). Even so, this proportion can considered satisfactory if it is understood that this value corresponds to 1/3 of the Latin American web sites researched. The variable “Consultation to Legislative proposals (Integral text)” occurs 40.8% of the cases. This is the minimum relevant value. In this case, one can accept that the integral texts of the legislative proposals are found in the web sites. Both variables “Contacts or denunciations” and “Suggestions and criticisms” can be found in 90% of the cases, being the highest participation in studied web sites. This is a vigorous indication that almost all web sites are concerned in communicating with society, allowing citizens to have a direct contact with this constituted power. This high number of occurrences demonstrates that the introduction and use of ICT can be a powerful instrument of good governance. The variable “Accounting and Financial Report / Fiscal Management report” can be found 52.5% of the visited web sites. This occurrence, in addition to being a relevant majority, can be understood as advanced in terms of information to the public, since there was no tradition of accountability on public money before Internet was widely used. In Brazil, the Law of Fiscal Responsibility obligating periodic accountability of public expenditures, could be a reason for the increase in this type of information.

63

There is a group of variables below median, that is below the 35% mark. The variable “List of parties and leaders; forms of access” is found in 30% of the cases. The variable “Intranet” has the lowest frequency found, with only 6.7% of the cases, what results in a very low level of internal computerization of the Legislative Chambers. The variable “Publications, Technical Texts, Library” is found in 25.8% of the visited sites. The variable “Newspaper or informative bulletin”, in 35% of the cases. The variable “Radio” with 10%, and “TV” with 15% are also low frequency occurrences. The variable “Voting Results per representative” appears only 5.8% of the time. The variable “Access to bidding and contracts” appears with only 20.8% of occurrences. Introduction of bidding and public contracts in government sites is a result of a great effort in most Latin America countries trying to expand the number of vendors. This important transparency component continues to be mostly published in newspaper or specialized media instead of Internet. This small participation, 20.8% of the cases, is exactly in the inferior quarter, below which all lowest site participation variables can be found. Until 1994, no information on bidding and public contracts was available on the Internet, what makes it somewhat a considerable change. When one examines the first five variables with a high degree of occurrence, one can verify that the factors, “contacts, denunciations, suggestions, criticisms, list of representatives” are unanimously found at above 89% frequency in all sites. The factors “Structure, organic law, constitution” have high participation, above 63.3%. From this result it can be stated that the introduction of ICT brought a powerful interaction tool between society and the legislature, as the access to the Chambers – once personalized, sporadic, and direct — becomes a constant, non-personalized, collective action through Internet.

64

Proportion of occurrences of studied variables in visited sites Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Contacts or denunciations Suggestions / criticisms List of representatives Structure and Organization Organic Law / Constitutions Internal Rules Acctg + Financial Rprt / Fiscal Mgt Rprt Consultation to legislative proposals Newspaper, Informative Bulletin Daily Agenda List of Parties and Leaders, Access Publications, technical texts, library Access to bidding and contracts TV Radio Intranet Voting Results per representative Participation (%) 90,0 90,0 89,2 71,7 63,3 upper fourth 53,3 52,5 40,8 35,0 median 30,8 30,0 25,8 20,8 lower fourth 15,0 10,0 6,7 5,8

It can be observed that most of the occurrences maintain a proportion between 20.8% and 63.3%. Examination of the Box Plot, slightly assymetric to the right, shows a greater dispersion among higher values and smaller dispersion among values with a smaller proportion of cases. It is interesting to observe that variables with smaller participation in the sites (inferior left side of the box plot) have very different characteristics. The variable with least participation (“Voting results per representative”) – the hardest to find with 5.8% of the cases – shows how uninformed citizens are about on how their representatives voted on certain issues. This indicates that it is still difficult to evaluate the performance of representatives via internet, starting from his/her positioning in relation to the issues approved or not. Another variable with low occurrence is “Intranet” within the legislative which provides a measure of internal management. Two variables located below the inferior quartile, “TV” (15%) and “Radio” (10%) are particularly worrying in terms of the legislative bodies’ communication with society. Low TV use by legislatures is comprehensible, 65

given high cost of acquisition, maintenance and operation. However, low utilization rate on Radio, with a relatively low cost, widespread use, is unjustifiable and it can be highly stimulated. Symmetry and variability in factors of governance found

Some highly interesting considerations can be drawn from examination of the variable “Levels of legislative power” and the factors affecting governance. When “Levels of Legislative Power” is: compared with “Suggestion/criticisms” it can be observed that in 95 cases out of 120 (79.2%) the variable “Suggestion/criticisms” shows in municipal legislative sites; • contrasted with the variable “List of representatives”, this variable occurs in 95 cases out of 120 (79.2%) in municipal legislative sites; • compared with “Structure, organization, and composition” it can be observed that in 75 cases out of 120 (62.3%) the variable “Structure, organization, and composition” appears in municipal legislative sites; • contrasted with “Organic Law or Constitution”, this variable shows 64 cases out of 120 (53.3%) in municipal legislative sites;; • compared with “Accounting and Financial Report / Fiscal Management Report”, this variable is observed 58 cases out of 120 (48.3%) in municipal legislative sites; • contrasted with “Internal Rules”, this variable occurs 56 cases out of 120 (47%) in municipal legislative sites;

This shows a high correlation between good governance and the use of ICTs in local governments, measured by the occurrence of certain variables in the sites analyzed.

66

4.3.1 Proportions of occurrences of factors of governance in studied sites Some commentaries can be added from examining intersections between factors analyzed in visited sites. For example, the contingency table below of variables “Suggestions and Criticisms” versus “List of Representatives” show that when the “List of Representatives” is found, the variable “Suggestions and Criticisms” is also present. In 94.4% of the 107 cases when the variable “List of Representatives” occurred, the variable “Suggestions and Criticisms” was also found. Suggestions & Criticisms versus List of Representatives List of Representatives Not Found Found 101 7 Found Suggestions 94,4% 53,8 & Criticisms Not 6 6 Found 5,6% 46,2% 107 13 Total 100,0% 100,0%

Total 108 90,0% 12 10,0% 120 100,0%

The contingency table shows the variable “Suggestions and criticisms” versus “Consultation to Legislative Proposals”, both occurring at the same time. In 98% of 49 cases when the variable “Consultation to Legislative Proposals” occurred, the variable “Suggestions and Criticisms” was also found. Suggestion & Criticism versus Consultation to Legislative Proposals Consultation to Legislative Proposals Not Found Total Found 48 60 108 Found Suggestion & 98,0% 84,5% 90% Criticism 1 11 12 Not Found 2,0% 15,5% 10,0% 49 71 120 Total 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% The relation (if it were one) between variables “access to bidding and public contracts” and “Newspaper” was examined. That is, if present, the point was to know 67

whether the variable “access to bidding” sent the visitor to some other publication, in which this important information on public business would be present. In only 14 out of the 120 reviewed sites these two modes were simultaneous. However, it was curious to see in 13 cases out 120 in which “access to bidding” was found with no reference to “Newspaper”. Access to Bidding and Public Contracts versus Newspapers Newspapers Not Found Total Found 14 13 27 Access to Found 33,3% 16,7% 22,5% Bidding and 28 65 93 Contracts Not Found 66,7% 83,3% 77,5% 42 78 120 Total 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% Examining the intersection between “List of Representatives” and “List of parties, leaders, and forms of access”, the occurrence of both only happens in 33 cases out of 120 (27.5%). Even so, in 91.7% of 36 cases where “List of parties, leaders, and access” is found, one can also find “List of Representatives”. Generally speaking, there is a strong presence of “List of Representatives”, but a weak presence of “List of parties, leaders and form of access”. List of Representatives versus List of Parties, Leaders and Acess List of Parties, Leaders and Acess Not Found Total Found 33 74 107 Found List of 91,7% 88,1% 89,2% Representatives 3 10 13 Not found 8,3% 11,9% 10,8% 36 84 120 Total 100% 100% 100% Interaction between Radio and Newspaper is a case in point. Only 9 out of 120 cases (7.5%) appear simultaneously in studied sites. Only 21.4% of 42 cases showed Newspaper appearing at the same time as Radio. In 96.2% of studied cases there no simultaneous occurrence Radio and Newspaper. 68

Radio

Radio versus Newspaper Newspaper Not Found Found 9 3 Found 21,4% 3,8% 7,5% 2,5% 33 75 Not Found 78,6% 96,2% 27,5% 62,5% 18 102 Total 100,0% 100,0% 15,0% 85,0%

Total 12 10,0% 10,0% 108 90,0% 90,0% 120 100,0% 100,0%

Also interaction between Radio and TV is weak. Only 5% of simultaneous occurrences when the variable Radio is cited together with TV in researched sites. Radio versus TV Found Found Radio Not Found Total 6 33,5% 5,0% 12 66,7% 10,0% 18 100,0% 15,0% TV Not Found 6 5,9% 5,0% 96 94,1% 80,0% 102 100,0% 85,0% Total 12 10,0% 10,0% 108 90,0% 90,0% 120 100,0% 100,0%

69

4.4 Conclusions Some final conclusions can be discussed and presented as guidelines to improve sites according to the research findings. To begin with, ICT use, as it was measured on evaluated sites, has improved aspects of governance with respect to transparency; as shown, all studied variables have some form of presence on the websites. Another measure on the improvement of local governance is the greater interaction between citizens and the legislatures, via Web. However, a few recommendations can be made. The first refers to the need of improving access to different Legislative sites. The second recommendation refers to improving access to the variables, in other words, the need to incorporate factors of governance to the sites. The third refers to the need of expanding the number of local legislative sites in Latin American municipalities. There is an urgent need to incorporate information about variables with proportions below the median, such as: “legislative session daily agenda”; • “list of parties and their respective leaderships”, but above all, forms of access to the parties and their representatives; • “access to bidding and public contracts” done within the public sector; • guaranteeing citizens’ access to “publications, technical texts and libraries” of legislative chambers; • access to “voting results per representative” to society as a whole; • information about existing radios, TVs, newspapers and informative bulletins of the legislative organs and the operation of these communication media

Some other measures can also be considered: To optimize information contained in sites, raising the number of factors of governance found to a higher level from where it is today; to do so it is only necessary to incorporate new and better information to existing sites; • To stimulate the creation of “intranet” networks as a form of improving internal administrative operations of the legislative chambers, therefore also improving their capacity to interact with society;

70

To stimulate the insertion of simultaneous information in several sites in ways that one could improve the degree of association between variables - that is, the sites should incorporate information about governance at different levels; • site managers should be stimulated to standardize their information by clearly incorporating factors such as transparency, citizen participation, decentralization, base social movements, as well as including elements of comparability; • sites should necessarily include a section with “Questions and Answers” and “Proposals to the Legislative organ”.

Finally, one should argue that incorporation of ICT is a process from which there is no turning around. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to extensively create sites in Latin American municipalities. However it would be advisable that uniform guidelines be followed, guidelines which would guarantee the incorporation of relevant information to society and which should effectively permit a high degree of interaction between citizens and governments.

71

5. GUIDELINES FOR ELABORATING A TRAINING PROGRAM FOR ICT UTILIZATION 5.1 Introduction In this age of information society, one of the most important public policies for digital inclusion is exactly the training of human resources necessary not only for optimizing ICT use, but also for its capacity of multiplying instances and applications. The design of a training programme on ICT policy should include, among other aspects, the identification of opportunities for complete insertion of Latin American and the Caribbean countries into the economy of knowledge. Technological development with ICT use can bring to some countries, maybe today excluded, their immediate insertion in an advanced phase of technological progress. That is, ICT use can allow countries to skip phases of technological development. However, the digital gap will not be reduced if the process of introducing “digital democracy” at the local level is not promoted simultaneously. 5.2 Background Several initiatives attempting to stimulate local development of ICT and related training programs can be recalled. For example, an IDB (Inter-American Development Bank) project known as “Creative Community Initiative" - Information Technology for Development Division (www.iadb.org/ict4dev/comuni.htm) had for objective to encourage local communities and citizens to actively get involved and participate in creating their own communities by using ICT, what reflects the true needs of communities / citizens. Creative communities projects also allow communities to participate in the local and central government policy-making process interactively. Some creative communities are also called “smart communities” in some countries. This IDB project suggests three directions countries can take: 1) a privatesector-driven approach; 2) a national government-driven approach; or 3) community or local government-driven approach. The third approach is seen as particularly promising since it builds a local infrastructure which allows ICT utilization,
“namely, the application of ICT driven by the needs and priorities established of local community members and institutions, including some combination of municipal, private sector and civil society actors”. Creative Community Initiative (www.iadb.org/ict4dev/comuni.Htm)

72

There are registered experiences in Latin America which stimulated ICT use by forming “creative communities” such as the project LINCOS (Little Intelligent Communities) in Costa Rica. The Foundation Costa Rica for Development encouraged this initiative seeking to create modern community centers using ICT as a support to stimulate tele-medicine, video-conferences and distance education programs, for example. Other LINCOS initiatives have been registered in other Central American countries. ICT use has been discussed as a priority for the future. However, multiple forms of interaction between community and government can already be implemented. The network operation of social movements, the utilization of distance education mechanisms, the use of less expensive digital means than published media, are excellent examples of digital technologies in the present. The development of a training program on a large scale could contribute significantly to the expansion of ICT utilization and to the optimization of the interaction processes between citizens and government. 5.3 Justification The actors interviewed in the different Latin American regions were unanimous in reaffirming the opportunity and the convenience of implementing such training or educational programs. In addition, different experiences on governance in Latin America all show the possibilities of ICT uses. The introduction of ICT for improving governance in countries such as Brazil, Uruguay, Peru, Ecuador, and Mexico has had an effective outcome, as experiences described and cases reported have shown. As a general finding, statements such as “the public information is public” or “the information should truly be public” or even “full access to information is a citizen right” are currently used in the Latin American countries visited. The role of the press in overseeing citizens’ rights and to “facilitate” access to information is also widely recognized. Public oversight as a vector of transparency in decision-making processes are increasing. Oversight and public control on government’s economic and financial transactions (bidding and contracts) has extended to transnational transactions, to which all should have access (principle of equity), becoming a current practice transformed into law in many countries. 73

5.4 Objectives ICT introduction for improving governance at the local level can change substantially social and political relations in a society. The actors involved in this process, be them now active or those who are yet to be integrated, will have a key role in such a way to include important community segments in the information society Governance at the local level must begin to be analyzed at the legislative level. Local legislatures are represented by a typical elite (president of the municipal chamber in Brazil, president of the Junta of “regidores” in some countries in Latin America), most of the times. However, at the local level governance is directly associated to the figure of the mayor who, in many cases, exerts a strong influence on the local legislature. These two actors have shared responsibility for technological innovation. Our observations have shown that innovations in administrative patterns with computer use as a day-to-day instrument of work, using Internet for e-government, other mechanisms/instruments/technologies of communication for interacting with the community have been initiatives of mayors, presidents of chambers, and local legislators (vereadores and regidores). However, at the level of society many other actors have organized themselves to pose demands on the Legislative and the Executive Branches. This has clarified their operations and strategies of action towards a deeper interaction dynamic between the government and the community. Society has organized itself in networks to inform itself, to exchange information and to guarantee a process of “self organization”. Thus, organized groups in society have presented themselves as a possible and effective alternative to channel the expansion of ICT. 5.5 Assumptions A training program in human resources for stimulating ICT use in order to improve local level governance should take into account how electronic or digital participation differs from processes of traditional participating within a political process. The fundamental difference resides in the fact that digital processes are timeless (with or without elections) and do not require the “physical presence” of those involved in the political process. 74

Training should also answer the following basic questions: - what are the new roles and responsibilities of the Legislature, of the public sector, of the NGOs, in relation to electronic participation in political processes? - what are the resources and factors necessary to make electronic participation effective? - what are the new measures to be taken, given the increase in electronic participation, to guarantee engagement of all citizens and to reduce the digital divide? - how to take electronic participation to minority groups in Latin America, such as women in rural areas, indigenous groups in the Andean region, rural workers in disperse areas such as the Amazon or residents of the peripheries of the large cities? This educational program should consider that individuals to be trained should be apt to participate in interaction projects online with the utilization of ICTs and communication tools such as educational programs through the radio and TV. 5.6 Guidelines The design of a training program for stimulating ICT use as a component in the improvement in governance should include a set of guidelines for the expansion of ICT at the local government. Thus, this policy formulation should take into consideration social agents involved such as political, transformation, and economic actors. Having in mind the Latin American characteristics, it is clear that the goals to be established (how many and who are the individuals to be trained, schools, universities, legislative assemblies, executive branches, several actors involved) can only be specified on a country by country basis. However, one could establish what aspects of governance are to be met, how to increase the characteristics of governance with ICT, and how to educate targetpopulations to improve governance. The target-population intended (public sector, private sector, third sector) shall be examined regarding its principal characteristics such as age group, schooling or educational background, and familiarity with ICT.

75

Other aspects such as children education or change of habits for adults with some schooling should also be considered. Recommendations for implementing such a program, which means, what resources are to be used, what modalities of training and procedures operacionalization are to be used can be summarized below: Modalities of training include “training for trainers” and the “final training of users and those involved in the process”. The format of the courses could have the following categories: courses with attendance; distance education; teleconferences; sites on the web.

The format of the material can include: paper material for publishing; digital material; video tapes; audio material; audio-visual material.

The content and issues to be covered should involve technological education, that is, computer education, access to information techniques, but essentially political education, comprising digital democracy, participatory democracy, interaction with the legislature, citizen participation, the situation and participation on social grassroots movements in the net, the current legislation of each country, its social organization, its political organization, the processes of budgetary formulation and the participatory budget, the questions of transparency, decentralization, the constitution, and justice.

The formulation of the training program should consider the necessary statistics to accomplish its objectives and goals comprehending: per country • Number of internet users per country • Number of computer users per country • Local Legislatures per country • Local Executives per country • Dimension of digital divide • Digital distance to be narrowed by country with respect to Europe or • USA. • Public institutions users of internet • ICT statistics • Radio, Educational Radios, Community Radio, commercial TVs, Educational TVs • Type of personnel to be trained (statistical dimension) • Categories to be formed (dimension) 76
• Population

per country (types and specifications) • Successful experiences in formation of personnel for ICT and governance • Projects existing in the countries • Population target – how many could be trained or be reached To formulate a program means to study the demand, the target public, to clarify for whom should the training be directed, who should have the capacity for multiplying contents, defining clearly the themes and the areas for training. It means, furthermore, to verify the options, the conditions and the trends in Latin America, on utilizing technologies of electronic training (intelligent practices, replicable experiences, models). There should be examined the possibilities for introducing and making permanent the ICT tools, as well as the technological infrastructure for introducing and implementing ICT for improving local governance, on the short, medium and long term. 5.7 Target Population The guidelines for a Training Program for utilization of ICT to improve governance should allow an open training system, involving citizen participation, to discuss the use and the potential of the ICT (existence of programs, stimuli, directives; supply and demand, digital exclusion), announcing the full characteristics of how modern technologies affect citizens, to bring interactive tools to reach the public, should follow an inventory made up of the following elements: Local leaders linked directly and indirectly to the legislative/executive; • Members of local commissions of technologies and/or those interested in technological procedures who could interact with the legislators; • Community leaders interested in “digital inclusion”; • Commissions or Committees for Community action (“pressure” groups, “committees of demand”, local service groups, among others); • Different actors involved in the governance processes for which ICT can be instruments of improving / implementing / efficiency / effectiveness / of their activities.

• Programs

A training program in human resources for stimulating ICT use in order to improve governance in Latin America necessarily involves actors in the process of governance. All those who are members of government and of the community who, in one way or another, are responsible for carrying on the business of politics and

77

administration, who get involved with the issues and with the public decisions should participate in this great effort to reduce the digital divide. Several activities must be started at the same time involving several sectors so that training will provoke the desired effects of engaging effective and increasing digital participation. Public sector personnel (public servants of different levels, managers, responsible for the diffusion of information), education personnel (teachers and students of different levels); and the agents which represent communities and collectivities – all should be integrated in a process of information exchange and of ICT learning so as to maximize of the benefits of its utilization. The guidelines for such a program could be established for different beneficiaries. Thus, in the private sector, small and medium size businesses could be the first recipients of such a program, because the increase in productivity and competitiveness could be based on the incorporation of innovative technologies. To have these companies participating in a training program is crucial, because once they are connected they could become channels of communication between the public and the private. However, most importantly, is to stimulate leadership in the private sector to interact with the public sector through ICT. In the public sector, the educational process must be directed towards guaranteeing higher efficiency of the services rendered by public servants, above all, transparency of governmental actions. The education sector must be primarily the place where investment in innovative technologies should be increased for the creation of conditions needed for training in the abilities needed for ICT utilization and expansion, exactly because of its fundamental characteristics of multiplying attitudes, values and procedures among youth and young professionals. Civil society organizations constitute a natural social network and should be part of the instances to be integrated into a web portal, be it for interaction among themselves or in relation to government. The objective intended is that all actors not only be in a network as passive users on the net, but making active use of it. The pattern to be followed in a training program should include examples of participation, attractive to all participants, including introductory topics on connectivity and use of the Internet, but above all including basic problems of governance and of interactivity among citizens and government. Good teaching practices of distance education are fundamental in this process. 78

Each and every program should privilege the possibilities and the facilities to improve digital democracy.

79

6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS There is a sense of growing citizenship in Latin America; it has been stimulated and is a basic requirement for governance. There is a definite improvement in governance conditions with ICT utilization. ICT represents the introduction of a new form of political relationship in which individuals in society, their representatives, social groups, social and political organizations, pressure groups, among others, can act directly over governments. ICT introduction to improve local governance represents a decisive step in the democratization process of public information and in citizen-government-citizen, or citizen-citizen-government interactions. The citizen-government relationship recognizes and warrants that government authorities will fulfill public demands and priorities. It is generally recognized that ICT use in the public sector is a three-phase process. First, the introduction of computers in public management, particularly in internal services. The second phase regards implanting e-government. Most of the time, this is a unilateral procedure, that is, from government to the citizen, and in most cases it does not permit interaction. The third phase, which is the object of this study, is the utilization of ICT to improve good governance. ICT introduction represents a decisive step in the process of democratization of public information, and in the interaction between citizens and government, assuring the provision of services by government of the public’s demands and priorities . New political relations of groups, individuals, social and political organizations with governments, only has stimulated social movements to increase even more the utilization of ICT as an instrument for improving governance. Within participative social movements, individuals engage in a process of searching informative material (be it of individual or community interests) and actively engage in an interaction process with governments. Therefore, according to the three phases mentioned above, this is one of the factors that moves local governments towards a digital or information society. Different actors interviewed in several regions of Latin America affirm unanimously the opportunity and the convenience on implementing a training program for the formation of people on ICT use. On the other hand, different Latin American experiences in governance already point to strong possibilities of a viable, efficient and relevant utilization of ICT. Cases reporting ICT introduction in countries like Brazil, Uruguay, Peru, Ecuador and Mexico and other available experiences for improving governance have shown their effectiveness. 80

There is a strong interest by municipal administrations in Brazil to see how ICT can help planning and budget formulation and citizen participation. Mayors and presidents of Municipal Chambers agree on the need for a training program and digital inclusion. They stated: • “there is participation in the community through budget formulation; that is citizen participation”; • “the introduction of a training program would help the borough and local leadership”; • “personnel training in ICT would be unavoidable”; • “one needs to increase the capacity of interaction and of communication with Municipal Executive body”; • “there is a need for personnel training; without it, it will be impossible to use ICT in such a way that citizens can follow the work of the Legislature”. There were also original suggestions on training the population, for instance in using trucks with ICT equipment and trainers to roam city boroughs in a true ICT caravan. Brazilian Municipal authorities have stressed the need for stimuli for the use of ICT in private sector activities in such a way that competitiveness and quality of services and products are improved and would result in the consequent increase in the savings and investment capacity of local communities. In Uruguay, contact with Rivera authorities showed that introduction of ICT was timely in order to increase citizen participation in local government and that projects spurring ICT would produce synergy with other ongoing local projects. Digital inclusion is a local government concern where it can be observed that the process files circulating in the Rivera Municipal Executive can already be followed through computers and at the same time there are digital communal centers being implemented in Rivera. Many local conditions exist to make operative a training program for personnel, ranging from infrastructure – such as the existence of a computer laboratory, the availability of courses at the Education Council and a videoconference room, – up to the political will, and dynamic process of modernization of municipal authorities. In Ecuador, a great concern of the central administration concerning the introduction of ICT is the improvement of management processes. Within the 81

presidency of the Ecuadorian Republic, one can find the Coordination of the Management System responsible for the development of a complex managerial system for the presidency. However, it is at the local level that the concern with the utilization of new technologies manifests itself. For example, the Quito Municipal Executive discusses strategic planning with the implementation of the Quito Siglo XXI Development Plan (adjustment 2002-2004). Use of ICTs is highly regarded as a privileged management tool. Ecuadorian municipalities, through their association (AME), have debated the new role of the municipalities in the national scene and how to support decentralization programs, particularly budget decentralization. One of AME’s concerns is on how to create points of support for a training program on ICT. Popular Radios in Ecuador are an example of successful use of communications technologies since this communication media penetrates isolated, almost inaccessible regions, at a low cost and can be operated by local personnel. The “Coordination for Popular Radios of Ecuador” prepared in Quito a series of small insertions on the electoral process dealing with the importance of voting as an exercise of democracy, on the importance of the decision and the weight of the vote. There is a collective work in preparing material which includes training courses. RED AMAZONAS was created to integrate local radio stations dealing with ecological and cultural themes of the Amazon. These are some of the indicators of participation and call for good governance on debate. At the local level, the debates with indigenous population on themes – such as citizenship: citizen participation, the indigenous question and their participation in the administration, decentralization, preparation of local development plans; and participatory planning: inclusion of all citizens in local decision-making processes, experiences on local participative management, local councils – are a constant in all municipalities visited in Ecuador. The “School of Leaders” in the Cotacachi Canton is a pioneer experience in which local leaders are trained by receiving information about citizenship, rights, local administration, community actions, and prepare themselves for a proactive role in the community, including passing along knowledge received to other community members. The “School of Leaders” is a good example of how a training program on information and communication technologies can help improve governance. Its participants could receive training on citizen-government relations and how ICT could intervene to

82

improve governance. In addition, these leaders could act to duplicate knowledge to other community members. Transparency is a recurrent theme in Latin America. Oversight on decision processes, transparency with respect to economic-financial transactions of governmental bidding processes and public contracts, awareness with respect to transaction processes itself to which all should have access according to the principle of equity, has become a common concern and practice, transformed into law in many countries. As a general finding, one can observe that statements such as “public information is public” or “information should be truly public”, or even “full access to information is a citizen right” are widespread in all Latin-American countries visited in this project. The role of the press in raising the awareness of citizen rights and as facilitator of access to information are also recognized. In Peru, a meeting with the local press and the discussions held over problems of access to public information, transparency, and the role of the press in obtaining collective interest public information brought a clear understanding of the role of the press in fighting corruption. This country has active anti-corruption NGOs that could very easily act as focal points in a training program for the use of ICT, as well as in the so called “citizenship oversight”. In Villa El Salvador, many initiatives have propitiated an autonomous and secure development of this urbanized area. Today, Villa el Salvador has become a world reference in how a collective effort can bring benefits to the community. In addition to collective efforts to build houses, schools, community restaurants, voluntary work, there is a strong concern with how modern ICT can help, and how digital exclusion can impede community development. This concern is so powerful that education for a knowledge society has become a reality in this district. A secondary school called “Faith and Happiness” (Fé y Alegria), in Villa El Salvador, maintains a Computer Room where children learn how to use the Internet to gather information about citizenship and other information of general interest for their community, such as, geographical information, projects related to their community, finding available school resources, public interest information, national and international information. One could observe in Lima many social movements with a high degree of participation of concerned citizens with food security and distribution of food. They 83

have many channels of communication with society such as the “Club of Mothers”, the “comedores Populares” (popular eating places). In a “discussion group” with approximately 30 representatives of grassroots social organizations, the thread of the debate was the convenience, the opportunity and the alternatives for the introduction of ICT in their activities through implementing a human resources training program in ICT. There was a clear interest of local society in this subject. This was a remarkable experience where all could express freely their ideas and opinions on digital exclusion and the political and social situation in Peru, particularly in relation to social assistance projects and citizen participation using ICT. While this project was underway, the municipality of Lima promoted, a meeting with several community representatives – Club of Mothers, Popular and Self-Managed Eating Places, Glass of Milk Committee (Club de Madres, Comedores Populares y autogestionarios, Comite Vaso de Leche) – where the possibility of introducing ICT in routine activities of these organizations was discussed. The spontaneous initiatives of citizen organizations to provide a service to the community. Here, however, the representatives expressed their views on how difficult it was to communicate and the high costs of infra-structure, the difficulties and the access prices to the network. Nevertheless, given the characteristics of their activities, these groups could change into an important link to the use of ICT, especially to guarantee their communication between government and civil society. As for decentralization as a factor of governance, there is in Peru a firm will accompanied by a great deal of indecision as to the necessary procedures for its implementation. Government is providing a decentralization policy and opening up a bureaucratic space for thinking, planning and implementation of decentralization, in which ICT has a preponderant role. There is a great concern with the decentralization theme in Peru. There is a strong belief that this country is prepared for digital democracy and that current conditions are favorable to implant ICT to improve governance. There is a part of the public administration that is frankly optimistic in relation to the conditions the country has to assimilate new technologies and reduce digital gap. In Mexico, many municipalities adopted innovating procedures in public administration, such as the construction of a database for automation of taxpayers files, for facilitating bureaucratic services with the Municipal Executive, for urban zoning, for optimizing collection of taxes, among others. These actions denote the importance local governments in Mexico began giving to use of ICT as a form of interaction with communities. 84

In the city of Querétaro, there is a Transparency Commission, a consulting entity with a strong citizen participation, acting as an auxiliary internal control of the municipality, responsible for safeguarding principles of legality, impartiality, loyalty, efficiency, and honor in municipal public administration. Querétaro’s strategy is similar to other municipalities investigated, that is, a strong concern with citizen participation. This municipality tries to provide an effective administration based on social welfare, which underpins the capacity for joint action within society. The administration of other municipalities is creating a network infrastructure to allow their populations integral access to its services on-line. Changes, such as the improvement of citizen services, reduction of administrative costs, increase of citizen trust, transparency of budget accountability, increase of the savings capacity due to free access to public services such as those online are expected. Several advances will be necessary for improving local governance in Latin America. Initially, incentives for social movements using ICT to expand participative democracy are needed; their experiences could be evaluated and eventually replicated and diffused. Transparency mechanisms should become a routine; decentralization must become a current practice, and the education of youth and adults must be stimulated to reduce the digital gap. The use and the potential for expanding ICT depends essentially on a physical base. Magnifying this base will guarantee the necessary infrastructure for the implementation of information technologies, as the case of Internet demonstrates. An adequate physical base is fundamental, that is, expanding the telecommunication system, extending telephone lines, lowering the costs of system access and utilization time, reduction in equipment costs, lowering provider services costs, and, most of all, establishing entry points that facilitate public access, following the example of Internet Cabins (telecentres) in Peru. Having done that, the next step is to prepare an “educational base”, that is, preparing youth and adults to use information technologies. Education for the use of ICT should privilege improvement of local governance. It should comprise political education (understanding the functioning of institutions, mapping institutions, functioning of the parties, access to legislation), the technological education for local governance and the use of ICT to access the legislative and the executive. The use of ICT, measured by the performance of evaluated websites, has improved some aspects of governance with respect to transparency and citizen 85

participation, as it could be observed in the comparative study of inclusion of governance factors in the sites of Legislative Chambers of Latin-American municipalities. Improvement of local governance can also be measured by the greater interaction between citizens and the legislative organs via the web. Some recommendations such as the need to improve access to different legislative sites, the need for incorporating factors of governance into the sites, and the need to expand the number of local legislature sites can be made. The incorporation of ICT is an irreversible process, and there is a strong trend for a generalized creation of institutional websites in Latin-American municipalities. It would be advisable, however, to have general guidelines for a uniform installation process and its development would guarantee the incorporation of relevant information to society. In this case, one could really have interaction between citizens and government. Organized groups, pressure groups, and NGOs have structured themselves to engage in networks to expose their opinions, present their proposals, act in a cohesive and synchronized way, but above all, to allow interaction with the public power. As a network, these actors can behave with more effectiveness in diverse segments of interests. The establishment of networks maximizes permanent connection among these groups in order to guarantee their actions’ effectiveness and rapid communication processes. Hence, regular use of ICT favors groups-society relation and favors a more effective groups-government interaction.

86

7. BIBLIOGRAPHY ABAD, Samuel; SORIA, Daniel; PEREIRA, Roberto; e MARZO, Pier Paolo. “El Acceso a la Información Pública y el Rol de la Defensoria del Pueblo”. Defensoria del Pueblo. 15p. ARAÚJO, Vinícius de Carvalho. (2002) “A conceituação de governabilidade e governança, da sua relação entre si e com o conjunto da reforma do Estado e do seu aparelho”. Texto para discussão, n° 45. Brasília - Brasil: ENAP. 27p. ASOCIACIÓN DE COMUNICADORES SOCIALES CALANDRIA. (1998) “Bases de una concertación local para el desarrollo de Villa El Salvador - Informe Memoria”. Municipalidad Villa El Salvador - Peru. 10p. ASOCIACIÓN DE MUNICIPALIDADES ECUATORIANAS. (2000). “Presidenciables frente a la descentralización”. Revista Poder Municipal. Quito - Ecuador: Publicación de la Asociación de Municipalidades Ecuatorianas, Año 16, n° 44. 44p. Asociación de Municipalidades Ecuatorianas: www.ame.org.ec ASSEMBLEA DE UNIDAD CANTONAL. (1997). “Plan de Desarrollo del Cantón Cotacachi: Un processo participativo”. Cotacachi: Assemblea de Unidad Cantonal. 118p. AZCUETA, Michel. (2001) “Combate Global contra la Pobreza: las soluciones existen. La experiencia de Villa El Salvador”. Escuela Maior de Gestión Municipal. Lima - Peru: Grafica Espejo. 50p. Escuela Maior de Gestión Municipal: www.emayor.edu.pe / emayor@chavin.rcp.net.pe BOBBIO, Norberto; MATTEUCCI, Nicola; e PASQUINO, Giafranco. (1986). “Dicionário de Política”. Brasília - Brasil: Editora da UnB. 1328p. (3a edição) 1909 BONILLA, Marcelo; e CLICHE, Gilles – organizadores. (2001) “Internet y Sociedad en América Latina y el Caribe: investigaciones para sustentar el diálogo”. Quito Ecuador: editado pela Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales – FLACSO. 615p.

87

BOSCHI, Renato Raul.(1999) “Descentralização, Clientelismo e Capital Social na Governança Urbana: Comparando Belo Horizonte e Salvador”. Revista Dados, n° 4, volume 42, 1999. Rio de Janeiro – Brasil. p. 655-690. BUSCAGLIA, Edgardo; DIRANI, Valeria; e JARAMILLO, Ana Lucía. (2000) “Estúdio sobre la Correlación entre la existência de Justicia y la Consolidación de la Democracia em Ecuador”. Quito - Ecuador: editado pela Corporación Latinoamericana para el Desarrollo – CLD. 68p. CLD: www.cdlonline.org / cld@cld.org.ec / www.vivendolademocracia.org CAAP - Centro Andino de Acción Popular. (2000). Revista Ecuador Debate. “Sociopolíticas de la pobreza y la exclusión”. Quito - Ecuador: publicado pelo Centro Andino de Acción Popular – CAAP, deciembre 2000. 264p. CAAP: Caap1@Caap.org.ec CALANDRIA. (2002). “Elige ahora, vigila después. Campaña por el Control Ciudadano de la Getión Pública”. Lima - Peru: editado pela Calandria. 27p. CARETAS. (2002). “Gobierno eletrônico: a un click de distancia”. Sección Publicitaria Especial. n° 3, octubre 2002. Peru. 14p. CARRIÓN, Fernando - organizador. (2002) “Seguridad ciudadana, ¿ espejismo o realidad?” Quito - Ecuador: editado pela Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales – FLACSO. 520p. FLACSO: www.flacso.org.ec CASTELLS, Manuel. (2001) “La Galaxia Internet: Reflexiones sobre internet, empresa y sociedad”. Espanha: Editora Areté. 317p. CEPEDA, Juan J. P. (2002) “Golpe y Contragolpe: La ‘Rebelión de Quito’ del 21 de enero de 2000”. Quito - Ecuador: Ediciones Abya-Yala. 90p. CHIRIBOGA, M.; LLUCO, M.; MARTÍNEZ, L.; FLORES, R.; LARA, E.; TONELLO, J.; MORALES, P.; e RODRÍGUEZ, L. (1998) “Una Minga por la Vida: Crédito para los pobres del campo”. Quito - Ecuador: editado pelo Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales – ILDIS e Ediciones Abya-Yala. 144p. ILDIS: ildisl@ildis.org.ec

88

COELHO, Espartaco Madureira. (2001) “Governo eletrônico e seus impactos na estrutura e na força de trabalho das Organizações Públicas”. Revista do Serviço Público, ano 52, n° 2, abril-junho 2001. Brasília: ENAP - Escola Nacional de Administração Pública. p. 111-136.52 CÓMITE DE APOYO SOCIAL DA MUNICIPALIDAD DE SURCO. “Súbete ya... al tren del saber”. Programa Surcano de Alfabetizacion. Municipalidad de Surco Peru. 130p. (cartilha de alfabetização) CONSEJO DE LA PRENSA PERUANA. (2000) “Los Principios de Lima: Libertad de Expresión y Acceso a la Información en Poder del Estado”. Lima - Peru: Consejo de la Prensa Peruana. 10p. Consejo de la Prensa Peruana: www.consejoprensaperuana.org.pe / consejopp@amauta.rcp.net.pe CONSEJO DE LA PRENSA PERUANA. (2002) “Linea de Acceso a la Información en Poder del Estado”. Lima - Peru: Consejo de la Prensa Peruana. 32p. Consejo de la Prensa Peruana: www.consejoprensaperuana.org.pe / postmast@consejopp.org.pe CONSEJO DE LA PRENSA PERUANA. (2002). “Comentarios del Consejo de la Prensa Peruana al Proyecto de Ley de Reforma de la Constituición”. Lima Peru. 10p. CORTINA, Adela. (1999) “Los ciudadanos como protagonistas”. Barcelona - Espanha: Editora Galaxia Gutenberg – Círculo de Lectores. 126p. DECLARACIÓN UNIVERSAL DE DERECHOS HUMANOS. (2002). “Acceso a las ondas: Principios sobre la normativa de libertad de expresión y la regulación de la difusión de radio y televisión”. London, England. 16p. Artículo 19. DIRECCIÓN DE IMAGEM MUNICIPAL. (2000). Revista Somos Surco. Año 5, n° 56, julio de 2000. 31p. DIRECCIÓN DE IMAGEM MUNICIPAL. (2002) Revista Somos Surco. Año 7, n° 77, mayo de 2002. 31p. DIRECCIÓN DE IMAGEM MUNICIPAL. (2002) Revista Somos Surco. Año 7, n° 79, julio de 2002. 31p.

89

DIRECCIÓN DE IMAGEM MUNICIPAL. (2002) Revista Somos Surco. Año 7, n° 80, agosto de 2002. 31p. DIRECCIÓN DE IMAGEM MUNICIPAL. (2002). Revista Somos Surco. Año 7, n° 74, febrero de 2002. 31p. DIRECCIÓN GENERAL DE COMUNICACIÓN SOCIAL. (2002). “Boletín interno para los trabajadores del Municipio de Querétaro - Nuestras acciones”. Santiago de Querétaro – México: Servicio de Informacíon Municipal. Año 2, nº 18, setiembre de 2002. 12p. FACULTAD DE TRADUCCIÓN, INTERPRETACCIÓN Y CIENCIAS DE LA COMUNICACIÓN. (2002) Peru. (2001). “Comunifé – Revista de Comunicación Social”. Lima – Peru: Universidad Femenina del Sagrado Corazon. 165p. dpcc@unife.edu.pe FAUCHER, Philipe. (1998) “Restaurando a Governabilidade: O Brasil (afinal) se acertou?” [A tradução do original em inglês, "Restoring Governance: Has Brazil Got it Right (at Last)?" é de Vera Pereira.] Revista Dados, n° 1, volume 41, 1998. Rio de Janeiro – Brasil. p. 5-50. FERREIRA, Aurélio Buarque de Holanda. (1999) “O Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa”. Rio de Janeiro - Brasil: Editora Nova Fronteira. 2128p. FIGUEROA, Luis Guerrero. (2002) “Sembrando Descentralización y Concertación: un modelo de gestión local y participativa”. Lima - Peru: editado pelo Fondo Editorial del Congresso del Perú. 215p. ] Fondo Editorial del Congresso del Perú: http://www.congresso.gob.pe / webmaster@congresso.gob.pe FUNDACIÓN DE INVESTIGACIÓN Y PROMOCIÓN SOCIAL “JOSÉ PERALTA”. (2002). “Ecuador: su realidad”. Quito - Ecuador: Artes Gráficas Silva. 338p. Fundación de Investigación y Promoción Social “José Peralta”: fijp@upsq.edu.ec GIANELLA, Claudio Zavalla. (2002) “Ponle seguro al Taxi: Una experiencia de periodismo cívico”. Lima - Peru: editado pela Asociación de Comunicadores Sociales Calandria. 59p.

90

GIUSTI, Miguel; e MERINO, María Isabel. (2001) “Ciudadanos en la Sociedad de la Información”. Lima - Peru: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. 149p. GOBIERNO DE LA PROVINCIA DE PICHINCHA. (2002). “Atlas de la Provincia de Pichincha” Quito - Peru: Consejo Provincial de Pichincha. 38p. Dirección de Planificación y Ambiente: diplagpp@pichincha.gov.ec GOBIERNO DE LA PROVINCIA DE PICHINCHA. (2002). “Plan General de Desarrollo de Pichincha: 2002-2022”. Tomo I. Quito - Peru: Consejo Provincial de Pichincha. 367p. Dirección de Planificación y Ambiente: diplagpp@pichincha.gov.ec GOBIERNO DE LA PROVINCIA DE PICHINCHA. (2002). “Plan General de Desarrollo de Pichincha: 2002-2022”. Tomo II. Quito - Peru: Consejo Provincial de Pichincha. 422p. Dirección de Planificación y Ambiente: diplagpp@pichincha.gov.ec GUZMÁN, Marco Antonio. (2001) “Descentralización, Autonomías y Solidaridad Nacional. Situación e desafíos de los consejos provinciales e municipalidades”. Quito - Ecuador: Corporación Editora Nacional. 265p. INSTITUTO DE DOCUMENTAÇÃO DE FUNDAÇÃO GETÚLIO VARGAS. (1986) “Dicionário de Ciências Sociais”. Rio de Janeiro - Brasil: Editora FGV. 1422p. LAVANDER, Sandro Macassi. (2001) “Culturas Juveniles, Medios y Ciudadana. El nuevo horizonte generacional y las disyuntivas de la inserción de los jóvenes en la sociedad”. Lima - Peru: editado pelo Centro de Investigación de la Asociación de Comunicadores Sociales Calandria. 157p. Centro de Investigación de la Asociación de Comunicadores Sociales Calandria: invest@caland.org.pe LEON, Kela. (2002) “Entre el Convenio y la Ley: La Ley de Trasparencia y Acceso a la Información y el Gobierno Eletrônico financiado por Gates podrían convertise en herramientas anticorrupición en su saludo a la bandera”. Revista Caretas, n° 18, julio 2002. Lima - Peru. p. 76-77 LEON, Kela. (2002) “Los Portales se oscurecen: El gobierno empieza a recortar importantes avances en materia de derecho ciudadano a la información

91

pública, promulgados por el Gobierno de transación”. Revista Caretas, n° 10, enero 2002. Lima - Peru. p. 26-28 LÓPEZ, Rafael Quintero. (2002) “Entre el Hastío y la Participación Ciudadana: Partidos y Elecciones en el Ecuador (2000-2002)”. Quito - Ecuador: Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales – ILDIS e Ediciones Abya-Yala. 143p. ILDIS: ildisl@ildis.org.ec MARGARIDO, Maria José Ferreira Foregatto. (2000) “Modelo para informatização das administrações públicas municipais”. Texto para discussão, n° 35. Brasília Brasil: ENAP. 21p. MELO, Marcus André B. C. de. (1995), "Ingovernabilidade: Desagregando o Argumento", in L. Valladares (org.), Governabilidade e Pobreza. Rio de Janeiro – Brasil: Ed. Civilização Brasileira. MINISTÉRIO DE LA PRESIDÊNCIA DE LA REPUBLICA DEL PERU. (2002) “Descentralizacíon: Eleciones Regionales y Municipales. Recopilación Normativa”. Lima – Peru: Secretaría Técnica para el Processo de Descentralización. 127p. MINISTÉRIO DE LA PRESIDÊNCIA DE LA REPUBLICA DEL PERU. (2002). “Peru Descentralizado, Programa de Desarrollo de Capacidades Locales y Regionales para la Descentralización”. Lima – Peru: Secretaría Técnica para el Processo de Descentralización. 115p. MINISTÉRIO DE LA PRESIDÊNCIA DE LA REPUBLICA DEL PERU. (2002). “Plan Nacional para la Conectividad de los Gobiernos Regionales y Locales”. Lima Peru: Secretaría Técnica para el Processo de Descentralización. 118p. MINISTÉRIO DE LA PRESIDÊNCIA DE LA REPUBLICA DEL PERU. (2002). “Plan Nacional de Capacitación para el fortalecimiento de los Gobiernos Regionales y Locales”. Lima - Peru: Secretaría Técnica para el Processo de Descentralización. 116p. MINISTERIO DE PROMOCIÓN DE LA MUJER Y EL DESARROLLO HUMANO. (2002). “Documentos de divulgação do Programa Nacional de Asistencia Alimentar – PRONAA”. Lima - Peru. PRONAA: www.pronaa.gov.pe 92

MOLINA, Carlos Hugo; e ZAMORA, Gastón. (2001) “La Participación y la Descentralización Instrumentos para el Desarrollo”. III Sessión Foro Descentralista. Piura - Peru. MORENO, Rosa María Alfaro. (2002) “Ciudadan@s ‘de a de veras”. Una propuesta de vigilancia de la gestión pública, desde un enfoque comunicacional”. Lima Peru: editado pela Asociación de Comunicadores Sociales Calandria. 164p. MORENO, Rosa Maria; NAVARRO, Francisco; CHÁVEZ, Aura Alicia; e LAVANDER, Sandro. (2002) “L@s Niñ@s Te Ven y ¿ qué ven? Una televisión violenta que divierte y desencanta”. Lima - Peru: Veeduría Ciudadana de la Comunicación Social. 180p. Veeduría Ciudadana de la Comunicación Social: www.veeduria.org.pe MUNICIPALIDAD DE SANTIAGO DE SURCO. “Memoria 1999”. (1999). Peru:, p. 67 a 80. MUÑOZ J., Francisco - organizador. (1999) “Descentralizacion”. Quito - Ecuador: Tramasocial Editorial. 277p. MURAKAMI, Yusuke. (2000) “La Democracia según C y D: Un estudio de la conciencia y el comportamiento político de los sectores populares de Lima”. Lima - Peru: editado pelo Instituto del Estudios Peruanos - IEP. 225p. Instituto del Estudios Peruanos: librería@iep.org.pe ODEPLAN - Oficina de la Planificación de la Presidencia de la Republica. (2000) “Guia del administrador del Sistema de Programacion y Seguimiento de la Inversion Publica del Ecuador”. Quito - Ecuador: Editorial Ecuador. 46p. ODEPLAN - Oficina de la Planificación de la Presidencia de la Republica. (2000). “Planificacion Participativa, descentralizada y Sistemas de Informacion. Modulos de Capacitacion”. Quito - Ecuador: editado pela ODEPLAN. 96p. PNUD - Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo. (1999) “Informe sobre Dearrollo Humano – Equador 1999”. Quito - Ecuador: Editora Voluntad. 231p. NUD: registry.ec@undp.org PNUD - Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo. (2001) “Las tecnologí@s de información y comunicación para el desarrollo humano”. 93

Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano Ecuador 2001. Quito - Ecuador: Editora Rimana. 266p. PNUD: registry.ec@undp.org PNUD - Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo. “Poner el adelanto tecnológico al servicio del desarrollo humano”. Informe sobre el Desarrollo Humano. México: Mundi-Prensa Libros. 268p. PRESIDENCIA MUNICIPAL DE QUERÉTARO. (2001). “Plan Municipal de Desarrollo 2000-2003”. Santiago de Querétaro – México. 27p. PRESIDENCIA MUNICIPAL DE QUERÉTARO. (2002) “Gaceta Municipal”. Santiago de Querétaro – México: Secretaría del Ayuntamento. Ano 5, nº 38, noviembre de 2002. 28p. PRESIDENCIA MUNICIPAL DE QUERÉTARO. (2002). “2 da expo informe: Centro Cívico”. Santiago de Querétaro – México. 14p. PRESIDENCIA MUNICIPAL DE QUERÉTARO. (2002). “dos anos de acciones – Segundo Informe”. Santiago de Querétaro – México. 65p. PRESIDENCIA MUNICIPAL DE QUERÉTARO. (2002). “Gaceta Municipal”. Santiago de Querétaro – México: Secretaría del Ayuntamento. Ano 5, nº 22, março de 2002. 40p. PRESIDENCIA MUNICIPAL DE QUERÉTARO. (2002). “Gaceta Municipal”. Santiago de Querétaro – México: Secretaría del Ayuntamento. Ano 5, nº 29, julio de 2002. 27p. PUBLICACIÓN MENSUAL DE LA PRESIDENCIA MUNICIPAL DE QUERÉTARO. (2002). “acciones... la responsabilidad de estar bien informados.Santiago de Querétaro – México. Ano 2, nº 22, noviembre de 2002. 16p. REVESZ, Bruno. (2001) “Avances y Retrocesos de la descentralización Territorial y Política en Colombia, Bolivia y Peru”. III Sessión Foro Descentralista. Piura Peru. 20 p. RIVAS, Maria Tereza; e DONOVAN, Patricio. (2001) “El Diagnóstico Participativo”. Quito - Ecuador: Ediciones Abya-Yala. 248p.

94

SATO, Cláudio Seiji. (1997) “Utilizando a internet na administração pública”. Texto para discussão, n° 22. Brasília - Brasil: ENAP. 30p. SELENER, Daniel; e participación de ZAPATA, Gabriela; Purdy, Christopher. (1996) “Manual de sistematización participativa. Documentando, evaluando y aprendiendo de nuestros proyetos de desarrollo”. Quito - Ecuador: editado pelo Instituto Internacional de Reconstrucción Rural. 107p. Daniel Selener: daniel@iirr.ecx.ec SIERRA, Enrique; e MOLINA, Oswaldo. (2000) “Ecuador: su pueblo. Raíces, Drama y Lucha”. Quito - Ecuador: Editora Erdasi. 226p. TAMAYO, Cesar Mosquera. (1999) “Guia Metodológica para Facilitadores del Desarrollo Local Sostenible”. Metodología, Planificación por Decisiones Estratégicas. Quito - Ecuador: Ediciones Abyayala. 94p. Cesar Mosquera: cmosquer@uio.satnet.net TEIXEIRA, Alberto. (2002) “A Pobreza Digital e as Políticas de Inclusão”. Jornal O POVO, 25 de Junho de 2002. Brasil. URIOSTE, Miguel. (2001) “Bolivia: Descentralización Municipal y Participación Popular”. III Sessión Foro Descentralista. Piura - Peru. 28p. URZUA, Raul; e AGÜERO, Felipe. (1998) “Fracturas en la Gobernabilidad Democratica”. Centros de Analisis de Politicas Publicas. Santhiago - Chile: Universidad de Chile. 555p. VEEDURÍA CIUDADANA DE LA COMUNICACIÓN SOCIAL. (2002). “Para mejorar la radio y la television: Hacia una nueva Ley de Telecomunicaciones y más allá de ella”. Medios de Comunicación, Etica Pública y Democracia. Lima - Peru. 47p. VEEDURÍA CIUDADANA DE LA COMUNICACIÓN SOCIAL. (2002). “Una television parcializada: Hacia una regulación que garantice la libertad de expresión y el derecho ciudadano a una información de calidad”. Lima - Peru: Veeduría Ciudadana de la Comunicación Social. 32p. Veeduría Ciudadana de la Comunicación Social: www.veeduria.org.pe

95

VELASCO, Antonio Zapata. (1996) “Sociedad y Poder Local: La Cominidad de Villa El salvador 1971-1996. Testemunios e reflexiones de un actor: Michel Azcueta”. Lima - Peru: Desco. 379p. VELÁSQUEZ, Fabio E. (2001) “Desencantos y Promesas: a Propósito de la Participación en la Gestión Local en Colombia”. III Sessión Foro Descentralista. Piura - Peru. 18p.

7.1 Digital Bibliography – Eletronic Media CIUDADANIA, LEY, DESARROLLO SUSTENIBLE – CLD. (2002). “Directorio de Candidatos para las Elecciones Generales de Octubre de 2002”. Ecuador. COORDENADORA DE RÁDIOS POPULARES E EDUCATIVAS DEL ECUADOR – CORAPE . (2002). Cd de Divulgação Política. Ecuador. DIRECCIÓN GENERAL DE COMUNICACIÓN SOCIAL. (2002). “2 da expo informe”. Santiago de Querétaro, México. MUNICIPIO METROPOLITANO DE QUITO. (2002). “Plan Siglo XXI – Quito en Constuccion”. Quito, Ecuador. OFICINA DE PLANIFICACIÓN DE LA PRESIDENCIA DE LA REPUBLICA – ODEPLAN. “Infoplan”. Quito, Ecuador. Quito, Ecuador:19-21 Junio 2002. SEMINARIO REGIONAL. (2002). “Informática como Apoyo a la Gestión Diplomático-Consular en las Misiones Extranjeras”. TESORERIA MUNICIPAL DEL MUNICIPIO DE TLALNEPANTLA DE BAZ. (2002). “Experiencias en la Modernizacion Administrativa Municipal”. Municipio de Tlalnepantla de Baz, México. UNIÓN IBEROAMERICANA DE MUNICIPALISTAS – UIM. (2002). “VI Congreso Iberoamericano de Municipalistas – Documentación de Apoyo”. Santo Domingo, República Dominicana: octubre-noviembre de 2002. VICEPRESIDENCIA DE LA REPUBLICA DEL ECUADOR. (2002). “Curso de Planificación Estrategica Provincial”. Ecuador.

96

7.2 Digital Bibliography - Internet Sites ASOCIACIÓN HISPANOAMERICANA DE CENTROS DE INVESTIGACIÓN Y EMPRESAS DE TELECOMUNICACIONES – AHCIET. “Área de Información y Contenidos de AHCIET”. Downloaded at: www.iberomunicipios.org BOSSIO, Jorge. “Estudios sobre las cabinas de internet en el Perú”. El Fenómeno. Downloaded at: http://www.yachay.com.pe/especiales/cabinas/2b.htm BROWN, Mark Malloch. (2001) “Democracy and the Information Revolution”. United Nations Development Programme. Downloaded at: http://www.digitaldividenetwork.org/content/stories/index.cfm?key=192 CARVALHO, Maria do Carmo A. A. (1998) “Participação Social no Brasil Hoje”. PÓLIS PAPERS. Downloaded at: http://www.polis.org.br/publicacoes/papers/19982.html CARVALHO; Marcio A. (2002) “Os Grupos e a Câmara dos Deputados”. CFEMEA - CENTRO FEMINISTA DE ESTUDOS E ASSESSORIA. Downloaded at: http://www.cfemea.org.br/quemsomos/apresentacao.asp COLIGAÇÃO LULA PRESIDENTE. “Infra-estrutura e Desenvolvimento Sustentável Tecnologia da Informação”. PROGRAMA DE GOVERNO DA COLIGAÇÃO LULA PRESIDENTE. Downloaded at: http://www.estadao.com.br/ CORNEJO, Juan Morano. "Debemos enseñar y capacitar sobre los beneficios de una sociedad digital. ¿Cuándo y cómo surgió la idea de crear una página web?". Punta Arenas, Chile. Downloaded at: www.puntaarenas.cl COWLING, David. “Analisys: does e-voting work? “ CHADE, Jamil. “Brasil assina convênio com a ONU e vai 'exportar' urnas”. Downloaded at:http://tb.bol.com.br/simpleRedirect.html?srv=cn&trg=http://www.estado.com.b r/editorias//2002/10/23/pol002.html DECLARATION ON THE DIGITAL DIVIDE. "Transforming Drops of Concern into an Ocean of Change". Downloaded at: http://www.einclusionsite.org/eng/declaration_eng.asp Downloaded at: http://www.essere.com.br/lobby_e_grupos_de_pressao.htm 97

Downloaded at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/2122142.stm Downloaded at: http://www.commedia.org.uk/airflash/af-63/green.htm Downloaded at: http://www.yachay.com.pe/especiales/cabinas/2b.htm DURRANT, Fay. (2001) “Knowledge Management In The Context Of Government”. Head Department of Library and Information Studies University of the West Indies. Jamaica. 12p. Downloaded at: http://www.unpan.org HARCUP, Tony. “Europe debates media convergence”. HEEKS, Richard. (2001) “Understanding E-Government for Development”. Institute for Development Policy and Management. Manchester: University of Manchester. Downloaded at: http://www.unpan.org/europe-e-government.asp KAUFMANN, Daniel; KRAAY, Aart; e ZOIDO- LOBATÓN, Pablo. (2002) “Governance Matters II - Updated Indicators for 2000/01”. The World Bank Development Research Group and World Bank Institute Governance, Regulation and Finance Division. Standford. February 2002. 53p. Downloaded at: http://www.unpan.org KAWAMURA, Eiko. “Tendencias: cabinas Internet, la oportunidad olvidada”. Downloaded at: http://www.yachay.com.pe/especiales/cabinas/2b.htm KINTTO, Lucas. (March 18, 2002) “Ecuador: Unesco distingue gestión de alcalde indígena”. Downloaded at: http://www.perspectivaciudadana.com/020323/americalatina01.html KÜSTER, Angela. (2002) “Governo Eletrônico e a Participação Cidadã: experiências da Alemanha, do Brasil e da Espanha”. Relatório do Seminário Internacional. Fortaleza Brasil, junho de 2002. Downloaded at: http://www.adenauer.com.br/HTML/Relatorios/Relat-semgoverno%20eletr%C3%B4nico.htm OFICINA DE COOPERACIÓN EUROPEAID - UNIDAD E2. Comisión Europea. “@LIS: ALianza para la Sociedad de la Información”. Downloaded at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/projects/alis/index_en.htm PILCO, Sami Ayriwa. (2000) “La red de Internet y los Pueblos Indígenas de América Latina: Experiencias y perspectivas”. Departamento de Español y Estudios Latinoamericanos / Instituto de Estudios de los Medios. Universidad de Bergen. Downloaded at: http://www.nativeweb.org/hosted/sami/tesis.html

98

PNUD - Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo. (2001). “Human development report 2001: making new technologies work for human development”. NY – Oxford: Oxford University Press. 264p. Downloaded at: http://www.undp.org/hdr2001 PONT, Raul. (1999) “Democracia Representativa e Democracia Participativa”. Seminário Internacional sobre Democracia Participativa. Porto Alegre. Downloaded at: http://www.portoalegre.rs.gov.br/democraciaparticipativa/Raul%20Pont_%20por t.rtf PUMA, Michael J.; CHAPLIN, Duncan D.; e PAPE, Andreas D. “The E-Rate and the Digital Divide”. Urban Institute. Downloaded at: http://www.digitaldividenetwork.org/content/stories/index.cfm?key=93 SANTOS, Maria Helena de Castro. (1997) “Governabilidade, Governança e Democracia: Criação de Capacidade Governativa e Relações ExecutivoLegislativo no Brasil Pós-Constituinte”. Revista Dados, n° 3, volume 40, 1997. Brasil. Downloaded at: <http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S001152581997000300003&lng=pt&nrm=iso>. ISSN 0011-5258. SEINFERT, Jefrey W.; e PETERSEN, R. Eric. (2001) “The Promises of all Things E? Expectations and Implications in Electronic Government”. San Francisco - USA: American Political Science Association. SOUSA, Maria de Fátima Guerra de. “Guia do Aluno: desafios da aprendizagem colaborativa em rede”. Curso: Gestão de Tecnologias da Informação e da Comunicação. Brasília - Brasil: Proinfo/MEC – UnB. Downloaded at: http://www.informacao.srv.br/proinfo/arquivos/gestao/manaluno.doc TAGLANG, Kevin. (December 10, 2001.) “A Low-Tech, Low-Cost Tool for the homeless”. Downloaded at: http://www.digitaldividenetwork.org/content/stories/index.cfm?key=204 THOMPSON, Bill. (October 6, 2002) Why the poor need technology”. United Kingdon. Downloaded at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/2295447.stm TRANSPARÊNCIA BRASIL. Downloaded at: http://www.transparencia.org.br/tbrasilie.asp

99

UNIÓN DE ORGANIZACIONES CAMPESINAS INDÍGENAS DE COTACACHI – UNORCAC. Downloaded at: http://unorcac.nativeweb.org/somos.html UNITED NATIONS - DIVISION FOR PUBLIC ECONOMICS AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. (2001). “Benchmarking E-government: A Global Perspective”. American Society for Public Administration. New York - EUA. 74p. Downloaded at: http://www.unpan.org VENTURO, Sandro. “Cabinas, acceso y redes sociales”. DILEMAS. ZHOU, Hongren. (2001) “Global Perspectives on E-Government”. The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Jamaica. Downloaded at: http://www.unpan.org

Miscellaneous "Shall we vote by Internet?" emocracy/Newsletter4.htm Downloaded at: http://www.issy.com/e-

“Can a text message save democracy?” (2002) England. Downloaded at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/sci_tech/2000/dot_life/1949180.stm “Canadá”. Downloaded at: http://www.cfired.org.ar/ingles/boletin/ultimo/conec1.htm “Chasquinet.org”. Downloaded at: http://www.chasquinet.org/index.html “Cotacachi: Servir a todos”. Downloaded at: http://puebloindio.nativeweb.org/pag4.html “Creative Community initiative”. http://www.iadb.org/ict4dev/comuni.htm Downloaded at:

“Democratización de la gestión municipal para un desarrollo equitativo y sostenible”. Cotacachi, Ecuador. Downloaded at: http://habitat.aq.upm.es/bpal/onu00/bp763.html “Democratization of Municipal Management for Equitable and Sustainable Development”. Ecuador. Downloaded at: http://www.iclei.org/%20/iclei/ecuador.html

100

“Digital Divide Basics”. Downloaded http://www.digitaldividenetwork.org/content/sections/index.cfm?key=2 “E-governance”. Downloaded at: http://www.iadb.org/ict4dev/governance.htm “E-Government”. Downloaded at: http://www.iadb.org/ict4dev/gov.htm “El Programa Huascaram 2002 – 2006”. Downloaded at: www.huascaran.gob.pe

at:

“E-Participation and the Policy Process from the Perspective of the Public Service Questions to consider”. Downloaded at: http://www.electronicgov.net/news/eparticipation/background.shtml “Estado del Arte de los Telecentros de América Latina y el Caribe”. Downloaded at: http://www.tele-centros.org/estarte/index.html “Etapas y Rupturas en el Proceso de Control del Territorio”. Downloaded at: http://www.perugobierno.gob.pe/frame.asp?dsc_url_web=http%3A//www.inei.go b.pe/permapa/permapa0.htm “E-vote Election ‘by 2006”. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/2133286.stm “E-voting put to the test”. (2002) Reino http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1916184.stm Downloaded Unido. Downloaded at: at: at:

“E-voting: A load of old ballots?” (2002) England. Downloaded http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/sci_tech/2000/dot_life/1746902.stm “Experiências de Telecentros”. Downloaded centros.org/comunidad/index.php?aux=experien.php at:

http://www.tele-

“FUST - Fundo de Universalização dos Serviços de Telecomunicações”. Downloaded at: http://www.nativeweb.org/hosted/sami/tesis.html “Gobernabilidad”. Downloaded http://www.britishcouncil.org.ar/spanish/governance/gobernabilidad.htm “ICT for Development”. Downloaded http://www.developmentgateway.org/node/133831/?&more=yes Downloaded at: at: at:

“Information Technology for Development”. http://www.iadb.org/ict4dev/ictdev.htm

101

“Literacy and Learning”. Downloaded http://www.digitaldividenetwork.org/content/sections/index.cfm?key=4

at:

“Livro Verde - Sociedade da Informação no Brasil”. (2000) Organizador - Tadao Takahashi. Brasília - Brasil: Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia. 153p. Downloaded at: http://www.socinfo.org.br “Minority vote in Arizona Presidencial Preference Primary Strengthened by high voter turnout”. Downloaded at: http://www.votation.com/us/pressroom/pr2000/0324.htm “O que é a TV Senado?” Downloaded at: http://www.senado.gov.br/tv/ “Proposta de Política de Governo Eletrônico para o Poder Executivo Federal”. (2000) Grupo de Trabalho Novas Formas Eletrônicas de Interação. Brasília - Brasil. Downloaded at: http://www.governoeletronico.gov.br/arquivos/proposta_de_politica_de_governo _eletronico.pdf “Public Policy and Regulatory Framework in Knowledge Economy”. Downloaded at: http://www.iadb.org/ict4dev/public.htm “Race for e-votes off to slow start”. (2002) England. Downloaded at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/wales/1955060.stm “Text message votes 'trivialises' elections”. (2002) England. Downloaded at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/2002212.stm “The United Nations Secretary General, Kofi Annan, explains why he believes that information and communication technologies can improve the lives of people in developing countries”. (October 6, 2002) United Kingdon. Downloaded at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/2295711.stm “Voting in the information age: the debate over technology”. THE DEMOCRACY ON LINE PROJECT. The George Washington University. Downloaded at: http://www.democracyonline.org “World: EuropeReferendum in Switzerland”. Newsroom of the BBC World Service. Downloaded at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/322298.stm Transparencia y Acceso a la Información http://www.peru.org.pe/default.asp Pública. Downloaded at:

102

ANNEX 1: GLOSSARY Advanced infrastructure Telecommunications system (hardware and software) that allows for long distance digital connections, with service quality and high-speed. It includes backbones and their derivations. LIVRO VERDE(2000) Advanced Research Projects Agency Network – ARPANET Far reaching net created in 1969 by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (Arpa), consorting with the main US universities and research centers, to investigate high-speed safe communication techniques for defense. Known as the Internet’s mother, it stopped operations in 1990. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Applicative It is computer software to perform specific tasks such as text processors, worksheets to organize and list data, file compactors, and simulations. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line – ADSL Technology is used to allow for data o be send through conventional phone lines at high levels. http://www.adsl.com Asynchronous Transfer Mode – ATM Net technology based on data transfer in not necessarily periodical (nonsynchronal) cells, fixed and of small size, to allow for digital data transmission of different software through the same net. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Backbone “Back Spine” of a net. Relations composing the high-speed infrastructure, intertwining several nets and sub nets. Bit In a binary digital system, bit is the smallest information unit, assuming only two values – 0 or 1 (binary digit).

103

Bitnet Net formed by central computers (mainframe) linking North-American educational institutions mainly, to transmit electronic mail messages. It is fact the acronym of “because it is time network”. Despite its differences from Internet, the email messages could be exchanged between two nets. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Bps Bits per second. The bps measures data transfer rate. Budgetary Data Integrated System (SIDOR - Brazil) SIDOR is a set of procedures to process the budget through electronic computation. The Federal Budget Secretariat (SOF) supervises SIDOR.. http://www.stn.fazenda.gov.br/servicos/glossario/glossario_a.asp Byte Information unit corresponding to eight bits. Citizenship Net It is a system for intervention, articulation and promotion of local development in all its forms. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Content Information that can be used that circulates at the Internet, such as home pages, messages, email addresses, digital library contents, etc. Cybercoffee Public space where Internet access services are offered usually through payment of a fee – usually at commercial establishments such as bookshops, bars, pubs, restaurants. Cyberdemocracy or Digital Democracy Democracy model that allows for the daily and direct participation of citizens in the public policy decision making process through information nets and automated communication. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/

104

Decentralization Jointly with centralization, they represent two opposing principles at an organization. The first disaggregating, and the second aggregating power. They are formulas, tendencies, principles of an organization, ways of setting an administrative or political apparatus. As to pluralism, decentralization also configures the fight for local autonomy aiming at democratization; a distribution of sovereign to arrive at selfgoverning. However; this vision that many call utopist can lead to disorganization and conflict. BOBBIO, Norberto; MATTEUCCI, Nicola; and PASQUINO, Giafranco. (1986) Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing – DWDM Technology used to increase data transmission speed through fiber optics. Digital alphabetization Process of acquiring basic computer use, net use, and Internet services abilities. LIVRO VERDE(2000) Digital City Transfer of city models which exist in real life to the info world. A different way to approach a real city, to walk on its streets and most emblematic sites, to know the services offered in the city. It also allows for the participation of its citizens through the Internet. These digital cities allow citizens to, among other things, solve tasks via the Internet, electronic commerce, phone-work, phone-information, phone-medicine and tourism. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Digital Division There has always been a gap between those people and communities who can make effective use of informatics technology and those who cannot. Now, more than ever, unequal adoption of technology excludes many from reaping the fruits of the economy. We use the term "digital divide" to refer to this gap between those who can effectively use new information and communication tools, such as the Internet, and those who cannot. While a consensus does not exist on the extent of the divide (and whether the divide is growing or narrowing), researchers are nearly unanimous in acknowledging that some sort of divide exists at this point in time. http://www.digitaldividenetwork.org/content/sections/index.cfm?key=2 Digital Exclusion The process of connecting on line (specially to the Internet) in several regions in the World is very diverse. The infrastructure required includes telecommunications infrastructure and computational infrastructure. It is asymmetrically distributed. As a 105

consequence, there is a clear tendency to division of the world in people who benefit from the infrastructure and people who are excluded from the digital revolution. Digital Inclusion Proposals and programs to seek solutions to provide Internet access to people from different social segments and regions, avoiding the creation of an “info-excluded” class. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Digital library Digital Library contains contents in digital and electronic format, to be accessed locally or via communication nets. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Digitalization Conversion of information to the digital format. Digital Subscriber Line General term to all kinds of subscriber digital lines, including ADSL and SDSL. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Directory Service Service to help locate people, objects or information associated to an organization similar to the phone books with information on the telephone owners. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Distance Learning Educational process where there is a physical separations between teacher and student. It substitutes the personal interaction which is typical of a classroom by the ICT interaction. ICT has incorporated new services from email to teleconferencing. E-business Economic activity where buy and sell transactions take place, including marketing and payments. Over the net, in digital format. LIVRO VERDE (2000) E-commerce or electronic commerce E-commerce refers to economic transactions (buy and sell) through computer nets. E-government In general, it can be said that in most places the general principles of Egovernment, at any stage, are democratization of information access; universal service

106

access to the public; individual privacy protection; and reduction in regional and social inequalities. In sum, e-government is offering services and information through the Internet continuously (24 hoursx7days) in an integrated way, fast, objectively, transparently and with social control. http://www.governoeletronico.gov.br/r2 Electronic Conferences or Discussion Lists Group of people who associate to each other in order to exchange, via email, information or opinions on specific topics or for a specific goal. People subscribe to a user list, have their addresses stored at an specific software for message distribution. Messages exchanged by such groups can be considered sort of a publication, or virtual forum. FERREIRA, Aurélio B. (1999) Electronic Data Interchange – EDI Data transfer technology at a firm or between different firms through electronic nets. As more firms connect to the Internet, EDI importance increases, as it is a tool which is easy to use for buy and sell, and for information exchange. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Electronic kiosk Space or boots with computers linked to information systems available for consultation by a specific public (company employees, park visitors, general public). LIVRO VERDE (2000) E-mail, electronic mail Message transmission modality through the electronic net, specially through the Internet. EPP Smaller access providers connect to bigger ones, forming nets which connect Internet access points called Points of Presence (PoP) or Electronic Points of Presence (EPP). The Internet infrastructure in itself is composed by net backbones linking several PoPs or EPPs and forming the part which concentrates the biggest communication capacity. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Eurocities The main association of European digital cities. The goal is to give voice to European digital cities in face of the European community institutions, as well as

107

institutions in other places of the world. It aims to be a meeting point for common interests of European cities, where 8 out of 10 Europeans live. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ European Computer´s Driving Licence – ECDL Certificate to attest capacity to use computer and Internet. E-vote Automatizaton of the electoral process, making elections easier and more accessible. E-vote generates the correct elections results in just a few hours after the closing of the election ballots. It leaves little room for external interference or vote counting maneuvers. It is the development of a current trend of technology use in various sectors. Federal Government Finance Administration Integrated System (SIAFI – Brazil) SIAFI monitors all activity related to finance administration of Union resources. It centralizes or uniforms the budget execution procedure through informatics. http://www.stn.fazenda.gov.br/servicos/glossario/glossario_a.asp Financial Decentralization Movement of financial resources among several administrative and budgetary units including: - Quota - Credit in banking institution current account allocated to a unit - Transfer-distribution of financial resources according to available credit, to be used by the budgetary units. - Sub-Transfer-redistribution, by budgetary units, to administrative units or other budgetary units in charge of making the payments in order to implement their work programs. http://www.stn.fazenda.gov.br/servicos/glossario/glossario_a.asp Geographic Information System - GIS System used to unite, transform, manipulate, analyse, and produce georeferenciated information, usually presented as maps, virtual 3D models, tables, lists, etc. LIVRO VERDE (2000) GigaPoP Presence point at the Internet of a new generation with traffic capacity of billion bits per second. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm 108

Global City It is the world net of digital cities. City that thanks to the communication electronic means and communication nets can be virtually accessed by every person in the planet. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Governance Many studies associate governance to good governance or good government. The general definition of governance (World Bank) is the way authority is used in the country’s resource management towards development. Governance, according to Melo, refers to the modus operandi of public policies, which includes among other things issues linked to the institutional-political format of the decision-making process, to the definition of the appropriate public/private policy mix, to participation and decentralization, to policy financing mechanisms and to the global reach of the programs (cf. Melo, 1995:30-31). The concept is not restrict, however, to State administrative and managerial aspects, nor to the effective functioning of the State apparatus. The more recent discussion of governance goes beyond the operational aspect to incorporate issues related to the articulation patterns and cooperation between social and political actors, institutional arrangements that coordinate and regulate the transaction within and through economic system frontiers (Hollingsworth, Schmitter and Streeck apud Melo, 1995). It is included in this definition not only the traditional mechanisms of interest aggregation and articulation, such as political parties and pressure groups, but also informal social nets (of vendors, families, managers), hierarchies and associations of various types. SANTOS; Maria Helena de Castro. (1997) Governance Broadening the governance concept leads to a less precise distinction from the governance concept. However, Melo and Diniz prefer to keep the latter to systemic and institutional conditions under which power is exercised, such as the political system characteristics, the government form, the relations between branches, the interest intermediation system. Martins (1995) expresses himself in a similar way and makes the distinction between governance as institutional architecture and governance basically as actors’ performance and their capability of political authority. It seems to me there is little analytical meaning in trying to withhold a concept, to say, as empty as governance, unless as a historical homage. In such case, the term will be intrinsically 109

linked to ingovernance due to over deaman and excess of participation. Other actors, however, keep on using the term governance in a broader way, already referring to the modern context of adjustment policies and State reform, assuming democratic ambivalence. SANTOS; Maria Helena de Castro. (1997) Hacker A person with high technical ability to deal with computations systems or net communications. Cracker - specialists in info systems that invade other systems without authorization. LIVRO VERDE (2000) High Definition Television – HDTV Emergent television pattern, not yet very much used commercially, which uses modern digital technology, offering image quality similar to a 35mm film and sound quality similar to a compact disk. LIVRO VERDE (2000) High Performance Computing – HPC Computer technology including computer equipment and software aiming at optimizing computational services to certain applications or type of applications. The optimization is usually on processing speed or on the relation between speed and cost. LIVRO VERDE (2000) High Performance Computing and Communication – HPCC In addition to the high performance computation, it also takes the many configurations needed for the high-speed performance. LIVRO VERDE (2000) High-Performance Processing Processing involving computers, basic software and applications manipulating a large volume of data and executing calculus in high speed. See also HPC. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Host In Internet context, a host is a computer or a device which has an Internet address and can communicate with other hosts. It is a knot at the net. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Home page First and main page of a website. Serves as table of contents or index of documents saved on that or at a different site.

110

Human Resources Administration Integrated System (SIAPE - Brazil) SIAPE monitors and controls National Treasury expenses with personnel. http://www.stn.fazenda.gov.br/servicos/glossario/glossario_a.asp Hypertext Text containing links to other documents or other parts of the same document. The links are associated to words or expressions so that the reader can move to the other parts automatically. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Hypertext Markup Language – HTML Standard language used to write document pages for the WWW. It makes it possible to prepare documents with graphs and links, to visualize them in WWW compatible systems. Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP Set of rules for information exchange (text, images, sound, video, and other files) na WWW. It is an application protocol. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm ICQ The letters of the abbreviation are read as “I C=see Q=kyou” which equals to the pronunciation of “I seek you”. It is one of the many instant message services available at the Internet. It establishes a connection for message exchange in real time, between two or more people simultaneously connected to the Internet. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Information and communication technology - ICT Digital technology to deal with, organize, and disseminate information. Information Infrastructure Technology & Applications - IITA Nasa program closed in 1997. It intended to demonstrate how emergent technologies can be used to transform scientific information accessible to schools and to the general public. Its successor is the Learning Technologies Project – LTP. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Information Society Information Society is a phase of social development when its members (citizens, firms, public administration) acquire and share any information instantly, from any where, in any preferred way. It is a new era when information flows at 111

unimaginable speed and quantity. Information becomes fundamental social and economical values. It as if an immense net of communication means covers entire countries, connects continents, and reach houses and firms. They are telephone lines, microwave channels, optical fiber lines, transoceanic submarine cables, satellite transmissions. They are computers processing, controlling, coordinating information, making information compatible to several kinds of receptors, distinct communication means. The technology involved has been transforming production structure and practice, commercialization and consumption, cooperation and competition, changing the value generation chain. Similarly, regions, social segments, economical sectors, organizations and individuals are affected differently by this new paradigm, according to each one’s possibility of information access, knowledge base, and above all the capacity to learn and to innovate. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Infovia Communication structure between computers, used for information exchange. Group of procedures used to interconnect, process, control and make information transmissions compatible, as well as electronic and net communication and services. Infoville Infoville is a demonstration project of the complete construction of a local virtual community, where citizens can access various services, preferably the ones closer to their houses, the ones related to their local government and own community, such as local supermarkets, local bank branches etc. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Intelligent City Represents the physical part of a real city, that is, its calbes or infrastructure. An intelligent city can be defined as a city where urban planning concepts are applied, as well as digital telecommunication, space distribution and fostering of telemathic nets that allow for a better quality of living and a good economic development to its citizens. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Interactive social capacitation Human capacity building for use of media and ICT in favor of community and individual needs and interests, with responsibility and citizenshipness. It has the assumption of capacity building for citizenship, what means that information communication and technology must also be used to democratize social processes, to foster policy and government action transparency, and to stimulate citizen mobilization and active participation where suitable. ICT must be used to integrate school and 112

community such as education can mobilize society and conquer the link between the formal and the informal. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Internet World system of computer nets – the net of nets – that can be used by anyone, anywhere in the world where there is an access point. It offers ample choice of basic services, such as electronic mail, free information access, authorized information access, in several digital formats, file transfers. The basic protocol for data transport is TCP/IP. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Internet 2 North-American initiative aiming at the development of advanced net technologies and applications. Internet for academic and research community. It involves 150 North-American universities, in addition to government and industry agencies. It aims at developing new applications such as phone-medicine, digital libraries, virtual labs, among other things which as yet not possible with the current available technology. It can also be written as Internet II. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Internet Protocol – IP Protocol responsible for routing packages between two systems which use the protocol family TCP/IP used at the Internet. The basic Internet protocol. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Internet Protocol Security Standard being developed for better safety for net communications. Different from previous standards, which looked at safety at the application level, the Ipsec offers safety at the net level, or on package treatments. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Internet Service Provider – ISP Firms offering Internet and Internet services access. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Legislative Branch of the State which corresponds to the representatives of the society, as the society delegates to the legislative the power to formulate and reformulate laws, public rules in harmony with its time. FUNDAÇÃO GETÚLIO VARGAS. (1986), Social Sciences Dictionary

113

Link Bridge or link to other documents and/or parts of document, in hypertext. Local Virtual Community Participants can access several services, with preference to the ones which are closer by, that is, all services related to their own community. The aim is to organize in well-defined structures the different parts of a community, as a neighborhood, educational institutions, cultural institutions, health centers, small firms, and above all the citizens who will use all these services. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Management Act of managing part of public assets, under the responsibility of a specific unit. Applied to funds, supervised entities, among others. http://www.stn.fazenda.gov.br/servicos/glossario/glossario_a.asp Mercocities It is the net where a MERCOSUL group meets. The group is composed of mayors, governors, and responsible parties of the big urban centers of the countries joining MERCOSUL. Its goal is to strengthen local administrations as a logical and natural counterbalance to globalization. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Metadata Data on other data, that is, any data used to assist in the identification, description and localization of information. In other words, it is the structured data that describes the features of an information source. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Modem Device that allows a computer to transmit and receive data through a logical analogical communication mean such as a telephone line. It is the acronym of modulator-demodulator. News groups Groups interact in digital nets (on line) and discuss issues of common interest.

114

On Line Electronic data processing modality of interactive and instataneous character. It allows for instant consultation and corrections by the user, as well as instant messages from the system. http://www.stn.fazenda.gov.br/servicos/glossario/glossario_a.asp Owners Nets Nets used by closed groups. In general they are not accordingly to universal standards. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Package Routing Forwarding packages through interlinked hosts, linked by at least two nets, aiming at reaching the package destiny. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Political Participation Seen as full citizenship and voting rights, involving all population groups. Also seen as integration as a counterpart to decision-making concentrated in political or economical groups generating exclusion problems. The participation can be divided in two levels, a formal level involving the vote, the military service, and the payment of taxes; and the informal level, where participation is spontaneous, voluntary, in development projects and in decisions which are of interest of group. FUNDAÇÃO GETÚLIO VARGAS.(1986) Social Sciences Dictionary. Portal Site consolidating several products, services, information on a certain area of interest. Web access portals usually offer free email services, news, chat services, general information, search tools etc. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Portable Operating System Interface – POSIX Group of interfaces to an operational system, based on UNIX, standardized to firms to develop software for use with computational systems of different producers. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Pressure Groups Pressure groups is a temporary organization, the subgroup of an interest group at certain moments, aiming at acquiring certain goals through pressure. That is, the group tries to influence a decision, in the case of a Parliament, approving or rejecting a project. CARVALHO; Marcio A. (2002)

115

Pressure groups on line According to the definition of pressure groups, those are temporary organizations that use technology for data processing of interactive and instantaneous features that allow consultations and corrections by the user, as well as instant messages. Protocol Group of rules forming a language used by computers to intercommunicate. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Provider Firm or institution offering Internet services. Public keys infrastructure Digital certification system that verifies and authenticates the validity of each involved party at any Internet transaction. The goal is to guarantee authenticity, integrity, and legal validity of electronic documents, support applications, and certified applications which use digital certificates, as well as the safety of electronic transactions. LIVRO VERDE (2000) QoS Quality of Service. Net capacity to offer services with differentiated characteristics according to the application needs. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Remote Login Procedure for remote access to a computer through the net. Resource reSerVation Protocol – RSVP Protocol for control and signalization developed by IETF to guarantee QoS to the Internet and to other TCP/IP nets. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Server Physical and computational base to offer net services. An Internet web server is the software to satisfy the requests for webpages or HTML files. Set-top box Set-top box is a converser that connects to a TV set in order to navigate the Internet or use email through a telephone or cable TV connection. The TV set screen 116

is then used as a computer monitor. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Simple Mail Transfer Protocol – SMTP Protocol from the TCP/IP protocol family which sends email messages from one server to another. Site Colection of webpages on a given topic, institution, firm, person, etc Social Movements Collective attempt to provoke change, overall or partial change, in certain social institutions, or to create a new social order. FUNDAÇÃO GETÚLIO VARGAS. (1986) Social Sciences Dictionary Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line – SDSL Symmetric digital subscriber line is a technology used to send data through conventional telephone lines at high rates. It functions sending digital pulses for the high frequency telephone cables area. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Technological Platforms Informatics applications to develop complete projects, even if not necessarily complete. In the case of digital cities, these applications are divided in different groups to develop various kinds of services to the citizens: e-commerce, databases, languages to access databases through the Internet, online banking etc http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Telecenter A project of a social organization, government, or NGO concerned with education and local cultural services, as well as with how to use and mobilize technology tools to achieve education and local cultural services. Telecenters are commited to the universal access to information. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Telecities Open net for urban development through Telematic Nets. TeleCities was founded in 1993 by Eurocities members willing to concentrate their interest in activities and issues related to the information society and social, economic and cultural development in European cities. 117

http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Teleconference Telecommunications interactive modality to make it possible that several people, in different places, communicate simultaneously via telephone line, computer net, radio, among others. FERREIRA, Aurélio B. (1999) Telematics Telematics is the science dealing with manipulation and use of information through the computer. It makes use of a set of techniques and distance communication services associating informatics to telecommunications. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Telemedicine Use of computers and telecommunications to: medicine (remote and local), medical related teaching-learning process, and scientific medical research. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Telework Professional activity developed with the worker being physically distant form the conventional work place, that is, away from the hiring party. LIVRO VERDE (2000) TEN-155 Pan-European advanced technology net to support cooperative research and net applications. In addition to providing high-speed IP services, it offers advanced communications services and functions as test area for net and advanced applications research. LIVRO VERDE (2000) The Internet Engineering Task Force – IETF International community of designers, workers, firms, and researchers with the common main concern on the architectural structure of the Internet and its operation with ease. IETF is open to anyone who wants to join. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Traffic Exchange Point Interconnection point of different nets’ backbones. It makes it possible for different nets to exchange information. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol – TCP/IP Set of basic Internet protocols to send packages from one host to the other. 118

http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm Transparency Dissemination of public information, informing with clarity and ample access (including the Internet) the information on the acts and decisions of the public administration. Uniform Resource Locator – URL Internet page finder. It is a pattern to nominate resources at the Internet, providing uniform addresses for Internet pages. Universal Information Services The concept of universal services evolved due to the speed of information technology and communications development, and also due to the new opportunities and assymetries provoked by this development – sources of new forms of exclusion to be continuously monitored and considered. However, the concept must include democratization, since it is not only to make access and services available, but also to transform citizens in Internet users, make citizens able to use the Internet actively. In order to achieve universal services, we must seek solutions to include poor population in the digital world and to promote new solutions to Internet access to people with special need, in remote areas or moving. Therefore, fostering universal services means to finding solutions and promoting actions to broaden and improve access infrastructure as well as to improve human capacity so that an informed and self-conscious citizen can use the services available. The majority of the government programs and proposals for universal service access has at least three fronts: public education, information for citizenship and incentives to assembling centers for Internet public access service. Vertical Portal or Vortal Portal directed to a specific public, offering a series of on line services to satisfy this specific public. It can serve as a catalyser, enhancing the creation of a new virtual community with very well defined common interests, through retro feeding to create new services or reinventing others. LIVRO VERDE (2000) Very high-speed Backbone Network Service It is na experimental high-speed backbone being tested and developed by MCI, USA for the next generation of net technology. It allows for the transportation of very large volumes of voice, data, and video, at speeds that are basically four times higher than current technology speed. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm 119

Virtual City Virtual projects or non-real projects that are developed based on new technologies that allow for recreating the necessary conditions for visitors to use all services offered by a real city. In certain cases, they are mixed with the digital cities. An example of a virtual city is http://www.ciudadfutura.com/. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Virtual Community It is where community members get in touch through the Internet using several ways such as distribution lists, chats etc. Members with similar interests use the Internet as a means to gather together and communicate. http://www.iberomunicipios.org/glosario/ Virtual library Service uniting information captured, organized, systematized, integrated and made available at the net. Also various forms of data and metadata in reference to documents, people, institutions, services and objects. Information can be presented as a mix of text and multimedia (image, sound and video). LIVRO VERDE (2000) Wi-Fi Technology under development that makes it possible to access the Internet, computer intranets, electronic agendas etc without cable. Wireless Internet. Wireless Application Protocol – WAP Specification of a communications protocol set conceived by commercial firms that standardized wireless use, such as mobile phones and radio transmitters, to Internet access including e-mail, WWW, newsgroups among others. http://www.socinfo.org.br/livro_verde/download.htm World Wide Web, WWW or Web Set of documents and services that is part of the Internet, organized under hypertext webpages and each page is identified with an URL.

120

ANNEX 2: LIST OF INTERVIEWEES List of Interviewees – Brazil • Ângelo Sant’Anna, Vice-Prefeito de Sant’Ana do Livramento. • Jorge Maurício da Cruz, Presidente da Associação das Indústrias de Guaíba. • Manuel Strigni, Prefeito de Guaíba. • Olmes Oscar da Silveira, Presidente da Câmara Municipal de Guaíba. • Paulo Guilherme Costa, Presidente da Câmara Legislativa de Sant’Ana do Livramento. • Prefeito de Barra do Ribeiro. • Presidente da Câmara Municipal de Barra do Ribeiro. List of Interviewees – Uruguay • Héctor Rocha Freire, Edil Presidente, Junta Departamental de Rivera. • Tabaré Viera Duarte, Intendente de Rivera. List of Interviewees – Peru • Ana Cecilia del Castilho, Asesora, Santiago de Surco. • Antonio Rojas Tamariz, Secretario Técnico de la Presidencia del Consejo de Ministros, Lima. • Cláudio Zavala Gianella, Comunicador Social de la Associacíon de Comunicadores Sociales Calandria, Lima. • Diana Lourdes Palacios Mosquera, Jefe de Promocion de Inversiones Gerencia Regional Planificación Presupuesto y Desarrollo Institucional de la Presidencia del Consejo de Ministros, Lima. • Jorge Perlacios, Secretario Descentralización, Lima. Técnico de lo Consejo Nacional de

121

• Kela Léon Amézaga, Directora de Proyetos de lo Consejo de la Prensa Peruana, Lima. • Luis Félix Mercado Pérez, Jefe de Unidad de Cooperación Técnica Internacional y Concertación - Ministerio de la Presidencia, Lima. • Luis Hernández Ortiz, Ministro Director de Coodinación Intersectorial – Gobiernos Locales y Regionales - Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, MRE de Lima. • Luis León Avilés, Asesor de la Dirección General de Coordinacción – Gobiernos Locales y Regionales, MRE de Lima. • Michel Azcueta, Regidor Metropolitano de Lima. • Modesto Julca Jara, Jefe Nacional de lo Programa Nacional de Asistencia Alimentaaria, Lima. • Óscar Alfredo Quezada Macchiavello, Decano de la Facultad de Comunicación de Universidade de Lima. • Patrícia Uribe, Representante de la Unesco en Perú. • Ricardo Uceda, Instituto Prensa y Sociedad, Lima. • Roberto Gomez Baca, Asesor de Alcadía, Santiago de Surco. • Rudecindo Vega Carreazo, Jefe de Gabinete de Asesores, Ministerio de Vivienda,. Construcción y Saneamiento. • Sandro Macassi, Director Del Centro de Investigación de la Associacíon de Comunicadores Sociales Calandria, Lima. • Willian Marin Vicente, Jeefe de la Oficina de Proyetos Especiales, da Municipalidad de Santiago de Surco. List of Interviewees – Ecuador • Cristhian Bahamonde, Subdirector Ejecutivo – CLD, Quito. • Francisco Jijón, Director de Prospectiva Estrategica y Competitividad, Quito.

122

• Gissela Dávila, Coordinadora de Radios Populares del Ecuador – CORAPE, Quito. • Gonzálo Bustos, Subdirector de Apoyo a la Producción, Gobierno de Pichincha. • Guilhermo Tapia Nicola, Secretario General de la Associación de Municipalidades Ecuatorianas, Quito. • Gustavo Abdo, Director de Apoyo a la Producción,Gobierno de Pichincha. • Jorge Murrieta Oquendo, Coordinador de la Comissiones Gobierno em Línea y Comercio Eletrónico, Quito. • Juan Fernando Terán, Director de Proyetos de la Fundacion de Accion Social – Supervivencia, Quito. • Manolo Pullupaxi, Comissiones Gobierno em Línea y Comercio Eletrónico, Quito. • Mauro Cerbino, Coordinador Programa de Comunicación – Flacso. • Rafael Parreño, Secretario General Vicepresidencia de la Republica. List of Interviewees – Mexico Conjuntura Nacional Mexicana e Estado de Chiapas • Luiz Pineda – ONG “Equipo Pueblo”. Coordinador de Fortalecimiento Municipal y Desarollo Local. • Miguel Pickard White – Centro de Investigaciones Economicas e Politicas de Acción Cumunitaria – CIEPAC. • Mario Alberto Rivera Contreras – Alianza Cívica. Responsable por Proyeto. • Laura Salas Sánchez– Comissión Mexicana de Defensa y Promoción de los Derechos Humanos, A.C.. Coordinadora de Comunicación. Municipio de Querétaro • Raul Ávila de la Vega – Director de Atencíón Ciudadana. • Rafael Castillo Vander peereboon – Jefe de Participación Social. 123

• Jorge Moreno Guerrero – Coordinador Operativo de la Dirección General de Comunicación Social. • Carlos Bringas Buenrostro – Jefe del Depto. de Comercio en Via Pública y Tianguis (Secretaria de Gobierno). • Jesus Mesa Altamiro – Director de Asuntos del Cabildo. Delegação de Iztapalapa (Cidade do México) • Claudia Carapia – Coordinadora de La Unidade de Atención Ciudadana. • Manuel Padrón Flores – Lider Coordinador de proyectos de la Dirección de Participación Ciudadana. • Jose Luiz Gutierrez Néri – ONG “Equipo Pueblo” – Coordenador do projeto de Autodesenvolvimento Integral de San Miguel de Teotongo (Colônia da Delegação de Iztapalapa).

124

ANNEX 3: LIST OF SITES Ação Educativa - http://www.acaoeducativa.org Accesouniversal.net - http://www.accesouniversal.cl/ Acessa São Paulo - Iniciativa do Governo do Estado de São Paulo para combater a exclusão digital. A Escola do Futuro faz a capacitação dos monitores dos Infocentros do Acessa São Paulo e assessora em ações de fomento à participação pública. www.acessasaopaulo.sp.gov.br Asociación Andaluza de Redes Ciudadanas - http://www.redciudand.org/ Barcelona - www.canet.upc.es Brecha digital: ¿Un problema? - La reducción de la brecha digital inicialmente fue enfocada al acceso a la tecnología de la información (TI). Hoy en día la relevancia del contenido es, quizá, mas importante que el acceso. http://www.labrechadigital.org/bd_unproblema.html Callus - www.callus.org Carreño - www.carrenodigital.net Cidade do Conhecimento – É uma rede de comunicação entre o mundo escolar e o mundo do trabalho mediada pelo Instituto de Estudos Avançados da Universidade de São Paulo www.usp.br/iea/cidade Cieza - www.cieza.net Comitê para descentralização da Informática - http://www.cdi.org.br/ Comitê pela Democratização da Informática Rio de Janeiro - O CDI é uma organização não governamental que promove ações para integrar membros de comunidades carentes, principalmente crianças e jovens, no mundo digital. www.cdi.org.br Comitê pela Democratização da Informática São Paulo O CDI-SP tem como objetivo proporcionar às comunidades de baixa renda o mais amplo acesso e uso da informática. Em cinco anos de atividades já criou 55 EICs (Escolas de Informática e Cidadania). www.cdisp.org.br COMPI - Comitê para Popularização da Informática - O Comitê para Popularização da Informática (COMPI), é uma Organização Não Governamental (ONG) sem fins lucrativos, que tem como objetivo diminuir as barreiras de exclusão social através de cursos e programas educacionais. Ele também promove a ecologia, alfabetização, capacitação profissional, gerenciamento e administração de negócios

125

próprios, cidadania, programa contra drogas e contra a violência e direitos humanos. www.compi.org.br/ Cornellá www.cornella.net Creative Community initiative http://www.iadb.org/ict4dev/comuni.htm Cuenca www.cuenca.org Democracia Digital - http://www.democraciadigital.org/ E-governance http://www.iadb.org/ict4dev/governance.htm e-Government http://www.iadb.org/ict4dev/gov.htm Ekhos I+C http://www.ekhos.cl/ Entre el comercio electrónico y la cabina pública - En Internet rigen otros parámetros económicos que en los sectores económicos tradicionales. Los servicios o buscadores de Internet se negocian en bolsa por cientos o aun miles de millones de dólares, pese al hecho de que la mayoría hace ya años que arrojan déficit. http://www.dse.de/zeitschr/ds100-3.htm Estado del Arte de los Telecentros de América Latina y el Caribe - ¿Qué son los telecentros? ¿Cuál es su origen? ¿De dónde vienen? ¿Qué buscan? ¿Hacia dónde van? son algunas de las importantes preguntas contestadas en este estudio de Somos@Telecentros. http://www.tele-centros.org/estarte/index.html Europa - Information Society http://europa.eu.int/information_society/index_en.htm Europa - Information Society http://europa.eu.int/information_society/index_en.htm Fase - http://www.fase.org.br/ Fórum Social Mundial – http://www.forumsocialmundial.org.br FREEDOM.ORG - http://www.governance.org/ Fundación ChasquiNet - É uma entidade sem fins lucrativos com o objetivo de Internet aos indivíduos, organizações e comunidades que trabalham na área social no Equador e região. www.chasquinet.org Fundación ChasquiNet - http://www.chasquinet.org/ GELEDÉS - Instituto da Mulher Negra – http://www.geledes.com.br/ Getafe - www.getafe.net Governo Eletrônico - http://www.governoeletronico.gov.br/ Horta de Valencia - www.joves.net 126

Ibase - http://www.ibase.br ICT for Development - http://www.developmentgateway.org ICT for Development http://www.developmentgateway.org/node/133831/?&more=yes ICTs and agriculture - www.agricta.org ICTs and agriculture - www.agricta.org IDRC-International Women’s Tribune Centre http://www.iwtc.org. IDRC-International Women’s Tribune Centre http://www.iwtc.org. IN3 - IN3 es un centro interdisciplinario de referencia para el estudio, la investigación y el desarrollo, que impulsa y reúne proyectos relacionados con los efectos, el uso y las aplicaciones de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) en los diferentes ámbitos del conocimiento y sectores de la sociedad. www.uoc.es/in3/esp/missio.htm Inclusão Digital - O site apresenta os resultados dos trabalhos desenvolvidos durante o evento Oficina para Inclusão Digital. http://www.inclusaodigital.org.br/ Independent Média Center - http://www.indymedia.org Information Society - http://europa.eu.int/information_society/index_en.htm Information Society - http://europa.eu.int/information_society Information Technology for Development http://www.iadb.org/ict4dev/ictdev.htm Information Technology for Development http://www.iadb.org/ict4dev/ictdev.htm Instituto del Ciudadano - http://www.rcp.net.pe/idc/ Instituto del Ciudadano - http://www.rcp.net.pe/idc/ Instituto para el Desarrollo de la democracia Participativa http://www.idepa.org.ar/ Instituto para el Desarrollo de la democracia Participativa http://www.idepa.org.ar/ Internet y Riqueza - El rápido avance de la tecnología ha contribuido a una división más profunda en claras zonas de progreso y retraso. Esta condición ha generado un proceso de polarización en todos los ámbitos. La brecha digital impulsada por un desarrollo vertiginoso acentúa la disparidad entre países ricos y pobres. 127

Internet y Riqueza - El rápido avance de la tecnología ha contribuido a una división más profunda en claras zonas de progreso y retraso. Esta condición ha generado un proceso de polarización en todos los ámbitos. La brecha digital impulsada por un desarrollo vertiginoso acentúa la disparidad entre países ricos y pobres. http://www.teleddes.org/deinteres/Internetyriqueza.html Jun - www.ayuntamientojun.org La Agencia Latinoamericana de Información-ALAI es un organismo de comunicación comprometido con la vigencia plena de los derechos humanos y la participación de los movimientos sociales en el desarrollo de América Latina. Su accionar se inscribe en la lucha por la democratización de la comunicación, como condición básica de la vida democrática y la justicia social. www.alainet.org/ La brecha digital como factor negativo - El analfabetismo digital ya está aquí y crece cada día; y la brecha digital en lugar de decrecer, aumenta. La sociedad digital parece que es sólo para unos pocos. Debemos actuar ahora para no quedar afuera, y para que no queden fuera del proceso la mayoría. http://enredando.com/cas/enredados/enredados192.html La brecha digital: el caramelo de los políticos - Hoy en día, todos los gobiernos que presumen de innovadores, e incluso las entidades supranacionales, cuentan con ambiciosos proyectos cuyo objetivo último sería conectar a Internet a todos los ciudadanos que caminan sobre el planeta y permitir que todo el mundo tenga acceso a los beneficios de la Sociedad de la Información. http://www.baquia.com/com/20001109/art00024.html La Nueva Ciudad de Dios - Una iniciativa multimedia de Ediciones Siruela sobre la cibercultura en el siglo XXI. Este proyecto incluye un sitio de Internet, un libro y un Cd-Rom. http://siruela.com/ncd/ Las telecomunicaciones en zonas de interés social - La implantación de servicios de comunicaciones en áreas rurales, suburbanas, marginadas y de extrema pobreza ha representado un reto no sólo para países en vías de desarrollo, sino también para otros países con mejor infraestructura financiera y material. http://www.teleddes.org/desarrollo_socioeconomico/zonas_isocial.html Licitenet.com - http://www.licitenet.com/index.jsp Madrid - www.tumadrid.com Mecanismos Parlamentares de Participação Cidadã no Brasil http://www.dhnet.org.br/direitos/brasil/leisbr/acesso/parlam/mecan.html Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia - http://www.mct.gov.br/ Movimento Nacional dos Direitos Humanos - http://www.mndh.org.br/ 128

Movimiento Ciudadano por la Democracia - http://www.laneta.apc.org/mcd/ Movimiento Ciudadano por la Democracia - http://www.laneta.apc.org/mcd/ O CFEMEA - Centro Feminista de Estudos e Assessoria http://www.cfemea.org.br/ Observatory on the Information Society http://www.unesco.org/webworld/observatory/index.shtml Observatory on the Information Society http://www.unesco.org/webworld/observatory/index.shtml Omnia - www.omnia.org Participação Cidadã - Bank Boston http://www.bankboston.com.br/fundacao/participacao.asp Polis - http://www.polis.org.br/ Política y redes, nuevas formas de poder - Internet se ha convertido en la pieza básica de la sociedad de la información o del conocimiento y es, además, un foco de influencia en todos los ámbitos: social, educativo, cultural y económico. http://www.aui.es/biblio/articu/Articulos/politica_redes.htm Projecto Cidades Digitais, Portugal - O Projeto Cidades Digitais, criado pelo Ministério da Ciência e da Tecnologia de Portugal destina-se a apoiar ações que concretizem alguns dos objetivos do Livro Verde para a Sociedade da Informação, aprovado em abril de 1997 pelo Conselho de Ministros. Projeto Democracia http://www.democraciaparticipativa.org/ Participativa SP -

Projeto Software Livre Rio Grande do Sul - O Projeto Software Livre RS é uma parceria do governo do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul com instituições públicas e privadas do Estado que tem como principal objetivo a promoção do uso de softwares livres como alternativa econômica e tecnológica ao mundo proprietário. Public Policy and Regulatory Framework in Knowledge Economy http://www.iadb.org/ict4dev/public.htm Public Policy and Regulatory Framework in Knowledge Economy http://www.iadb.org/ict4dev/public.htm Raval - www.ravalnet.org Red Iberoamericana de Ciudades Digitales - http://www.iberomunicipios.org/

129

Red Nacional de Telecentros Comunitarios, Chile – Uma iniciativa do governo chileno que permite o acesso às tecnologias de informação e comunicaç ão aos habitantes das zonas rurais e urbano-marginais de todo o país. Rede Brasil sobre Instituições Financeiras Multilaterais http://www.rbrasil.org.br/ Regency Foundation - The Regency Foundation established in 1990, is a notfor-profit organization working with the United Nations and its agencies. Resultan necesarios puntos de acceso público a bajo costo - Entrevista con el antropólogo, experto en redes comunitarias, Scott Robinson, donde se analiza el estado del acceso a Internet en Latinoamérica, y afirma la necesidad de que maduren las heterogéneas experiencias de cabinas públicas o centros comunitarios. http://www.bitniks.es/ARCHIVO/IDEAS/33/01.shtml Salamanca - www.elbardelauni.com Salamanca - www.salamanca2002.org Sampa.org - O Sampa.org é uma iniciativa aberta a toda a população cujo objetivo é ajudar São Paulo a se tornar uma cidade melhor, mais próspera, mais humana e mais justa, disseminando e compartilhando democraticamente o conhecimento e a informação. Sociedade da informação - O Programa Sociedade da Informação (SocInfo) brasileiro é um programa coordenado pelo Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (MCT). Resultado dos desdobramentos das ações do Conselho Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (CCT). Tarragona - www.tinet.org Tele centro HONDURAS - http://www.itu.hn/cpt/ Telecentro – América Central www.tele-centros.org/ Telecentros Activos de Chile, ATACH http://www.atach.cl Telecentros Brasil - Um Telecentro Comunitário Sustentável (TCS) representa um bem público. Ele agrega valor ao trabalho de organizações, agências do governo, organizações de saúde, escolas e do setor privado. Telecentros em Moçambique - Este telecentro é uma nova experiência para Moçambique e é supervisionado pelo Centro de Informática da Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (CIUEM). Com êxito, será possível instalar centros iguais em outros pontos do país. Telecentros en la mira: ¿Cómo pueden contribuir al desarrollo social? - Este artículo examina con una mirada crítica el concepto de telecentros, y sugiere una 130

tipología para describir la diversidad de experiencias a que están dando lugar, con particular énfasis en las incipientes experiencias con telecentros en América Latina. http://www.idrc.ca/pan/chasquiSP.htm Telecentros Prefeitura de São Paulo - Site da Prefeitura de São Paulo que traz uma explicação do que é Telecentro e a lista dos telecentros administrados pela prefeitura. www.prefeitura.sp.gov.br/cidadania/telecentros/index.asp Telecentros y Bibliotecas - Este documento introduce el concepto de telecentros, dirige al lector a algunos manuales y pautas útiles así como varios proyectos en el mundo entero; explica la razón por la cual las bibliotecas pueden contribuir al éxito de estos proyectos y por qué las bibliotecas deben considerar la posibilidad de ampliar su rol para incluir las funciones de un telecentro. www.home.inreach.com/cisler/telecentros.htm Telecentros y bibliotecas: nuevas tecnologías y nuevas colaboraciones - A mediados de los '80 el primer telecentro fue inaugurado en Velmdalen, Suecia. Ahora existen en todo el mundo. No toda la gente tiene teléfono o computadora en su casa. Los telecentros ayudan a lograr el objetivo de "acceso universal" al facilitar el acceso comunitario a esta tecnología. http://home.inreach.com/cisler/telecentros.htm Terrassa www.terrassa.net The Information Society (TIS) journal http://www.ics.uci.edu/~kling/tis.html The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) - http://www.idrc.ca The Regency Foundation - http://www.regency.org/ Transparência Internacional - http://www.transparency.org/ Trasparência Internacional - Brasil - http://www.transparencia.org.br/tbrasilie.asp Tres-Cantos - www.tres-cantos.org Una reflexión sobre el futuro de los telecentros en México y América Latina - Las condiciones del mercado, el ritmo acelerado del desarrollo de la tecnología digital y la ausencia de un marco regulatorio a su favor son factores que inhiben el crecimiento de los telecentros en la región. http://www.chasquinet.org/telelac/puebla.html Villanueva de la Cañada - www.villanuevadelacanada.com Viviendo la Democracia - www.viviendolademocracia.org/ Web AERC - www.aerc.net

131