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Introduction to Research

Methodology
D.A. Asir John Samuel, BSc (Psy),
MPT (Neuro Paed), MAc, DYScEd,
C/BLS, FAGE

Meaning of Research
The systematic method consisting of
enunciating the problem, formulating a
hypothesis, collecting the facts or data,
analysing the facts and reaching certain
conclusion either in the form of solutions
towards the concerned problem or in
certain
generalisations
for
some
theoretical formulation.
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

Objectives of research
Find out truth which is hidden and which
has not been discovered yet
Gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to
achieve new insights into it
Portray accurately the characteristics of a
particular individual, situation or a group

Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

Objectives of research
Determine the frequency with which
something occurs or with which it is
associated with something else
Test a hypothesis of a casual relationship
between variables

Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

Motivation in research
Research degree along with its
consequential benefits
Face the challenge in solving the
unsolved problem
Get intellectual joy of doing some
creative work
Service to society
Get respectability
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

Research approaches

Quantitative approach
Inferential
Experimental
Simulation

Qualitative approach

Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

Inferential approach
To form a data base from which to infer
characteristics or relationships of
population
Usually means survey research where a
sample of population is studied to
determine its characteristics
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

Experimental research
Some variables are manipulated to
observe their effect on other variables

Much greater control over the research


environment

Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

Simulation approach
Involves construction of an artificial
environment within which relevant
information and data can be generated

Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

Qualitative approach

Subjective assessment of,


Attitudes
Opinions
Behaviour
Not subjected to rigorous quantitative
analysis
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Criteria of good research

Purpose should be clearly defined


Common concepts to be used
Explain procedure clearly - for continuity
Results should be as objective as possible
Report with frankness
Acknowledge, procedural flaws
Limitations of the study
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Criteria of good research

Appropriate statistical test of significance


Reliable outcome measures
Justify conclusions with data
Limitation of data
Experienced researcher
Systematic
Logical
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Problem encountered by
researches in India
Lack of scientific training in methodology
of research
Insufficient interaction
Need for generating the confidence that
the information/data obtained from a
patient will not be misused
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Problem encountered by
researches in India
Research studies overlapping one
another are undertaken quite often for
want of adequate information
Timely and adequate secretarial
assistance, including computerial
assistance
Library management & functioning is not
satisfactory at many places
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Problem encountered by
researches in India
Difficulty of timely
published data

availability

of

Problem of conceptualization

Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Types of research

Descriptive
Analytical
Applied
Fundamental
Quantitative
Qualitative
Conceptual
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Types of research

Empirical
One-time research / longitudinal
Field-setting research/laboratory/simulation
Clinical / laboratory
Historical
Conclusion oriented
Decision oriented
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Descriptive research
Surveys & fact-finding enquiries
Description of state of affairs as it exists
at present
Ex post facto research social science &
business research
Has no control over variables
Can only report what has happened or
what is happening
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Analytical research
Has to use facts / information already
available

Analyse these to make critical evaluation


of material

Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Fundamental research
Generalisation
Formulation of a theory
Gaining knowledge for knowledges sake
is pure or basic' research
Finding information
E.g. with view to make generalisation
about human behaviour
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Applied research
Finding a solution for an immediate
problem / for pressing practical problem
Society / industrial / business
organisation
Aimed at certain conclusions
Marketing research / evaluation research

Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Quantitative research
Based on measurement of quantity or
amount

Expressed in terms of quantity

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Qualitative research
Concerned with qualitative phenomenon
Motivation research an important type
E.g. how people feel or what they think
about a particular subject or institution
To discover underlying motives
Seek guidance
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Conceptual research
Related to abstract ideas / theory
To develop new concepts / reinterpret
existing ones
That is verified by empirical research

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Empirical research

Data-based research
Relies on experience / observation alone
Verified by observation / experiment
Works to get enough facts to prove /
disprove hypothesis
Evidence gathered by this is most
powerful support possible for a given
hypothesis
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Some other types of research

Cross-sectional research/1 time


Research is confined to a single time-period
Longitudinal research
Carried over several-time periods
Field-setting/laboratory/simulation
Depends upon the environment
Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP

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Some other types of research

Clinical research
case-study method
Diagnostic research
In depth approaches to reach basic
casual relations
Historical research
- Utilizes historical sources like documents,
remains, etc
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Research methods
All those methods/techniques that are
used for conduction of research

Refer to the methods the researchers use


in performing research operations
Method used by the researcher
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Research methods
Put into 3 groups,
1. Methods which are concerned with data
collection
2. Statistical techniques for establishment
of relationship b/w data & unknown
3. Evaluating the accuracy of results
obtained
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Research methodology
A systematic way to solve the research
problem
Science of understanding how research is
done
Study varies steps adopted by a
researcher
Researchers should know the relevant
method and which are not
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Research methodology
When we talk of RM we not only talk of
the research methods but also consider
the logic behind the methods we use in the
context of our research study and explain
why we are using a particular method and
why we are not using others, so that
research results are capable of being
evaluated by the researcher himself or by
others
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Reference
Research Methodology Methods and
Techniques (Second Revised Edition),

C.R. Kothari
(Chapter 1)

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