^i,o^laA^^ o^ V^ ^'^
DOVER PUBLICATIONS,
INC.,
NEW YORK
NIVEN,
Volume Two
M.A., F.R.S.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAGE
XXVII.
On
XXVIII.
On
On
Viscosity
the
InternaZ
or
Friction
of Air
and
(The
Gases
other
Bakerian Lecture)
XXIX.
the
6
the
Theory of
tJie
Maintenance
of Electric
by Mechanical
Currents
Work
XXX.
XXXI.
XXXII.
XXXIII.
On
On
7,9
86
the best
Sci'een
to Aiiy's
Function of
102
Stress
XXXIV.
On
XXXV.
"Experiment
105
Governors
in
(in
letter to
W. R. Grove,
121
F.RS.)
XXXVI.
On a Method of Making a
Direct Comparison of Electrostatic wiHi Electrowith a Note on the Electromagnetic Theory of Light
magnetic Force;
XXXVII.
XXXVIII.
XXXIX.
XL.
XLI.
On
to
tJie
XLIII.
160
Forces
.161
208
215
On ColourVision at
On Hills and Dales
different points
230
of the Retina
233
XLIV.
XLV.
On
the Solution
XLVI.
XLVII.
On
the
XLVIII.
On
On
241
Functions
XLIX.
Geometrical
Mean
Distance of
Induction of Electric
uniform Conductivity
Uie
125
144
the Cyclide
tion (1870)
XLII.
96
101
....
in
an
Infinite
257
267
Currents
256
Plane Sheet
280
of
286
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
On
the
LII.
LIII.
LI.
LVI.
On
the
LVII.
On
the
LVIIL
An
LIX.
On
LX.
On
By
Professors Sir
Thomson and
W.
.324
(Revieuj)
....
LXIV.
LXV.
By
the Rev.
James
338
to the
Kinetic Theory
343
of a System of Molecules in motion subject
to
forces of
351
any kind
Faraday
Molecules (A Lecture)
4JLyiL
LXVIII.
On
the
"
the Solu
to
406
a Geometrical Problem
Van der Waals on the Continuity of the Gaseous and Liquid States
On the Centre of Motion of the Eye
On the Dynamical Evidence of the Molecular Constitution of Bodies (A
LXXII.
On
LXXIIL
Atom
I^QCIV.
Attraction
LXXV.
On
Bern's
LXXVI.
LXXVII.
On
407
416
Lec
418
ture)
LXXVIII.
381
400
(Review)
LXIX.
LXX.
LXXI.
the Application
tions
379
391
393
tion of
355
361
Physics
LXVI.
329
332
of Gases
LXI.
LXII.
LXIII.
308
311
LV?
a Distance
Elements of Natural Philosophy.
at
P. G. Tait.
'"^01
3^0
continuous
On Action
297
to the
Theory of
439
445
485
illustra
492
498
501
505
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Vll
PAGE
LXXIX.
523
LXXX.
LXXXI.
528
On Ohm's Law
On the protection of
538
LXXXII.
LXXXIII.
LXXXIV.
^
LXXXVI.
LXXX VII.
LXXXVIII.
LXXXIX.
XC.
XCI.
XCII.
533
buildings
XCIV.
XCV.
XCVI.
XCVII.
 XCVIII.
XCIX.
lightning
Capillary Action
541
592
599
Diffusion
Diagrams
Tait's Thermodynamics (Review)
On
the
Electrical
On
On
660
Capacity of a long
.
604
612
616
625
647
Constitution of Bodies
of sensible thickness
XCIII.
from
from
Inequalities of Temperature
.672
.
681
713
742
of material points
{Rede Lecture)
The. Telephone
756
Ether
763
Thomson and
Faraday
Tait's
C.
CI.
Harmonic Analysis
....
776
786
.
794
797
ERRATA.
3,
73,
line
5,
read
^^~~^
10, insert
is
the
the
value
radius
of
of
the
each
of
diameter
in
(PF
"
^dxdy'
the
as
p. (189).
,.
dPF
dydz
76.
(181)
p.
II.
60
14,
25
p.
i.
VOL,
18,
movable
given at
the
line
discs
page
21,
the
used
4,
in
line
value of
r*
is
given
the experiments on
14,
this
as
11128,
Viscosity.
number should be
where
But with
The
12208.
all
be
The values of Q, the quantity in the fifth line, increase in the same proportion
Hence according to equations (23) and (24) the values of /x, the coefficient
as the values of A.
wiU approximate to those obtained
of Viscosity, will be smaller than they appear in the text and
reductions was pointed out by
by more recent experiments. The above inaccuracy in the numerical
Mr Leahy, Pembroke College, Cambridge.
increased by 108.
XXVII.
On
the
The
gaseous form
matter
of
distinguislied
is
8,
1866.
by the great
Bunplification
when
state,
into
is
passes into
pressure,
density,
The
it
in the gaseous
therefore
be
to
The
viscosity
of a body
is
it
offers
forces
is
to
a continuous
effected.
of suftorsion
applied to glass fibres produces a permanent set which increases with the time
slowly
Softer
untwists,
so
soHds exhibit
difficult,
its
removed the
do
actually impressed on
during
to
investigation
force of torsion is
it,
but on
all
forces
solid
and their
effects
is
fibre
acquired.
;
but the
extremely
it
previous existence.
*'
VOL. n.
Nachwerktmg
2
Professor
W. Thomson*
the
takes place in
friction
torsional
found
also
elasticity
that,
viscosity
fluids
been
has
investigated
capillary tubes t,
\\.
is
has given good results, but the measurement of the diameter of the tube
that
certain
be
cannot
we
bore
the
of
smallness
the
of
account
on
difficult, and
of the
the action between the molecules of the gas and those of the substance
not
does
tubes
accuracy,
and
afiect
the
result.
believe
in
is
capable
by which
progress
of great
its
merits
tested.
as a means of determining the properties of the resisting medium will be
chief
direct.
The
and
sunple
is
fluid
the
in
disk
a
swinging
of
The method
difficulty is the determination of the motion of the fluid near the edge of the
disk,
on gases.
In the experiments on the viscosity of air and other gases which I propose
to describe, I have employed the method of the torsional vibrations of disks,
but instead of placing them in an open space, I have placed them each between
two parallel fixed disks at a small but easily measurable distance, in which
when the
case,
period of vibration
is
+ Liquids
1846 and
1849.'
Gases
"On
1826
All
iii. p.
Ann
k. k.
cxiii.
(1861)
p. 55,
and
disks
of one,
so
which
may
the
weight
of
structed by
Mr
con
XXI.
Plate
actual
(MM)
MM. The
top
by
is
in the
represents the
of the
The
form of a
is
EE, and
EE
ring.
is
in
the plate
into
fig.
is
under surface
cast
ribs
30,
p.
MQRS
size.
with
4 feet
is
in
is
strengthened
The suspensiontube ^C
height.
The glass receiver
it.
is
screwed
on a
rests
wooden ring PP with three projecting pieces which rest on the three brackets
QQ, of which two only are seen. The upper surfaces of the brackets and the
under surfaces of the projections are so bevilled
wooden ring
in
its
own plane
off,
EE.
F, G, H,
are
circular
of glass
plates
form represented in
of the
fig.
2.
Each has a hole in the centre 2 inches in diameter, and three holes near the
circumference, by which it is supported on the screws LL.
Fig.
LL
represents
upper part
is
the
mode
of
is
EE.
in
of larger diameter,
so
turning
the
>S is
easily
fits
and
afford the
space,
little
means of
and enable
ACB,
fig.
1,
is
The
scale
divided on both
sides,
so
that the difference of the readings gives the pressure within the apparatus.
is
pump
Z)
is
is
air.
is
a vessel containing
Another
vessel,
containing
to the
air
mirror d.
12
SO as
The
itself rested,
of
tin vessel
the
brass
plate
EE
by means
vessel
till
the thermometer T,
The suspension piece a, fitting airtight into the top of the tube and holding
the suspension wire by a clip, represented in fig. 5.
The axis cdek, suspended to the wire by another cHp at C.
The wire was a harddrawn steel wire, one foot of which weighed 2"6 grains.
The axis carries the plane mirror d, by which its angular position is observed
through the window C, and the three vibrating glass disks /, g, h, represented
Each disk is 10*56 inches diameter and about '076 thick, and has
in fig. 3.
In erecting the
apparatus,
the
is
screwed
off".
The fixed disks are then screwed on, with a vibrating disk lying between each.
Tubes of the proper lengths are then placed on the lower part of the axia
The axis is then passed up from below through the
and between the disks.
The vibrating
disks and tubes, and is screwed to the upper part at e.
disks are now hanging by the wire and in their proper places, and the fixed
disks are brought to their proper distances from them by means of the adjusting
nuts.
715
is
When
it
is
desired
N, and
placed under
so
disks in motion,
to set the
moved
as
to
bring the
initial
a battery of magnets
is
proper value.
Fig.
centrically
it
exactly in
Fig.
it,
It is placed
is a brass ring whose moment
of inertia is known.
on the vibrating disk by means of three radial wires, which keep
its place.
is
a tube
off
by
verniers.
weights,
which
slide
inside
in finding
the
moment
of inertia
of the
vibrating apparatus.
mirror d.
axis
of the
on a
scale is
vibrations
are
shews the
which
reflexion
scale
in
the
with the
instrument.
of 19 36',
vibration
duration of the
telescope,
Method of Observation.
When
instrument
the
below
placed on a board
vibration
iV",
scale.
off,
At
scale.
intervals
I.).
When
transits
the ampli
tude decreased rapidly, the observations were continued throughout the experi
ment
for
an hour, or
till
so
far
left
the room
accurate results.
In
times,
observing
comparison of the
of e to
In
a quantity which
decreases
a geometrical
in
ratio
in
equal
the most accurate value of the rate of decrement will be deduced from a
1,
practice,
where
so
new
values
= 271828,
however,
vibrations are
beginning a
initial
it
much
is
with
values
which
are
best to
stop
the
to
system
of
logarithms.
spent in
experiment.
In
reducing
consecutive five
in these
experiments
is
geometrical,
so accurately
The logarithm
of each term
of the
Thus,
if
five
observations were
combined by
tens,
taken of the
so
to form
as
taken.
fifty
first
five
time for
five vibrations,
The
series
each experiment to within the limits of probable error; the deviations from
and there
such
as
is
is
direction
produced
experiments the
when
maximum
move
bodies
rapidly
through the
the circumference
of
velocity
In
air.
these
moving disks
the air between the
of
the
The retardation
to the action of the
of the motion
air,
since
of the
vrires
disks
is,
in
Professor
after
W. Thomson
being subjected
to
its
own,
and
longi
up
for
The
total
of the disks.
moment
some months
before,
weights attached to
and
torsion
it,
its
torsional
moment
its
of
vibrations
with
various
moment
Its
torsion.
of
viscosity
its
into
set
determine
moment
of
part
the
of
apparatus.
diminished
torsion
Its
till
viscosity
the apparatus was again heated, no further change seems to have taken place.
During each course of experiments, care was taken not to set the disks vibrating
beyond
the
of
limits
the
scale,
so
that
the
viscosity
of
the
may
wire
be
but the part of the retardation of the motion due to the viscosity of
less, as there were only two surfaces exposed to the action of the
instead of
air
as
before,
Supposing the
six.
the difference of
additional strata of
air,
and
is
effect
retardation
is
wire.
Arrangement
1.
2.
,,
Three
disks, each
0"5 inch.
,,
4.
0425.
5.
018475.
By comparing
viscosity
3.
,,
of
air,
the
results
of
these
different
arrangements,
same time
the
coeflScient
subjected
to
rigorous test.
The
final
result
defined by
considering a stratum
of
air
This coefficient
between two
parallel
may
be
horizontal
planes of
indefinite
extent,
at a distance
Suppose the
of
increase
will
in
air
uniformly as
we
its
velocity,
final
then the velocity will increase  feet per second for every foot
The
friction
to that
where
fi
is
air
If the
air
/ on
in
we
then be equal
will
air
contact with
every square
ascend.
Suppose that
it.
foot,
then
we
should find
/it
at once, for
oscillatory instead of
constant,
is
infinite.
It will be
principles as rectilinear
calculated on the
is
shewn
in
which causes
fig.
same
8,
air,
where
which,
The
depending on the
another
difficulty,
different
into
motion of the
air
circular
near
edge introduces
the
edge
being
air.
certain corrections
forces,
velocities,
all
&c.
of measurement.
of/
sions
is
if
represent the units of length, mass, and time, then the dimen
pressure
(a
/x
are
velocity
Thus
and
M,
If L,
LT~\
L~'MT~'; a
that
so
the
is
a length, and
dimensions
of
fi
are
fi'
/Lt
'
fi
According
of
velocity
to
the
inch
foot
pound
1
'
experiments
grain
second
minute
MM.
of
Helmholtz and
is
Pietrowski*,
that
the
of
the surface
itself,
where
o
is
/ the
the coefficient of superficial friction between the fluid and the par
which
flows,
be the velocity of
Vi
with velocity
v,
and
if o'
f=<T\vv,).
The
^=/( +  +
Hence
If
is
we make  = S, and
cr
= ^,
then
cr
=/f^
* SitzungabericlUe der k,
VOL.
II.
10
or the fiiction
and
slipping,
equal to what
is
if
on
probability
and
air
)8
glass,
had
been
so small
no
^ + ^.
+ yS' may
that
it
be determined.
In
produces no appre
surfaces
/8
= "0027
The
is
there
if
inch.
is
may
the planes, a
the value of
air,
air,
it
is
no slipping between
discrepancy in the
value of.
yx
The value
condition.
that
at
/x
of
is
fi
By making
air
and
it.
experiments in gas
its
value
the
of
of
is
and on
gas
different
densities,
its
it
shewn
physical
is
This will
decrement of arc in
is
fact
IV.,
in
some
cases
than
in
others.
is
In
hypothesis
win be
seen,
rises
and
falls
with
range from 51" to 74" Fahr., and were the natural temperatures of the
on different days in
the viscosity
zero
of the
is
May
1865.
The
results
the
These temperatures
hypothesis
room
that
airthermometer.
was
raised
to
185"
Fahr.
12605.
The
11
12624,
The
nearly.
simplicity
us in concluding that
is
the other
of
the viscosity
is
known laws
really
relating
proportional
to
to
gases
the
warrants
temperature,
air
and
its
more to be depended
the
are
on,
since
diameter.
The constancy of the viscosity for all changes of density
when the temperature is constant is a result of the Dynamical Theory of
Gases*, whatever hypothesis we adopt as to the mode of action between the
The relation between viscosity
molecules when they come near one another.
and temperature, however, requires us to make a particular assumption with
of small
as the experiments of
If,
is
as
the
the force
first
is
certainly
is
This, however,
Graham and
of the
is
proportional
The present
facts,
inversely
paper,
in
we must assume
to
the
fifth
however, does
air,
not
but only
mean
of three
air at
A
large
small
proportion of
increase
of viscosity,
ratio
of the
'5
less
viscous
than
air,
the
ratio
viscosity
J^
of that of
air.
to be 859.
" Illustrations of the
of
15 6.
The
be much
to
less
22
12
It appears
transpiration time
acid to air
I
of
air
the
that
*4855,
is
of
ratio
and that
the
carbonic
of
"807.
think that
Mr. Graham
of
hydrogen to that of
the
from
discrepancy arises
the
being
gases
less
pure
in
my
air
from leaking into the receiver during the preparation, desiccation, and admission
the gas,
of
an
least
hour
and
half
before
the
appears to
transpiration
of
me
the
is
best,
although
method here
the
described
viscosity,
and
influence
of
is
molecular
between the gas and the surface of the tube may possibly have some
62" F.
/u,
better
to
action
effect.
00001492(461' +
At
is
less liable
^).
= 007802.
Vp
or not
half the
= 00417,
this difference.
^ = 01878(1 + 00365^).
M. 0. E. Meyer gives
as
the
value
of
/x
in
centimetres,
000360.
This,
when reduced
to metregrammesecond measure, is
/x
make
/x,
at 18'
C,
= 0360.
=0200.
grammes, and
1*8
is
13
than
times greater
adopted
that
in
this paper.
different
dis
turbance of the air near the edge of the disk from that given in this paper.
He
of
when the
supposes that
proportional
supposition.
this
of the
disk
oscillating
a large extent of
in
even
if
the
be accounted
for,
at
least
so
air,
in
The
part,
effect
disk
solution
can easily
it
by
his
disk were
infinitely
thin.
much
less in
is
to
effect of
water than
in
oscillates
disks,
the
in
its
own
amplitude
the
paper.
Experiment.
oscillation
diminishing
in
geometrical
pro
gression,
air
but
fluid,
Mathematical Theory of
is
that any deficiency in the correction will have less influence on the
horizontal
edge
Journal a vindication
finite
to
in Crelle's
of a disk
case
is
to the thickness,
to
find
treated as part of an
infinite
disk,
In
fact,
if
the
each
motion
horizontal
of
every
part of each stratum can be accounted for by the actions of the strata above
and below
it, there will be no mutual action between the parts of the stratum,
and therefore no relative motion between its parts.
Let 6 be the angle which defines the angular position of the stratum which
is
at
the distance y from the fixed disk, and let r be the distance of a point
on
its
i
^'d^t=^
(')
14
The tangential
force
be
will
is
is
d'O
d'd
Pde^^mi
which
is
The
y=
independent of
r,
conditions to
(2)'
when y = 0, ^ =
e=Ce''co3{nt + a)
h,
(3).
disks
j
is
resisted
by a moment 2lk
r.
then
is
w
^(f^^f'f^^Swhere
of the
A = j27rr'dr = ^7rr*,
number of
the
moment
The equation
for the
motion of the
air
may be
by the
is
the
and
q^f =
the conditions (3) and
solution
(5),
2pq =
fulfil
satisfied
provided
and in order to
and iV
air.
(6),
P
(7);
(4),
circular functions,
we
find
k)= NAii{l icl + ic\n^  3?) + ^^^{nH  1^) + ^\^n* + ^'nH^  ^l')} (9),
where
Z
= 46>
= observed
Napierian logarithmic
decrement
of
the
amplitude in unit of
time,
A;
= the
When
are
the
are
oscillations
when the
density
small
is
When
15
is
and the
when the
disks
viscosity
large,
rapidly convergent.
the time from rest to rest was thirtysix seconds, and the interval
then
inch,
for
29*9
of pressure
air
were
+024866
l00'00508
+000072
+000386 = 124816;
but when the pressure was reduced to 1*44 inch, the series became
 00002448
10
the
The
series
disks.
sensible.
is
also
The
motion
of
the
air
is
disks,
will
3,
5,
small,
when
6.
or
if
disks
is
two disks
the
is
between
represented in
oscillates.
fig.
8,
row
If
very great, or
is
if
is
1,
2,
very
very small, these curves approach more and more nearly to the
form of straight
The
in
between
when
4,
distance
At
the
0005768
lines.
in
treating the
case of the
moving disks
from the necessity of determining the motion of the air in the neighbourhood of the edge of the disk. If the disk were accompanied in its motion
arises
by an
indefinite
indefinite
ring surrounding
plane
the motion
surface,
the
of
extent; but
if
air
would
it
be
actual
on
effect
the
parts
of the air
of
its
of
the
disk
on the disk
may
effect of its
be increased.
The
we have
to
consider
is
we may
confined to
if it
were
16
in
infinite
dw
xz,
Id^w
d^w\
i'lt=i'[T^ + df)
y=h
w;=(rwhen
and
w = Ccos nt when = 0,
and x
is
positive.
is
...
disks
that
we may
d?w
d^w
small,
so
is
(11),
3/
between
be
is*
(!)'
Let
h.
z,
so long,
is
neglect
(1 2).
it
stands,
reduced to
^
,,^.
o
5S + d7 =
conditions
set
w=l
1
having their
hyperbolas,
are
loci
at the points y
= 0, x= 1, and
If
then
r^
we put
the
lines
</
for
which
that
is
w^sin'"^'
where r
am
Thomson,
another
into
w = when x = 0, and
when X is less than
of
W.
Professor
to
(13)
<f>
(14)
foci.
constant
will
be
ellipses
(15),
orthogonal to the
hyperbolas, and
^Mh'
and the resultant of the
* Professor Stokes "
Phil.
Tram. VoL
viii.
On
friction
^''^'
(fee,"
Cambridge
where
(f>,<f)^,
value
the
is
(/>
of
at
(ft
17
beginning, and
the
the end
at
<^,
In the plane y =
fk
18
= \og
whole
that the
so
2,
when x
0,
very
is
great,
between
friction
<^
x=l
x='[,
2,
log2x.
TT
Now
let
and
be expressed
<^
When 0=, w = 0.
= 11 and
r greater than
Now
x\ y
let
w=
let
and
and
(13)
y=0
and
= hQ and
x'
x'
is
friction
will
be
still
true;
(17).
x' and y
and when y
w = 0,
h,
great,
<f)
x'
= 0,
(f>
= \og2,
on the surface
the same aa
to the surface at
The
curves
+ ^g2
(18),
if
its
edge.
of
equal
velocity
are
represented
They
totes
/,
W, X, Y, arranged
so that the
is
and when
TT
2h
is
When
w = l.
'
which
iv=l.
TT
TT
whole
1,
= 61ogr
be expressed in terms of
(16)
positive,
x'
When
(j)
be stated thus
I.
IT
tions
may
and
6,
^=
When
1,
terms of r and
in
friction
is
in
log, 2
fig.
at
u, v, w, x, y.
a set of asymp
are
represented at
o,
of straight lines
p, q,
as
r,
we
s,
t.
pass
The form
to
the
II.
left
18
The dotted
of the
0, P, Q, R, S,
straight lines
vertical
panied by an extension of
its
the disk
if
AB
The
w,
total friction
that on a surface
equal to
on AB,
extending to the point C, on the supposition that the moving surface has an
accompanying surface which completes the infinite plane.
In
the
case
actual
v,
by a
&c.,
is
is
rounded edge.
slightly
The
on the curve
friction
total
is
still
AB.
thickness of
the
If
disks
the
= 26,
disk
is
2/3,
AB.
may
Its section
is
less
than that
is
6 A
= 5log.lo{log2+log..sm^^i=^}*
strip,
(19).
we must suppose
be at the same distance from the axis as the actual edge of the disk.
of
^ = r* m
of h
equation
we must put
It
of
therefore
of z
r* for
in inches
we must
6/8.
(9),
it to
Instead
little
oscillation of
7).
Four
(fig.
4)
and
were used in
these experiments.
The
following Table gives the numbers required for the calculation of each
two
is
from
it.
Arrangement
19
20
6,
The values
of
that
it
is
easy to eliminate
12, so
believe
and
and K^,
of K, K^
/x^.
had
1,
2,
4,
reason, however, to
first
find
air
in the receiver.
therefore intro
into
change respectively.
were
^1 = 01568
Z,= 01901.
The value of
is
in
/x
Fahrenheit
6P
for air
fi
The value
of
way
(461"+^).
for
mean square of a single experiThe probable error of fi, as determined from the equations,
from this and found to be 036 per cent, of its value.
In this
ment was
= 00001492
the error of
found.
was calculated
amount of
the value of
slipping between
for
supposition
that
^ = 0027
The
error
of
inch and
mean square
for
/x
= (000015419)
(461!^).
that of
I
fi
= l*6
be
40 per
slightly
cent.,
and
per cent.
slipping,
^ was
original value of
yx
is
/8
is
zero,
that
is,
there
is
no
the best.
As the actual observations were very numerous, and the reduction of them
would occupy a considerable space in this paper, I have given a specimen of
the actual working of one experiment.
Table
observation,
I.
21
and sixth readings, with the sum of ten successive ampHtudes deduced
fifth
therefrom.
Table
II.
for
logarithmic
decrement.
Table III.
kinds.
different
viscosity
The experiments
and
are grouped
together
according
when the
The
calculated
the
to
results
final
coefficients
results
last
ment.
it
as
They
LU
fifth
column.
fifth
arrange
and
air,
calculating
observation.
of
fi
column.
Table IV. shews the results of the twelve experiments with the
are
of
is
By
arranging
the
values
of
was found that within the range of atmospheric temperature during the course of the experiments the relation between
the viscosity of air and its temperature does not perceptibly differ from that
in
assumed
order of temperature,
in
the calculation.
it
time, to determine whether the viscosity of the wire increased during the experi
ments, as
it
did
first
There did
Note,
in scientific
added February
experiments, I
made use
6,
fi
in
unit
measurements.
1866.
In
the calculation
of the results
moment
of
the
of inertia of the
and axi8 = l"012 of the true value, as determined by six series of experiThe
ments with four suspension wires and two kinds of auxiliary weights.
disks
22
numbers
the coefficients of
in
the value of
/x
is
in
Table IV.
are
^ = 00001492(461' + ^).
The same
error
ran through
all
reader
Table
I.
Experiment
62.
Arrangement
Temperature 68" F.
Greater
scale reading
5.
May
Dry
9,
1865.
OF AIR
AND OTHER
Table
Equations from which
Number
of
experiments
/x
for air
23
GASES.
III.
was determined
'A6V + e
24
Table V.
Coefficient
of viscosity in dry
air.
Results.
Units the
inch, grain,
Fahrenheit temperature,
/I
At
60" F.
the
/x
experiments,
= '000179
(461
^ = 007763.
+ ^).
Taking
In metrical units
The
coefficient
= 01878(1 + 00365^).
is
by multiplying
air as
of the
the inch,
/x
Postscript.
Received December
7,
1865.
my
Society, Professor
"Ueber die innere Reibung der Case," in Poggendorff's Annalen, cxxv. (1865).
M. Meyer has compared the values of the coefficient of viscosity deduced from
the experiments of Baily by Stokes, with those deduced from the experiments
These values are 000104, 000275, and 000384
of Bessel and of Girault.
respectively, the units being the centimetre, the gramme, and the second.
M. Meyer's own experiments were made by swinging three disks on a vertical
The disks were sometimes placed in contact, and
axis in an airtight vessel.
sometimes separate, so as to expose either two or six surfaces to the action
of the
The
effects
of
&c.,
in these
and of
The
so
far
calculations
are
made on the
effect
of
of
is
the
receiver
the same as
infinite space.
At the
distance of 30 millims.,
disks
\'i)L.
//
riATi: IX
F^^lffil
VOL.
Kg.
9.
II.
PLATE
IX.
ordinary pressure.
arrangement
M.
of
three
disks
brass
except that
Meyer's experiments,
made a
placed
I
on
25
of experiments with an
series
axis
vertical
had then
no
airtight
exactly
as
in
and
apparatus,
the disks were protected from currents of air by a wooden box only.
I attempted to determine the viscosity of air by means of the observed
I obtained the values
mutual action between the disks at various distances.
of this mutual action for distances under 2 inches, but I found that the results
were so much involved with the unknown motion of the air near the edge of
no dependence on the results unless I had a
effect,
but in rarefied
much
are
of the
disks
is
This,
air
increased.
rated.
for
is
This will diminish the effect of the edge in comparison with the total
of mine.
effect
of the
edge
effect
will
the viscosity, and for the fact that with the brass disks which vibrate in
gla.ss
it
first
increases
and then
diminishes.
M. Meyer concludes that the viscosity varies much less than the pressure,
and that it increases sHghtly with increase of temperature. He finds the value
of
fi
my
Viscosity.
8'3 C.
000333
2r5 C.
000323
34'4 C.
000366
experiments,
in
is
In
is
interposed
difficulties
between
;
the
moving
/x
prefer the
Jfjip,
results
from which
must be determined.
For
these
inter
/x
M. Meyer has
gases, founded
also
VOL.
II.
shall
XXVIII.
Chi
(Received
the
clvii.]
31, 1866.)
homogeneous
in order to
may
for
am
it is
convenient
of matter in each
senses
homogeneous, consist
of
multitude
of
particles,
or
small
parts
theories
be called
statical
even while
motion,
and
theories,
the
body
which
those
is
relative to the
the
suppose
apparently at
rest,
may
the
Those
body may
molecules to be in
be
called
dynamical
theories.
If
rest
in
we adopt a
statical theory,
their positions
body
of equilibrium
centres,
by the action of
forces in
the directions
properties
a function of
matical theory
small change
its
coordinates
of
bodies
of form
of
when
this
in equilibrium.
kind,
into
play by a
to those excited
by
Now we know
that of volume
that in
the
fluids
elasticity
Hence such
considerable.
is
form
of
theories
while
evanescent,
is
not apply to
will
many
27
cases
fluids.
be smaller in
to
that of
when
coordinates
The theory of moving molecules, on the other hand, is not open to these
objections.
The mathematical difficulties in applying the theory are considerable,
and till they are surmounted we cannot fully decide on the appHcability of the
We
theory.
phenomena by the
moving
into
new
action
to
constantly
the
of
position
be
bodies oscillate
one
solid
from
forces
the
due
greater
neighbouring
to
part
molecules
path
the
of
of
each
is
of
properties
pressure,
gases,
density,
explanation of the
its
and to shew
and
that,
temperature
known chemical
equivalent weight,
commonly
in
besides
single
relation
called the
gas,
it
affords
mechanical
Law
of Equivalent Volumes.
It also
explains the diff'usion of one gas through another, the internal friction of a gas,
Lucretius.
gases.
motion
with
is
to be found in
equal
imperceptible
velocities,
which,
at
quite
uncertain
times
all
moving downwards
and
places,
collisions
suffer
an
taking place
* In glass, according to Dr Everett's second series of experiments (1866), the iatio of the elasticity of
form to that of volume is greater than that given by the theory.
In brass and steel it is less.
March
7,
1867.
42
28
an action of which we
The language
a sunbeam.
of Lucretius
to
to
of his theory
as well
of gases,
as
his
Professor
Clausius,
whom we owe
to
list
of authors
developments of
du
Geneve
second,
explains gravity
corpuscles
which
in
also
their
et
is
comme
Paris,
Deux
comme Auteur
by G. Le Sage, who
The
1818.
first
memoir
is
set
particles
its
it.
essentially
is
faulty,
the same as
in
the
theory as
dynamical
it
now
stands.
hard
inasmuch as
it
bodies,
such
makes the
he
as
result
supposes
the
molecules
direction
be,
is
faulty,
we
(if
This author, however, has applied his theory to the numerical results
experiment
often
of
J.
absolute
to
of impact
in
throw much
many
cases,
real light
and
his
speculations are
clearly
pointed out.
Poggendorffs Anncdm, Jan. 1862.
(fee, p.
134.
2 vols.
London
Whittaker and
Co.,
and
Dr Joule*
molecules,
29
Professor
to
is
Clauslus,
of
we owe
that
Zurich,
most
the
complete
and
his
memoirs On
the hind
of Motion which we
call
Heat, are a complete exposition of the molecular theory adopted in this paper.
After
reading
his
between successive
of
the
described
distance
by each molecule
I published
collisions
especially the
also
investigation fcollisions,
and deduced
several
of
properties
gases,
friction.
errors in
my
M. 0. E. Meyer" has
also
investigated
the
elastic
propose
to
of
a gas, not
molecules repelling one another with a force whose direction always passes very
nearly through the centres of gravity of the molecules,
is
gravity.
results
of
my
is
and
inversely as the
number
cross
the plane in the positive direction over that of those which traverse
negative direction, gives a measure of
it
II
"Ueber
in the
the plane in
die innere
great
30
If the plane be
made
to
the
mean
There
it,
is
no excess
will
still
and carrying with them a certain amount of momentum into the portion of
gas which
lies
side
by the
this gas
If the
This force
rest.
is
the
other
of the molecules
velocities
the gas on
to
is
moving
in different directions
were inde
pendent of one another, then the pressure at any point of the gas need not
be the same in
all
directions,
need
separated by a plane
not
be
perpendicular
that
to
gas
we must suppose
directions,
all
of
Hence, to
plane.
some cause equalizing the motion in all directions. This we find in the deflection
of the path of one particle by another when they come near one another.
Since,
in
directions
all
rise
to
phenomena
the
in
all
strain
of
viscosity
thesis, as follows
A
F
distortion or
be written
kind of
F=ES,
strain.
may
of
equality in
perfect
or
viscosity
internal
friction.
the
The
where
The
thus excited.
is
bodies
of
in
is
gives
phenomena of
is
state
relation
is
of
stress
or
call
elastic
between the
stress
produced in
S, is
force
which we
and the
strain
may
may
will
remain
= ^>S, and
dF^p^dS
'
dt
If,
is
viscous,
dt
body.
If
we suppose
dF_j^dS_F
dt
dt
T'
may
be written
indicate
will
the actual
phenomena
81
an empirical
in
For
manner.
if
*S'
be constant,
F=ESe'K
shewing that
gradually disappears,
that
so
if
the body
is
to
left
finally
itself
it
distributed as
in a fluid at rest.
If
is
J
at
constant, that
is,
if
there
is
shewing that
ment.
of a
may
T may
F, and a time
of a second, and
is
In mobile
T may
the product
is
T,
fluids
is
It
coefficient of elasticity,
of relaxation"
displax^e
is
In viscous
easily measured.
It
is
solids
possible
account
for
the gradual untwisting of wires after being twisted beyond the limit of perfect
increases, the parts of the wire furthest
For if T diminishes as
elasticity.
from the axis will yield more rapidly than the parts near the axis during the
twisting process, and when the twisting force is removed, the wire will at first
there is equilibrium between the stresses in the inner and outer
These stresses will then undergo a gradual relaxation; but since the
actual value of the stress is greater in the outer layers, it will have a more
rapid rate of relaxation, so that the wire will go on gradually untwisting for
untwist
till
portions.
stress
on the interior
portions
maintaining
Weber
way and
32
sides,
Then
perfectly
can easily be shewn that the pressures on the sides of the vessel due
it
to the impacts of the molecules are perfectly independent of each other, so that
Now
soHd.
Then
first
fluid,
but like an
elastic
dicular to
by small
h,
of the
be altered
vessel
if
or if there
is
8a
86
it will
become
Be
no change of volume,
pa'
^=2
shewing that in this case there
the coefficient
is
2p.
The
pressure in
great,
all
but not
"Rigidity"
is
therefore =J9.
molecules
directions.
infinite;
is
coefficient of
phenomenon of viscosity.
by experiment that the coefficient of viscosity in a given gas
the density, and proportional to the absolute temperature, so
independent of
that
if
ET
be the viscosity,
But E=p,
and
is
ETa:^
is
collisions pro
independent of
is,
of the velocity of the molecules, and is proportional
If we suppose the molecules
number of molecules in unit of volume.
hard elastic bodies, the number of collisions of a given kind will be proportional
to the velocity, but if we suppose them centres of force, the angle of deflection
will be smaller when the velocity is greater; and if the force is inversely as
the fifth power of the distance, the number of deflections of a given kind will
the
Hence
GASES.
33
in
making
my
calculations.
The
to
of the
effect
the pressure in
all
directions, but,
when molecules
the
to
other.
viva of a molecule
Now
to be the
due
pressure
the
same
each molecule
to
is
is
formerly shewed
is
kinds of molecules.
different
proportional to
its
vis
hence
viva,
the whole pressure due to a given number of molecules in a given volume will
the
When
is
the temperature
zero,
gases
different
is
said
to
molecules,
the
the
molecules
of
other.
one
the
be
same.
at
provided
contain
of
of
molecules.
This result of the dynamical theory affords the explanation of the "law of
equivalent volumes" in gases.
We
see
shall
of force.
centres
is
true in
the case of
is
molecules acting as
probably to be found
connecting the temperatures of liquid and solid bodies with the energy possessed
by
molecules,
their
The molecules
of force
by their
the
of
nature
of
the
connexions
of a
velocity.
it difficult
These molecules
may
it
which move
separated, so
to
as
may
be actually coincident,
if
necessary,
determinate form
the parts
of the
of these
small
second order.
two portions
to
be
small
solid bodies of a
of matter
and
all
so
matter
is
VOL. n.
34
The actual energy of a moving body consists of two parts, one due to the
its centre of gravity, and the other due to the motions of its parts
If the body is of invariable form, the motions
relative to the centre of gravity.
motion of
parts
of its
if
relative
the centre of
to
may
the parts of the body are not rigidly connected, their motions
but
consist
their
in
motion of the centre of gravity and that due to the rotation, or other internal
motion.
If the molecules are pure centres of force, there can be no energy of
rotation,
other cases
where
ratio
^ is
^ will
molecule
the whole
is
may be
for
dijBferent
with
another
molecule,
but
it
The value
specific heats of
is
can be determined
investigation which
to
if
we know
the
mean
(^) the
mean
velocities
The
shall
paper,
values of
functions
of
mean
another gas,
is
given by
(a),
is
by
itself,
the
the
(y)
of
either
an
been shown
The method of
all
of
have
will
by Clausius.
The
translation.
every encounter
after
all
represented by ^Mif^,
be
but in
is
given by
given by
(/8),
or
gas on
by
diffusion
through
(y).
1st,
to the
of
the final
distribution
of
gravity,
the
35
temperature between two gases, and the distribution of tempecolumn. These results are independent of the law of force
of
rature in a vertical
shall
also
consider the
dynamical cases of
viscosity,
diffusion,
between the
force
molecules.
On
Let
ry,,
of
these
4.
be
resolved in
^,,
masses
the
the
if,,
Jf,,
each
to
and
let
be
other
their
^,,
velocities
17,,
{,
and
two
molecules will be
+ ^A
M, + M,
rnMr+vM.
M, + M,
^,if,
'
of
therefore
moving
the molecules,
of
LM. + LM.
M,^M,
'
will
whatever nature
that
action
may
mutual
"We
be.
may
to
itself
we regard
will
describe a plane
will
be similar to each other and synmietrioal with respect to the line of apses.
If the molecules
move with
sufficient velocity to
carry
them out
of the sphere
of their mutual action, their orbits wiU each have a pair of asymptotes inclined
at an angle
7^
to the line
wlQ be at a distance
distance 6 where
b^
of apses.
from the
centre
of
gravity,
and
those
of 3/,
orbit
of
M^
at
MA = M,b,.
The
distance between
two
parallel asymptotes,
one in each
orbit, will
be
b = b, + h,.
If,
while the two molecules are stiU beyond each other's action,
we draw
a straight line through J/, in the direction of the relative velocity of 3/, to
line,
52
36
dicular will be
6,
When,
their
after
motion
relative
is
deflection,
no sensible action
between
again
them, each
be moving with the same velocity relative to the centre of gravity that
had before the mutual action, but the direction of this relative velocity will
be turned through an angle 2^ in the plane of the orbit.
The angle ^ is a function of the relative velocity of the molecules and of
b,
the form of the function depending on the nature of the action between
will
it
the molecules.
we suppose the
If
internal vibration,
rotation,
or
actions in
so that
is,
we must
on an average,
the same as for pure centres of force, and that the final velocities differ from
the
initial velocities
although in a great
many
which we
We
may now
arrive,
suppose to be that of
shall
may
determine the
to
/3
at
a final
ratio,
1.
final velocity of
M^
beyond
Let
be the velocity of
31^
#i^l^2,
The plane
inclined
the
<^
direction
while
of
is
is
turned
Calling
= ^^ +
it
that containing
find
the value of
^^
after the
^'i,
M!fw, ^^
 ^^)
are
plane containing
LL
its
encounter.
^'^
the orbit
of
to a
ViV2,
the components of
^ '"'^^ "^
20cos<l>}
(1).
will
we know
If
37
the
positions
initial
final
velocity
3/,
we can
directions.
and
of
velocities
and
3f,
and
From
<f)
and
problem
angle which
the
h
determines
we can determine
6,
if
plane
the
which
in
and
lie.
is
When we
we
shall
described
as
and the distance described while the molecules are free from disturbing force.
may also neglect those cases in which three or more molecules are within
We
On
the
be
first
kind
in
Molecv.les.
unit of volume
f and
,
^1
+ cZ^i
let
will
On
account of
and
77,
+ dq,
so
molecules
L and
The
^^
+ dt
instant
have
molecules, the
velocities
within
nimiber of mole
given 'limits
Let
the
and
it
\\aLl
be
that
dN,=f{i,'n,Qdi4^Mr
We
^V,,
parallel.
which at a given
definite,
q^
be
general
between
and
cules
lie
in
(^)
+ d^, where
dX,=f(i,r).Z.)deM4L.
in
^,
unit of
+ c?^3,
i^;
volume be
and
t;,
c/t;.^
THE DYNAMICAL THEORY OF GASES.
38
The
dN^ molecules
of any of the
velocity
system
describe a relative
St
is
of the
surfaces
be drawn
let
and
Let two
+ dh.
Let
Vht perpendicular to
vsdll
in
the second
molecules of
the
system.
system relative to
first
V,
cylindrical
two
planes
Finally,
it.
and
+ d({> with a plane
two planes be drawn through Vht making angles
V parallel to the axis of x. Then the volume included between the
(f)
(f>
through
will be Vbdbd<f>ht.
one of the molecules M,, then during the time
four planes
M^ and M^,
which b
in
ht
between b and
is
and
+ d(f>.
dN^ molecules similar to M^ and dN^ similar to M, in unit
volume, the whole number of encounters of the given kind between the two
+ db, and
between
(f)
<f)
<f)
of
systems will be
Vbdbd<f>BtdN,dN,.
Now
let
its velocity in
molecule which
kind,
certain
is
so that
number
in
altered
the
the time
during
then
encounter,
changed to
Q',
Bt
while
^^^ = {QfQ)VbdU^dN,dN,
or
Here
29^^ refers
sum
(3).
of the values of
for the
ot
of
dN^ molecules
In
Q among
'
all
first
g^
kind,
the
rate
of
we must perform
with respect to
2nd, with
respect
<j>
to
from
b
<;^
to
from 6 =
<^
= 2ir.
to
6=oo.
These
39
cules.
3rd,
with respect to
4th,
with respect to
dN
dN
we
(a)
Let
molecules
Q = ^, and
of
Q'
1st.
Since the
(^^t?,^) c^^/Zr^.c?^,.
ov /^{^,rj^Qd^4vi<iLin general a
takes place,
or /
^,
77,
= i\,
is
the
the value of
and
<f).
same
{Q'
in
whatever plane
Q)d<j>'m
several cases,
^.
then
jy.Qd<f> = j^^{i.l)^nsin'0
{^)
Let
Q = l' and
Q'
(4).
= e',
^'
+(^LY2{i,^,y}7rsm^2d]
By
transformation of coordinates
r V.V,  iv,)
'"
d<i>
we may
T^m' H^^'f* 
'^'f''
(f''"
3M.($,l){v,V,)]
with similar expressions
(5).
+ i (^'  ^^=)
functions of
i,
t),
(6),
C
Let
'n,'
n.'
ri.n.,
^yj\^Ly^)d<i>=^^^^.sm^e{(LL)v,^^2UUv,')]
+
[^^){^^ sin' e 
Stt sin'
29) 2 (f,
 Q ( U
V^)
(7).
M,
(87rsin'^ + 27rsin'2^)f,F'
it
40
we
consider;
is
We
In
the
to 6
oo
V,
which we
expressions
and
B,=
have
sin' 20.
We
to
shall
have to
or y, according as the
/8,
to b.
B^ and B^
be functions of
find the
known.
two values of
(8),
b.
we have found
a function
is
nbdbsm'^e
is
$ occurs
we can
and B,=
mind that ^
in
deal with,
therefore,
If,
iTrhdhsm'd,
^ as a function of b and V.
Determination of
sive
must bear
determined when
we can
a,
and
of h
whose changes we
2nd.
respect
rj,
^,
indicate
shall
Let us assume that the force between the molecules M^ and M^ is repuland vanes inversely as the nth power of the distance between them, the
value of
the
moving
force
at
then
we
find
by the
1'<
'\
n
J,
where x = , or the ratio of
time
is
is
therefore
to
the
''''
/.v1 \a,
distance
a numerical quantity
is
of
the
molecules at a given
and
J. T^^a^^
The
(10)
x' is
i^4:(r=
(")
may
evident that 6
is
and A,
will
given, and
which
will
is
known
^''^'
will
7rac?a sin'
and
B,
2^
(13),
may be
ascertained
may
M,M,
when
It
A,=
47rac?a sin' ^,
to
and when n
we put
^, =
is
of a and n,
function
'''={^m^r^^
30 that if
a,
^
Ay^
la
41
will
we have
be
be shewn that
we have
on the viscosity
In this case V will disappear from the expresof gases to believe that n = 5.
sions of the form (3), and they will be capable of immediate integration with
respect to dN^ and dN,.
If
a*
f
= 2 cot' 2(f> and x = Jl tan' <^ cos
y\iy
^ = ^"^'2'^jo7lsin'<^8in'l,
(14),
Jcoa24F^i^4
where
Fg^^
is
Legendre's Tables.
II.
first
kind and
is
given in
A^.
42
t),
&c., already determined, and f, is the
is some function of ^,
{,
which indicates the distribution of velocity among the molecules of the
where
43
GASES.
function
second kind.
In the case
which n =
in
5,
and
is
A^, is
not equal to
is
to
of
so that
5,
the
of
the
however, n
If,
require
result
Q^v
of integration
where
disappears,
second kind,
we
we should
The
only
case
in
this
function
is
ters
whose velocity
lies
In the Philosophical
Magazine
to
parallel
limits
is
way
not in any
this
may
affected
parallel
now determine
to
by the
As
y.
On
the
From a
direction
either
will
given point
be drawn representing in
velocities
of
every
The extremities
molecule
of these
ment of volume
lines
let lines
which
will
dV
OA = a
be
that of a molecule
dV
if
an
ele
terminate within
r is the distance o{
Let
be taken
of
lines
dV
will
be f{r)dV,
where
from O.
first
kind,
and
OB = b
62
44
BA
he
will
the
velocity
of
relative
to
B; and
Now
let
OG,
if
we
OG
divide
will
AB
in.
be the velocity
two molecules.
OA' = a' and OR = b' be the velocities of the two molecules after
GA = GA' and GB = GR, and A'GE is a straight Hne not
encounter,
the
the plane of
necessarily in
of the
is
is
OAB.
AGA' = 20
Also
is
completely defined
we know
if
The
relative
motion
before
encounter,
encounter,
time will be
n^n^de
where
n,
and
Wj are
(17),
and
on the Umits of variation within which we class encounters as of the same kind.
and
Now let A
A'R move
describe
A\ and
will
dV
while
also
AB
describe
of the
first
kind, the
dV
n,=f,{a)dV
The number
to
OB
will
velo
at A, will be
(18).
be
n,=f._{h)dV
(19);
molecules will be
f,(a)Mb){dVYFdc
(20).
The
to
dV.
we should
manner
like
the number of
for
find
45
encounters
between
dV
described
about A' and B', and whose subsequent velocities correspond to elements equal
to c^F described
where F'
is
about
and B,
MaU(V)(dV)'Fde
RA' and A'GA
is
of
is
BA
OB
OAy
OA,
to
OR
OA',
to
OB,
equal
is
then the
to
velocity
of
will
be
whence we obtain
a,
and
when
(23),
= Cy^
(24),
= C,e~^\
f,(b)
M,a' = MJ3"
where
By
integrating
molecules
is
*'
jjjC^e'
C^.
and equating
didrj dC,
the
therefore,
If,
rf
and
rj
+ drj, and
dN,= ^\e~
This
also
of
distribution
this
velocities
distribution
and
"'
aV
velocities
(25).
the
result
of velocities
to
xV
among
we
.V,
is
(22).
h' is
a',
which
obtained,
fMMi)=fM)MV)
Now
OB
the
distribution
final
then
AGA'.
and
When
will
(21),
that
therefore
only
the
+ dC
is
didqdC
not
will
their
mutual
be
(26),
altered
by the exchange
form
for
if
there
of
action.
were any
other,
It
velocities
Hence
if
OA,
OA',
OA",
&c.
be a
series
of
velocities,
there will
be a
tendency of each molecule to assume the velocities OA, OA', OA", &c. in order,
returning to OA.
Now
it
is
impossible
to
assign a
reason
why
the successive
46
of a molecule
velocities
reverse
order.
If,
equal,
direct
exchange between
determined
OA
velocity
and OA'
and OA'
equal,
is
not
is
Hence the
number of
had a great
each
succeed
encounters,
other
is
attained only
is
that
the gaseous
OA
is
encounters
therefore,
in
the
all
when the
molecules have
with
rapidity
which the
form
of the
distribution of
is
When the gas moves in mass, the velocities now determined are
pounded with the motion of translation of the gas.
When
com
the differential elements of the gas are changing their figure, being
compressed or extended along certain axes, the values of the mean square of
the velocity will be different in different
directions.
It
is
probable
that the
Am)=^iei^'''^^
(27),
apyrr
where
a,
$,
gate the exact distribution of velocities in this case, as the theory of motion
of gases does not require
When
through
one gas
gas,
and negative
is
it.
directions,
when heat
as in
considered.
most actual
cases.
The
principal
as follows.
conclusions which
being conducted
is
this
the case
as
we have
very small in
investigation
1st.
The mean
2nd.
3rd.
velocity
is
f* is
velocity
is
2
v j=a
(28).
v'
= xa'
(29).
?*
= o**
(3^)
are
5th.
6th.
When
of i*
^'
is
fV
is
is
mean
(31).
(32)
f^' =
=MJ3'
M,v,' =
whence
the
= a*
M,a'
or
vis
viva of
(33),
M,iw
(34),
be the same
a molecule will
to
known
of gases
We
all
each system.
in
it
This
independent of the
is
it
leads
to
the law
may now
We
cases.
and
shall find
We
47
proceed
to
down
mean value
indicate the
shall
write
to
SO
the
of g
values
the
in
diflferent
of one kind
the
since
is
kind
first
external
it
and
is
second
We
forces.
shall
confine
83
ourselves to
difficulty,
the effect of
indicate
to
but
is
5,
In this case
on the
disappears,
and we have
for the
effect of
first,
<"'
'^M^^^}''!:^''''"'
where the functions of
values
for
all
the
^,
77,
C in
molecules,
in
the
in
equations
(4),
for
(5),
according as
(6),
(7).
thus obtain
^''^''
t^lEOT^F^^^^^^'*
We
48
(37);
.(38);
(r)
8t
M^,
(2^^
2.
 ^^ J 2 (^.  ^0 ( C^^
t. r)}
F,0
(39),
M,
S^
to
from
tlie
action of molecules
These
ii,
^i,
are
^{qi,
the values
and ^iFi^
for
of
the
rate
of
variation
first
the
of
mean
values
of
of
^,
q,
C,
To
find
change K, the
force
we have only
coefficient
to
of the force
W
<'^)
alter
first
the suffix
,j)
between M^ and
system.
We
among the
into
^j,
thus find
f =0
^=(m!f^'^^M%'+L'2S,'{v,v.+iA.2i,m
^ = {m})'^'^^^MZ.v,(J:}
particles of
throughout, and to
,(40);
(41);
(42);
'
49
^''>
W^'=(2i?)^'^'^'''("^'^'^''
These quantities must be added to those
to
variation
in
the
the molecules of
in
When
first
there
is
only one
kind of
On
"We
the Action of
shall
the molecules.
all
the variations of
^,
and
",
due to
^F"*
Tt =
(^)
On
8, refers
(")
%^=2fX
(45);
^^ = nX + ^Y
(16);
the
to variations
<*)
forces.
Total rate of change of the different functions of the velocity of the mole
systems
To
for
this cause,
(r)^'=2f(fx+,,r+2)+;fp
where
force
and from
arising
from
^=^
h9.
ht
the quantities
molecules of both
already found.
'
Bt
We
.r.A
'
^"""^
^3^
find
shall
we must add
it,
VOL.
II.
7},
and
C,
u+
i,
r),
and
u'
+C
(^8),
50
where
and
u, v,
are
so
We
and
p,
pj are
mass
We
Pj>
is,
the
''
^^ (2?)' = ^
<^):
K> h> and k are quantities the absolute values of which can be deduced
have not as yet experimental data for determining
experiment*
We
from
M, N,
or
We
K.
thus find for the tate of bhange of the various ftlnctions of the velocity,
^ = kA^,{u,u,) + X
(a)
(51);
(52);
kp.
+
also
com
(49),
of the
M^, = p,
in unit of volume.
values
M,N, = p,,
where
mean
AM
(n,^
'"'
^'^ ^^'
^
'^'^
.(53).
kp.
(y)
in
mixed
them,
As the
I shall
variation
and as we
give the case of a single medium,
media
are
complicated,
=  ^k,p,A, (^,' +
+
I (/ + U' U')
^,r},^
of functions
shall
of three
dimensions
+ X (3^,^ + ^/ + L^)
+ 2Y^,'n, + 2Za.
(54).
use
Medium composed
Theory of a
We
shall
51
of Moving Molecules.
rectangular axes, and that the component velocities of any one of them, resolved
in the directions of x, y,
z,
are
W+
where
w,
v,
mean
The
of the
^,
w\t
mean
velocity
and
^,
are
t,
17,
u,
v,
w may
will
be treated as functions of
x,
and
z,
y,
The
d.
t,
will
in
quantities
t
be indicated by the
8.
t,
17,
as
the molecules
for all
functions
of x, y,
2,
t.
If
V,
the molecules
all
in
of
velocity.
quantities
each molecule.
symbol
u,
Tf,
4,
7),
in
relative
for
^,
are
w,
because
molecules
therefore
treat
it
are
as
hydrodynamics, but
passing
continually
through
its
we must
consider
We
boundary.
u,
v,
w,
as
cannot
done
is
in
molecule.
When we
during
its
We
and
^,
q,
N dx dy
we may
call
d.
in the element dx dy dz be
number of molecules in unit of volume.
If
and p the density of the element, then
N the
of each molecule,
MN = p
is
dz,
then
the mass
(55).
We
must next consider the molecules which pass through a given plane
of unit area in unit of time, and determine the quantity of matter, of momentum,
72
52
of heat, &c. which
is
We
shall
the
divide
first
molecules
unit
in
of
volume
into
classes
tj,
^,
t,
dN=,e~
aV
the
investigation
present
equiHbrium
in its state of
AT
In
medium
is
PW+C
d^dqdi
'
we do not
(56).
require
know
to
the
form
of
this
function.
Now
let
dN
it
The
velocity of the
u{u + ^),
and
since
will overtake
{u'{u^^)]dN
such
molecules
unit
in
of
and
time,
number
the
of
{u\^u)dN.
Now
let
momentum,
any
be
vis
viva,
belonging
property
&c.,
which
it
to
molecule,
the
with
carries
it
across
such as
the plane,
its
mass,
being
number
is
dN,
then
the
quantity of
transferred
across
l(uu'+^)QdN,
{uu)jQdN+jiQdN
or
If
we put
mean value
QN
of Q,
for
jQdN, and
JQ^
for
we may
write the
(57).
expression
all
for
call
the quantity of
{uu')QN + lQN
the
(58).
(a)
same kind,
sion
reduced to
is
M=M;
Velocity
of the Fluid.
make Q
of the
53
then,
since
is
the expres
zero,
is
{uu)MN={uu)p
If
u = u, or
if
transferred
is
zero
Transference of
(yS)
Momentum
across
for
Q,
v,
may
get
for
therefore be
iv.
System
of Pressures at any
Fluid.
one
we
u,
a Plane
point of the
Substituting
(59).
equal
molecules
all
M{u + ^).
is
momentum
the quantity of
transferred
(uu)up + f'p
If the plane moves with
where
This
from
is
the whole
negative
the
the velocity
mean value
momentum
to
the
of
consists
partly
of
in the direction of
positive
the
this expression
u,
is
reduced to
^'p,
^'.
side
momentum
of
(60).
medium on
thus
sides
opposite
of the
transferred,
The
latter
plane
as
There
will
across the
and
where
^q
entirely
also
same
due to the
in
constant bombardment
be a transference of
gases,
medium on
momentum
in
kept
the
so
that
we may
up between
directions
of y
them.
and
plane,
{uu)vp{$r)p
(61),
(uu)2vp +
(62),
Ep
54
If the
it
mean
exerted on the
medium on the
force
velocity
positive side
into
a normal pressure
^p
in the direction of x,
a tangential pressure
^p
in the direction of y,
z.
When
a gas
is
hTmilp
difier
+ nCp
the quantity
,,,.(63),
all
direc
we put
ep + ^p^Cp = Sp
the mean pressure
will represent
from
if
(64),
rji^p,
C^p,
and
_
rj^p,
^'p,
^rjp will
then
Energy in
the
Medium
Actual Heat.
The actual
centre of gravity,
and partly on
It
its
may
partly
on the velocity of
be written
^EM
which
is
is
the internal
at present
the energy
unknown.
its
part of the
Summing
(65),
is
each molecule.
(66).
translation of the
centres of gravity
and the third that due to the internal motion of the parts of
we assume with
we may conclude
of the
55
mean energy
that,
of internal
always
preserved, so that
E = {fil){^' + l' + C)
The
total
or
energy* being in
This
(67).
the
i^(f + ^' +
(68),
WP
(69).
(y)
Putting
we
<?
= iy8(f +
7y'
+ r)^,
a Plane
Conduction
of Heat.
and u = u
(70),
for the quantity of heat carried over the unit of area by conduction
find
in unit of time
i^ii'+ff+mp
where
indicate
&c.
^,
mean
the
of
values
^,
(71)'
&c.
They
are
always small
quantities.
On
the
Rate of Variation of
in
an Element of Volume,
being
any property
Let
the
mean value
The
element
of
quantity
may by
for all
their
may
vary from
mutual action
an alteration of Q, or molecules
so cause
for
may
out of
it,
and
the symbol S to
56
consideration,
dQN = hQ
d
^N
g^^')^^+^^^
dt
.r
(72),
last three terms are derived from equation (59) and two similar
and denote the quantity of Q which flows out of an element of volume,
that element moving with the velocities u, v\ w'.
If we perform the differentiations and then make u=u, v=v, and w' = w, then the variation will be that
the
equations,
in
molecules,
mean
velocity
of
system of
the
Equation of Continuity.
QM
Put
the
mass of a
molecule;
unalterable,
is
and we have,
MN=p,
putting
dp
(du
dv
dw\
,^
which
is
the
ordinary
equation
of
continuity
in
was obtained, we
it
,.
(^'^'
i+p[r.+Ty+dz)=''
Combining
this equa
find
^f+(?^^+(^^)+rf4(^e^)=^f
(").
momentum
We
SO
g
firom equation
(51),
written
P'lt'^dz
(^^^)
(5'6).
57
In this equation the first term denotes the efficient force per unit of volume,
second the variation of normal pressure, the third and fourth the variations
the
of tangential pressure, the fifth the resistance due to the molecules of a different
system, and the sixth the external force acting on the system.
The investigation of the values of the second, third, and fourth terms
must be deferred till we consider the variations of the second degree.
In a state of equilibrium
u^
and
w,
vanish,
pi^,'
becomes
p^,
S=^''
which
is
This equation, being true of the system of molecules forming the first medium
of the presence of the molecules of the second system, shews
independently
that
if
several kinds
of molecules are
be the same as
mode
of
if
distribution
atmosphere in
that
as
Dalton
vessel
and
considered
to
This
is
the same
a
in
exist
mixed
if
which
in
can only
take
place
so
as
to
left
mix
after
If currents
as
of
the
law
of
still
force
between
the
molecules.
Diffusion of Gases.
If
the
pressures.
motion of the
gases
is
slow,
we may
system of molecules
h^ + ^ = tA^M,u,) + Xp
VOL. n.
(78),
58
and
In
If
quiet
of
cases
all
equation.
we then put
dp.^
(79).
dt
diffusion
p^ ip^
we may
=p, and
/d,
neglect
+ pj = p, we
the
find
1=^"
If
we
(^)
also
Mu.u)=M'^u,)=^^;^.(x^^
Here Pi(u,u)
across
is
same area
The external
in
vessels
force
has very
We
a vessel at
is
of moderate size^
When two
across the
first
(81).
little
may
two
effect
therefore leave it
gases.
equal
pressures
first,
and u
will
always be
zero.
mately true of heavy gases, provided the denser gas is placed below the lighter.
Mr Graham has described in his paper on the Mobility of Gases*, experiments
which were made under these conditions. A vertical tube had its lower tenth
part filled with a heavy gas, and the remaining ninetenths with a lighter gas.
After the lapse of a
off,
in it analyzed, so
part
of the tube
was shut
gas which had ascended into the upper tenth of the tube during the given time.
In this case
u=
we have
p,,=
^^
'
_J^l^.
p^pJcA^p dx
(82),
(83),
^
'
59
W^i^r',u,) =
^. =
whence
or
D=
we put
if
^',
^Py
(84).
^.
(85);
^^^^
dt^d:^
The
is
^, = C,+
If the length of the tube
in
the
which the
case in
x=
la
ir'c
where
cos2 + &C
^
(88),
^<
*
first
to x
=c
is
''
first
gas
to
to x
= b, and
collected, is
^nb
irb
TTC
4^^
sm
+e
sm
sm
sm
2'
a
a
a
Graham's experiments,
first
at the other
We
if it is
(87).
a +&c.
27rc
^
'^
,__.
(89),
from
tube was
filled
= c.
Mr
with the
is
to x
In
= +7e
where
and
+ a) + &c
C^,
from x =
for
a,
Q + C,e""^ cos^+C^
i?.=
where
is
C>'"'^'cos(r2j;
find
gas,
end ascertained
for
in
which
series
after a time
of values
of
t,
^^
onetenth
first
of
the
tJ^^^^
82
T.
60
El
Time
P'
01193
02305
2T
ZT
4r
Sr
67
87
03376
04366
05267
06072
07321
08227
lOT
\2T
08845
'10000
00
Mr
Table,
T=500
acid
and
air,
log^^
X)
whence
for carbonic acid
and
air,
this
Now
(91),
= 0235
in inchgrainsecond measure.
is
and
the
distance.
may be
square of the
It varies directly as
the
The dimensions
and time.
of
In
this
are evidently
of length
air,
considering
we have assumed
that air
is
a simple gas.
Now
it
is
well
known
that
THE DYNAMICAL THEORY OF GASES.
61
much
to
and
gases,
it
is
It
is
therefore
diffusion
desired that
be
to
every
of
pair
experiments
should be made
on the
of
inter
do not act
mixture being
Mr Graham
the
of
results
pt.
2,
p.
74,
air.
The
coefl&cients
of diffusion
periments are
026216
Air and
The
value
experiment
mixed gas
'00962
'00771
'00682
'00582
'00486
for
carbonic
'010240
Ammonia
different
parts
acid
is
column.
The
of the vessel
of
inequality
is,
and the
was bent, was probably
however, neglected
it
the
composition of the
;
dialess
Those experiments on
values
of
diflFusion
which lasted
ten
hours,
all
give
smaller
also
result
Interdiffusion through
When
two
mixture
the
of
a small
hole.
gases
in
by a small
hole.
near the
and the inequality of the pressure of each gas will extend to a distance
from the hole depending on the diameter of the hole, and nearly proportional
hole
to that diameter.
62
Hence
in tlie equation
,^+^'=i^p^,K.)+xp,
dx
^^
the term
will
.(92)
dt
dx
Hence when the hole is very small the righthand side of the equation
may be neglected, and the flow of either gas through the hole will be independent of the flow of the other gas, as the term kAp^^{u^u^) becomes comparatively insignificant.
One gas
as
fast
as
therefore will escape through a very fine hole into another nearly
into
vacuum; and
if
the
volumes difiused will be as the square roots of the specific gravities inversely,
which
is
by Graham*.
By
putting for
(y3).
in equation (75)
(52),
we
find
...(94).
first
xii. p. 222.
invisible agitation
by expansion; the
fifth,
of fluid
effect
The
by conduction.
of heat
63
friction
quantities
of diffusion,
or
viscosity
and
simplified
various
in
cases,
which we
shall
take
in
order.
Ist.
We
shall
Volumes.
is
of heat
Law of Equivalent
The equation
gas.
(94)
is
then reduced
ip.
If
A(f,' +
= ;^^W(f^ +
V+
v:
+ C;) = Q
Q.Q. = Ce,
or
If,
and
^^^
(f,=
+ ,. + C,=) = ft
{Q,Q,)=^^^(Mj>.A + M,p^,){Q,Q,)
find
rapidly
+ 3/,(f,' + V + }....(95).
we put
j^^_ ii: +
we
'/='
therefore,
become
of invisible
the
gases
Now
equal.
agitation
where ^ =
is
are
in
(97),
(96),
Q^
(98).
and Q.
will
called
equilibrium
are at the
of heat
or
equality of
temperature
same temperature,
Q.
Q.
1_2,_3/.(^,1+^,MJ^
Pt
(99),
54
Hence
if
two
the pressures as well aa the temperatures be the same in
^^ = ^'
or
masses of the
the
(100),
Pi
the gas.
can be deduced
This result, by which the relative masses of the molecules
at by GayLussac
the relative densities of the gases, was first arrived
necessary result of the
from chemical considerations. It is here shewn to be a
we adopt as to
theory
whatever
so,
it
is
Theory of Gases; and
from
Dynamical
We
may
~,
for
where
Sj,
s,
are the
specific
we
use
is
M=M,s
Its
mean square
of velocity,
^'~s
We
l>
(101).
^^^
(102).
= ^7^^o'
(103).
Cooling hy Expansion.
dx~dy~dz~
dy
du
and
and
all
''
3p
dt
zero.
mass of gas
is
65
of the
will
be
<^^).
*''^f*^'l=
(lOG),
^'f^fi^f^Sfif
2 dp
3^
,,,,
T = 30J
which
gives
the
relation
C"^)'
between
dp
We
in
gas
also find
dO
'^'j
().
which gives the relation between the pressure and the density.
Specific
The
at Constant
mass
is
^)3F'
Volume^
= ^',
or
(m
^=^f
If,
changing
its
^^=f? = ff
Hence the
it
without
density,
specific
heat of unit
of
(no).
is
in
dynamical
measure
'^^^^P
VOL. u.
(111)
66
Specific
By
pressure 9p.
Now,
sinks
pressure
to
let
its
Constant Pressure.
dp
3^
d'B
"r==
specific
+ 3)8
'
dd
^'
is
()
fe'^fe
The
is
ratio of the
known
specific
We
(114),
^
3/8
whence
)8
specific
=f
(115).
is
at constant volume
(").
at constant pressure
^f.
where
is
From
and
'
yi
,4t^
and
by
y'^ = 2^
The
the
+ d'0.
a^
till
^Sd'B
and the
dd and the
The temperature
dE
at
has
("^)>
Dr Rankine* has
of
air,
found the result to agree with the value afterwards determined ex
perimentally by M. Regnaultt.
* Transactions of the Royal Sodtty of Edinburgh, Vol. xx. (1850).
t Comptes Rendus, 1853.
67
If
ting
to
diffusing into one another, then, omitting the terras relaheat generated by friction and to conduction of heat, the equation (94)
gives
.(118).
By
(78),
and
(79),
of this equa
tion becomes
(pi^i
/dp,
 ip. ^
{^x
\_(dp,
dp,
dp
dp,
 (U/ +
V,'
+ W',').
d.pu
The whole
external
If
the
forces
d.pv
^
+ Y {p,v, f p,v.) f Z (p,u\ + pjv,)  (^ +
^
X{p,u, + p,u,)
increase
minus
of energy
the
cooling
is
therefore
,.(119).
d.pw
dz
heat due
to
neutralized
by
where
it is
the
cooling
of
each gas as
it
in
diffusion
will
gases.
mixture,
be
exactly
it is rare.
92
68
GASES.
Let us put
Pifi*=i'i
Then by equation
p^i'=p2 + q,
+ 5i and
to
the
(120).
(52),
...(121),
if
we omit
in equation
(75) terms
neglect
of three dimensions in i, q, I, which relate to conduction of heat, and
coeffilarge
the
by
multiplied
not
when
and
p^p,
quantities of the form ^p
cients
ky,
and
k^,
we get
du
dw\ _hq
dv
+ 2i>^f/>(x;
j;^.+
dx + dy
If
except
the
that
motion
of
the
is
not subject
propagation
St
to
of
(122).
dzl
we may
sound,
neglect
as
in
cases
all
In a single
system of molecules
3kA^
=
2p
(du
/du
.(12a),
dv
dwW
whence
If
/Lt
will
we make
p
t^1
we
(dv
(dv)
=/a
(125),
shall
(du
(du
dv
dv
dwW
dw\\
(125),;
69
(dv
dz
dvr'
fdw
du\
fdu
dv
dy
(127).
These are the values of the norittal and tangential stresses in a simple gas
variation of motion is not very rapid, and when /x, the coefficient
when the
of viscosity,
may
is
be neglected.
dp
du
w ith
two
ct'u
is
to
may
identical
elasticity,
proportional
d\]
equations wbich
other
of these equations
form
at
(d'u
its
d fdu
be
written
with,
that of
dv
we
dw\
find
those
amount.
in
exist
of the
q^
= Ce"''''^
= Ce~^
the stress q
is
if
(129)
T=j\ =
f^
1=1
We
may
call
Phil.
"
On
itself,
so that
(131).
(130);
xiii.
Cah. xx.
p.
139.
the Friction of Fluids in Motion and the Equilibrium and Motion of Elastic Solids^" Camhr'uhje
Tram. Vol.
viil.
(2).
70
we next make
If
medium
will be
an
= 3,
so
elastic solid,
GASES.
()
^^^^^^st^(i:4,w)=
n.ay be written
where
is
a,
/8,
of
this
originally
of
we suppose
If
x.
(133),
then,
equal to p,
the
initial
jt)
value
a small dis
after
placement,
(^)^
i'i'^(l++S)i's
and bj transformation of coordinates the tangential pressure
(>)
^^=^(4f)
The medium
which
rigidity of
if
has
is
properties of
is
an
elastic
solid,
the
fp*.
The same result and the same ratio of the elasticities would be obtained
we supposed the molecules to be at rest, and to act on one another with
forces
statical
theory of elas
molecidar
ticity.
are
in
which
at
all,
the
molecules
move
The
fluidity
molecules, causing
The
medium
of our
them
in
straight
who
is
lines
therefore
Now p
varies
a gas
is
therefore
is 2"
>....(136).
J
as
while
varies
Hence
ft
varies
as
the
absolute
temperature,
and
is
independent
density.
Camh.
Phil.
Trans. Vol.
viil.
(1845),
p.
of
the
is
my own
and by
of Gases*,
spiration
71
Mr Graham
of
on the Tran
The
result
Theory
Dynamical
the
molecules.
was
It
by myself J
deduced
and M.
molecules,
0.
Meyer
E.
is
Gases,
of
elastic
The experimental
temperature,
as
of a
repulsive
force
molecules, which
Using the
for
is
proportional
to the absolute
make
it
vary
absolute temperature,
of the
square root
the
result,
requires
inversely as the
fifth
is
the grain,
foot,
If the pressure
is
units,
my
experiments give
air,
= 00936.
30 inches of mercury,
we
find,
_p = 477360000.
pT=fi,
Since
rigidity
in
we
that
find
time
This
of
sound we
is
the
may
of
exceedingly
small,
audible sounds
we have
time
of
of
is
of a second.
most acute
consider the
the
of
5oa9Ao600
vibration
modulus
relaxation
the
and temperature
so
that
.
249.
"
II
p.
On
the effect of the Internal Friction of Fluids on the motion of Pendulums," Cambridge Transac
72
Viscosity of
a Mixture of Gases,
is
Putting
is
the gases.
all
t(^rMJ)=^
(^).
pJI^  3M.M.{2MA.^mA.)p.q.K^A,^A,)
^;:p^^
Since
q = qi + q
p=Pi+Pi and
where
and q
j^^m
refer
to
(139).
the mixture,
we
have
shall
tiU=q={q, + q,),
where
fx
and
we put
If
to
is
Sj
and
for
5^
and p at temperature
referred
0^
and
p,
pa,
'^
where
p,
is
pA
SAAs,Ep,' + IIp,p,+
'
ZAMGp.'
^'
Jcs,
^(25A + 3M,)
F= 3A,
{k,s,
25,,
Si
+ S,
(141),
is
reduced to p^ when ^, =
we
require
to
know
0,
and
to p,
the value of
when Pi=0.
k,
For
the coefficient
mutual
deduced
by
interference
of
molecules
the
of
two
the
interdiffusion
two
of the
This might
gases.
air,
give as values of
k^
Air
k,=
Hydrogen
^,
Carbonic
The
gases.
be
mixtures,
for
/x
73
my
is
experi
experiments
for air,
481 xlO",
1
42'8
1 0'",
39
10".
acid... /:,=
The experiments of Graham in 1863, referred to at page 58, on the interof air and carbonic acid, give the coefficient of mutual interference
diffiision
of these gases,
and by taking
this
as
^=52xl0"';
k,
we
^ = 298x10"'.
oxygen
and
nitrogen.
It
is
also
have
also
examined the
hydrogen
mixtures
of
value of
k roughly,
the
scale.
bonic
acid
to
and
transpirationtimes
carbonic
satisfy
the
both
determined
results
to
of calculation
Mr Graham.
experimental
air
of k between
by Graham
air,
about
assuming
the
for
middle of
It will
exhibit
the
peculiarity
acid,
ratios
find
series
observed
in
the
experiments,
that
a small
quicker gas.
and the
results of observation
air
and calculation
of mixtures of
VOL. IL
10
rj,
^,
whose values
{,
will
the molecules.
exist
75
its final
force
acting on
(29),
(31), (32),
it
j^=3r.r=3^
at
(144),
r?= ??=
^^
(145).
fP= eC=
K
p
(146);
5^^^=3V^^{^^ + ^^ +
(^^^)'
air,
when
2(/8
to
left
1)/,
itself,
(147),
as
Society,
con
in
equation
Equation (147), as now corrected, shews that the flow of heat depends
on the variation of temperature only, and not on the direction of the variation
(143).
of pressure.
vertical
in
thermal equilibrium,
When
not
the
I first
same
as
^% and so
when
air
is
carried
up
* The
as
in mass.
last
obtained
them
the
that
it
^*
is
temperature
does by expansion
/3.
102
76
which
but
with the
inconsistent
Is
W. Thomson
Professor Sir
presently
second
about this
discovered
one of
law
my
thermodynamics.
of
and the
result,
and arrived
mistakes,
difficulty
the height.
But
it.
it
at
wrote to
conclusion
air,
and I was
some
in
is
thermodynamics.
is
be
substances
enclosed in
communication
the
two
at
the
columns
are
by taking heat
refuse
from
heat would
at
the
when
round
in
thermal equilibrium,
in
temperatures, an
and
hotter
is
If,
different
circulate
energy, which
mechanical
cylinders
bottom.
giving
the
up
it
system
contradiction
till
to
the tops of
to
it
the
law
of
thermo
when
in
thermal
second
dynamics.
The
result
equilibrium,
is
as
that temperature
we
velocities
fore
is,
is
follows from
it
independent of height in
all
we
result.
to
shall
find
that unless
Now
this
equation
is
f* = 3^.
we should have
obtained a
f,
derived from the law of distribution of
said
other substances.
assumptions,
different
now given
if true,
as in
We
may
there
Coefficient
If
is
of Conductivity.
the coefficient of conductivity of the gas for heat, then the quantity
of
area in
de_^ ^
^dx'k^A,^
by equation
unit
of
is
(147).
do
dx
^^^^^
its
taneous pressure,
/3
by equation
density,
(125),
we
cific
value in terms
its
\l
77
and
gas,
^=3(^.tJ
For
air
above
274'6C.
^ = 0"0936
have
y= 1*409,
absolute
zero,
we
in footgrainsecond
and
the spe
<'^^)
temperature
the
at
/^ = 918*6
measure.
find
per
feet
Hence
for
of
second,
air
at
melting
and at
ice,
or
16''6
C,
(7=1172
That
surface
(150).
to say,
is
is
in
through every square foot of horizontal surface a quantity of heat the mechanical
energy of which
is
per second.
Principal
heat
in
surfaces
is
25"
bars,
C, transmit
in
much
Now
the
dynamical
equivalent
in
foot^grainsecond
It
than
air at
M.
of
iron
far
is
25" C.
1 '91
57 x
heat
and from a
different value
M. Clausius
its
is
not
in actual value.
Now
air.
another,
10'".
16"' 6 C.
/x,
is
kind
of
measure to
186162.
78
Since
except
it
/x,
subject to the
are constant
viscosity,
that
is,
is
The conductivity
ture.
Also,
oxide,
to
all
the conductivity
since
is
nearly
the same
for
gases will
Oxygen,
nitrogen,
air,
oxide,
and
air
will
have
equal conductivity, while that of hydrogen will be about seven times as great.
The
value
oxygen, and
its
is
of
for
viscosity
carbonic
acid
of that
is
1'27,
of oxygen.
its
specific
gravity
is
of
oxygen or of
air.
XXIX.
On
the
Royal
the
in
much
coils
the
form
to
no
have
of
cores,
the
rings,
which
increase
and,
smaller
as
to fix
coils
possible,
begin by supposing
shall
our ideas,
revolving
within
diameter.
The
my
paper
equations of
"On
the
currents
two neighbouring
in
are
circuits
given in
(5),
= Sy + ^^{Mx + Ny\
resistances
selfinduction
of
depends
the
is
on
circuit,
L may
be
two
unity,
their
measurement, X, M,
velocities.
rj
in
and
circuits,
and
relative
are
that
is
the
are
potentials
and
the coefficients
on themselves
of mutual
induction,
position.
of
their
coefficient
their
metaphorically called
is,
and
nature
the
L f 2M\ N
of
lines,
"electric
and
inertia"
and
of
the
p.
469.
are
first
80
Let us
take the case of the two circuits thrown into one, and the
first
so that
two
constant.
is
Then
whence
where
(1),
x^
the
is
value of the
initial
(2).
current.
If
i + 2if+iV ^'''
we put
R\S
._.
'V'^^
_t
x = x,e
then
The value
as
inversely
sum
of the time
outward form,
similar
(4).
varies
whose
section
is
the
of the sections of the wires passing through unit of section of the coil.
In the
much
large
greater,
experimental
coil
of re
1864,
in
sistance
is
in
crease.
Let
secondary
us
coil,
which
alters
effect
a sudden change
of
the value of
x^ to
from
x_.
M^
to
of position
M^
in a
we
we may
effect
may
the
t^,
neglect the
(5).
first
term in com
t^
in
time
(6).
by saying that the electromagnetic momentum of the circuit remains the same
To ascertain the effect of the commutator,
after a sudden change of position.
currents x and y exist in the two
instant,
given
a
at
that,
let us suppose
into
one circuit, and that x' is the
then
made
are
coils
two
the
that
coils,
MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS BY MECHANICAL WORK.
81
current in the circuit the instant after completion; then the same equation
(1)
gives
{L + 2M\N)x'
= (L^M)x^{N\M)y
(7).
circuit
first
the parts
coil,
in
and
electric
following Table
(1)
C,
made and
connexion,
If A,
broken.
if
we
four
be the ends
enclose in brackets
varieties
as
in
the
82
During the whole motion the current has also been decaying at a rate
which varies according to the value of L + 2M+N; but since
varies from
+ if to J/, we may, in a rough theory, suppose that in the expression for
the decay of the current M=0.
If the
secondary
the current
will
x^,
makes a semlrevolation
coil
in
be
^T
X,
=e
' r,
^^^^^
and r
'=R^
W'
''
is
For the
kind,
first
""imTN
By
increasing
the
T may
speed,
(!")
When
may
current
is
be maintained by giving a
greater than
and
or less
than
sufficient
first case,
it will
is
1,
the
it
will
be a reciprocating current
the second
When
lies
between
Let there be
second, then
we may
+1 and 1,
the
coil
and q windings
N = nq^
L = lp\ M=mpq,
where
first
in the
write
(11),
coefficient
must be
of selfinduction
positive.
When
of the
whole
circuit,
commutator
the
pm
is
is
ln
m\ and
of the
greater than qn
first
therefore
kind,
LNM*
the ratio r
and when
f=('V3(i^r
In
which
is
the
maximum
value of
r.
(12).
is
When
r
lies
the ratio of
between
and
4 1
may be kept
up,
and
will
increase
of
pi
83
is
to
I,
less
most rapidly
when
p="
q
/l_"''
In
'=(13"'
1
When
the commutator
as
so
circuits,
is
1_
m\
V
U^J
is
first
step
it
is
thus stopped.
is
to close both
The second
to
on the
<>3).
first circuit
Lx + My = Lx' r My'
In this case
M=
(14).
so that
(LM)x^Lx
where x
is
The next
circuit
step
is
new
to throw the
(15);
circuits
into one,
being
now
positive.
{L + M) X
The whole
of this
effect
=(L\2M+N)
commutator
is
therefore
x"
to
(16).
the ratio
DM'
L{L + 2M+N)'
The whole
effect of
the semirotation
is
by the
ratio
L + 2M+N
L2M+N'
The
total
effect
of a
semirevolution supposed
instantaneous
is
to
multiply
VM*
^''L{L2M^N)'
112
the
MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS BY MECHANICAL WORK.
84
If
in the first
and second
coils
respec
'^~l{lp'2mpq + nq')'
which
greater than
is
1,
provided 2lmp
we have
for the
maximum
\m
value of
is
SJ
When
r,
In
the
primary
are
coil
The equations
are
The
wire.
true
(18),
are
of the
of the cores
is
currents
in
(17),
the
in
coils,
ments.
in
primary
the secondary
except
coil
is
always in rigid
connexion
with
that
changing.
With
primary,
in
coil,
can have
whose
its
electric
current
coil.
coil,
inertia
is
is
of
On
coil
loses
whereas
much
requires
great
increase
of
85
current
to
when highly
core,
increase
its
magnetism,
its
less
due to the shunt may more than counterbalance the diminution of strength
in
it
will
receive
it
is
very small,
all
instantaneous
effect
of variable
coils,
and
currents than
[Extracted from The Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, No. 32, 1867.]
On
XXX.
I PROPOSE
to
and inextensible
to it at
the
its surface.
<^ {xyz)
is
=G
and
found by putting
it
^^ (xyz)
or
itself,
= H,
equal to a constant, and com
yl,{xyz)^S.
Now
of
let
length
which
of
the curve
varies
((x
= constant)
let
H vary,
and
let
will be a function of
H and
G.
In the same way, making dS^ an element of the curve (1^= constant) we
may
H and
G.
in
the element dS^ experience a stress, consisting of a force
inwhich
in
direction
the
in
and
increases,
G
which
the direction in
equal and
creases, acting on the positive side of the linear element dS^, and
Now
let
opposite
forces acting
on the negative
we
shall
side.
These
denote by
_X_
^""'dS,'
will constitute
a longitudinal
and a shearing
force
87
call
Y
In like manner,
will
experience on
the
if
element dS^
positive
its
is
acted on by
Y' and
forces
side
X'
it
the values
force,
of which will be
forces
vanish,
When
at the
stresses
and
there
is
point,
(ff= constant),
must be equal
no shearing
and
are
force,
if p^^
called
to that on
then
p,^
dS^
and p^ are
of principal stress.
lines
principal
called the
((?
= constant)
^^
dp,,
dS,
d'S,
+ (i^ni^.)5^^=0^
.
dp^dS,
d%
dHdG^^^'' ^'''UGdH'^
^'+P^ = N,N,
The
first
(1),
^2^'
(3).
The
r,
and
third equation
r^
are
on which
r,
is
They
first
and
N, is the normal pressure of any fluid on the surface from the side
and r, are reckoned positive, and N, is the normal pressure on the
other side.
If the systems of curves G and H, instead of being lines of principal stress,
had been lines of curvature, we should still have had the same equation (3),
but r, and r, would have been the principal radii of curvature, and p,, and p^.
A SPHERICAL ENVELOPE.
EQUILIBRIUM OF
88
been
have
would
and not
the
In
r,
= i\, and
= iV, = 0,
surface
spherical
of
case
iV,
becomes
Pn+P =
whence we obtain from the
(4),
first
(^)
=(sy='=where C^
(IZ"= constant)
where {dhf
is
square of
lines,
equation
the
is,
will
principal
we may assume
of Hues,
stress at
stresses
be inversely as the
will
of
stress.
Since this
of stress,
is
and
[dG\
fdHy
where
tha,t
Hy
that
of G.
(7,
such a distance
at
this
constant,
of these
length
H, and
a function of
is
the system
(^= constant)
is
line
of principal tension,
,.x
and
((t
= constant)
a line of
principal pressure.
differing
by
unity,
and
also
differing
by
and
will
be
intervals
Now
in
the
directions
of
the
lines,
and inversely
as
between them.
if
two systems
these conditions,
of
lines
we know from
equipotential
of uniform conductivity, that if one set of the curves are taken as
of lines
systems
the
two
that
and
flow,
lines
of
will
be
set
other
the
lines,
will give
a conducting sheet.
point of the
sheet,
and carried
off at
be some
y^
Hence,
sheet.
singular
points,
systems
such
if
which
at
the
all
of
lines
of
be
no
lines
there
exist,
meet,
flow
must
and at which
infinite.
is
and
the
in
electricity
89
If j^
is
j^
is
if
nowhere
infinite,
any
at
infinite
there
point,
can
there
is
an
systems
of
stress
infinite
at
lines
at
all,
that point.
which can only be maintained by the action of an external force applied at that
point.
Hence
be free fi"om
This
equation
(3)
true
to
which no external
case
of
plane
surface.
In a plane surface,
sufficient to
The simplest
in
case of a
diameter.
evidently
will
must
equations of elas
of stress, unless
ticity,
applied,
in
disappears,
are
forces
it
there can
not
is
surface,
and
given,
are
forces
spherical
stress,
be
are
tension
by external
forces
is
that
lines,
com
bined with an equal and opposite pressure along the parallels of latitude, and
the magnitude
P
(7),
2na sin^ 6
a
where
is
the
radius
of the
sphere,
the
force
at
and
if
r^
respectively,
and
and
and
are
if
we make
will give
II.
poles,
is
and
the
the longitude,
(8),
^~27ra\dsj ~27ra\dsj
VOL.
<f)
G = log/^^ndH=<i>
then
the
If
*^''
90
To
from
pass
I shall
any points,
to that in which
case
this
make
surfaxies.
which are inverse to the lines of principal stress in the first surface, and
along these lines stresses are applied which are to those in the corresponding
point of the
in
inversely
surface
first
inveision,
or
equilibrium,
the
as
will
For,
we compare
if
we
surfaces,
shall
find
in the two
them are in the same plane
and make equal angles with it.
therefore
the
product
the
of
length
of
the
of
into
element,
inversion
its
is
distance
equilibrium,
in
of inversion.
either
in
resultant
the
or
equilibrium,
force
acting on
it
point of inversion.
Now
is
also
the
let
the
a sphere.
surface
is
surface
first
In the
^11+^^22
= 0.
be a sphere
first
In
surface
the
we know
second
surface
Hence in
the inverse ratio of the squares of the distances.
the
direction
of
in
equilibrium
=
is
there
or
the second surface also, Pu^P^ ^>
in
the
radius
is
any,
if
resultant,
the
that
have
seen
we
But
the normal.
Therefore, if we except the limiting case in which the radius vector
vector.
in
is
the
first
We
a
in
sphere
may now, by
acted
on
inverting the
by a
pair
of
is
spherical
tensions
complete in
surface,
all directions.
applied at the
extremities of a
that
to
which
in
= 2a.
be
will
<f).
circles
The angle
lines of tension
through
circle
the
is
<f>
The
passing
circles
91
points
these
in
the inverse
surface.
The
planes
distances
of
lines
orthogonal
being
polar
each of these
for
Hence,
and
if
and
will
any point
we draw tangent
if
qi,
r,
q.
are
on these planes,
H=
(10),
4>
stress,
P sin a /c^ffy
2na
[dsj
If
any number of
points
of
forces,
acting
along
forces
chords
of
,._,
<''>
forming a system
spherical
perpendiculars from
the
it is
has in
it
Pa sin'
p=2.^q:
different
be the
be
will
_Psin a fdGy _
27ra
[dsj ~
If
r,,
we make
P~
and
be circles whose
Let
chord.
the
circles,
G = log/^
stress at
will
these,
to
of
any point on the sphere from the extremities of the chord, then
of
constant
is
pressure,
if
envelope,
into
the
we
in
may
a system of
sphere.
equilibrium,
be applied at
proceed
follows.
pairs
To do
this,
as
of equal
if
First
and opposite
there are
forces
as
to render
all
forces.
If too
many
chords have
been
The ji forces
drawn, some of these tensions vnll involve unknown quantities.
will now be transformed into as many pairs of equal and opposite forces as
chords have been drawn.
122
92
Next
of these
the distribution of
find
of forces,
pairs
composition of stress*.
if
any unknown
from the
The
resultant
calculation of the
given in
are
these
forces
result.
terms
stress
shew how
of difierent
same
to effect the
"On
paper,
Airy's valuable
when
stresses,
coordinates
spherical
I shall therefore
unsymmetrical
of
the strains
we
If
place the
surface
verse
is
on the surface of the sphere, the inp^, and pyy represent the components of
point of inversion
a plane, and
if jp^,
we have
for equilibrium
^ ^=0
^ ^
+ ay
dx
dx
dy
(13),
(14).
where
is
the
from
ternal
equations of
forces.
strains,
variable
To
point
to
strains
as
question
we
elasticity of the
point,
y.
equilibrium,
solve the
,_.
^^^^'
P^=d^y^ Pyy=d^
d'F
d'F
d'F
P^ = df'
and
in
may
require to
exist
independently of ex
know not
solutions
of
dii'ections
it
is
at the
uniform, or
same
point.
corresponding to different
I.
p. 49.
(fig.
29)
plane;
be the
AP =
r^,
BP =
to
<f>
1\,
AB.
is
angle
APB = XAT=<f).
Then
and the
constant,
ratio
of
r,
to
of
to
r,
differ
r,
stants.
We
is
r,
may
constant,
C,
in.
is
pressure
of
line
AB
Bisect
circle
<f>
PD
and draw
through
an orthogonal
is
98
perpendicular
and B,
circle
for
for
which
which the
ratio
and
H are
^"'~
2na
Psina
dG dG
27ra
dx dy
From
/,yv
_ Psina /dG
dG
\dy
dx
^^~
27ra
and
''
dy\)
\dx\
H we
.(18).
have
dG^_dH ^^dG^dH
dx
d^Gd^G
^+^ =
whence
The values
of the
component
dy
dy
,
^
^ ^^^
stresses,
,^g.
dx
^ dm
^
d^H
,v
=^
(2^)'
we must,
therefore,
in
order to express
them
as linear functions,
d'F
We
shall
with respect to
P sin a
\(dG\
(dGV\
,_,
x,
and integration
y,
^y'^^Ti^f^^^
()
A SPHERICAL ENVELOPE.
EQTJILIBEIUM OF
94
Since
,
I
dy?
we have
The
r =
this
in
case,
and
ay''
from that of
by ordinary integration of
(21).
result is
AP PD
Psma {ADAC,
or if the coordinates of
and
are
h^ and
(a^,
AT>n\V
(a^,
(oa\
h),
(yh>)'
Psina f. {2xa,a:)(a,a,) + {2y\\){\hy
( xa,Y +
^ '^^ (x ^ = ^^:^ \*
(a,a0^ + (6,6,)^
a^f + (y  6,)^
(2y 
6,
 6,) (3^a,)^(2x g
we
If
them
coeflScients
diSerential
second
^^
for
the
all
we
together,
pairs
different
shall
find
new
...(25).
of forces
acting
value of F,
the
which,
of
.,
We
have
now
to this, but it is
If
sphere,
two
spherical
and opposite
we can determine
twists
all
other cases
special cases.
be
For
if
still
hold,
of
the
we put
forces
may be reduced
(26),
stresses
at
any
will
If
and
equations of equilibrium
point
surface,
equal
G?
the
solved
of the
applied to points
be the
moment
p=
is
vm
Jf sina
IdG''
()
4i7a='
In figure
lines
of
stress
the
cases
AB,
which
we have
projections
considered.
of the
When
principal
a tension
is
AB,
VOL. J I.
PLATE
X.
and the
so
lines
drawn
The
the
of pressure
are
spiral
principal
lines
stress
the case of
in
the
distance
from a given
centre
6,
the
pressure balanced
by a
single
and the
at
If
2Bm'ep,,
and
if
spherical
the pressure
will
we suppose the
= aj Nam2dd0
line
fluid pressure
the pole.
force
are
circles
the
applied to
pressure,
fluid
point,
for
to
by
sphere as an axis,
the
of
circles,
twists
circles are
AB.
These
fiinction
95
is
joining
lines
of
be a function
total
efiect
of
6,
(28),
p = Nap,i,
latitude.
XXXI.
In
which
is
on
experiments
the light
the
spectrum,
the
it
usual to employ
is
slit
and one
admitted,
through
more
or
lenses to bring the rays of each distinct kind to a distinct focus on the screen.
The most
perfect
arrangement
that every
light
is
which two
in
pencil
consists
of
while
rays
parallel
in
in
the
use
lenses
and
prism in
stricted
the
materials,
of
such a
We
shaU
first
so
may
it
way
as
or
still
to
command,
the rays of
heat,
or when,
he
is
re
bring the
rays
of
all
colours to
examine
lenses at his
pencils
through
passing
it,
we may
to disappear.
When
or
a pencil of light
divergency
and
is
change
this
is
When
the
pencil
diminished as
be
the
emergent
pencil
is
convergency
greater as the
will
is
that
in
less
angle of incidence
is
greater,
and
also
as
greater.
passes
it
will
be
a prism
through
enters,
and
more
will
or
its
convergency
be increased when
less
it
or
divergency
emerges,
and
is
97
This effect will increase with the difference of these angles and with
incidence.
When
of the pencil
is
is
angle of emergence,
their
This
effect
will
be
of incidence,
that
is,
and
may
the pencils
will
it
is
and
less,
of the prism
angle
the
increased
its
If
slit.
all
way.
This correction, however, diminishes
to a prism of large angle,
inapplicable
By
The
to
the
and
convex lens
towards the
slit,
The
rays.
except
prism,
makes the
the colours.
separation of
It
is
effect of a
most refrangible
it
is
when
highly refrangible
may
the lens
be
made
its
rays
base
is
is
greatest on
very
to
and
the
much turned
divergent than the less refrangible rays, according as they were convergent or
divergent originally.
If the rays pass through the prism before they reach the
the pencils will be divergent at incidence, and the more refrangible will
lens,
more
converged
brought to their
come
than
foci
to their focus
light,
and
We
To
the
rest
If they
so
at approximately
first,
then
fall
on the
lens,
they will be
the
same
distance.
If the
all
may be
violet
rays
vice versa.
II.
through a prism
light.
13
98
be the index of refraction of the prism, a its angle, <^i and (f), the
angles of incidence and emergence, 0, and 6^ the angles of the ray within the
prism with the normals to the first and second surfaces, S the difference of these
Let
angles
/x
then
by geometry
refraction,
sin
(f),
= ft sin 6,,
</>i
sin
is
djl
The
shews that
sin 6^
dd^
cos
dfj.
/x.
Oj^'
d^ _
sin^i
cos
fJL
'
0^
slit
is
6^,
sin a
cos
o?ft
the
is
cos
when we wish
<^2
spectmm, and
of the
parallel to
0^
dispersion, or breadth
it
As the
_
~
expression gives
last
sin
so that
ft,
dd^
= /t
<^,
all
we have
light.
only to consider
Let
right,
i\
"
cos' ^1
ft
i\ cos' 0^ cos'
Taking the
differential coefficient of
1 dv,
Vi
2 sin
ft
^2
cos'
COS'^o
(f).j,
= i\ cos' 0, cos'
<^i.
2 sin
<^,
d(f),
_]_dv,_
2 sin
v dfi
cos
0,
0^
1 dv^
cos
dfjL
2 sin
<f),
^fx
<f)^
sin
0^ cos'
(j)^
2 sin'
ft
cos' ^,
0,
di\
4 sin a
dv,
v,djx~v,djl~
{cos
a + coa
( ft'
By
0,
sin 0,
cos
0,
cos 0o.
and
we
find
 l) sin a  s in 8 {1 + co s (a  8) }
1  ^ft' (l  cos (a  8)}
dfi
2 sin
ft
d0,
'
cos
dfji.
1 dv,
d0,
0,
'
cos' ^1
fi'
is
makes
an
and a =
angle
then S
60,
11*26'
of
= 22''52',
If
is,
the
ray
correct
that
99
is
two lenses* are used, of the same material with the prism, we may
the defects of the prism without turning
it
so
far
from
its
position of
least deviation.
slit
Let
from the
prism.
Let us
first find
di\
fi~A
flat
/ 1\
i\
\/
/,
spectrum 8
1_J^_1_1_/11\
di\
the conditions of a
i\ = v^ and we
When 8 = 0,
1
i\
(1
+C03
b~\a'^b)
may be found
in terms of
known
i = i(l+c)
b^
+ ic.
'a
f,
When
g,
._
is
60",
then
3(4;.')
quantities.
K
of
the
is
greater in proportion to
prism.
b,
is placed in the position of least deviation, and the lens placed between
and the screen, while the distance from the slit to the prism is to
prism
the
that between the prism and the screen as 1c is to c. For quartz, in which
prism
/I
= 1584
a=
1*5 3 6,
distance
for
the
or the
from
the
ordinary
lens
slit
ray,
 = 253,
so
that
the
best
arrangement
is
one and a half times the distance from the prism to the screen.
XXXII.
To make a
nature of
the
London Mathematical
of the
Society, Vol.
Ii.]
surface
visible,
lines
it
contour lines
and to exhibit
on the surface
and
ac
lines of greatest
slope
their
which
and
eye,
are
sufficiently
dijfferent
in
one
figure
and
at
from
what
Cartesian coordinates
to
is
to
and
intervals,
on these curves.
points
draw an
gravity,
zontally
from
triangle,
equilateral
of the
side
and the
figure,
of a
I
point are
easily
of a
in
sector
in
point
figure,
relief to
in
(x = 0,
y = 0) and
first
and divide
the
line
in
(z
= 0,
ty
= 0)
figure.
PQ
the coordinates
By drawing
iv,
In
this
way
z,
w,
PQ
(without
ratios in each
y,
By means
x,
in both figures.
this
in the ratio of z to
cyclides, &c.
joining
divide the
line)
distant hori
lines
When
the figures.
centre of
its
drawing the
the
lines
amount of
find
of the triangle
all
figure,
in each
we
get
XXXIII.
On
and
ii.]
their relation to
Let
let
tov
i,
x,
x,
y,
y,
7},
we may
suppose referred
z,
(in
thought)
We
shall
call
^,
t),
^,
rj,
^.
x, y, z
_dF
dF
^~dx'
When
of x, y,
z,
the form of
"^
known,
is
dF
dy'
^,
7/
and
let
dz'
^
t,
may
fixed.
a function
<^
of
f,
tj,
t,
be found from
the equation
<j>
then
it is easily
Hence the
that the
first
second
= x^+yyi + zlF\
shewn that
diagram
is
_d^
_d<f>
"^"dr
y~'dri'
is
_d<f)
^"^'
first.
second
They
are
But
reciprocal
diagrams
have
is
capable
of extensive applications, from the most elementary graphic methods for calculating
the stresses of a roof to the most intricate questions about the internal
103
indicate
shall
Let
First Method.
and
a,
/8
a,
surface
is
compounded
Then
it.
of a tension
way
in this
will
The components
a^ and equal
to
^{j^'^'^
diagram,
if
parallel
first
"^
TT*
'
to
Fy
^^^^
being a constant
figure in equiUbrium.
easily
shewn
to
fulfil
but
if
we
write
_d'B d'C
P^~i:^^'dy^'
^^'
we
get
d'A
dydz'
_d'C
d'A
^^~d^^dz''
__.^
dzdx'
^"'~
_<IAa.^
'^
P""' dif
^^
djf
'
=__^^
dxdy'
B, C,
stress.
Second Method. Let a be any element of area in the first diagram, and
a the corresponding area in the second. Let a uniform normal pressure equal
to F per unit of area act on the area a, and let a force equal and parallel
to
stress
in
the
equilibrium.
first
figure
defined
in
this
way
will
a,
it
in
104
The components of
^""^Uy*"^
U^
This
dzdx\,
dxdyj'
dy
_pfd'F d^
^^~ \dz dx dxdy
^^ ~
^Ufdaf
d'F\
Id'F d'F
^"
^^
dydz\)'
d^F d^F\
dx' dy dzj
(d'F d'F _
d^
d'F\
[dy dz dz dx
dz'
dx dy)
^pld'F
^^
'
d'F
\dx dy dy dz
d'F d^F \
df dz dx)
'
'
is
a more complete,
a state of stress
linear, it is difficult of
appHcation.
_pd'F
^'^'^
and
is
if
ah and
a/S
dy^'
__p_dLl_
^^~
be corresponding
dxdy'
lines,
pdil
^^~ daf'
"On
XXXIV.
GovEKNOR
is
On
power or the
resistance.
In one
Governors.
wMch
When
centrifugal
force
the velocity of
in the
driving
increases
so acts
Society,
is
either
Royal
the machine
and
the
on a break or a valve.
of
class
regulators
of
machinery, which
we may
call
moderators*,
Thus in
pendulum revolving
within a circular case. When the velocity increases, the ball of the pendulum
presses against the inside of the case, and the Motion checks the increase of
the resistance
increased
is
velocity.
consists of a conical
velocity.
In
governor
Watt's
for
the
steamengines
arms
pumped
increased, water
is
is
centrifugally
up,
much
smaller
increase
the moderator.
But
on
the
if
the
machine,
See
VOL.
II.
Mr
sets
in
C. "W.
Siemens "
On Unifonn
14
GOVERNORS.
106
long as the
as
resistance
when
action
velocity
is
of the machine) be
I propose
its
made
its
velocity is below
same normal value whatever variation (within the working
the
velocity to the
above
that
value,
limits
at present,
direct
of such governors.
in
will
It
general
expressed as the
sum
2.
It
3.
It
It
The
increase.
increasing amplitude.
decreasing amplitude.
first
;
This condition
and
roots,
may be
may be
4.
governor consists
These components
component motions.
1.
the motion
is
the possible
all
all
be negative.
shall
for equations
of
of several
its
disturbance which
will
obtain
The
actual
taken notice of by the inventors of such machines, who naturally confine their
attention
to
the
way
in
which
it
the machine,
its
at which
limit
oscillating
action
governing power
by
altering
continually increased,
of the
If,
this
governor.
in violence
till
it
is
generally
the adjustments of
there
is
generally a
becomes an
may
is
and
designed to act;
is
be rendered practically useful by pointing out the remedy for these distur
bances.
Fleeming
Jenkin,
with
adjustments,
by
which
the
regulating
Mr
power of the
GOVERNORS.
By
107
rapid,
at
till
last
the regulation
a dancing motion
shewed that an
shaft,
could
of the governor,
alteration
shall
In the
the
kind,
first
piece
centrifugal
the
when
the
In
axis of motion,
but
velocity varies.
the
governor this
tends to move
machine.
it
its
surface
;
and
is
this
is
it
itself
rubs varies
which takes
when
the break
off
the friction
is
less
than
a given quantity.
Mr
Jenkin's governor
centrifugal
the same
piece
function
is
on
of the
position,
its
velocity.
principle.
this
not change
does
and that
coefficient
in the
the
position
rotation
but
axis,
of
the
by a
restrained
is
pressure
is
always
same
condition.
its
It
force
centrifugal piece in
is free
to
move
further
such a
way
that,
if
the velocity of
every position.
centrifugal
piece
motion of the
will
piece.
velocity
fly
out or
is
fall
But a break
is
in
arranged so that
it
is
made more
or less
powerful according to the distance of the centrifugal piece from the axis, and
thus the oscillations of the centrifugal piece are restrained within narrow
by M. Foucault.
In the
first,
limits.
W. Thomson
is
and
that of
a spring acting between a point of the centrifugal piece and a fixed point at
a considerable distance, and the break
is
the
142
GOVERNORS.
108
on the balls
the
first
place,
The break
is
The
balls.
their
proportional to
is
is
made
air
allowed to pass,
to act
less
same law.
principle
for
The
similar conditions.
far
centrifugal
piece
and
vertical,
it
is
is
not
much from a
fixed angle
by the
drivingforce
differential
system.
The break
into
a liquid more or
less,
vertical.
principal shaft
is
worked by the
is
apparatus
differential
ensured by connecting
it
with a flywheel.
In the third kind of governor a liquid
Mr
C.
W.
such a
of
velocity
the
cup will
is
is
over
connected with
its axis
by a screw and a
remain
the
same
through
made
spring,
lowered and
is
perfect, the
a considerable
normal
range
of
drivingpower.
It
appears from the investigations that the oscillations in the motion must
To check the
viscous liquid
rotation,
oscillation.
This
may
may be
It
wiU have no
effect
on uniform
by the
viscosity
be done
oscillating
so that
GOVERNORS.
109
by the name of
In
several
" viscosity,"
origin.
system of wheelwork
contrivances a differential
introduced
is
between the machine and the governor, so that the drivingpower acting on the
governor
I
nearly constant.
is
have pointed out that, under certain conditions, the sudden disturbances
When
vice versa.
through the
motion
itself
differential
fulfilled,
not liable to
is
In regulators of the
kind,
first
both estimated as
resistance,
if
let
be
let
be
the
moment
and
drivingpower
the
Let
and
and Governors.
of inertia
axis,
and
dx
7
the
reduced to the
given axis.
(dx
tt
T^
^.K)=^^^(t^)
When
its final
(^)
^=V
+ ?^
^^
dt
F
Hence,
if
increased.
is
increased
Regulators
of
'
or
this
diminished,
kind,
as
Mr
(2)
^'^^
be
permanently
than governors.
On Uniform
and
p.
657.
GOVERNORS.
110
regulator,
the force
^\^^)>
instead of
being
is
^(3fg=Piei.(F) + (.,
where
is
We
first
when
(4).
we
is
the same
as
used in
principal axis,
and
is
the velocity
if
Jenkin's Governor.
Jenkin, and
(5);
space.
find
B^ = F{xVt)
so that if the governor
is
(=)
K^D^^d'^)
and that of
In
electrical
is
experiments,
on the edge of a loose wheel, B, which works on the same axis. The
edge of this wheel would be proportional to the square of the
but a constant portion of this pressure is taken off by a spring which
velocity
slides
pressure on the
;
acts
on the centrifugal
piece.
The
force acting
on
to turn
it
round
is
therefore
C";
and
if
we remember
we may
where i^
is
act.
is
GOVERNORS.
Since this force necessarily
it
on
ax;ts
B
Ill
applied
la
reason
tending to turn
to B,
be afterwards
to
explained,
it
this
oflf
weight
made
is
since
in
and
in
is
to
hang
and,
in
for
a viscous
The equation
of motion of
may then
be written
<)>
^t=^(t'^)^^?^
Y
where
is
is
t,
we
and
find
B^ = F{xV,t)YyWt
If
has come to
rest,
we have
x = (r. + ^)<
or
the
position
of
the machine
is
is
+ ^3,
afiected
(8),
and
V.
where
(7).
+ ^=V.
(9),
The equation
is
M<^, = PnF[^^v)Gy
This
must
be
whole apparatus.
combined with
The
solution
equation
is
(7)
to
(10).
of the form
where n^ n
n, are
(11),
n be a
pair
of roots
of this
(12).
aJlh,
then the
GOVERNORS.
112
If
is
and
if
positive, the
is
One
root
Y\YG
[F
...
\^^b)b~B^^
The
...
positive quantity.
This
will
W
is
a viscous liquid
in
not
if
sufficient.
To
determine
value
the
if
of
and
the velocities
be
fix
the
P\
and
F= PF
VV
To determine G, let the governor act, and let y and y
when the drivingpower is P and P', then
be the positions
of the break
P P'
yy
W.
Sir
inertia
ThoTuson's
and M. FoucauWs
of a revolving apparatus,
of motion
Let
be the moment of
revolution.
The equation
is
dt\^
where
Governors.
is
the
moment
dtj
(1),
IIH
GOVERNORS.
Now,
let
centrifugal piece),
where
may
we
If
of
function
<f>
4>,
if
is
con^plex.
kinetic
<f>,
\^dj
rdBd^l
"^^
d4. di\
di\
and
potential,
t,
we
dP\^.
^
f/</>r
dO
dt
is
is
d4>/,dAde'
of the
diverLjence
(the
also be a fiinction of
also
<^,
let
another variable
of
function
be a
and
(2).
find
j.d^d^
dScVe
dt
de^""
dt
dt^
(3),
.^
_dd (dAddd^
^dt~di\dcfdtdt.dt'
whence we have, by eliminating L,
d {T>H\_xdATd\^(lBd^'' _dP
d<f>
dt[^'dt)^dfdti^d<t>dv
The
increase
of the
first
<^,
two
terms on the
righthand
side
centrifugal piece.
The
M)
indicate
velocities
a force
of the
force indicated
tending
main shaft
called the
centrifugal force.
If the apparatus
is
so arranged that
P = ^^o)' + conat
where
cj
is
(^)'
/^d<}>\
^d<f>\
.dAjae^
.dAldSf
A\
dBd4>
,dBdT
/gx
dt
VOL.
II.
t..
anil
^*
GOVERNORS.
114
In
velocity
case
this
value of
the
angular
shaft
of rotation without
velocity
(f)
equal to w.
is
If there
disturbance.
^ may be written
^1^3^t=^
They
neither
will
increase
nor diminish
dA
is
rr
if
()
there are
shaft.
equations.
To
convert
and
in
resistance
this
G(f)
apparatus
motions
the
of
into
governor,
let
us assume viscosities
the
dA
Putting rj
cj
= K,
piece,
and a
come
^S+^f+^f+^^=^
^f+4t^f
The condition of
that
all
stability
of
w<^)
be negative
and
(12).
steamvalve,
three pieces.
or
'
(11)
this condition is
{^ + ^(^y+l^')>GK
to
is
more powerful
Without entering
break,
into the
we have
is
applied
works
of
115
GOVERNORS.
motion of these
bances,
pieces,
we may
ourselves
confine
to the
case
of small
distur
dd
d<f>
d^<f>
^de^^ dt'^di
dSft
dxjji
de
dt
.(13).
xp are
the angles of disturbance of the main shaft, the centrifugal
where 6,
wheel respectively, A, B, C their moments of inertia,
moveable
the
arm, and
is what was formerly denoted by
their connexions,
of
viscosity
the
F,
Z
X,
<f),
(u,
and
and
J are
d({)
The
resulting equation in
n'
+ it
is
of the form
Aif + X)i
Kn + T
K
Bn+Y
T
Civ + Zn
(14).
K']
Z fB\
A^B^Cj^'^lABCyX^Y^'^^^
KTZ KTJ
/XYZ+KTC+K'Z\
+ ^M
ABC
J^'^AB^^ ABC'
(13).
separately.
If
we
then,
in
all
(16),
it
is
necessary that
pq>r
I
am
and ps>t
(l'')
sufl&cient.
This compound
152
GOVEENOBS.
116
On
Mr
the
W.
C.
with respect
section
is
r,
at
B,
of time.
p be
tlie
density of the
fluid,
a point
the coordinates of this point referred to axes fixed
the tube,
to
unit
in
s,
Let
the
Also
let
tube, be
= A, jprW = B, jp^ds = C
]plcr'ds
(l),
Let
the
<f)
moment
H=A^^^BQ
The moment
time
of
momentum
then
axis,
(2).
is
()
f^='>'^<2f+''J<?'where r
is
The energy
orifice,
its section,
is
W
^'^=*^f[+^<2S+4^<2"
The energy of the
fluid
^' = P.<2(A +
.)
*p.'f
+ .icosag>f + i(?
The
dt \dt
dt
dt I
dW dW
'^
,.
''
"^
dt
(5).
di_d^/dH dH\
dt~
is
'
is
is
QOTERNOBfl.
Equating
117
this to the
4^4?+'"^^3^''^^'=^
in
B^+o'+i^<?+,,i,+^ip^^;=o
(8).
in
open
the
channels,
values
of
at each
filled
and
will
and that of k
point,
If the fluid
depend on the
the
In
referred
described
discharge
the
to,
is
by Mr
W.
C.
practically limited
Siemens
in
by the depth
of the
fluid
at
The
brim
If the
(where x
to the
is
is
perfectly
is
/= Jg' +
horizontal,
(0*1^.
x, or to
mean square
is
proportional to
will
If
n= ^,
From
a;",
where x
a;
or as
^.
then the overflow and the mean square of the velocity are both
x.
we
and of overflow
Q_^d4>
~=r'
dt
From the
and
the
mean square
of velocity
^K4^^^''t^(^^
cos a =
is
proportional to
Q^.
first
B = 0,
equation,
we
supposing,
is
2g{h + z)
as
in
<^)
Mr
(10).
find
^=p<t
(")
GOVERNORS.
118
Mr
In
tion
If the
the
established between
is
conditions
an arrangement by which a
is
fixed rela
z,
L=Sz
(12).
f = 4f'..* + ^f.<?f
(13).
of overflow can
by
represented
velocity,
and
is
p
is
also
proportional to
Q,
and
if
the strength of
arranged so that
i^')
f=f'^<?
the equation will become,
if 2gli
= o}^r^,
f<i^
o^f
()
which shews that the velocity of rotation and of overflow cannot be constant
unless the velocity of rotation
is
w.
probably
is
of drivingpower
there will be a
maximum
The
in
p.
spring.
If the rim
667 of
Mr
is
difierential
Siemens's paper.
minimum
maximum.
equation which determines the nature of small disturbances
the
general of
uniform,
This seems to
velocity instead of a
is
obtain accurately
a certain drivingpower.
velocity for
difficult to
but very good results have been obtained within a considerable range
fourth order,
but
mean
may
be
reduced to the
third
by
overflow.
is
itself
axes
also capable
may
be
wheels; or they
at
right angles,
may be
as
in the
axis,
which
These two
adapted to clockwork.
119
GOVERNORS.
Let i and
rj
that of the
tively,
main
be expressed in
shaft,
and
<f)
<f>
r),
<f}.
is
X be
d^
dx
dr)
with
similar
expressions
putting suffixes
the
for
and q
<'''
drP'di+1di
for these
Then Lagrange's
directions.
a Sf+H8,Sm(Sx+Sy + g8z) =
where
H and H
are
the
tending to increase
forces
Now
hx
putting
d^x
^d
,
any other
^ and
(2).
respectively,
rj
=pM + 9i^,
d'^
(3),
,.
d'q
no
point.
W'
dt^=P^de^^^di^
(B2,ny
and
since 8^
and
f Stp?)
tmp<i
^tnut'll)
8, = 0...(5);
must be
zero.
we now put
X(mp')=L,
where
Sf + (h
p*=Pi+P,'\p,\
t(mpq) = M,
t{mq')=N
P? = Mi + M + Ps^^
and
q'
(6),
q'
q,'
+ q\
If
the
apparatus
is
(^).
=^f+^^.
w
arranged
so
H=^f^
that
17
will
will
be
be about
GOVERNORS.
120
conjugate
axesthat
is,
Now let
^ that of
and
the
motion becomes
eBe^^<P^(BL^M^^^^(nMN^S,^0
^^d
hri
+A^ir ]
X' =.Lr + 2MPR
M' = LPQ + M{PS+QR) + NRS^^
we put
if
^'''^'
= RBe+sm
'^
and
(9);
</>
will
(11),
be
(12).
If
If
M' = 0, then
and
motions in
the
will
<^
be
also 0,
is
LPQ + 3IRS=0
and
on
if this
main
is
fulfilled,
motion in
the
The teeth
(ft.
of the
shaft
differential
In such
in
differential
proper
the
If the
machine.
moments
is
systems a
state
made
in
this
of
to
force,
is
work a valve
case
is
will
have no
effect
constant
efficiency,
will
governor
(13);
H,
sufficient
or
merely the
keep
to
tj,
the
and the
shaft
^.
that
M' = 0,
will
act instantaneously on the valve, but will not communicate any impulse to
the governor.
XXXV.
for
May, 1868.]
IN
A LETTER TO
W.
GROVE,
R.
8,
F.R.S.*
March
Dear
Since
our
electric inductionf,
result.
27,
1868.
Sir,
have
left
yesterday
conversation
have considered
it
mathematically, and
essentially
coil,
the
which
in
we may compare
a mechanical force
to
alternately
pushing and
pulling at a body.
The
resistance
of
the primary
body
is
wire
made
we may compare
to
to
the effect of a
forwards.
resists
railwaybuffer resists
Communicated by
t See Phil. Mag.
VOL.
II.
its
surface, just
S.
Mr W.
4.
R. Grove, F.R.S.
March 1868,
p.
184.
IS
as
122
Now
us
let
suppose
and
by
ropes
fore
buffers
and kept
fluid,
in
its
place
aft
If the
were away,
buffers
position
if
being not very different from that in which the buffers would
cause the boat to vibrate about its position of equilibrium, then the force which
acts in each vibration is due, partly to the efforts of the man, but chiefly to
of
alternation
man
mean
position
Thus,
of
position
the body
The
body
is
may
be
much
electricity
in
only
condenser,
on
the
rapidity
towards a
perfectly free.
the primary
account
electricity
coil
of
is
its
when
When
small
is
it
motion;
resisted
is
and
this
in
the primary
is
case the
coil is
restrained
may be much
the
by a spring
current
interrupted
proportional to
with a force
and
extent of the
attracted
is
equilibrium by a force
resisted
free.
greater
by
if
when an
displacements
will
than he would
sufficient
Yours
J.
Mathematical Theory of
Let
be the revolving
the
truly,
CLERK MAXWELL.
Experiment.
the poles of the magnets, x the current led through the coil of the electromagnet R, and interrupted by the condenser C. Let the plates of the condenser
y.
123
MsinO
Let
be the
armature; then
the
if
value
of the
Let
M and
is
two
be
coil
of the armature
coils
its
Let
" electromagnetic
is
"
in this
wire
at
any
instant,
then
We
We
CP.
shall neglect the self induction of this current.
have then
P = P'J
(!)
x,
Mn cos nt + Ex + L dx
P=
dt
If
we assume
x = Acos
we
find
Lx
momentum."
of
taken together.
the
n,
nt.
2Li cos
of
coil
Let
these
potential
A' =
p= {( 1
{nt
+ a),
3Pn' (1 + CpV)
 LC?i'Y + H'Cjf} + 2Bp + I^ + Liv
,1
C0t~^7^
Lpn
,R + pLCpn'
pLCpn
'
RCpn + Ln
*
cot
(3).
in
124
alternating current
epoch of the
effect is
determined by
is
maximum current.
x, and we find
^' =
If
R + Un'
we make p = 0, the
when the
current
closed.
If
we make
/a
oo
the
effect
is
that of
y,
and
In this case
circuit.
A' =
^ + (^^J'
This expression
gives
provided 2CLn^
is
a greater
value of
may
circuit
is
closed,
coil,
or
the
velocity of rotation.
This
is
CDn = l,
is
the expression
the greatest
the same as
if
effect
is
reduced to
velocity, and
had no "electromagnetic momentum."
coil
depend
the
essentially
of
reaction
described
by
Mr Grove
secondary
as
will
the secondary
the
so
to form
sparks
observed
coil.
into
this
phenomenon
calculation,
as
XXXVI.
On a Method
Electromagnetic Force
Vol. CLViii.]
There
two
are
and independent
distinct
methods of measuring
electrical
and the
the
conductors
product
of
the
carrying
electric
determined so that
currents
multiplied
currents,
if
by the
sum
of
These two methods lead to two different units by which the quantity of
The ratio of the two units is an important
is
to be measured.
electricity
quantities
of
electricity
will
electricity
therefore vary
distance.
The unit of
126
by
two
currents
the
of
ratio
lines.
of force.
The
ratio of the
and
this
velocity will be
we
in
other words,
is
this
therefore
ratio
is
the
of
or,
adopt.
the experiments
either
of
time,
length,
here
described
or mass, the
ratios
and the velocity determined is expressed in terms of the British Association Unit of Resistance, so that whatever corrections may be discovered to
be applicable to the absolute value of that unit must be also applied to the
volved
resistancecoil
whose resistance
is
r^resent the velocity derived from the present experiments in a manner independent of aU particular standards of measure.
electrostatic
is,
think,
of
still
greater
scientific
importance
when we
consider that
depends on this
ratio,
and,
according to
my
calculations*, is
the
medium
expressed by the
The
first
Kohlrauscht,
numerical
who measured
the
capacity
of
is
that of
Weber and
a condenser electrostatically by
with
the
capacity
of
sphere of
netically
The
127
known
the condenser
and electromag
radius,
through a galvanometer.
Electrical
attention to the
for this purpose have devised new forms of condensers and contactbreakers
and Sir William Thomuson has obtained numerical values of continually increasing
and
which
velocity
and time
and
construction
but as
should
it
improvement
employ
to
electromagnetic
I
own methods.
is
different instruments
determined
so great
is
of
the
in
these
electrostatic
effects.
not,
liberality,
my
Mr
had not
this,
Gassiot,
charged with corrosive sublimate, with the use of his laboratory to work
cells
Mr Willoughby Smith
To
giving a
coils,
with
am
indebted
for
units,
and
of a galvanometer
the use
for
in.
of
resistance
and to Messrs
resistancecoils,
Mr
Hockin,
C.
devised
the
currents
by
which
librium,
The
The
which
means
and
resistances,
done
suggestions since I
first
He
everything
undertook myself.
electrostatic
six
me with
of
in fact
greatly assisted
undertook
one,
potential,
who has
experiment,
inches
observed
force
was
diameter,
four
and
insulated
inches diameter,
maintained
at
disks,
of
high
potential
as
so
it
were in
space.
electricity
on the surface of
plane,
In this
at
way the
the
when
same
electrical
in
its
W.
this
Thomson,
position
potential,
action
Sir
front surface,
228
could exist at
its
surrounding surfaces.
The
If
disk
large
is
between them
is
R^l
where a
and V
(1),
the radius of the small disk, h its distance from the large one,
the velocity representing the ratio of the electromagnetic to the elec
is
is
The electromagnetic force observed wa3 the repulsion between two circular
of the suspended disk, and the
coils, of which one was attached to the back
separated from it by a plate of
being
disk,
large
the
other was placed behind
was made to pass through
current
A
compound.
Hooper's
of
glass and a layer
these coils in opposite directions, so as to produce a repulsion
=.2nnn'^y^
(2),
coil,
is
'i=i^ ^(^^wfS
c=>siny=
where
a,
and
a,
are the
When V
If
area,
of the
and
coils,
2A
is
we take
this
radii
^
l^;,
the
mean
distance of their
and
planes,
mean
''''
2a'
made equal
to
but in these
it
coils
is
of sensible
equation
potential
of
two
given
coils,
at
508
p.
129
^^
my
of
paper on the
Electromagnetic Field,
d'M
da'
that the
correction
of the coil
is
is
^^''
[1^'.], where a
in this case
about
coil.
coil.
X.
coil of
Secondary coiL
galvanometer.
y.
Great resistance.
glass scale.
xx.
Shunt
S.
the depth
Current through R.
Primary
is
'000926.
coil.
dM ~"
a da
db'
correction which
d'M
"^
M. Mercury
Cunent through
coils
and
S.
G,.
cup.
One quarter
instrument
is
not shewn.
[Vol.
VOL.
II.
I.
p.
591.]
17
of the
130
The suspended
coil,
exactly
coil
similar
was
attached
the second
in
When
to
that in the
no
efiect of terrestrial
first.
coil
the
to
made
current was
magnetism could be
experiences
coil,
To balance
magnetism.
of terrestrial
couple,
this
torsionbalance,
in
coils,
obseived.
copper wire
The
and
fixed disk
and
screw,
lid
the
of
instrument
to
as
so
admit
small
of
in every direction.
were
were mounted on a
coil
by a
protected
worked by a micrometer
slide
brass box,
cylindrical
the
front
of which,
forming the guardring, 7 inches in diameter, had a circular aperture 426 inches
diameter, within which the suspended disk, 4*13 inches diameter, was free to
move, leaving an interval of "065 of an inch between the disk and the aper
ture.
glass
scale
with
divisions
of
^^
^^
xio
'^^^^
electrified,
"^^^
and
attached to the
this
was viewed by
a microscope attached to the side of the instrument and provided with cross
wires at the focus.
to
as
micrometerbox.
the
This front
face
of
carefully adjusted
the
guardring,
the micrometerbox,
of
by the maker,
or front
when
in
face
of
position
in
the
instrument,
circumference
of
A
the
one
point,
till
when
the large
the
disk
regularity
of
came
the
into
when the
much more than onethousandth
131
This
bisected
adjusted
by the
brought
then
w<a8
microscope was
so
that
wires.
cross
the
to
small
of
position
division
kno\\Ti
of
piece
silvered
and the
contact,
first
the
of
was
scale
glass
was fastened
glass
to
the outside of the guardring, and another to the back of the suspended disk
and these were adjusted so as to be in one plane, and to give a continuous
image of reflected objects when the disks were in contact and the surface of
the
was therefore
suspended disk
The
ring.
adjusted
disk
fixed
division
of
the
of
the
glass
scale
reflections
moved
be
could
balance
in
pillar;
it
the
plane
screwed
of the
guard
the
of
surface
back,
when
in
before.
by examining the
base
then
so
same position as
zero
was
bodily
could
in
and
the microscope,
The
glass.
torsion
could
it
be turned about any horizontal axis by sliding weights, and round the vertical
In this way the position of
axis by a tangent screw of the torsion head.
equilibrium
of
made
an inch;
to
coincide
and
the
when
adjustment
not having the tendency to untwist gradually which I have observed in steel
The weight of the torsion piece was about 1 lb. 3 oz., and the time of
wire.
a double
oscillation
The
oscillations
of the
suspended
when near
disk,
The
One
When
its
electrical
sighted position,
electrode
Mr
pressed
Gassiot's
great
with a key.
and thence,
in
of
this
contact
coils.
piece
of
172
One
the
132
key,
that,
so
secondary
coil
then through
first
through
the
two suspended
disk.
pressed,
of thick wire,
of the galvanometer, consisting of thirty windings
through the
so
and
the fixed coil, then to the suspension wire,
coils
to
torsionbalance
to earth,
when
disk was
suspended
the
zero,
stationary at
the
when
which,
the simultaneous
of
action
With
the batteries.
so that when the adjustthe equihbrium of the scale at zero was unstable;
from zero, and contacts
directed
always
was
ment was nearly perfect the force
such a way as to
in
zero,
approaching
was
scale
be made as the
had to
bring
to
it
In
the
rest,
if
possible,
the
meantime
at
zero.
other
observer
the
at
was taking
galvanometer
of the two
advantage of these contacts to alter the shunt S, till the effects
other.
each
currents on the galvanometerneedle balanced
When a satisfactory case of equilibrium had been observed simultaneously
at
The
chief
batteries,
the
ratio
the
of
currents
varying
resistance
I think that by increasing considerably the
contact.
uniform.
more
made
could
be
batterycircuit, the current
When
a sufficient
a current was
made
number
to
of experiments
with a
resistance
In
this
of 31
units
S' added.
making
the great
on
first
of
S'
BA
the galvanometer,
effects
of the
till
two
coil
the
coils
were compared.
The
resistance
of
all
the
coils
were tested by
133
Mr
who
Hockin,
also
made
all
its
adjusting shunts.
To determine
is
8^^,
If
first,
2^n^y
(6).
the current of the great battery passing through the great resistance
is
R, and
x'
if
of this
passes through
E = Rx+Gx
Also
and
(7),
Gx=S{xx)
and
if
is
Qi
gr,
coil,
coils
But
ometer
of 31
y,
in equilibrium
is
(9)
galvanometer,
and
x,
if
y^
= 9^i
and the
(1<^)
parts,
y,x\
other,
passes through
the
these equations
we
B (RG
(11).
v,
31
^\
is
shunt
Hence
x,{G + S')=(y,x,)31
From
the
are
we have
Ohms.
the galvanometer,
of
= 9^
of the
9i^i
is
(8).
coU
the principal
of
9i^'
G,
is
to earth, then
and
h'
their
parison of galvanometercoils.
mean
and
^
is
found from
Of
these,
mean
of
a^
and
a,,
the
mean
(3).
the
is
distance by equation
side.
is
that
of the shunt
134
In
expression
this
of
ratios
and the
disk,
them.
the
only
the radius
of the
ratio
The
radius
of
must
which
quantities
absolute
other
be
of
the disk to
of
the
its
to
coils
determined
which
quantities
must
in
be
windings in the
of
are
coils
course
abstract numbers.
In the experiments,
= 144
?i
a = 20977
inches.
n'
= 121
a'
=1934
inch.
was measured
One turn
to '0202 inch.
of the micrometerscrew
If
m
&
= m1270,
a= 10385
The
Mr Hockin
was found by
to
be equal
is
5'
we have
turns,
for
R=\
(t=
a and
= 9575
a'
by Mr Hockin
= m + 2631.
a',
turns.
as follows
The experiments were made for two days, using a small battery charged
bichromate of potash.
The current due to this battery was found to
diminish so rapidly that a set of Grove's cells was used on the third day,
which was found to be more constant than the great battery. A proper combination of the two batteries would perhaps produce a current which would
with
arose
the
great
battery.
if
oi
electricity
kept
my
its
for,
floor.
proper zero.
except by
When
the
In certain
experiments
to adjust
more accurately.
it
Another
attracted.
leakage
of
from the fact that when the connexions were made, but before
When
took care to
took advantage
make the
without touching
observations
of
135
the
oscillations
micrometer,
and
The
of the disk.
me
as
have acquired,
It must be borne
better results might be obtained by the same method.
mind that none of the results were calculated till after the conclusion of all
the experiments, and that the rejected experiments were condemned on account
still
in
of errors
Any
leakage
want
of
the difference
of
arising
introduce
no
error,
measured
by
the
as
current
from
in
the
insulation
potentials
galvanometer,
of
the
fixed
disk
would
through a known
is
resistance,
that
is
essential
to
accuracy
is
making contact should be at true zero, the same as when there is no electrical
action, and that this equilibrium should not be disturbed when simultaneous
contact
is
batteries.
Experiments on
Number
of
May
8.
*S'=1710 Ohms.
136
Experiments
3,
6,
5,
4,
were
rejected
an average value of v =
27'39.
the
determination of
electrostatic
its
electrostatic capacity of a
potential
when
charged,
and
a galvanometer.
The capacity
of the condenser
exhibit the
dielectrics
solid
known
Now,
radius.
phenomena
for
of
since
"electric
all
charge repeat
its
condensers
absorption,"
made with
method
this
recharged to a certain extent after each discharge, so that the repeated division
potential.
The capacity
of the charge would have too small an effect on the
overestimated, the number of electrostatic units in the discharge would
being
am
of
the
The
Eesistance.
determined by
Weber
by Dr
from
Joule
the result of
experiments of
in
his
B.
A.
present
experiments
depends on the
is
effects of direct
currents.
M. Foucault,
is
Note on
In a paper
phenomenon,
laws
the
me
which
of
Two
believe
to
electricity
of
Theory of Light.
the Electromagnetic
tromagnetic
137
can
before
laid
an
is
elec
phenomena
these
all
that light
are affections
for
1867, bearing on the same subject.
The first, by the late eminent
mathematician Bernhardt Riemann, was presented in 1858 to the Royal Society
len,
was withdrawn
of
Gottingen,
but
till
last year.
before
for
if
publication,
Laplace's equation
we
substitute
^a"A'F+a'47r/3 =
being
the
electrostatic
and a a
potential,
all
certain
mention
The
velocity.
shews that
seems
however,
author,
This equation
is
equi
is
making
avoid
to
any
of
velocity,
(13),
takes place,
explicit
but he
of light.
The second
electric
paper,
by M. Lorenz, shews
that,
The propagation of
is
From
first,
of this hypothesis
we may draw
the conclusions,
that action and reaction are not always equal and opposite,
that apparatus
may
also,
and second,
its
resources.
For
joining
potential
position
will
two
let
them
or
at
attract
oppositely
with
equal
electrified
velocities
in
and
the direction
travel
AB,
(as
then
is
either
the
attracts
VOL. U.
bodies
p.
backwards.
459. [Vol.
i.
p.
527.]
18
138
Now
may
rigid rod.
in
the direction
either continually
AB,
will
augment the
pull
in
velocity,
may
The connexion
light.
of electromagnetic
in the following
manner.
Theorem A.
then the
If
integral
of
Att.
and magnitude of
electric
field.
currents,
and
force,
diminished,
if,
may
the means
when we can
distribution
of
Theorem B. If a conducting
netic
intensity
any
from
circuit
cause whatever,
circuit,
number
is
of lines
of magnetic
The number
integral
by
the
of
lines
magnetic force
of
element of
surface,
and by the
This theorem
of this
may
mode
prehensive.
is
coefficient
of magnetic induction,
the
circuit.
of expressing
Theorem
C.
When
tromotive force
we admit
polarized
conductor
of the
If
is
of the elec
we suppose the
dielectric
bounded by
and
positively
on the positive
electrified,
we must
of this displacement
also
side,
and that of
also
admit
that
then the
negatively.
and depending
ex
it
direction
that the
dielectric,
if
negative,
the
force
If the
polarization.
and
positive,
on
acted on by electromotive
is
electric
call
called
is
two conductors,
surface
a dielectric
what we may
periences
139
LIGHT.
force,
is
the amount
dielectric.
The energy stored up in any portion of the dielectric is half the product
of the electromotive force and the electric displacement, multiplied by the volume
of that portion.
may
It
pressure
also
be
in
tension
mechanical
directions
all
at
electric
angles to
right
force,
there
dielectric
combined with
these lines,
is
an equal
tension on unit of area being equal to the amount of energy in unit of volume.
I think that these statements are an accurate rendering of the ideas of
Faraday, as developed in various parts of his " Experimental Researches."
Theorem D.
effect
is
When
equivalent
to
that
of an
current
electric
in
direction.
Thus,
the
if
two conductors
in
At
the
diminishing,
same
time,
since
the
now
joined
by a
wire,
to B.
electric
displacement
in
the dielectric
is
electric current
According
from
to
to
this
through the
dielectric.
in
discharging a condenser
complete
circuit,
Let
light,
us
now apply
and
difiicult one.
these four
principles
to
182
140
Let
the
direction
of y, and let
axis
Let
the
two of whose
plane
yz,
of
The
z.
)8
closed
sides
are
and
is
^(y8o)8),
where
Now
let _p
gram
will
fi,
be
hpdz,
i:
and we have by
(A),
h{^,^) = 4.7rj'hpdz.
If
we
divide
by
and
differentiate
with respect to
z,
we
find
(^^)'
f.='^
Let us next consider a parallelogram in the plane of
sides are a along the axis of x, and z along the axis of
If
is
If
/u,
is
round
of
this parallelogram is
whose
of x,
a(PPo).
and
two
force
xz,
z.
since
by (B) the
total
afi^dz,
electromotive force
is
equal to
the rate
of
dimi
a{PP,)=^^j\t.^dz.
Dividing by a and differentiating with respect to
^=^f
z,
we
find
(15).
LIGHT.
14]
dielectric
P=where k
is
(10).
particular
dielectric,
which
may
be
let
the
current
already considered,
p,
.(17).
We
have
quantities
/S,
now
four
p, P, and
equations,
we
If
(14),
(15),
eliminate p,
df ~
(16),
P, and
(17),
we
(18).
Anfidz'
we put
If
(19).
Awfji
is
^ = cf>,{zVt) + <f>Az+Vt)
shewing that the disturbance
The other
Thus,
is
quantities p, P, and
if
/3
(20),
= ccos
/3.
7(z Vt)
A.
277,
T.X
(21).
P = c^Fcos^(zF()
A
place
to
shew
that
the
velocity
the
same
For
this
purpose
let
indefinite
extent,
the
difference
142
The electromotive
The
displacement
electric
The energy
per unit of area
The
unit
in
is
of
as
area
in
of the
radius
lines
of
force
^ Pf.
is
attraction
If this
PyE.
is
/= t P.
X = i7ra^Pf
surface,
smaU
separated by a
is
of the plane
interval
interval
this
if
is
is
disk,
by
of
surface
revolution,
the section of which, at any sensible distance from the surface, will be a circle
whose radius
is
Let
us
next
y.
circle.
round the
If
circle
the
is
is
h,
distance
be 2nhfi =
carrying
let
by
4tTry
will
will
current
y'
be
I.
first
at
This portion
force
C.
the integral
(23).
J.
fi,
= 2
if Oj is
we must
substitute for
(a^a^).
the aperture of the guardring, and b the distance from the large fixed disk, then
Tj the
be uniform round
{A).
will
6,
wire
This
y8
and
force will
the current
Hence
Let
radius
will
the
of
The magnetic
this
consider
carrying a current
to
for
M.1
j^
+9T/T
\i 'w^here
is
by the number of
through which
moves,
it
or,
in
lines
If the
it
symbols,
_o
if
which
143
LIGHT.
MJOT
h'
attraction
T^
5
When
h'
is
Making A^=
as if they
2A
27ra
=2/x
will
be
,,
by
elliptic integrals.
(6),
we
find
^^
but,
by
Hence
i'
But
to
is
()
P = ^.
(19),
where v
{2d).
j^.yi/
= /xF
(27),
made
is
all
/x
is
assauied ecjual
we have
finaUy
v=V
or the
number of
electrostatic units in
(28),
is
On
XXXVII.
34, 1867.]
the Cyclide.
In optical treatises, the primary and secondary foci of a small pencil are
sometimes represented by two straight lines cutting the axis of the pencil at
Every ray of the pencil
right angles in planes at right angles to each other.
is
The
tion
of
no
for
system
be
Pliiker'""
drawn which
shall
cut
all
fulfil
pencils,
can
surface
lines,
order.
as
of rays,
optical
all
first
common
wavesurface,
at right angles.
E. Hamilton has shewn, that the primary and secondary foci are
points of contact of the ray with the surface of centres of
W.
Sir
in
the
general
of
contact
will
The
surface.
appear,
If
we
select a pencil
of rays
when
lie
two
on
sections
of
the pencil
is
small
on
areas
the
points
their
caustic
axis
wiU
of
is
really
of
the wavesurface,
line,
when one
or both
Let
may
Let
fixed
us
first
all
the
normals
of
a surface
curve at P.
a plane through
Let
PT
RP
and PT.
* Philosophical Transactions, 1864.
EPT
145
THE CYCLIDE.
Of the two
RPT, and
lines
of
the second
is
the
about
passes through
and
equally
or
curve,
it
of curvature
Unes
The
surface
all
of
whose
sphere
PT
and
circle,
curvature
may
they
that
right
therefore
is
plane.
its
so
turn
equal
of
are
be considered either
is
centre
at
P,
and which
of
may
therefore
whose centres
spheres,
of
PT,
to
inclined
the radii
as
to
axis,
line
RPT
the plane
if
plane
the
touches
first
will
centre perpendicular to
its
generating
the
fixed
an
as
The second
the
Hence,
it.
All
length,
as
PT
tangent
of curvature.
line
R,
through
curvature
perpendicular to
be
as
defined
envelope
the
lie
series
of
any law.
If the
of
the envelope
curve,
fixed
If
we
normal passes
a
200),
(p.
is
the
first
series,
series.
first
the surface
may
be
all
given
definition
the
of
the
manner.
in a continuous
This
of
all
of
surface
by Dupin,
in
his
Applications de
Cyclide,
Geometne
because
both
If the
(inside
side
or
touching sphere,
of the
may
or
There
be on the opposite side from the other two.
described touching
series of spheres which may be
but
to
we cannot
pass
are
thus
the
four
difierent
normals
lie
on a right cone.
point
to
a plane conic.
now
the point
be taken so that
PQ
its
distance from
be perpendicular
is a minimum, then
cone will become a plane, therefore the second curve is
In the same way we may shew, that the first curv^e is a plane
in
If
will
right
conic,
VOL.
11.
19
THE CYCLIDE.
146
therefore
are
is
The
in
therefore
are
conies
plane conies,
its
a right cone.
is
"We
of the other.
these
shall call
= ccosa,
iK
where a
be
and
angle,
the eccentric
is
2/
ellipse
the
let
a,
(1),
equations
to
point
on
the
hyperbola be
x = bsecB,
where
B is
uniformity,
we
0,
= (c'  6^ tan J5
suppose
shall
y8
and
cos A/8
sec Ay8
sin/?;8
x = hcoskl3,
= (e^c^)
sin ^)8
(3),
= 0,
= tan 5
be a point on the
ellipse,
,.
may then
= (c^ 
1'')*
Let
be written
sin A/3
(5).
First MetJiod.
FQ = c sec B h cos a
Now
FQ
take on
is
a constant,
on the cyclide
For
fixed
ight
if
while
F
F
angles,
(6).
a point R, so that
or
where r
For
so related, that
The equations
(2),
fulfil
shall
cosAy8
and we
y=
then
if
FE = rh cos a
QR = r c sec B
a and B vary, R
(7),
(8),
will give a
system of points
(bcr).
be fixed while
varies,
will
describe
circle,
and
if
another
circle,
and these
FQR
at their intersection,
varies,
will
describe
circles
be
cut at
and
THE CYCLIDE.
since
and
147
whole system
the
on the conies,
of circles
will
form a cyclide.
The
corresponding to
circle
on the
point
fixed
ellipse,
is
in a plane
line
^=7. y=o
and makes with
The
it
an angle
corresponding
circle
(9),
to
fixed
point
the hyperbola,
in
in
is
it
f.
(10).
an angle
tan
of all
\ Y,
fTu sin
B\
The
will
line
of intersection
therefore
pass
the coordinates of
of the planes
yy = i^_:iltana,
is
easily
2/
circles
at
z=^^^^^smB
= 0,
c
it
one
of
points
and
T,
where
(11),
(12),
shewn that
15^^^
SR
(13).
cos iJ
Hence,
we deduce
the following
two
T,
xJ,
and
two
(c".6n*
cr
through
lines
are
^ = ^,
T'
and those of
of the
pass
series
192
THE CYCLIDE.
148
Draw
and
(12),
lines,
This
and the
and "
construction
as the
cyclide,
and
ST
sector,"
and
convenient
for
segments
is
distances
line
It will
very
is
find points
it in
can
In this
way
drawn
have
stereoscopic
cyclide,
of the
in the line
x = y = z,
shewing the
circles
On
We
suppose
shall
different values to r.
iV^'o^e
and
Forms of
c
to
the Cyclide.
eifect
of giving
from those
differ
the
on a ReaiImage Stereoscope.
superposed, and the observer, looking through two lenses, or prisms, or at two mirrors, sees the figure
Elliott Brothers,
the observer looks at a real image of the pictures, which appears in front of the instrument, and he
is
not
these
is
One
foot
from
this a
frame
is
may be
common
two convex
and having their centres distant one and a quarter inches horizontally.
stereoscopic
lenses of half a
One
foot
beyond
placed a convex lens of twothirds of a foot focal length and three inches diameter.
feet
lens, so that
the lefthand picture, and with the left eye an image of the right>hand picture.
These images are formed by pencils which pass centrically through the two small lenses respectively,
so that they are free
from
and they appear to be nearly at the same distance as the large lens,
on the frame of the large lens sees the combined figures at once.
though constructed for this stereoscope, may be used with an ordinary
distortion,
The
figures of the
stereoscope, or they
may
cyclide,
is
THE CYCLTDE.
149
positive
positive
values only.
When
lies
consists of
two
(1)
ellipse
a point of the
two
circles
The
cyclide
one
negative
the
is
largest,
ellipse,
The
w^hole
in
foci,
in
the
plane
and which
of
the
intersect at
two
in
where
conical points,
at
is
it
is
^
figure
their bases,
section
cos
by
the
of
consists
lobe.
section
decreases.
is
The
ellipse.
h,
and
between zero
circles,
Figure I.*
cyclide
of
this
kind.
Figure
(3)
the
When
lies
between
and
II.
c,
of which
is
on the negative
greatest
side.
When
is
greater than
c,
the
cyclide
one within the other, meeting each other in two conical points which are
situated
on the
these points,
positive
There
touches
is
the
The
semivertical
angle at
is
also
in
all
/^cV
.
2
Figure
III.
which
repre
THE CYCLIDE.
150
points,
WaveSurface
of Fresnel's
has
such
four
Figure
III, useful
we
If
forms
give
(3),
(2),
traversed
is
point
spindle
At
the
and when r = c
in
the
(3),
oo
to
oo
1
3)
we may
find
For
inner sheet
vanishes
it
assumes the
the cyclide
succession,
surface.
spindle or
instant the
At
through R.
sheet of
2),
As
of (3).
the
diminishes,
so
surface
and
contracts,
r^,
of one
ring cyclide
beyond R, but as
when r= b,
which the
for
rj,
may have
or of the
stiU
is
vanishes
finally
it
in
c,
this
bear
by
times
we
if
values from
all
1),
(
(1),
four
diminishes,
which
to
contracts,
and,
points
in forming
within the
is
greater than
singular
before
passes
surface
sheet
or
(2),
of (1).
The
as r diminishes,
increases
it
till
when r= b
it
r^ is
When r=c
definitely
i\,
as
the point 72
cyclide
real
at
The
may
interior
is
less
than
and when
and
h,
r= c
r^,
of
r,
r,.
sheet of
3)
is
some value,
so that for
developed,
and
of
which
r^
r,
We
increases
is
less
in
than
once.
first
the
r diminishes,
ring,
3).
This value
when r becomes
becomes a
sheet,
corresponding to
is
r^,
(3),
of the hyperbola.
The second
sheet, corresponding to
(l).
positive
When
the
(3),
first
hyperbola, and
r^,
when the
third
it
meets
it
(2),
at a conical
sheet exists,
it
meets
it
point on the
at
a conical
THE CYCLIDE.
The
third
may be
either
sheet of
it
3).
in
the
third
In the
it
lobe
positive
second
meets the
corresponding
sheet,
the
case
first
has also
7'
different
(
2),
forms.
It
the outer
or
it
the fourth
three
(l),
sheet.
meets
to
of
151
sheet
has no conical
it
a conical
in
point,
on the
point
and
negative
hyperbola.
is
the
spindle
interior
the
of
cyclide
3), and
always
Parabolic Cyclides.
When
and
tity,
the values of
if
h,
and x are each increased by the same quanincreased, the two conies become in
r,
c,
quantity
this
indefinitely
is
the limit two parabolas in perpendicular planes, the focus of one being the vertex
of the other,
When
lies
and
call
c,
x = 2h
and x = 2c r.
on the positive and negative side of the sheet are linked together as the earth
and the air are linked together by a bridge, the earth, of which the bridge
forms
embracing
part,
much
air
embracing the
air
bridge
is
When
two
the
In fact the earth and bridge form a ring of which one side
from above.
r does not
conical points,
lie
between
and an
and
infinite sheet
= h\c,
is
c,
of the lobe.
Surfaces of Revolution.
When
of radius
less
than
= 0,
c,
the form
surface consists of
When
the cyclide
is
= c,
is
own
that of an anchor
ring.
If
itself into
if
is
is
in
greater than
two
circle
If
conical
c,
is
the
points.
h.
When
=c=
0,
tlie
THE CYCLIDE.
152
origin
becomes a plane.
If h remains
while
finite,
r,
c,
indefinitely great quantity, the cyclide ultimately becomes a right cylinder, whose
radius
is
r c.
when
drawn to a
fixed point,
^^Z^^
= 7^37^
(^^)'
73^7^^F
If the point of inversion
af
or
be taken oh
+ f2
a;^
h'
+ r'c' = 0,
+ 2^2^6='r^ + r = 0,
y=
(16),
a...
first circle,
(18)
or
r'h'
C
if it
'(19)
C'O'
be on the second.
"When
than
(17),
= 0, and
r:^^^
if
6,
and the
is
less
the second
than
circle
is
c,
the
real.
first
circle
is
real;
and when r
is between
In the ringcycUde r
is
greater
and
c,
THE CYCLIDE.
and
If
of
inversion,
COS
'
the
Ij
if
becomes a
cyclide
than
less
is
7'
becomes a parabolic
'
whose
cone,
jA
if
is
angle
semivertical
greater than
is
h.
cyclide.
point of inversion
If the
or cos
b,
if
right
153
be x =
he
= 0, z=
0,
the cyclide
is
inverse
to
itself.
On
the
Definition.
individual
and
if
If
any
on
two
surface
systems of curves
intersect
be drawn, each
first
ratio to the
curves of the
called
isothermal
functions.
first
If
isothermal
the surface
second,
as
first
lines,
be
if
curves
curves of the
conjugate
consecutive
it,
two systems of
now supposed
to
be a uniform
con
ducting lamina placed between nonconducting media, one set of these lines will
be
isothermal
for
be lines of flow.
Lame on
(See
is
of a
line
of curvature of the
is
c/^,
=
c cos
ds^ of
JO J
np
{c'hyda
(o'l'N^
*.= cos'IpT"
hp bcosa^
VOL.
II.
(20),
cos a
will
Isothinvnal Functio7is.)
'
is
(21).
^
'
20
first
'
THE CYCLIDE.
154
If
now ^ be a
function of
a,
and
<f)
<f>
will
=k
If
(r
is
and ^
6p^cos a
satisfied.
If r
{r^
It
sucK that
(3,
~ d<j>
dSi
then d and
of
<i>
=k
^^r^
greater than
is
hy
r cos
7
is
less
than
6,
we have
we
find
thus
6,
'
V ^^)
co8a=
If
6,
a.
sm a =
(22),
jr ccoshp
(24).
(r'by.
Similarly,
than
we
^ and
<^,
when
is
greater
c,
(^c?8in;^P^j
tan
B = siD.h^=
is
less
than
we must
jri
(r*
cy
^1
A
'
r + c cos h
r
jj
+ r cos y^
secB = coshlB=
When
r + ccosh
substitute
(25).
^
(c' ?")*
for
(?^c*)*
and turn
THE CYCUDE.
Having found
them any number
these
isothermal
conjugate
of other
as
pairs,
155
^,
and
functions
<^
we may deduce
^^^^iand^'^'^^'^'
On
Confocal
and
of cyclides
the
two
may
from
where
(26)
Cy elides.
focal
ellipse
This system
in
one conic and pass through the other, form three systems of orthogonal surfaces,
and therefore
By
inversion
we may
get
may
also be considered as a
system of wave
value of
r,
Now
which we may
let
call
is
of
the form
^+^.^^.=1
By
putting p
= c, we
By
putting p
= h, we
(^n
t^=''y='
These
conies.
two
If,
hyperbola,
conies
therefore
will
be
(2^)
for vertex,
confocal
cones,
we draw
may
be
called its
focal
at right angles
i\,
7\,
i\,
202
THE CYCLIDE.
156
The normal
to
and
in
also that
the
between
direction
r,
and
ellipse,
and
i\\r^
reflected
the direction of
in
it is
r^
and
r,
reversed;
At the
is
= constant) where
will
bisect
will
r,,
r^.
would be
r,
hence,
point of the
x,
x = p,
r^^x + c,
r^
r,
and
= constant) may
(r
ellipsoid
be expressed in terms
thus
r,
r,
The normal
= x c.
+ n = 2/3
(30).
between
and
r^,
+ r,= 2p
among the
r,
r,
whence we
ellipsoid
(31).
values of
r,
+ r, + r, + r, =
(32).
The normal to the hyperboloid of one sheet (/u, = constant) bisects the angle
between r^ and r^, and also that between r, and r, whence we obtain the
equations
ri
The normal
between
i\
to the
and
hyperboloid of two
and between
r,,
r,
r^
and
sheets
r^,
+ r, = 1v=
(i/
= constant)
(33).
bisects
the
(r^^r^
(34).
These are the equations to the conicoids in terms of the four rays of the
The equations
to
the
four
cyclides
in
angles
whence
teims
pencil.
easily
r,=
p + ^iv'
n=
pfi + v
r,=
p + fi + v
pfiv
r,=
(35).
THE CYCLTDE.
Since the quantities
c,
fi,
it
p,
p, r^,
''.,
h,
is
157
v,
evident that
p,
r,
 p  p. + v)
rj 2{x+
{x' +if\z''
When
=c
 p + p.v)
{r
+ p p.v)
r)
{b' he')
there are
two
2
(if
focal
 z')
points
\
p + p.^v)
=Q
(36),
+ Sbcrx + (c'  bj =
h')
(c'
{r
thus
in Cartesian coordinates
is
the
...
(37).
values
of the
RF+c]
r,=
r,=
RFc
RF +c
r,=
RFc.
r,=
The equation
.(38).
of the ellipsoid
2p
= r, + r, = RF+RF'
in this case
distances of
foci is
(39)
sum
of the
constant.
+ r, = 2v = RF'RF
(40)
distances
is
constant.
let
and
let
an
focal
ellipse
THE CYCLIDE.
158
These strings
will
also rest
of the rod rests on the positive branch of the hyperbola, or the negative portion
of the rod rests on the negative branch.
meter
we
vertex
positions
different
is
The
position,
first
its
to
If
corresponds to the
r^,
we denote
it
cones
in four
whose
H,
intersections
is
E,
The second
first
by \H and
position,
r^,
+H,
R.
either
E, R,
The
i2,
passes through R.
Ey and
corresponding
third
+H or
H,
E, R.
intersections is either
R, E,
The fourth
intersections
position,
r^,
+H,
or
H,
R, E.
is
R,
H,
E,
of rays
is
of the
fourth order.
Now
if
two
two of these
four positions,
and
if
VOL.
HQRNED
cycl:::
11
II.
PLATE XI
PARABOLIC CYCLIDE
VOL. U.
111
RING
CYCLIDE
IV
SPINDLE
PLATE XL
CYCLIDE
THE CYCLLDE.
the two rods be then
intersection R, then
159
string
tight
at
the
point
of
out a conicoid.
will trace
and second
and
fourth,
and
fourth,
and third
the conicoid
will
first
and fourth
and
i\
is
parallel to the
axis
of x.
Hence
if
rays
and
if
and
third,
wave
all
parallel
to
the
is
a plane,
axis
of
the rays are twice reflected, they will become again parallel to the axis.
On a Bow
XXXVIII.
On
the
26th
bow
coloured
on
of
the
CoUege, Cambridge.
of an
January,
frozen
Its appearance
about
surface
noon,
of
Dr
Parkinson, President
was
of
the
angle
primary
violet
40 32'.
S.
bow,
for
bright
as
given
once
at
blue
in
flattened,
so
as
to
The angle
40" 30'.
Parkinson's
side.
Oi^tics,
crystals
ice
I
ice.
is
seen
are
suppose the
were
with which
for
found
and that
it,
and losing
increased.
bow which
If the
its
How
for
saw to be
of incidence
bow would be
without wetting
42 20',
reflexion
eflfect
of the
College, a sextant
John's
drop
John's
between the bright red and the shadow of the large mirror
and that
41 50',
the
of
S.
that
vii.]
that
takes
would be of
lie
is,
upon
the
ice
Only a small part of the ice presented this appearance. It was best seen
the incident and emergent rays were nearly equally inclined to the
horizontal.
The ice was very thin, and I was not able to get near enough
to the place where the bow appeared to see if the supposed water drops really
when
existed.
XXXIX.
On
the
Two
are
figures
Vol. xxvi.]
reciprocal
when the
7tli
Feb.
properties
1870.)
of the
first relative
first.
to the
Several kinds
remarkable
results.
reciprocity,
which
propose
also
is
to
capable
investigate
a difierent kind of
of considerable
development,
geometrical
nd can be ap
Frame may be defined geometrically as a system of straight lines connumber of points. In actual structures these lines are material pieces,
beams, rods, or wires, and may be straight or curved; but the force by which
necting a
each piece resists any alteration of the distance between the points which
of
a frame,
we may
consider
its
different
points as
When
together,
is
or
to
the
When
we
points
joining each
of
pair
If
the two
prevent them from separating, the action along the joining line
called a Tension.
them
acting between
forces
joins
it
divide
is
called a Pressure.
the
resultant of the whole internal force acting between the parts thus divided will
order
manner, we
VOL.
II.
may draw
it
as a skeleton,
in
162
by straight
lines,
geometrical
indicates the
regards
as
way which
of
direction
of
This
we may
magnitude,
certain
done in Elementary
is
represent
Statics,
where we
are
told
draw a
to
line.
from
line
the point of application of the force in the direction in which the force acts,
and to cut
many
off as
force
in
the
head,
to
shew that
it
By
and
force,
a force
is
on
the
line
there
as
of the
of
line
are
units
of
with an arrow
it
we should
superposed
to
finally
skeleton
of the
frame,
opposite
arrows for
To
test
the
proceed
should
equilibrium
by the
of
these
construction
forces
of
at
with two of the forces acting at the point, completing the parallelogram,
drawing the diagonal, and combining this with the third force
when
till,
the
all
in
and
forces
in
lines,
first,
number
of useless
forces,
and
To
simplify
by drawing
in
this
process,
succession
we
lines
are
told
parallel
to
and proportional
last.
Here we have
force
is
not
only
for
the
first
however,
for
We
way
forces
will
acting at
the
be a closed one.
represented in
If the
polygon
to
or not.
indicate
To secure
line,
we have only
this
advantage,
the sides of the polygon do not pass through one point as the forces do.
its
forces
in
of the
simplify
greatly
the
and
By
forces.
this
which no useless
in
ruler,
parallel
163
lines are
line
repre
Diagram of Forces
is
a figure,
nitude and direction the force acting along a piece of the frame.
To express the relation between the diagram of the frame and the diagram of forces, the lines of the frame should each be indicated by a symbol,
and the corresponding lines of the diagram of forces should be indicated by
the same symbol, accented
We
if
they
that
sary
all
necessary.
should be parallel
lines
to
be
parallel,
is
a right angle,
and
it
is
neces
diaorams round
the
if
line
of
be perpendicular
any
number
of
lines
lines in the
sponding
meet
in
a point in
the
diagram
of
forces,
the corre
In such cases, the two diagrams are said to be reciprocal in the sense in
If either diagram be taken as representing the
it in this paper.
which we use
of the
it
in
equi
librium.
properties of the " triangle " and " polygon " of forces have been long
a "diagram" of forces has been used in the case of the "funiand
known,
cular polygon," but I am not aware of any more general statement of the
method of drawing diagrams of forces before Professor Rankine applied it to
The "polyhedron of
frames, roofs, &c., in his Applied Mechanics, p. 137, &c.
The
forces,"
or the proposition
portional
to
has,
was
first
made by
212
164
In the
of
Philosophical Magazine
reciprocal
any
plane
for April
1864, I
figures,
rectilinear
figure
which
the
to
British
a method of
Association
force
reciprocal
figure,
polars'^".
Mr W.
since
construction
by one
represented
is
line,
for
myself.
so
detail,
drawing the
liave
each
existence,
is
it
can be
it
several
yeais
before I
had taught
understand that he
is
it
in
preparing
of the
made use
of
Fleeming Jenkin,
Professor
in
a paper recently
occurring in practice,
111
first,
to
and of
I
forces
shall
method
of
in
figures either of
Lastly,
shall
a continuous
stress
in
stress
first
body,
the
method
and
shall
to
the
Investigation
of the
state
of
for stresses in
two dimensions,
On Reciprocal Plane
Definition.
of an
figures
equal
are
Two
number
PectiJincai' Figures.
at right angles,
lines,
so
and corresponding
lines
when they
consist
in
AND DIAGRAMS OF
2^ote.
It is
often
Corresponding
90*.
plane
165
FORCES.
then
are
lines
parallel
every
line
the
in
it.
Since
line in
these
fi'^ures
is
every
sides,
point
own
its
to
If either of
sent
pressures
will
be in equilibrium.
forces
let
that
along
be
Draw
given.
the
line
first
of the
reciprocal
from
extremity
of
p we draw
extremity r parallel to R,
so
as
to
parallel
along
in
the
direction
forces
in
to
and
Q,
form a triangle
pqr,
from
other
will
and R.
which the
the
then q and r
force
in
make
a point
of
166
concourse
polygon
PQR, and
of
let
Then, the direction in which the point travels along any side
pqr.
of the polygon
wiU be the
direction
which the
in
The
other
a tension
is
extremity of
Hence,
meets
and
towards
if
it,
it
If
is
if
we draw a
acts
force
acts
it
from the
a pressure.
along these
forces
having
triangle,
for
described
forces
indi
cates that only one of these triangles forms part of the diagram of forces.
The
cases
Of
PRB, and
We
follows
as
is
is
a side in the
first figure.
We
the
point
of
course along
piece
P
If
we
is
B,
PBC
and
PQR
of these forces
force
line
are
its
r,
from
_2:>Z>c,
forces.
C.
we now
and
to
parallel
concourse of P,
pressures,
or
tensions
one
PQC,
by the
QC
lines
and A,
q and
c,
triangle qca.
We
have
now
force is represented
meeting
at
constructed
by a
any point
complete
single line,
is
expressed
and
in
visibly
diagram of
in
forces,
which each
by the corresponding
lines
forces
in
the
There
are
in
this
at
responding
respect to
polygon
in
that polygon.
For
to
is
positive
with
AND DIAGRAMS OF
167
FORCES.
when we
in
arrive at the
in
Xote.
may be
It
then
point,
and
a,
if
JW
if
6,
he a triangle with
meet
with
meet
lines
A, B, C; P, Q,
is
A.
to
parallel
ABC, meet
in
its
is
the
in
triangles
lines,
its
circumscribing the
These
h,
r,
in a point.
circles
4,
be drawn from
lines a, h, c will
four
PQR, drawn
lines
in
force
q,
If the
q,
joining
lines.
four
R; but by
centres,
six
figure
explained
the
to
on,
way
in
this
reciprocal
of
construction
length, as I wish to
fixed
is
it
this,
is
definite
in
size
diagram to the
the
simplest
line
first
and
position,
original figure.
diagram of
is
forces,
drawn and
its
but any
I
have
more at
extremities
by means of
in
In any complete diagram of forces, those forces which act at a given point
Hence, there will be as many closed
frame form a closed polygon.
the
polygons
the
in
diagram
as
piece
form
its
polygons.
other
is
to
extremities,
These
in
but,
If
polygon
it
the frame.
opposite forces
Also,
since
each
polygons
might be drawn
in
any positions
relatively
to
each
the diagrams here considered, they are placed so that each force
represented by one
which
and
in
line,
belongs.
we regard
will
be
the
its
outline
by other polygons,
so
168
whole
the
that
assemblage
polygons
of
will
surface.
must, therefore,
returning on
way
such a
in
itself,
it
is
made up
of a finite
number
be a closed surface
diagram at
either
It
which
or
all,
Any system
may be regarded
same
of polygons, which
which
common boundary
two
of
is
common
sheets of
positive,
contact with
are in
is
to
diagram.
the
When two
as
If
we reckon
those areas
of positive rotation
round the
area,
the
sheet,
sign.
At every
then
all
as of negative sheets,
number of
positive
The diagram,
polyhedron,
polygons, which
Let
If
therefore,
us
may
next
any of the
additional hnes,
may
or
consider
faces.
not, as far as
bounded by
we yet know. He
rectilinear
of this
faces
we may, by drawing
necessarily in a plane.
by plane
may
We
is
will be
defined
by
its
it
We
shall
call
the
shall call
this
line the
origin,
and draw
axis.
If
we
then draw from the origin a line perpendicular to one of the faces of the polyhedron,
it will
projection of that
and take on
face.
this line
From
this point
may
draw a
line perpendicular to
is
the plane,
equal to that
of the intersection of the axis with the face of the polyhedron produced, but on
the polyhedron.
By
with
its
we
AND DIAGRAMS OF
169
FORCES.
To every edge of the polyhedron will correspond the line which joins the
Each of these
points corresponding to the two faces which meet in that edge.
perpendicular to the projection of the other; for the perpendiculars
is
from the origin to the two faces, lie in a plane perpendicular to the edge in
which they meet, and the projection of the line corresponding to the edge is
Hence, the edge is
the intersection of this plane with the plane of projection.
lines
edge
therefore
is
therefore to
on
plane of projection,
the
figure,
and
so
projection of the
corresponding
line,
and
in a
and x = 0, y = 0,
jectionj
In this
itself.
The
line.
z=c
if
= Ax + Bi/+C,
^=cA,
r)
= cB,
C=C,
If
tion,
we suppose
considering x,
^,
rj,
y,
variable,
aa
is
to the point.
If
we suppose
x, y, z
and
^,
rj,
{as
variable,
Hence,
if
plane
passes
These points and planes are reciprocally polar in the ordinary sense with
respect to the paraboloid of revolution
2cz =zx^
We
sidering
have
thus arrived
at
'if.
being reciprocal to one another, in the geometrical sense, with respect to a certain paraboloid of revolution.
VOL.
II.
22
170
Each
must
of the diagrams
it
to
fulfil
any of the
many
is
which
points corresponding
that side as there are different planes passing through three points of the
side,
Number
is
faces
indefinite.
it,
new
every
surface
new
line
in the system,
two
drawn to an isolated point, or to a point already
connected with the system.
Hence the sum of points and faces is increased
by one for every new line. K the closed surface is acycHc, or simply connected^^
either
introduces
parts,
according
as
we draw a
point
We
faces.
number of
it
point
into
is
that of
like
one
closed
line,
we
it,
then,
divide the
faces.
if
from any
surface into
Hence,
if
two
be the
general
es f=
* See Riemann,
sions;
also
Crelle's Journal, 1857, Lehrsdtze aits der ancdysis situs, for space of two dimenCayley on the Partitions of a Close, PhU. Mag. 1861; Helmholtz, CreUe's Journal, 1858,
Wirbelbewegung, for the application of the idea of multiple continuity to space of three dimensions;
Gottingen Trans., 1861, Der Census Rdumliclier Complexe, a complete treatise on the
J. B. Listing,
subject of Cyclosis
On
and Periphraxy.
mehr wie
v.
605,
"Von
der Geometria
Sittcs
die
die
nichts."
added March
iTo^e
14,
1870,
Since
this
was
notation,
cyclic.
und in
Werke,
Leibnitz ahnte
If
2n
written,
(a
cyclosis,
7!:^w)
is
= 0,
number of points, e the number of lines, K^ the number of endless curves, J" the number
Kg the number of degrees of cyclosis of the faces, Wj, the number of periphractic or closed
faces, V the number of regions of space, K^ the number of degrees of cyclosis, tT^ their number of
degrees of periphraxy or the number of regions which they completely surround, and w is to be put
= 1 or =0, according as the system does or does not extend to infinity.
where
s is the
of faces.
AND DIAGRAMS OF
when
many
171
FORCES.
But
drawn.
lines be
in
the case of a
w =  2.
doubly connected, like that of a solid body with a
hole through it, then if we draw one closed curve round the hole, and another
closed curve through the hole, and round one side of the body, we shall have
If the closed surface
(^
= 2,
/=1,
.9=1,
m = 0.
so that
nl
a solid with
is
If the surface
holes through
it,
is
connected,
?ily
may draw n
then we
nl
that of
like
We
and
shall
points and
/= 2,
= A{n l),
in
s
(nl)
= 2(n l),
and
esf=2nA,
and
this
is
The plane
hedra,
is
reciprocal diagrams,
It
is
= e
points,
poly
and
and/ = 5
s,=f
first
n.;,,
On
the
To determine the
and given axes,
origin
positions
of s points
in space,
position of s points is 3s
therefore,
and
if
6
G.
the lengths of 3s
of s points be given,
system
of such
lines,
If,
polygons.
or the
edges,
n\j connected.
all
points
system
be
determinate,
and the
be rigidly connected.
22
172
If,
however, the lines are so chosen that those which join pairs of points of
of the points are more than 3s' 6 in number, the lengths of
s'
a system of
these lines will not be independent of each other, and the lines of this partial
system will only give 3s' 6 independent data to determine the complete system.
In a system of
points joined
by
be 3s 6
e
=p
degrees of freedom, provided that in every partial system of s' points joined
by e lines, and having in itself p' degrees of freedom, p' is not negative. If in
is
negative,
the lines
and
if
the system
is
from the number of points and lines in the complete and partial systems. If s
points are connected by e lines, so as to form a polyhedron of / faces, enclosing
a space n times connected, and
if
sides,
then
mf=2e.
We
es/=2n4,
have also
and
3s
e=p\6,
p = 6(ln) + (2
whence
e.
m = 3,
and we have
p = 6{ln).
If
faces,
n=l,
p = o,
longer rigid
or in
that
if
is
any one of
its lines
web
is
were wanting.
of triangles,
In such a
figure,
if
made
of
the rods would be completely determined by the external forces appUed to the
figure,
and
if
On
if
we
other,
and
if
[Vol.
i.
p. 80.]
AND DIAGRAMS OF
intersecting these,
tions
and
triangles,
triangles
faces
substitute
same
diflfering
angular
infinitely
little
We
on the polyhedron.
line
we
rectilinear
shall
substitute
in all questions
may, therefore,
a system of
surface
the
for
points,
sponding
intersec
we now
if
having the
triangular
173
FORCES.
for
triangular faces.
We
That
1st,
it
is
of
force, there is
is
That the
form*; 2nd,
invariable
forces f
3rd,
if
the surface
in
stresses
That
there
is
no external
no
possible,
that in some
part of the
and the
the edge of the
surface.
the
of
form
original
plane
of
the
in
this
reflexion
the
dimpled part
Then the length of any line drawn on the surface will remain unchanged.
surface,
dimple
that
so
is
a plane
closed
curve,
is
Now
let
dimple
the
be
Every
line
still
is
changes
its
position.
its
edge continually
possible in the
case of
not
are
external
forces,
only
rigid,
and the
but
are
expression
of
of
stress
this
p=
internal
capable
^6, that
stress,
depends on
is,
such sur
independent of
six
independent
variables.
This has been shewn by Professor Jellett, Trans. R.I. A., Vol. xxii. p. 377.
On the Equilibrium of a Spherical Envelope, by J. C. Maxwell. Quarterly Journal of Mathe
matics, 1867.
[Vol.
II.
p. 86.]
174
Hence,
order
in
we may
stress,
to
cut out
The system
edges.
make an
will
n\j
the edges
the
in
we have formed
case
limiting
of
stress,
but
a hole having
if
6n3
rigid.
the smallest
hole
Its
flexibility,
however,
may
limits.
of e lines
points in a plane
joining certain
pairs
of
is
253.
these points,
p = 2se.S.
however, in any partial system of s points connected by e lines, the
quantity p' = 2s'eS be negative, or in other words, if a part of the frame
be selfstrained, this partial system will contribute only 2s S equations indeIf,
pendent of each other to the complete system, and the whole frame will have
pp'
degrees of freedom.
s^
3ss' =
Hence
a
_p
negative
points
are
quantity,
in
the
or
such
interior
of
+ 3.
=  (s  s') = 
a frame
is
s^,
necessarily
stiff";
and
is,
if
many
any of the
degrees of
AND DIAGRAMS OF
functions of
s^
rendering
loose.
it
there
If
variables,
are
ference of the
and
holes
5,
pieces
in the
175
FORCES.
frame,
so
that
s'
5,
points
points
on the circum
lie
lie
the interior,
in
p = s^ + 3n.
plane frame
If a
be a projection of a polyhedron of
faces,
each of
sides,
e5/=2n4,
2se=p{3,
p = 5 4)1 + 1
whence
je.
is
doubly
connected,
degrees of
stiffness.
the
frame
formed by
its
plane
projection
will
have three
lines
are compelled
moment
to pass, then, if to each rod be applied a couple in the plane, whose
multiplied
points
the
between
rod
the
is equal to the product of the length of
by the tension or pressure in the former case, and tends to turn the rod
positive
or
the negative
direction,
the
For
a pressure, then every one of the system of rings will be in equilibrium.
and preseach ring is acted on by a system of forces equal to the tensions
sures
in
Theorem.
action
In
of repulsions
attractions, the
in
sum
equilibrium
is
in
undisturbed.
176
by
multiplied
the
sum
the distance
of the
For
each
since
is
right
at
forces
and
distance,
negative
if it
systems
will
system of
remain in equilibrium
if
the
in
directions,
forming
is
whose direction
are
line joining
Now
be attractive.
couples
of
each
of
angles to
it
is
extremities
the
at
of a
one plane,
in
system of forces
this operation
in
is
and repulsions
attractions,
then
it acts.
point
is
positive
if
equilibrium,
or
the
in equilibrium
is
sum
of
these two
is
base Une,
as
Hne.
Hence
Multiply each load by the height of the point at which it acts, and each
by the length of the piece on which it acts, and add all these
tension
products together.
which
it
acts,
it
vertical
acts,
This
sum
will be
equal to the
former sum.
If
the
their horizontal
by the earth
The importance
of
this
itself.
if
arises
from the
circum
is
is
proportional to the
stress
which
it
has
by
AND DIAGRAMS OF
The following method of demonstrating
consideration of couples, and
to
177
FORCES.
this
is
is
forces as a whole.
the system
till
is
Then
reduced to a point.
the work done by each tension is equal to the product of that tension by the
distance through which it has acted, namely, the original distance between the
Also
points.
the
work spent
in
the
is
product of
that pressure by the original distance of the points between which it acts; and
since no work is gained or lost on the whole, the sum of the first set of
sum
second
of the
all
In this demonstration
set.
in one plane.
it
is
is
Let
the
coordinates
of
the
points
different
of
This demonstration
the
system be
x^.z^,
be P^,,
x^^
point
is
a:
all
values from
to n,
2;{(^px,)^j=o.
Multiply this equation by
multiplied
by
its
Xp.
Ill
sum
in
y and
tptt(P^,r,,)
which
is
VOL.
if
each
we get
^Pt)
taken,
z,
we get
'
23
is
178
First
Definition.
body
under
the
closed curve,
be
drawn
of internal
in
Stress in
Three Dimensions.
a Body.
is
forces,
if
that
a surface A, limited by a
if
forces
to
drawn
is
in
diagram of stress
action
in
the body
in
j>
is
Let
X,
y,
in
forces,
we have
2,
may
the body
ascertain,
so
ly,
f,
t],
those of
^ are ftmctions of
be in equiUbrium.
such as gravity,
to
^,
We
shall consider
Theorem
1.
If any closed
surface
is
if
the stress
is
corresponding element of surface in the diagram of stress, then the resultant stress
diagram
pressure
stress
does
It
for
of
surface
sultant
moment.
is
2.
a closed
however,
not,
closed
Theorem
is
in
To
surface,
foUow
equilibrium,
that
the
portion
the stress on
for
its
of
surface
may have
it
is
re
neces
where
is
^_dF
_dF
^~dx'
'^~dy'
any function of
x, y,
and
dF
^~ dz*
z.
The
stress acting
on this area will be a force equal and parallel to the resultant of a pressure
acting on the corresponding element of area in the diagram of stress.
Eesolving
AND
pressure
this
in
equal
element
to
which we may
j^
we
p^dydz,
call
multiplied
of
179
OF FORCES.
DIAGR^\3IS
projection
the three
com
and
p^ydijdz,
pxzdijdz,
of the corresponding
coordinate
Now, the
planes.
is
dr) dt,
dr) dt,
dz
dz dy^
dydz.
7ly
Hence we
component of
^''~^\dydz
which we may write
dr} dt,
drj dl,
dzdyj'
Similarly,
I>xy=pJ(l ^;
In
the
same
find
= pJ{l
C;
Z,
^),
Pyy
Pzx=pJ{%
i'y
^.
y)'
Pzy=pJ{'^' t'
consider
moment
rf,
y,
z).
Py,=pJ{v,
Now,
to the
we may
way,
p=pJ{i,
y, z),
^;
^'
Pyz=pJ{l V
'>
Pzz=vJ{^' V'
^' y)>
^>
^l
^' y)
with respect
forces
dz.
x,
we must have
Pyz = Pzr
Similarly,
for
the
of y
and
z,
we
obtain
the
equa
tions
Pzx=Pzz and
Now,
let
us assume
Pxy=iV
232
'
180
becomes
2'^y^^P^y
'{ dz dx
(A 
or
(B,
^ \dx dy
dxdz)
dy dxj
find
= AA + ^iC,hB,C
= A,C, + B,C, + B,C,.
From
it
foUows that
C,
= 0,
dT)_dC
^^^^
dz'dy'
whence
dF
be called the function of
may be
of stress
of
function
the
d^_dl
dx~dz'
= 0.
dl_dri^
dy'dx*
x,
y and
z,
follows that
it
may
(73
is
^~dx'
a = 0,
is
stress,
dF
dz'
because
when
it
is
of stress calculated.
formed,
_dF
"^'dy'
limited
The form
fulfilled
at
the
The
six
components of
(d'Fd'F
P^'P
stress expressed in
U'Fd'F
fd'FV}
d'F d'F
d'F d'F\
[dzdx dxdy
daf dydz)
^^
'
terms of
_ (d'F d'F
^ \dxdy dydz
(d'FdF^
df
dzdxj
/
^z,
dz
/^'^M
d'F d'F\
^^ ~^
If
are
/d'FV\ ^
'
[dydz dzdx
d'F
d'F
d'F
of stress
in
It
is
not,
AND DIAGRAMS OF
may
p and
no tangential action
both zero at
are
p^,
is
p^
The complete
where
every
function of x,
Again,
between
in
if
this
and
y,
we
to
parallel
lines
value
different
of
z,
"^^^~
so
we
we have
and
seen,
_df
^^
dj?'
may
of which
the form
y,
jj^
f^
we may regard
as
be different for
a perfectly general
shall
this cylinder
as
is,
dxdy'
that
y:>,
z.
consider
z,
dy
is
_d^
^'^'df
fulfil
points.
all
in
there
in
181
FORCES.
its
generating
is
its
Hence the
length,
longitudinal stress
and
independent of
is
P = <^(^,
Hence
where ^
is
^ = 0,
J
docdz
whence
dF
7
is
it
may
!/).
but
follows
a function of
j
that
ax
z only.
and
j
ay
0, Py,
But
= 0, we
and 7j = 0.
dydz
are
functions
of
x and y
only,
and that
Hence
F=G + Z,
when
(x
is
a function
components of
of
x and y
only,
and
a function of
UWd'G
only,
stress are
d'Gd^Z
d'Gd'Z
d'G X]
P^ = 0,
p^ = 0,
P^=Pdxdydz^
and the
182
Now,
function
this
function of x, y,
by a function of
and
z,
not
is
it
sufficiently
only,
jL)
may be
of
being any
z.
it
function which
instead
for
is
is
and
general,
xy
is
is,
as
it
ought to
not of the
a function of x
be,
depends on G, the
for it
determines the stresses p^, p^, and 'Pyy, whereas the value of
In fact, the
of the values of these stresses.
entirely independent
equations give
dz'
iz'l'
stress
in
is
On
Let us consider figures in two portions of space, which we shall call respecLet the coordinates of any point in
the first and the second diagrams.
tively
the
diagram be denoted by
first
second by
the
q,
^,
continuous
values of
manner;
at
that
to
is
those points
say,
then,
\
if
A,
parallel
point in
first
to
x,
equivalent to the
are
first
two
points,
without
from
x, y,
z,
figure
and
limit,
(^,
of
in
any
F^ the
F^,
the value
q,
the
of a
corre
dF
dF
'^
= ^'
dF
^
,,.
^^^'
of
any point
in
the
the
in
respectively.
y,
by the equations
^=^'
is
approaches
F._
This
x, y, z,
measured in directions
Let i^
of
^,
first
diagram.
AND DIAGRAMS OF
Next,
let
<f>,
thus determined,
as
known
in
of
i,
V>
^
of
i,
V,
Differentiate
+ zC=F+cf>
But,
for
with respect to
<f>
^dx
d(f>_
$,
dy
dFdx
d^_
x,
(2).
and
y,
since
z,
dF
di~ d^
y,
<^
^,
are
a function
is
and
77,
functions
dz
from (l)
t],
^,
</>,
be a function of
will
183
FORCES.
dFdy
d^'^'^dxdi'^ dy
dFd^_dF
d^'^ dz d^
d^
dF_dF
'"^^d^
= x.
Differentiating
<f>
di
with respect to
and
rj
d^
d^
""dr
or
the vector
(r)
C,
<f>
at
three equations
d^
^~dr)'
we get the
first
'c/4
^'
diagram.
Hence the
first
diagram
may
each with
its
own
from the
first,
(2) between the functions expresses that the sum of the functwo corresponding points is equal to the product of the distances of
these points from the origin multiplied by the cosine of the angle between the
The
relation
for
tions
linear
/
The value
is
found by putting
x, y,
F = F,x,^y,r)zX=<f>
and
(4).
=
(5),
184
of F* at the
or the value
the point
t?,
^,
If the
be
of variation of
rate
of the
and
impossible,
the
therefore
limits
of the
every
point,
corresponding to an
To
these points
find
the
in
which
is
curves,
curves
and
constant,
more
nowhere
is
at
correspond
the
to
p.
first
let
let
r),
{,
be drawn in the
surfaces
diagram
first
infinite,
second
the
one or
diagram
in
the
first
in
^,
vice versa.
Now,
the coordinates
points
If
and
in the second.
perpendicular to
is
infinite,
finite,
diagram.
the value of
to
Beyond the
values of x, y, z, in terms of ^, iq, t must
value of <^ is also impossible. Within the
function ^ has an even number of values at
even number of points in the first diagram,
and
is
of the
limits
origin
t,.
p,
then
lie
all
those points
this point
is
fJF
of p both greater
absolute
maximum
and
less
nor an absolute
minimum
an
even
and therefore r
value.
Hence there
or curves which
coincide,
is
neither an
are in general
correspond to the
Let us now consider the two reciprocal diagrams with their functions, and
ascertain in
(1)
Let
F=Fi, then
the
first
diagram
function
<^
is
(x^,
y^,
z^),
at which
<f>
or
be
is
= ^r^+y^l+^XF^
reciprocal
to
(6),
AND DIAGRAMS OF
Let the
(2)
first
If
is
r,
and
at
z.),
which
(7),
<^,
+ {z,zH = F.F,.
if li^m^.n^^
y^,
= x,^+y.j) + zXF,
{x,x:^^\{y,y.)'n
P,;
(jc^,
whence eliminating
185
FORCES.
first
F F
'13
or the reciprocal
line joining
(3)
are
and
a;,,
is
(7)
4>=^.^+y.n+^JiF^
The
dicular
this
reciprocal
to
three
is
perpen
a straight line
the plane of the three points, and such that the perpendicular on
from
line
the
of
(8).
in
direction
(4)
The
reciprocal
the
of
four
points
for
which F=F^.
is
a single point,
and the
line
drawn
from the origin to this point represents, in direction and magnitude, the rate
of greatest increase
of F,
supposing
values
at
that of
at the origin.
finite
quantity
when
VOL.
II.
is
continuous,
at
this
that
is,
its
point
is
that
The value of ^
given.
(f>
is
bounded by
definite surfaces.
24
186
The bounding
For
let
must be composed of
planes.
(a,a,)aj+(AA)r+(y.r.)2=<^x<A,
and
this
is
(9),
Hence the portion of space in which any particular form of the value of F
must be a polyhedron or cell bounded by plane faces, and therefore
having straight edges meeting in a number of points or summits.
holds good
Every
more
cells,
face
is
and to two
cells,
cell,
ways,
The
so
and
diagram
it
radius
The value
of
of the
in
different
cells,
and
and the
cell in
rate
the other.
of increase of the
cell,
function
at
the summit
same
two
diagram corresponds to a
in one
the
to
its derivatives.
vector
is
belongs
Every summit
The
cells,
reciprocal
reciprocity of the
1.
is
to
the
if it
other,
Every
which
edge
is
in
the
one
diagram corresponds
cells
to a
plane
fexje
in
the
The edge
in the one
diagram
is
origin
of increase
AND DIAGRAMS OF
Every
3.
many
meet as there are angles in the face, that is, at least three. Every
belong to two, and only two cells, because the edge to which it
cells
must
face
the
in
face
187
FORCES.
Every
4.
Every
the
in
cell
of the
face
corresponds and
cell
Since every
every
faces,
every
cell
cell
edges,
six
least
the summit.
more
four or
there.
cell
has at
cell
must have
four or
is
cell
corresponds
to
cells.
cells.
each of
portional to the
areas
in
is
cell
the reciprocal
in
cell,
is
If the
sect
of
the
positive
by
positive
cell
cell
of the
cell.
its
cell
but
surface,
If
the
of
itself,
surface intersects
is
itself,
is
inside
better to
or portion of a
is
inward,
and outside
speak of the
cell,
may
bounded
be called a
In passing to a contiguous
cell
has
its
cell.
first
cell,
it
with the
meant by the
is
if
be proved by hydrostatics.
is
and negative
closed
space with
If
faces
it
itself,
may
sheets with
their
positive
we must suppose
surface
that
negative side
times.
its
face
in contact
188
the
first
cell.
throughout each
tinuous
cell,
we may
the
sign of
when we
cells
it
cell,
considered
is
to belong to.
we now suppose
If
it
moment
for the
and by changing
cell,
settle
edge of
is
in the
cell
corre
then these
the
first
pressures
will
face,
in equilibrium.
way
Another
the
first
diagram,
of
as follows
is
no
cells
which meet in
other
edge.
The area
order.
along
the
travel
in
edge.
in
therefore,
is,
taken
the
curve,
If,
cells
and magnitude,
stress
along
the
if
the direction
is
This
in
cases
certain
is
method
If
expressing
which Rankine's
cases
easily seen
deduced
of
stresses
reciprocal
of continuous stress.
by the example
we make
for figures
of
in
three
figures are
That
it
is
dimensions comprehends
possible,
and
not applicable to
is
all
applicable to
all
such
cases
(189).
On
function
in three
AKD DIAGRAMS OF
and cC
for
(f>.
We
have then
for
FORCES.
the equations of
189
relation
Vjetween
the two
diagrams
i=
.(10).
190
it will
so
will termi
Let
a,
be any two
points
consecutive
the
in
first
diagram,
if
distant
dp
d_l
dx
dy
dz
di)
dr}
dr)
j^
V" + sm r+sn
dz
dy
dx
afJi.
, dl
av = si J
dx
^
5,
the direc
dC
dy
sm y ^ sn
(12).
dt,
^j
dz
Hence
cr
^(a.,,..)=4^....+..(.)..(i4f)
\dy
If we put
we take three
ZX
+ m/xf
sets
7ij/
Hence
this
let
we
where
of
I,
n,
corresponding to three
and
s^,
s^
or of x, y,
us take an element
parallel to
cr,
and
directions
if
at
find
and a tension
e is
m,
on the directions of s
Now,
= cos6,
of values
(13).
dx^
a and
z,
let
us
call
it
of area perpendicular to
is
and not
A'i^.
equal to
AND DIAGRAMS OF
By
the
rules
for
FORCES.
191
we have
for
the
components
X = Zp + mp^ + np^ =p
^^
lA'F X
(15).
(T

Hence,
f..iP
di\
,^
d^F\
(d'F
d'F\^
[d'F
d'F\
Id'F
d'F\
Id'F
d'F\
.(16).
d'F
d'F
d'F
Pxy=P dxdy
By
^ ^ ^
+
ax
it
is
ay
= 0, &c
dz
(17).
is
contained
in the values
^^~
P^~
d'B
dz"
d'C
^ df
d'C
'
d'A
dydz
"
^^~ da?
^^ ^
^~
By making A = B = C=pF we
^1
d'A
d'A
'
dz'
d'B
dzdx'
dC
^'^~
(18).
dxdy
though restricted
in its
stress.
We
(16),
generahty,
is
has
consistent
with
itself,
and
will
keep
body
in
equilibrium.
stress
by
Since
the
can be compounded
first
method
areas.
of
stress
is
represented in this
way
in
the
192
Since
at
each
in
cells,
are reciprocal,
surface,
The kind
and
surface,
of
in a
of internal stress
two rectangular
fluid
paper "
vanishes.
a and
fi
coincide.
Hence
drawn on the
surface
is
tension
of which
their tensions
fluid,
must be
On
this stress is
having
each
films,
Airy,
cells,
all directions
of equilibrium
liquid
Mr
when ah
infinite
bounding the
points in different
finite
system
z,
the distance between the points which are reciprocal to the two
bounded by the
as the
be the points at a
will
x, y,
two contiguous
is
proportional to
cells
a linear function of
is
a and
If
there
cell
it.
it
like
is
is
two
therefore
that of a
that of a soap
composed.
must be
cells.
equal,
bubble,
and
all
the edges
equal.
On
the
stress in
any
which
stress
arises
in
^i'+;P = 0,
whence
it
elasticity,
or
on the mode
and
by
internal stress
^^^+p =
(19),
follows that
d'F
Px.= ^.,
d'F
P^=J^y^
^^^
d'F
^=S
,^..
(^^^'
AND DIAGRAMS OF
where
is
and
of
function
concerned)
are
equations
perfectly
193
FORCES.
y,
arbitrary,
is
far as
(as
these
is
since the
of F, any
two systems of
may
stress
be
f=f
For
if s
^"f
(^
and
that of the
<r
Yds
Xds,
if
are
the com
ponents of the whole stress acting on the element ds towards the right hand
of the curve s
dx
d'F dx
dyidxj
hand
of the element cb of
dr)
J =
5*=;pgjrf.= 3^.3j<i*
5^3j& = ^rf^J
and
Hence the
curve
is
stress
resultant
the right
both
represented,
da
element
on
of
stress
the
in
curve in
on any
finite
side
the
original
line
is
represented in direction
the
to
end of
P P,
are
component
p^=(P,P,)sinaco8a
Pj^
II.
if
P,
is
inclined a
stresses are
p = P, cos' a + P, sin' a
VOL.
and
(23).
= P, sin' a + P, cos'a
25
194
dxdy
Pry
tan 2a =
Hence
d^_d^
i>
dar'
df
d'F
d'F
/d'F\
,_^'Pd'P
r,i,p^Pyy _ p^ 
PP
^^ ^^
The
integral
sum
(24).
P^+Pyy = :^+^
P. + P.
s,
\dxdyl
and
let
is
By
(25).
when once
integrated.
dFdx_dFdy\,
/( dy
ds
(26),
dx dsj
(27).
These
s as
origin
in
s.
we take
If
point in
a given point.
The
line
integral
may now
represented
quantity
in
in
direction
on the arc
^, then
o.
stress
and
s,
and
magnitude by
Is
p.
everywhere acted on by a
We
may
express
it
this
of the
becomes,
(28),
AND DIAGRAMS OF
or
if
Rds
if
the
is
actual
on
stress
we
c,
and r
ds,
195
FORCES.
the
is
radius
vector of
stresses
therefore,
integral,
s,
is
integral vanishes.
This
theorem, given at
p.
by the
acting
on
of the principal
is
of
the algebraic
176, that
length
the
in
piece
sum
which
it
of
all
acts
is
zero
for
is
a system
in
longitudinal,
the
stress
piece
Jts
is
an
stress
sum
equilibrium.
and
If there
each
and
(29).
is
ds,
and the
ellipse,
stress
a small
circle,
circle will
cr
will
be
be represented in
the
circle.
Let us next consider the surface integral of the product of the principal
taken over the area within the closed curve s.
//..P,...=//(f3)...,
(30),
_(((dldr}_didri\
}]\dxdy
or
dydx)'^'''^^'
by transformation of variables
=mdr].
Hence the
the curve
is
surface
integral
of the product
corresponding curve
in the
diagram of
stress,
and
therefore
252
196
If p
the curve s from the origin to a point which moves round the curve, then the
area traced out by p
is
s,
Y {'Xds.ds,
or
is
zero,
If
is
Tx
is
and
Yds.ds.
entirely
longitudinal,
is
so
that the
contributed to
the surfaceintegral except at the points where the pieces meet or cross each
To
other.
value of the
surrounding
meet
which
pieces
the
find
closed curve
that
in
integral for
and no other
it
point,
The corresponding
point in order.
draw a
all
the
in
the
figure
diagram
of
direction
will
stress
points,
The area
of this
polygon, therefore, represents the value of jjP^P^dxdy for the point of concourse,
and
be
to
is
round
travels
considered
it
positive
or negative,
in the positive or
For
each
point
drawing in succession
point
in
cyclical
the
several
of
pieces
If,
all
lines
the
The area of
or negative, according as
polygon
concourse
lines parallel
then,
be
it
lies
on the
a closed curve be
drawn by drawing
external
of direction
to the algebraic
this polygon
left or
drawn surrounding
in succession
is
lines
frame, and a
and proportional to
the order in which their
the
of the
areas
entire
parallel
sum
to be taken positive
this
polygon
is
equal
In
lines
this
theorem a polygon
is
to
of the frame meet or intersect, whether they are really jointed together.
AND DIAGRAMS OF
or
197
FORCES.
whether two pieces simply cross each other without mechanical connection.
is a parallelogram, whose sides are parallel and
to
it
is
or
positive
negative
or
more pieces
intersect,
it
is
we have the
following theorem
are
of the polygon.
This
is
easily
into
the
different
parallelo
grams.
On
Let
stress,
PQR
be
the
the
longitudinal,
and
STU
Thomson and
Tait's
Natural Philosophy,
Components
of the
p.
511,
stresses
669:
and
strains,
taken from
198
of an element of the
body
are,
by
697
of that work,
dP
dU dT
dx
dy
dz
dx
dy
dz
dx
dy
dz
(!)
we assume
If
d'A
X dV
dx
and put
d'B
dzdx
rr,
r=
dydz'
^_dV
'
d'C
..
dxdy
(2).
z= dV
dz
dy'
is
given by
putting
p_d^,d^ y
^
^~
dz'^ df
d^^d^_^
(3).
daf
dz^
^^^Jd^_y
dif
am
dctf
not aware of any method of finding other relations between the com
make
to
a,
all
y8,
the
stress
arises
from
elasticity
the body.
in
confine
of
that
is
stress
are
Thomson and
forces.
by equation
it
In this
coefficient
(6),
case,
dz
dy^l^^
dy
d'A
n dydz
if
of rigidity,
Tait,
^^dfi
shall
can be deprived
(4).
'
AND DIAGRAMS OF
with
equations
similar
equations
is
and
for
c.
199
FORCES.
general
sufficiently
solution
of these
given by putting
(5).
form given
p=(*+f");7^+(ii) dy
where
and
and
(5),
the coefficient of
is
Substitutmg
d'C
/d'B
P,
for
^,
,,
cubical
a,
[d'A
in equation
d'B
d'B
d^
this equation
Q
(3)
[dy^
dy'
dy"
"^
d^l
dz'
dz'
"We
d'C
d'
c^
d^^d^'^P^ ^^^ 5^ + 5^ +
5^'
= ^'
becomes
()t}n)
values from
their
we put
d'A
and
equations for
similar
(6)
d'CX
+ 1^3^)
If
(6).
dz
with
elasticity,
and y
fi
in 693,
have
also
instead of
hand
side
we
differing
find
say,
(8),
P+Q+R=
These
equations
are
useful
body.
side.
A'A=A'B = A'C=D',
and
.(7).
(9),
9kD'2V_^j^p3V
6k
3itln
when we wish
For instance,
if
(10).
dk + 2n
to determine
the
coefficients
the
of
stress
rather
elasticity,
200
and
of the
parts
body,
co
two
The
of
may
be treated as functions of
variables.
first
when
is
there
as in the case of a
z,
of
tion
z,
stress,
in the direc
being
thickness
the
no
is
The second
the
of
direction
direction
and y
of
when
is
very
no
is
as in the
z,
is
there
the
of a
case
great,
strain,
forces
on the
sides
being functions of x
only.
In both
of these cases
5=0
and T=0,
so that
we may
write
first
it
j^^
^^
*
694, if a
is
v=^^
dxdy
I.
If
72
this
becomes
a;
we
(12)''
^
2n(<T+l)^ = P<r(Q + R)
Case
shall
Dimensions.
d'G
dxdy
Two
given
We
(13).
AND DIAGRAMS OF
where
of
function
Is
only.
201
FORCES.
displacement
fi
in
the
direction of y,
where
a function of x only.
is
Now
depends on the
^="(S
Multiplying both sides of this equation by 2((r+l) and substituting from (11),
(14),
and
(15),
(..3'..g.f=(i.)(...)
an equation which must be
fulfilled
by
is
originally without
strain.
In
of
Case II.
2, we have
is
no strain
in the
^=i2o(P + g) =
Substituting for
In (13),
W
This
the
equation
is
coefiicient
of
for
(19).
/S.
+ dfj^^li + 'd^i^Ad^'^'dy')^
identical
the
part due
value of
tr,
direction
to
H,
first
case,
we
find
'
pression.
Hence,
if
the external forces are given in the two cases of no stress and
II.
z,
and
if
26
202
of the force acting on
two
cases,
the
substance
its
the ratio of
in
is
be
will
forces
internal
the
same
a
to
(lo)'
in
the
in
elasticity.
into
do
paper,
the
In
not
fact,
exactly
the
fulfil
investigation.
results
his
is
are
statically
and
possible,
As an
illustration of the
F=^r^co32p0
In this case
we have
(22).
for
corre
ponding to (xy)
7'*^ sin
and
for
(2^91)^
(23),
d^
_dr)
(24).
we make
and
t''
sin
p0
.(25),
dGr\
'
then
H = p
(^^)e
,v
/^
(26).
dG dG
I
principal stress,
If
we make
^=pcos<j> and
p = 7^'
we put
q for
2p
and
1
then 
+ =2
T7
<f>
= psin^
= (2p 1)0}'
"I
(27).
l,
AND DIAGRAMS OF
80
that
if f,
original figure,
g,
the diagram of
in
of a
Cctse
g=
correspond to F,
G,
the
in
As an example
of the
application
cos
q(f),
=  p"^ sm q<l>
(28).
of indefinite length
placed on
must
of the
initial
beam
p''
=^
stress
we have
f=p^cos2q<\>,
a load
203
FORCES.
its
upper
surface,
us
applicable
to the
middle
the
only
consider
vertical
portion
the
of
effect.
but
is
no shearing
force,
and
let
where there
planes
is
j!^''^
and
this
from
must be
which
to X,
this
we
=,.../
evidently (h
'^=
Hence,
From
equal
is
is
+ ^x.
<f>(h)<f>{0)
=l
(29).
^=rfl'+55'=(A+i)'#'{y)+fyThe
vertical stress
is
therefore
beam,
where y = b.
of the beam, or
<f>'{y)
function of y only.
It
must vanish
at
262
204
Hence we
<l>{y)
which
by integrating
P='^{'^){3hfW+r
where a
in
is
which
(30),
the
beam
vertical, horizontal,
is
supported.
and shearing
From
this
we
on the manner
stresses,
= ^l'+f^ = t2'T^W22^)
(31).
^=f='F'("'^)(*2^)+f
(32).
^=Say = ^^^(^2')
(33)
zontal
stress,
determine a and
/S,
beam was
which we propose to
We
(13),
X'
^{(3a'xx')(62j,),Tx(35y22/')}<7ja^ +
is
x^+r
U,
we
(35),
Y' of y only.
Deducing from these
and comparing it with the value of the shearing
*+^{6a'x2af+12x(6y2^)} + ,.x=x^ +
Hence
(34),
{x, y),
(14), (15)
2(o+l)y8=^{(5yi/) + 3o(a'af)(62/3f')}+jy<r^+X'
where
therefore
1n(,7+\)a
Y,
originally unstrained.
^' + ^'
^= ^i [hyf)
12
= 2^+^
(3a'.
 2^) + <.x,
(36).
(37),
^' =0
(38).
AND DIAGRAMS OF
If the
condition
7
of
value
the
we
any
stress across
total longitudinal
vertical
by equation
section of the
beam
and when y = h.
205
FORCES.
any
at
zero,
From
this
(32)
^ = 5^{3K^) + 2y'2?>y6'}(62y)
The moment of bending
is
beam
(39).
is
(40).
f.
ao'
If
we wish
to
= a'F
(41)
finite
length sup
both
at
and
ends
loaded
uniformly,
we
the
of frames
on either
part of the
may
be
and the
vertical
forces
arising from
stresses
side,
series.
to
(42).
in
to
be applied by means
Diagram Va,
so
that
the
supports.
Mr
in
order
unstrained.
to
fulfil
The
the
effect
condition that,
of these
terms
is
206
and
a.
if
But the
determined.
illustrate
6.
must be a
In
I.
II.
III.).
Diagram
side of two,
I a. is a skeleton of
the force along any one piece be given, the force along any other piece
piece
(Plates
this case
N would
may be
so that
if
it
H,
and
I, J,
are each
Diagrams II a. and 116. illustrate the case of a frame consisting of thirtytwo pieces, meeting four
and four in sixteen points, and forming sixteen quadrilaterals. Diagram II a. may be considered as a plane
projection of a polyhedron of double continuity, which we may describe as a quadrilateral frame consisting
of four quadrilateial rods, of which the ends are bevelled so as to
as a plane frame, has three
frame, considered
degrees of
stiffness,
fit
The
exactly.
projection of this
may be
arbitrarily assumed.
lines are
we have
Diagrams III
Jenkin.
series.
a.
and III
two
IV a.
Diagrams
on the upper
series of joints,
and B^
Ji^,
by Professor F.
on the lower
fec.,
gives the stresses due to both sets of loads, the vertical lines of loads being
series.
IV 6.
and
diagrams of continuous
illustrate the
application of Airy's
Function to the
construction
of
stress.
IV a.
tension in
those
6.
marked
o,
the pressure
hyperbolas,
is
what
is
The
represents the reciprocal diagram corresponding to the upper quadiant of the former one.
line in the first diagram is represented in magnitude and direction by the corresponding line
IV 6.
stress
on any
in the second diagram, the correspondence being ascertained by that of the corresponding systems of lines
o, 6,
c, tfcc.
We
a, 6, c,
and
may
ifec.
also consider
IV
quadrant of
strained
o, p, q,
body
IV a.
is
o,
6.
p, q, the
in this case
magnitude of the
case
r'K
The upper
to be ruptured at a reentering angle, for it is plain that at the angle the stress
indefinitely gi'eat.
becomes
VOL.
11.
PLATE XIL
(i)
6'^
s5
e.
&
g
&
VOL.
ivt.
11.
PLATE XIIL
(ii)
pq
">
rt
'^
rrt
I
44!
n
an
<s1
VOL,
11.
PLATE
XIV. (m)
pT
AND DIAGRAMS OF
In diagram
IV a.
In diagram
IV 6.:
/=
Diagrams
V o.
at
is
V a.
the
and
Jp^ cos 5
V b.
9=
.^,
at
and
C and
b,
c,
h = Ip^
<^,
marked
1,
2,
sin <^
beams.
o,
p' C08 I
beam supported
207
FORCES.
3, 4, 5, 6,
A and
B.
The beam
is
and
is
free
beam
from
vertical slices
by vertical
lines
marked
kc.
The corresponding
stress across
any
lines in the
line joining
is
diagram
b.
are
V a.
perpendicular to
in direction.
it
is
figures
and
letters.
The
V 6., joining
These illustrations of the application of the graphic method to cases of continuous stress, are
intended rather to show the mathematical meaning of the method, than as practical aids to the engineer.
is really useful, and is less liable to accidental
In cases of continuous stress, however, the
method of trigonometrical calculation.
symbolical method of calculation is still the best, although, as I have endeavoured to show in this
paper, analytical methods may be explained, illustrated, and extended by considerations derived from
errors than
the
XL.
On
Society's Proceedings.
the Displacement in
Vol. in.]
of fluid motion,
investigations
cities;
during
but are not required to be able to keep our eye on a particular molecule
its
motion.
case of a fluid, the motions of the individual molecules of which are not expresas functions of their position, as in the motions
sible
When
similar equations
tricity,
we
we cannot even
The molecular
theory, as
it
resources
can effect
As
it
is
this, I
define
of the
what
is
electricity.
diffiision.
position
its
identity,
of each molecule at
results.
Let a cylinder of
to
z,
209
of
<f>
satisfy
will
V<f>
stream function*
point,
= ^{^^o), and
rp
if
x,
is
and
= (lyjy,
and
since
i//
that
F/
If
we
and
r,
consider the
then
x}/,
and
If
in
then
if
this
we
observe that,
if
we
becomes
i//
when the
^,
= c,
axis of the
cylinder
is
of the
abreast
and
we now use
instead of r a
the
i/>,
be the value of y
will
/8
particle,
and
y(4cr
this purpose
= (l^)^'si
sin^,
terms of r and
we make
For
becomes
'/'
Expressing cos
motion.
will
in polar coordinates, it
xp
its
position
t/
put
the
of
its
z,
is
it
The
velocitypotential
velocity of
the
fluid
is
new angular
variable
x ^^^^ *^^*
2r
its
rate of variation
Whenever
the motion of
is
equal
the fluid
is
to
irro
and
is
to
unit of
time,
equal to the difi*erence of the values of the stream function at the extremities of the cun.e.
VOL.
II.
27
is
210
x^ in
terms of
functions of the
elliptic
first
and
second kinds,
cylinder
expressed
is
in
terms of the
it.
Now
let
^=
7),
and
a"
2/3
Qi
= c',
and when the cylinder has passed from negative infinity to positive
the direction of x, then the coordinates of the molecule will be
2a,
7^\
rf
infinity in
a(lc)
It appears from this expression, that after the passage of the cylinder every
particle
is
which
at the same distance as at first from the plane of xz, but that it
forward in the direction of the motion of the cylinder by a quantity
infinite when y = 0, but finite for all other values of y.
is
carried
is
of a particle at
The motion
X
at
double
the
inclination
of
any instant
the
line
is
drawn
to
forward
that the
final
direction
displacement of
till
the
every particle
inclination
is
in
by the
the forward
fluid at
an
direction.
infinite
It
distance
not that of being contained in a fixed vessel; for in that case there would
have been, on the whole, a displacement backwards equal to that of the cylinder
is
forwards.
of an
The problem
infinitely
generate a finite
actually solved
difiers
mass of
fluid
such as to
momentum.
211
Fig.
1.
272
212
the
as
reciprocals
of the
natural numbers.
The cylinder
is
apart.
corresponding to every
left
of Fig.
x and
y,
straight line
2,
p.
The
5".
result
elliptic functions
for values
of c
is
213.
then traced the path of a particle in contact with the cylinder from the
equation
tan^^=e
where
cc
cCo
+ a cos ^
"
and y = a9>md.
is
the
The dots
3.
The paths of
particles not in
from Legendre's tables for incomplete functions, which I have not got.
I
ditions
eye so
as
to
the
fulfil
following
con
a,
becomes nearly 
2y
is
l
r.^
^ a'siii'0
.
which,
y'
when y
is
large
compared
The paths of
nearly
circles.
to
Fig. 2, to
and
paths of different
particles
in
Fig.
3.
then
then
streamlines
laid
Fig.
on
Fig.
of
2,
213
intersections of the
Fig.
fluid
2.
when a
cylinder
moves through
it
OO'
Fio.
3.
inch.
At
(jreat
214
at
rest,
the lines which shew the form taken by a Ime of particles originally
straight as
it
flows
the
past
the
cylinder.
crosses
line
the axis of
x.
therefore
calculated
this
= r + ^log^,
differing
by ^
of
"
inch.
as
near
the
1,
p.
211.
cylindrical
ruler
[From the
Address
XLI.
to
the
Association.
[Liverpool,
At
and
several
important
the
of
SepUmber
15,
1870.]
business
of
the
IVIathematical
Association the
the selection
to
left
varied
Sylvester,
the
President
of
Section
at
very working
of
the
laare,
as
us,
it
were,
not the
array of symbols and brackets which form the armoury of the mathematician,
or
the
dry
results
sagacity
which he
and
the
feels
pursuit,
to be
condition of
the
all
his
characteristic note
"
Mr
exhibition
has,
pointed
that
above
own
his
but the
his professional
harmony
ideal
all
all
pleasure,
things,
an
in
the
following
"
Science
in
matical
of
by
Presidents,
conquests,
all
The mathematician
action.
his
faculties directed
and
apprehension,
the root of
all
human
is
an attempted
the abstract.
faint
What
wanting
(like
216
indeed
realize.
distinctly laid
magnificent
one,
down
is
still
by our
Mr
and make
late President
of mine to
eflforts
ledge of which
too
far
edifice
Dr Tyndall
into that
the
sanctuary of minuteness and of power where molecules obey the laws of their
existence, clash together in fierce collision, or grapple in yet more fierce embrace,
by
penetrating
building
up
in
insight
and
forcible
expression
of
by
Prof.
But who will lead me into that still more hidden and dimmer region where
Thought weds Fact, where the mental operation of the mathematician and the
physical action 'of the molecules are seen in their true relation? Does not the
to it pass through the very den of the metaphysician, strewed with the
remains of former explorers, and abhorred by every man of science? It would
indeed be a foolhardy adventure for me to take up the valuable time of the
way
Section
by leading you
into
those
speculations
which
require,
as
we know,
intelligibly.
In our daily
work we are led up to questions the same in kind with those of metaphysics;
and we approach them, not trusting to the native penetrating power of our
own minds, but trained by a long continued adjustment of our modes of thought
to the facts of external nature.
As mathematicians, we perform
number
or of quantity,
symbols of
and,
;;
forms.
different
consequence of selfevident
but
the
many
As students
in
more
our
to
What we
minds,
selfevident
intelligible language.
the
result
the
phenomenon
out
its
features
in
an
of
ourselves to do
set
our minds,
of Physics
though a necessary
forms,
to
meaning
its
different
not always,
of these forms,
explains
is
who by
mathematician,
one to another,
axioms,
217
is
one by one,
how
infinitely
to
way which
varied circumstances,
relations.
is
in
itself
partial
and by viewing
and imperfect,
phenomenon
so as to
and
obtain
that which
to piece
first,
may
not be
the
of
we
appear,
considered
is
mind
from
those
Intellectual
and most
first
which
after
our
accompanies
it.
words
which,
of this
processes
features
in
forcibly
it,
and
still.
No
first
for
any phenomenon,
is
and
and
phrases,
is
opinions.
It
to
in
science
that,
in order
understand the nature of things, they must begin by asking, not whether
thing
is
how much
there of
it
beneficial,
but of
what kind
first
is
it ?
and
recognized as
As
science
has
been
developed, the
till
the process of
scientific inquiry
seems to have
II.
28
218
method of directing our attention to those features of phenomena which maybe regai'ded as quantities which brings physical research under the influence of
In the work of the Section we shall have abundant
mathematical reasoning.
examples of the successful application of this method to the most recent conquests of science; but I wish at present to direct your attention to some of
the reciprocal effects of the progress of science on those elementary conceptions
the
to
portant
in
is
the
at
is
his
labours
most
familiar
with the various kinds of quantities which belong to that science. When
all the relations between these quantities, he regards them as
he understands
forming a connected system, and he classes the whole system of quantities together
This classification is the most natural
as belonging to that particular science.
it is
generally the
in order of time.
first
he finds that the mathematical processes and trains of reasoning in one science
resemble those in another so much that his knowledge of the one science may
be made a most useful help in the study of the other.
When
sciences
He
is
classification
different.
of quantities on a
new
principle,
according to
mathematician;
because the
but
it
human mind,
in
to it
by nature.
210
that
fact
all
quantities, as
subject
are
such,
the rules
to
many
minds,
only
their
idea of mathematics.
The human mind is seldom satisfied, and is certainly never exercising its
when it is doing the work of a calculating machine. What
highest functions,
the
man
aims at
of
whether
science,
acquire
to
is,
is
he
a mathematician or a physical
is
and develope
willing to
clear
ideas
the
of
enter on long
things
and to be
calcidations,
make
inquirer,
he deals with.
for
if he can
he finds that clear ideas are not to be obtained by means of processes the steps of which he is sure to forget before he has reached the
conclusion, it is much better that he should turn to another method, and try
only at last
But
to
if
understand
the
subject
We
is
is
by means of wellchosen
more
all
illustrations
derived from
familiar.
found,
Now
in
two
the
The
in
leaving
sciences,
out
of
between
of ideas
in
account
for
phenomena.
When
class.
two systems
form, or
whether,
mathematical
in
same
convenient for teaching science in a pleasant and easy manner, but the recoga
nition of the formal analogy between the two systems of ideas leads to
knowledge
both,
of
by studying each
system separately.
There are
before
them
among
abstract
further
in
symbolical
quantities.
statement
that
form,
Such
quantities
relation
can
or
grasp
law,
men sometimes
actually
exist
however complex,
full
its
treat
in
meaning
with
nature
as
is
indifference
which
put
a relation
fulfil
the
this
220
The
relation.
than to
mental
But
the
training,
great
retain
to
of
majority
their
in
matician, so that, if
it
image
of the mathematical
classification
of quantities which,
as
we have
principles
seen, lie
at
There
satisfaction
in
are, as I
have
said,
feel
more enjoyment
in
which they draw on paper, or build up in the empty space before them.
Others, again, are not content unless they can project their whole physical
energies into the scene which they conjure up.
They learn at what a rate the
through space, and they experience a delightful feeling of exhilaThey calculate the forces with which the heavenly bodies pull at one
another, and they feel their own muscles straining with the effort.
To such men momentum, energy, ma^s are not mere abstract expressions
They are words of power, which stir their
of the results of scientific inquiry.
planets rush
ration.
memories of childhood.
scientific,
whether
appears in the robust form and the vivid colouring of a physical illustration,
or in the tenuity
Time
scientific
would
me
if
were to attempt to
illustrate
I shall only
by examples the
mention the name
understood by
men
when
it
shall
calculating spirit.
The mutual
thought
is
so
action
different
departments of
human
221
further
still
shall say
few words on a branch of physics which not very long ago would have been
I mean the atomic theory, or, as
considered rather a branch of metaphysics.
it
is
the hopelessly distant fixed stars on the one hand, and to the inscrutable
delicacy of the texture of material bodies on the other.
to
Indeed,
we
if
are
to
Comte
regard
as
in
scientific
own
of
his
time,
illusory.
see
which we can
set
name
Atomic theory.
and Lucretius, and
of the
Epicurus,
It
universe.
many
In
to
argue
senses
as
we
such substances as
if
and
uniform
continuous,
air,
were
or metal,
water,
strictly
are accustomed
continuous.
We
portions,
know
each
that
we can
of which
is
was; and
as
it
a pint
divide
fully
of
water
endowed with
all
many
into
the
millions
properties
of
of water
divided a gi'ain
we may
see
of gold
which
it
is
contained.
into an inconceivable
We
number
suspicion
is
of
still
nitrite
cloud,
of
butyle
and there
But evidence from different and independent sources is now crowding in upon
compels us to admit that if we could push the process of subdivision
which
us
222
still
further
we should come
power
by any
indivisible, unalterable
in nature.
Even
in
we
find
that the
is
become prominent.
The study of these phenomena is at present the path which
development of molecular
That
leads to the
science.
which
is
is
one
these
On
other,
this
depends
the
to
unwearied inquirer
into
nature's
secrets,
arduous labour.
The
rate
of
electrolytic
conduction
is,
according to
Wiedemann's theorj^
the
that
properties
of
individual gaseous
molecules are
render
gases
it
mean
as
the
electrification
Sir
of
and the
distance
of
air,
particles
at
the
metals
by
contact,
so
different
the tension of
is
less
in
soap
to
bubbles,
friction
way
results of experiments
of their
themselves
fair
is
and
distance
in
t Nature,
March
31,
1870.
223
These, of course, are exceedingly rough estimates, for they are derived from
measurements some of which are still confessedly very rough; but if, at the
time, we can form even a rough plan for arriving at results of this
we may hope that, as our means of experimental inquiry become more
present
kind,
accurate and more varied, our conception of a molecule will become more definite,
so that we may be able at no distant period to estimate its weight with a
greater degree of precision.
theory,
which Sir
W. Thomson
on Helmholtz's splendid
founded
has
hydrodynamical
seeks
theorems,
for
properties
the
incompressible
of
fluid.
that
cause.
is
of course
of
are
natural
such varied
of
capable
once generated,
but
causes,
connexions
properties
it
mathematical
properties
difficulties
of molecules,
after
be found,
of
the subject,
it
will stand in
to
represent
a very different
position from
those theories of molecular action which are formed by investing the molecule
with an arbitrary system of central forces invented expressly to account for the
observed phenomena.
the
vortex
is
we have nothing
We
its
Even
of
the
in
the
individuality
and
indestructibility
of
of
the theory,
a ringvortex
the contemplation
in
a perfect fluid
ADDRESS TO THE MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SECTIONS
224
cannot
disturb the
to
fail
molecule, in order
to be permanent,
In
fact
parently,
inconsistent with
spectroscopic researches
of
which
it
that
that
fact
when
been
brought
your
attention
those
on difierent branches
a very remarkable
others
to
it
definite
period
of vibration.
we can
The
the
fact.
to
the range of
within
to
in
or
human
inquiry.
not
that,
fact
ap
is,
discoveries
of spectroscopic
fulfil
know from
is
must leave
by heat
agitated
in
are
vibrations
their
light
the
precisely
and
wavelength
definite
of
is,
all
experiments,
vibrate
medium
light,
much
so
We
that
science,
its
vibration,
free
terrestrial
examination of the light of the sun and stars shews that, in regions
we can only feebly imagine, there are molecules vibrating
as
Now
this absolute
The dimensions
as
in
the
case
of
is
of individual
tative
differences
Even
all
met
stones,
planets,
are
to solar time.
Ihnits,
properties
trees,
eggs, &c.
which
with
&c.,
or
do
not
interfere
with
the essential
of the body.
crystals,
Avhich
are
so
with
Among
the works of
man we sometimes
is
a uniformity
among the
different bullets
standards
standards
national
subject
state.
of these
is
This
225
one
is
which we,
in
as
them.
oflBcers to test
body,
scientific
take a
warm
and you are all aware of the vast amount of scientific work which
has been expended, and profitably expended, in providing weights and measures
for commercial and scientific purposes.
interest;
The
has
earth
measured
been
as
basis
for
a permanent standard of
in
which
almost
branch
every
of
physics
and mathematics
is
brought into
requisition.
Yet, after
relatively
all,
to our present
any physical
necessity.
its
it
would continue
it,
to be as
much a
planet as before.
But a molecule, say of hydrogen, if either its mass or its time of vibration
were to be altered in the least, would no longer be a molecule of hydrogen.
we wish
then,
If,
to
be absolutely permanent,
shall
the motion,
vibration,
or the
and
the
we must
mass
absolute
of
time,
these
in
or
When we
multitudes of
to the grain,
in
a second,
and
and vibrating
so
in exactly the
and when we
reflect
we seem to have
advanced along the path of natural knowledge to one of those points at which
we must accept the guidance of that faith by which we understand that
the least either the mass or the period of any one of them,
" that
which
One
is
the
that
of
light
is,
VOL.
is
made
of things which do
appear."
of irreversible
processes
science
processes,
which always tend towards and never away from a certain limiting
II.
29
226
Thus, if two gases be put into the same vessel, they become mixed,
and the mixture tends continually to become more uniform. If two unequally
heated portions of the same gas are put into the vessel, something of the
kind takes place, and the whole tends to become of the same temperature.
If two unequally heated solid bodies be placed in contact, a continual approxistate.
any natural
process.
In the case of the conduction or diffusion of heat the process is not only
ineversible, but it involves the irreversible diminution of that part of the whole
stock of thermal energy which
is
is
it is
calls
Entropy.
The
embodied
in Fourier's
theory of the conduction of heat, where the formulae themselves indicate, for
all positive values of the time, a possible solution which continually tends to
the form of a uniform diffusion of heat.
But
we attempt
if
diminishing
continually
the
formula
has
what
we
called
is
We
are
led
critical
we
find
that
critical
this
physical
the
conceived
its symbol
up to a state of things in which
and if we inquire into the
value
to
values,
condition
result
of a previous
actually
existed
at
state
of things,
an epoch not
in
and we find
the utmost
depths of a past eternity, but separated from the present time by a finite interval.
This idea of a beginning is one which the physical researches of recent
times
have
scientific
it
new
is
OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION.
contemporary thought,
characteristics of
which
is
is
make.
it will
Physical
research
we
and
processes,
it
it
227
continually
is
revealing
compelled
thus
are
to
us
to
search
for
new features
new forms
of
natural
of thought
relations
which the ideas derived from one department of physics may be safely used
forming ideas to be employed in a new department.
The
ideas
of speech or of thought
figure
of a familiar science
by which we
to
we
and
are
less
acquainted
in
may
be
Metaphor.
called Scientific
Thus the words Velocity, Momentum, Force, &c. have acquired certain precise
They are also employed in the Dynamics
of a Connected System in a sense which, though perfectly analogous to the
elementary sense, is wider and more general.
meanings in Elementary Dynamics.
These
forms
generalized
of
truly
of
teristic
use
metaphorical
system which
that
retains
had
it
only
not
is,
system
scientific
of
legitimate
to the
relations
The charac
is
The method
be called metaphorical
metaphorical.
is
metaphors
formal
the
all
may
elementary ideas
is
its
then truly
scientific
by
relations
To apply
of
to these the
reservations
visional
is
a legitimate metaphor
those
Suppose, then,
to
an
phrases of
dynamical
phenomena.
it
it
is
that
we have
of phenomena.
what
electrical
degree
the
applicability
The
best
instances
of
the
old
new phenomena
for
the
ideas
to
question to determine in
the
new
subject
may
be
determination of
(this
which two different explanations have been given of the same thing.
292
228
case
kind
Up
by both
of this
to
;
beyond
is
them
fails.
To understand the true relation of these theories in that part of the field
where they seem equally applicable we must look at them in the light which
Hamilton has thrown upon them by his discovery that to every brachistochrone
problem there corresponds a problem of free motion, involving different velocities
and times, but resulting in the same geometrical path. Professor Tait has
\\'ritten
According
Germany,
to
two
a theory
electrical
of
electricity
particles
act
on
which
one
is
in
but with a force which, according to Weber, depends on their relative velocity,
and according to a theory hinted at by Gauss, and developed by Riemann,
Lorenz,
order to be appreciated.
Another theory of
and attributes
electricity,
which I
prefer,
and pressures
in
an allpervading medium,
these stresses being the same in kind with those familiar to engineers, and the
medium being identical with that in which light is supposed to be propagated.
Both these theories are found to explain not only the phenomena by the
of which they were originally constructed, but other phenomena, which
were not thought of or perhaps not known at the time; and both have independently arrived at the same numerical result, which gives the absolute
aid
That
a
field of
we cannot
theories
truth
apparently
common
so
to both
fully appreciate
till
is
we have
reached a
scientific altitude
from which
dance of molecules.
select
as
most
intelligible
229
that what
circumstances which
turbance
is
But
this
mental
the
conclusions;
make
I
way
is
may
be
it
in
disturbed.
disturbing causes,
and
in
such as fatigue,
is
mistakes.
am
not
each of these errors might be traced to the regular operation of the laws
ours,
of
We
no disturbance.
is
operation
many
subject to
of them.
thinking;
actual
in
fact
we
ourselves
calculation,
often
errors.
This,
even
We
We
must admit," he
the rigour of
must
in power,
ascribe
to
their
says,
exist
laws
"
(of thought)
" which
them an
authority,
world in no
way
assists us to
comprehend."
On
XLII.
long been known that near that point of the retina where it is
by the axis of the eye there is a yellowish spot, the existence of
which can be shewn not only by the ophthalmoscope, but by its effect on
vision.
At the Cheltenham Meeting in 1856 the author pointed out a method
of seeing this spot by looking at that part of a very narrow spectrum which
Since that time the spot has been described by Helmholtz
lies near the line F.
and others and the author has made a number of experiments, not yet pubIt
has
intersected
determine
lished, in order to
One of the
author by Prof
Stokes.
its effects
methods
simplest
of
on colourvision.
seeing
the
It
appears of a bluishgreen
colour.
If
chromium made
so
weak that
what he sees before him before his eyes have got accustomed to the new tone of
he sees a pinkish spot like a wafer on a bluishgreen ground; and this
The solution transmits the red
spot is always at the place he is looking at.
colour,
The
latter
portion
is
also
line F.
partially
the preponderance.
of which
It
though
it
up
of two parts,
is
it
in
side
selected
portions
are
by being allowed
made
to
described in
by
side.
In the
is
to
pass through
first
part,
white light
is
dis
in a screen.
These selected
beam
single
of light,
in
231
of
The
instrument
being
length
beam
about
of
formed
is
nine
feet.
compound
colours.
wooden
two prisms, two
of three rectangular
It contains
in
spite
tubes,
the whole
mirrors,
and
six
which the two portions of a beam of light are subjected, they shall enter the
eye so as to form exactly equal and coincident images of the source of light.
In fact, by looking through the instrument a man's face may be distinctly
seen by means of the red, the green, or the blue light which it emits, or by
is
so
is
cases,
it,
that
longer be seen.
when
this
adjustment
is
made
so
as
to
satisfy one person, a second will find the mixed colour of a green hue, while
to a third it will appear of a reddish colour, compared with the white beam.
if
we
it
is
look directly at
it,
and cast a sidelong glance at it, we see it green. The cause of this
the yellow spot, w^hich acts somewhat as a piece of yellow glass would do,
absorbing certain kinds of light more than others; and the difference between
from
it,
is
different
It
is
found in
plexion.
The degree
of
intensity
does
on
tlie
232
colour
the
of
hair
the
or
iris
of the
individual,
as
to
to '
seen decidedly
is
by the central part of the retina than by the surrounding parts. Near F
this is reversed, and the central part gives a sensation of about half the
Beyond G the central part is again the most sensitive,
intensity of the rest.
better
and
it is
decidedly so near
Before
study
at
to
colour
described by
H.
conclude I wish
the
to
exceedingly
Mr W. Benson
in his
direct
simple
and
works on
beautiful
colour.
true
relations
of
colour
By
series
of
who wish
to
experiments
coloiured
On
XLIII.
To
for
and
Hills
December, 1870.]
Dales.
Gentlemen,
FIND
that
the
in
part
greater
of
the following
the substance of
xvin.
264).
p.
however,
so
is
that I have
scruple
in
no
An
important,
and
hesitation
rejecting
if
in
so
prevalent,
sending
you think
first
notions on the
loose
it
Professor Cayley.
I
am. Gentlemen,
CLERK MAXWELL.
Glenlair, Dalbeattie,
Octoher 12, 1870.
1.
The
results
On
exhibited by means of a
map on which
and
being
which
it
by
surface
numeral
which
the
of
level
the
earth,
surface
to
belongs.
When
VOL.
distinguished
of a level
II.
is
AND DALES.
HILLS
234
with
sufficient
feet
the force of
but when the survey is
of the
new
definition
a
must
adopt
we
account,
into
taken
gravity must be
If we could deterheight of a place in order to be mathematically accurate.
so extensive that the variation of
sea;
mine
its
position
surface from
would
This
is
be
perfectly
convex;
everywhere
but
the
call
the case
in
definite
lines
of
this
when the
equal
height
surface
would
of
equilibrium
not
be
level
surfaces.
Level surfaces are surfaces of equilibrium, and they are not equidistant.
The only thing which is constant is the amount of work required to rise from
Hence the only consistent definition of a level surface is
one to another.
obtained by assuming a standard station, say, at the mean level of the sea
at a particular place, and defining every other level surface by the work
required to raise unit of mass from the standard station to that level surface.
This work must, of course, be expressed in absolute measure, not in local foot
pounds.
At every
places,
step,
surveyor
the
therefore,
should
in
ascertaining
ascertain
the
the
force
of
difference
gravity,
of level of two
and multiply the
shall
of this line
of
force,
On
Let
earth,
us
and
Forms of
Contourlines.
begin
let
the
AND DALES.
HILLS
At
sea.
it
will
continues
if it
ascend,
to
it
point
that
235
is
continues to ascend,
surface
level
will reach
it
be
will
corresponding
formed
the
to
different
lowest
points
the
of
earth's
surface.
At
there
fiist
Two
1st.
is
of depression
regions
may expand
till
We
may happen
It
singular,
2ndly.
and we
shall
region of depression
reserve
them
may
may meet
each
and
cut
thus
off
a Pass.
There
may
itself
is
called
two regions
of elevation.
3rdly.
last are
As the
level
reduced to points.
surface
rises,
At
of
first
elevation
point
there
is
a Pass,
Summit.
is
a region of elevation.
and
And
and
for
at
every
last
region
Passes.
of elevation
reduced to a
302
is
HILLS
236
region
of depression.
number of
If
Passes.
AND DALES.
S = P + l.
Number
For
every
new
region
of BottoTus
there
depression
of
a Bottom,
is
is
and Bars.
a Bar.
If
of
1 = B+1.
From
reckon
this
pass
it
is
as
regions of elevation
as
two,
may
census
If
three,
one
plain that
single,
or
if,
double,
or
wple,
and a bar as
meet at that
point,
n+l
of depression
regions
depression
of
bars,
or
we
n+l
double, or nple,
single,
meet at that
region
and
point,
its
then the
proper number.
The whole
of
function
of this
two
of
which
variables
is
everywhere
finite,
determinate,
and
p1
of
them
false
maxima and ^
On
If
we suppose
every
negative
of
them
false
we may
minima.
is
its
will
periphraxy.
positive
dif
AND
HILLS
have a diminution of
\sill
there will
q\
\)e
false
its
237
DALES.
Hence
peripLraxy.
if
there are
true
minima
minima.
There are different orders of these stationary points according to the number
which meet
of regions
meet
and so
regions meet,
third
the
on.
and
three,
for
In
The
tliem.
by a positive
surrounded
order
first
in
on,
is
region,
relation
this
of
at
In like manner, when a negative region expands round a hollow part and
surrounds it, thus cutting off a new positive region, the negative region
last
new
maximum.
acquires perlphraxy, a
there
is
a false
When
region
any
positive region
positive region
is
loses
Is
may
maximum.
a true
is
stationary
of
may meet
Hence
points
in a stationary point.
there are
if
for
a negative
The negative
and the positive region both become cyclic. Again, a cyclic region may close
in so as to become acyclic, forming another kind of stationary point where the
If there are r points at which cyclosis is gained and r
ring first fills up.
points at which
it
is
lost,
but we cannot determine any relation between the number of these points and
that of either the true or the false maxima and minima.
If the
points
are
function
of stable
of three variables
is
in
every direction,
in
maxima
stable
in others.
On
Line's
of
Slojoe.
and
called
general reach
general reach
a bar.
lines
of slope.
downward
direction.
HILLS
238
On
AND
Hills
DALES.
and Dales.
Hence each point of the earth's surface has a line of slope, which begins
Districts whose lines of
and ends in a certain bottom.
Those whose lines
slope run to the same bottom are called Basins or Dales.
of slope come from the same summit may be called, for want of a better name,
at
a certain summit
HiUs.
Hence the whole earth may be naturally divided into Basins or Dales, and
by an independent division, into hills, each point of the surface belonging
a certain dale and also to a certain hill.
also,
to
On Watersheds and
Watercourses.
Dales are divided from each other by Watersheds, and Hills by Watercourses.
To draw these
we cannot
so that
lines,
but
round
curve
point,
this
it
will
have
highest
bottom, which
is
watershed
drawing the
down the
or
line
lines
watercourses,
of
watercourse,
though
quantity,
except by
of slope
of
is
slope,
no method of determining a
first
finding a pass
increase
in
actually
out
riverbed,
which,
line
a bar and
or
whether
full
or
empty, forms a
district,
visible
and these
and
so
cut
mark on the
HILLS
No
surface.
earth's
such
AND
takes
action
239
DALES.
which therefore
a watershed,
at
place
complete
of
divi'^'on
the
On
Let
Let
Z>
the
Number of Natural
The number
will be
of watersheds will be
W= 2
The number
72
number
to find the
is
= 2,
{h, \2\)
+3
{k +}),)
+ &c.
the number of
that of regions,
Here
Distiicts.
some
&c.
where
requires
lakes.
pi
Z>2,
Now,
and of
hills
therefore,
districts,
viz.
of faces,
points,
we have by
that of
Listing's rule
lines,
instance
that
of
of cyclosis
faces,
or
and
periphraxy.
hence
F=LP+2.
If
we put L
equal to the
number
we put L
bars,
equal to the
is
of watersheds,
and
equal to that of
is
evidently
of bottoms.
for
the number of
number
number
of summits.
is
watercourses,
and
for
the number of
which
is
evidently
240
HILLS
If
whole
we put
number
named from a
sheds
or
L
of
hill
AND DALES.
we
points,
find
and a dale
watercourses,
or
to
number
that F,
of
the
2.
/,,
7^,
S^,
/S',,
/j,
/,.
S^, S^.
7,
B^
7j,
he.
aS',
Pj S^
(fee.
Dotted
line.
XLIV.
The
by
which,
phases
maintaining
while
of
its
requirements
itself
has
lately
it
the
times,
This course of
Physics.
study, while
of attention and
those powers
the University,
calls
strictest
adapts
history,
of
the
analysis
continuity
with more or
instituted
it
requires
ita
evolution,
promptness to the
course
of
Experimental
us to maintain in action
all
in observation,
munificence
of the
for
of our
experiments w^hich
their
full
development
we hope
will
hereafter to conduct,
the material
facilities
surpassed.
The main
Devonshire
occasion,
feature,
therefore,
before
we
it
desirable
is
the
we should
con
dynamical principles, have been long regarded as among our highest functions,
in the
even such philosophers as the great Descartes were involved in the days before
Newton had announced the true laws of the motion of bodies. Indeed the
cultivation
VOL.
II.
31
242
to
science,
doctrines
scientific
society as the
Such indeed
material applications
is
proofs
fresh
is
of science are
effecting in
its
outward
life.
may
become current, provided they are expressed in language, the sound of which
some wellknown scientific phrase. If society is thus prepared to receive
all kinds of scientific doctrines, it is our part to provide for the diffusion and
recals
only
not
cultivation,
criticism,
apparently
scientific
we
"When
true
principles,
scientific
examination
an
the
of
but
evidences
of
a spirit of sound
on which
statements
depend.
shall
of
attention
trained
of
on
founded
be
able
the
to
employ
and
student,
in
his
education,
scientific
familiarity
with symbols,
but the
keenness of his eye, the quickness of his ear, the delicacy of his touch, and
the adroitness of his fingers, we shall not only extend our influence over a
of
class
all
men who
are
not fond of
we
cold abstractions,
but,
by opening
at
once
of the doctrines
our conscious thoughts, and which lend a vividness and relief to ideas,
which, when presented as mere abstract terms, are apt to fade entirely from
of
all
the memory.
In a course of Experimental
or the
ments
to
illustrate
the
Physics
feature.
phenomena of
a course of lectures on
tration,
Let
enabled to grasp
way the
throw
light,
243
The simpler the materials of an illustrative experiment, and the more familiar
they are to the student, the more thoroughly is he likely to acquire the idea
which it is meant to illustrate. The educational value of such experiments is
often
who
inversely proportional
to
complexity
the
uses
The
the apparatus.
of
student
is
than one who has the use of carefully adjusted instruments, to which he
to trust,
It
flicts
apt
very necessary that those who are trying to learn from books the
is
physical science
of
is
pieces.
experiments to recognise these facts when they meet with them out of doors.
Science
appears
that
is
it
us
to
aspect after
not in lecture rooms only, and by means of the electric light pro
of the
illustrations
we may
travelling
wherever there
is
in
we may
in
matter in motion.
This habit of recognising principles amid the endless variety of their action
can never degrade our sense of the sublimity of nature, or mar our enjoyment
On the contrary, it tends to rescue our scientific ideas from
of its beauty.
that
vague
condition
in
we
which
too
often
among the
is
leave them,
them
buried
so assured, that
we
among the
proper position
into their
ready at
are
all
Experiments of
may be
illustration
of very
They
conditions.
phenomenon
with
it
to
the
all,
however, agree in
this,
life,
appropriate
scientific
it
way
its
Some may be
may
be carefully
When
idea.
has served
others
occurs
kinds.
difierent
is
to present
that he
may
some
associate
idea,
the
purpose.
by
who
those
researches,
we have
are
strictly so
already seen
not
yet
familiar
called, the
to
with
the
ultimate object
result,
is
but
in
experimental
312
244
those
of
specification
class
this
measurements
what
and
ment,
of
required
are
We
phenomenon.
the
in
in
order
to
make a complete
result
place of decimals.
of science will be to carry on these measurements to another
approaching, our
are
we
which
to
things
If this is really the state of
labour
conscientious
of
place
a
as
celebrated
become
perhaps
Laboratory may
and consummate
skill,
but
will
it
rather to be classed with the other great workshops of our country, where equal
ability is directed to
But we have no
or
of
untried
the
continue to be poured.
those
of
fertility
may
It
fi:esh
possibly be
of
what
is
valuable,
and that
of
science
devotes
shews
herself
that even
than
for
the
their
intrinsic
worth.
But the
after,
history
during
improving
to
accuracy of
the
numerical measurement of
is
for
the
fields
of
subjugation
of
research,
and
new
regions,
scientific
ideas.
But the
history of
That
celebrated
traveller,
Humboldt,
scientific
made by the
observers of
it
mainly
to
most
the
of
take
enthusiasm
his
our
nations,
But the
the enterprise.
part in
his
earth
only private
that not
civilised
science,
for
nations,
all
and we owe
great reputation and his wide
to
spread influence,
245
of
to
actual
we owe
magnetic
the
observatory
men
of scientific
Gottingen,
of
and
by
aided
the
of
skill
the
Numbers
the new instru
instrumentmaker Leyser.
ments and the new methods of reducing the observations; and in every
of Europe you might see them, at certain stated times, sitting, each in
his
city
his
Bacon's
of
scattered forces
" Experiments
of
concert
in
into
"
was thus
realised,
the
and jealousy became out of place, for the results obtained by any one observer
were of no value till they were combined with those of the others.
The increase in the accuracy and completeness of magnetic observ^ations
which was obtained by the new method, opened up fields of research which
hardly suspected
were
to
exist
which
magnetism
the
are
disturbances
Others
atmosphere,
the
most
which
and
they
mysterious
the
modified,
their
periodic,
sudden,
are
the
of
our
are
called
these
the
magnetic
magnetic
seasons
of
changes
is
earth, as
poles
the distui'bances to
Some
found to be subject.
of the sun
of
these
and moon.
known
their
while
is
have
of
planet
creep
on,
The
frequency.
last
a great magnet,
is
being
and
by
slowly
We
influences
have
of
thus
learned
that
the interior of
the earth
is
subject to
is
the
a constantly
246
progressive
is
entirely
unknown.
by means
of which a suspended
moved by
now tracing,
sheet of paper
the earth
is
magnet
clockwork.
at work,
directs
On
In each
is
in
preted,
its
But
lasting
or
two
is
ended.
experimental
great
this
pulsations
on
research
instances.
Magnetism produced
Terrestrial
effects
forces
But
it
influence
is
felt.
observers
in
general, that
is
is
to
modern branches of
Gauss,
we owe our
science
to
method
men
of
science.
magnetic
force
It
w^as
Gauss who
(and therefore of
of
among
first
principles, w^hich, though they are embodied in every dynamical equation, have
been so generally set aside, that these very equations, though correctly given
in our
to
illegal,
in addition
standard of
mass.
Such, then, were some of the scientific results which followed in this case
skill,
therefore
the
that
maintain
body.
we
to direct
desire, for
Devonshire
it
We
in
and
our
Laboratory should
living union
shall
therefore
for the
be successful,
we must endeavour
first
mode
in
to
the
relation
the
If
difler
in
which we stand to
among
us,
which deal
247
is
more
no
method
powerful
in
it
knowledge
introducing
for
many
as
different
ways
as
we
into
the
When
can.
ideas,
after
of the
citadel
at
two
flat
It
is
kind than that possessed by the mere mathematician or the mere experimenter.
But \vhat will be the effect on the University, if men pursuing that course
of readino
work
experiments?
merely as time withdrawn from their more legitimate studies, but as the introduction of a disturbing element, tainting their mathematical conceptions with
material
imagery,
in
faith
the formulae of
the textbooks'?
studies,
them
to get
up
time
Besides this,
and
which they try to carry with
The
Physical
them
into
Laboratory,
we
are
the
SenateHouse.
by books and
will
If
we now ask
same
overcome the
initial
mathematical training.
difficulties of
that
feel
it
requires exertion
When we now
and involves
fatigue,
go on
but we
Some
routine of
focus
mental
of us,
telescopes,
effort.
on
and
We
so
may
on,
this
perhaps
kind
tire
of
work
ceases
to
require
of
the
times,
any great
we do
248
It
not
is
we attempt
till
Faraday has
among the
"mental
called
concrete
objects
we begin
inertia"
before
experience the
to
not
us,
only
the
the
full
difficulty
abstract
relation
the symbols
however
is
the
objects,
the price
we have
to
what
of
recognising,
we
which
have
to
This
ideas.
the
effect
of
more
fully developed the scientific faculty, the exercise of this faculty in detecting
scientific
principles
irksome, but
often,
that
at
even our
last
thoughts
careless
begin to
run
in
scientific
channel.
I quite admit that our mental energy
many
that
question
zealous
students
quantity.
It
in
good
is
experimental study
is
for
of
case
efforts
from
are
those
which
of
attention
are
study,
others, because
spent
know
But the
them.
Some
they are
the
efforts
of
we know,
distributions of energy,
Now
is
more available
is
in
recalling
would be much
fatiguing
less
if
the
arises,
not
subject,
but
and these
disturbing force of
is
the
reason
why
man whose
is
soul
is
in
his
mind from
their
is
There
may
own
sake.
mathematics
in
order
to
understand
Now
some
chief use
man who
natural
for
of mathematics
studies
a piece of
seen,
make,
to
calculate
is
249
likely to
have known men, who when they were at school, never could see the
good of mathematics,
but
life
made
in
it
much
less likely
University
course should
will relieve us of
much
to
it
help
anxiety,
make
will
give to science,
it
considerable progress
If our experimental
when men
University
may
eflforts
some
to carry out
At
first
illustration
this the
by
its
it
is
probable
study of
scientific
we go on we must add
to
We
of investigation.
me
better
either,
We
principal natural
will
optical
and
electrical
methods of observa
and so on.
The determination of the experiments to be performed at a particular time
must often depend upon the means we have at command, and in the case of
the more elaborate experiments, this may imply a long time of preparation, during
tion,
VOL. n.
32
250
the
fitted
requisites,
both
sometimes
be
their
for
and
material
that
desirable
When we
work.
thus brought
it
the
may
method,
together
a particular experiment,
instruments are
the
before
observers dispersed,
have
for
intellectual,
phe
nomena.
Our
with
selves
all
and
think, be
It vnll,
their value.
of the relative
discussion
full
and more
to
likely
work, however, in the Laboratory must be to acquaint ourkinds of scientific methods, to compare them, and to estimate
principal
value
of different
scientific
if,
by the
free
we
procedures,
we
be asked whether
much importance
to science
alto
young men
see
there
is
be a place of
to
reason
for
to
or
education,
should devote
itself
preparing
to
professions.
I hope,
lives,
it
must be one of our most constant aims to maintain a living connexion between
our work and the other liberal studies of Cambridge, whether literary, philological,
historical or philosophical.
There
science,
is
just
a narrow professional
as
does
it
men
It
or to
is
is
different
any other
special
business.
as
it
their
very smallness.
We
lose
spirit
the ad
we do not
misanthrope,
practise
place
spirit
application,
all
himself to geometry,
human
interests,
and betaken
251
action that
himself to abstractions so far removed from the world of life and
the claims
to
and
pleasure
of
attractions
the
to
alike
he has become insensible
of duty.
men
material spirit
men
not looked
are
or with the
awe
of science
same
They
suspicion.
are
of learning.
We
study
proper
the
We
are not
admit that
here to defend literary and historical studies.
But is the student of science to be
of mankind is man.
as he
off
men who
feeling,
so long
have impressed themthe discovery of truth, and the results of whose enquiries
who never heard
men
of
thinking
of
way
selves on the ordinary speech and
from his conomit
to
man
of
and
history
of
student
names? Or is the
their
sideration
which have
the history of the origin and diffusion of those ideas
between one age of the world and another?
from the science of
true that the history of science is very different
working of those
the
study
We are not studying or attempting to
is
history.
we
which,
forces
blind
are told,
are
operating on
reasonable
shaking principaUties and powers, and compelling
to pass in an
order laid
down by
more
free
of other
of
human
in
of a crowd, to be reasoned
upon only
history
It
of science
has to
is
tell
for
failed
has
only
reputation
which they
of
others
why
explain
fell.
We
in masses.
nature.
ful investigations.
of
to bring events
them as men like ourselves, and their actions and thoughts, being
from the influence of passion, and recorded more accurately than those
But the
the
men
philosophers.
subjects that
in
or
abnormal, of ideas
stage,
But when the action of the mind passes out of the intellectual
violently emotional
truth and error are the alternatives, into the more
is
interest.
in
which
states of
322
252
anger and passion, malice and envy, fiiry and madness; the student of science,
though he is obliged to recognise the powerful influence which these wild forces
have exercised on mankind, is perhaps in some measure disqualified from pursuing
the study of this part of
We
human
nature.
such studies.
one mind
comes into
full
closest
contact
with
another
at
science, rather
We
shall begin
Calorimetry,
to
or the
Thermodynamics, which investigates the relations between the thermal proand their other dynamical properties, in so far as these relations
perties of bodies
may
bodies.
The
of
principles
of nature,
and
is
it
probable that
many
light
on
all
the phenomena
have
yet
science,
are obliged to form some more definite theory of the constitution of bodies.
Two
theories
The theory
of
matical continuity,
the
and
is
plenum
its
one
is
the
theory of a
associated
with
the
doctrine
of
of
mathe
the Difierential
Calculus,
the
is
appropriate
expression
the
of
253
of
relations
continuous
quantity.
The theory of atoms and void leads us to attach more importance to the
numbers and definite proportions but, in applying dynamical
principles to the motion of immense numbers of atoms, the limitation of our
doctrines of integral
faculties forces us
to
which
may
knowledge
is
call
abandonment of
involves an
mathematical
visible.
strict
methods belonging
to
the theory of
probability.
It
is
probable
that important results will be obtained by the application of this method, which
of
as
yet
little
Science
sophism.
About the beginning of this century, the properties of bodies were investiby several distinguished French mathematicians on the hypothesis that
they are systems of molecules in equilibrium. The somewhat unsatisfactory nature
gated
of
the
results
reaction
in
of
these
favour of
investigations
produced,
especially
in
this
does not at
all
if
country,
they were,
This method,
which
depend on what theory we adopt as to the ultimate constitution
results, the value of
of bodies.
result
of the
is
that
it
furnishes us with
test
dissipation
of energy, have
254
hope to be able to lay before you in the course of the term some of
evidence
the
having
the
for
definite
is
made us
the
properties,
of
are
may form
as
it
is
as
individual bodies
acquainted.
place
first
its
mass,
and
invariable;
absolutely
the
other
constants
which define
its
considered
molecules,
The molecule,
imagination,
has hitherto
In
existence
properties.
all
a constituent.
it
is
its
are
innumerable other molecules, whose constants are not approximately, but absoidentical
lutely
with those
the
of
first
molecule,
By what
to
account
and
this
stars.
for
this
will
attempt
each
of
others
to believe
that
these
molecules
conclude
varied action on
that since
different individual
molecules,
the slightest difference between the properties of one molecule and those
ages,
of another, the
history of
whose combinations
it
true
then
that
we
our
we cannot
scientific
speculations
have
really
penetrated
to gene
and corruption, and reached the entrance of that world of order and perfection, which continues this day as it was created, perfect in number and
ration
We
may
"?
be mistaken.
No
new theory
of the
constitution
of
all
unchangeable,
fruit.
is
by some
existence of
255
But what if these molecules, indestructible as they are, turn out to be not
substances themselves, but mere affections of some other substance ?
According to Sir W. Thomson's theory of Vortex Atoms, the substance of
which the molecule consists
of a
are those
motion
perfect
is
fluid,
and
fluid,
matter to
motion
this
as
we
is
believe
shewn, by a
a
portion
of
be.
If a theory
of this kind
is
true, or
even
if
it
is
conceivable,
our idea of
matter may have been introduced into our minds through our experience of those
systems of vortices which we call bodies, but which are not substances, but
motions of a substance; and yet the idea which we have thus axxjuired of
matter,
as
a substance possessing
inertia,
may
motion
vortical
of
some
of
its
parts,
our
experience
gives
us
no
evidence
whatever.
It
it.
The
is
mind
as
it
was
in the
days of Thales.
XLV.
On
the
Cambridge Philosophical
Problems hy
Society^ Vol.
ii.]
the Transformation
of Conjugate Functions'^.
region.
The
solution
when the
of this problem,
conditions are
arbitrarily
beyond the power of any known method, but it is easy to find any
number of functions which satisfy Laplace's equation, and from any one of these
we may find the form of a system of conductors for which the function is a
given,
is
for transforming
involving only
may
The
of x and y
may be
conjugate
is
may
dx
If a denotes the
As examples
of
dy
'
dx~
dy
"potential function,"
/8
electric
screen,
is
'
the
" function
of induction."
were
illustrated
by drawings
of
will
Magnetism.]
be found in
the
full
chapter on Conjugate
Functions
in
his
treatise
on Electricity and
XLVL
The
On
London Mathematical
the
the
first
the
the
is
discovery
After
and the
science,
the
of
investigation
them
One
very
is
latent heat,
by a
quantities
theoretical
can be most
in
we have
classifi
desirable.
obvious
&c.,
science
number of
large a
so
are
of quantities
classification
sciences in
certain
be treated as a matheefiected
quantities.
cation of
is
accurately measured,
is
may
laws
which
under
conditions
the
of
to depend.
the science
this,
verification
of
Thus temperature,
quantities
is
founded
on
that
of the
bodies.
But the
or
classification
which
now
refer to
is
formal analogy of the diiferent quantities, and not on the matter to which
they belong.
are
quantities,
matical form.
the
first
A
both
The
Thus a
finite
differing
We
may
in
straight
their
line,
distinguish
velocity
of rotation,
&c.,
classification
of quantities
is
of great use
most
quantities
VOL.
but
to
a force, a
physical nature,
obvious
in
II.
case
new
is
science
that
in
stand to
33
MATHEMATICAL CLASSIFICATION
258
as a certain
relations
Thus,
static
its
to
electro
certain
to
relating
and problems
attractions
we
make
are able to
electrical distributions,
use of
many
and of
of heat,
all
problems in heat.
But
it
evident that
is
we should be
of quantities,
all
and
that,
able
if
we had a
at once to
any
defined
by means
the second
who had
may
of
two
the
first
of which
respect,
is
may be
that they
is
four rules
arithmetic
may
complete equipment
be regarded as the
of the
mathematician.
Position
of
possession
arithmetic by
made the
and
foim,
scaffolding
of coordinate axes
which he
all
quantities
have been
symbols
which
denote
as
a mental process,
is
supposed
(at
least
science.
to
be
OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES.
is
much
are very
problems,
physical
259
At
the same time, I think that the progress of science, both in the
discovery,
and
were paid
in a direct
in the
way
way
of diflfusion,
if
way
of
more attention
calculus of Quaternions
tance,
We
may
invention
As our
for
all
for
impor
its
its
parts of science.
imagine
conceptions
of
is
coordinates
triple
distinguished from
as
calculus,
space
of physical science
are
Hamiltonian
mathematics,
higher development
still
so
to dynamics as Hamilton's
in
if
is
to geometry.
four
rules
of arithmetic.
classification
We
know
is,
that
it
that
the rules
we may multiply
cases
divide
or
is
In certain
of no intellectual value.
Energy
or
Work
many
different ways.
The dimensions of
this
MU
If
where L, M, and
we
represent
scalars.
If,
on the other
The energy
itself is
332
260
MATHEMATICAL CLASSIFICATION
Thus,
if
is
meaning.
Another
division
into
apparently
scalar
we must
here
factors
consider
is
the volume,
not in itself,
but as a quantity subject to increase and diminution, and this change of volume
can only occur at the surface, and is due to a variation of the surface in the
direction of the normal, so that
also,
into
direction
of the force.
its
it
is
many
of
scalar part
other
of vectors,
pairs
the products
may be
regarded
of which have
for
as
their
Thus, instead of dividing kinetic energy into the factors " mass " and " square
of velocity," the latter of which has no meaning, we may divide it into "mo
mentum" and
in the
tions,
same
"velocity,"
in taking
so that
But
is
it
factors is
its
intensity
their
when we have
most
When we
in
in the
generalized dynamics,
product
dynamics of a
may
particle, are
be in different direc
rule
for
finding
it.
distributed in space,
two
but,
direction,
to
deal with
continuous
bodies,
and quantities
clearly seen.
in
unit of volume.
This
we may measure
is,
of course, a
scalar quantity.
Of the
factors
which compose
among
it,
one
is
and the
vector quantities.
261
OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES.
Vectors which are referred to unit of length I shall
word
the
integral
the
of
The
extremities.
result
of
force
surface
call
The opera
Fluxes.
In
for
the
certain
cases
within
certain
its
is
of
of taking
independent of the
is
in
call
The operation
shall see.
line,
the integration
of
part
resolved
we
in
the
of
restrictions,
position
the
of
is
independent,
The
surface.
result
then
expresses the Quantity of some kind of matter, either existing within the surface,
or flowing out of
In
many
it,
physical
the
cases,
and proportional
direction,
force
each
to
other.
measure of the other, their symbols degenerate into one, and their ideas become
confounded
together.
One
of the
results of the
may be
in
we can
that which
two
We
may
in
fluids,
directly perceive,
different ways.
with
reference
define
unit
to
define
passes
it
of area,
as
unit of time.
in
letting
we may
by
flux,
different.
the volume
If defined in
the
if
or
we may
of
to
first
way,
it
the category
of fluxes.
But
shall
if
take
we endeavour
into
to
account the
molecules of a
agitation
fluid,
in
same place; or
virtue
then though we
of diff'usion,
may
of the
and measuring
we
fluids,
which
has a different
we cannot do
fluid
way we have
if
where one
fluid
by considering
as a flux,
area.
MATHEMATICAL CLASSIFICATION
262
The
is
still
us to conceive
having a known
substance
density.
We
must
consider
therefore
sponding to them
are, in
The
forces
corre
I have said
and the
flux
forces
and
fluxes.
is
is
magnetism
In
potential,
and
the
resultant
the flux
force
also
is
what Faraday
is
the
rate
of
of the
variation
calls
is
measured, as Thomson has shewn, by the force on a unit pole placed in a narrow
crevasse cut perpendicular to the direction of magnetization of the magnet.
the
not
must
detain
shall
Society
a force to a flux in
its
most general
form.
When
the
one vector
second
is,
in
is
which
quaternion
general,
is
function
first
to
of the
second
is
always
vector.
When,
case
if
proportional
to
it,
linear
in direction,
The
nents of the
first vector,
and
a,
6,
first
If a,
y8,
vector
first
then said to be a
then
coefficients p, q,
corresponding
represented
q's,
the
geometrically
When
r are constants.
function
as
is
the
said to
relation
be
selfconjugate.
It
may
then be
OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES.
We may
purer
air,
while
line,
263
the
other
is
essentially
is
defined as
all
the other
ciple,
these
of vectors
classes
rotation.
is
between
well
is
treatise
them
two
is
it
is
and magnetism.
electricity
how
an
analogy
between electromagnetic
meignetic force
is
He
the analogy
is
According
which
in
a species of translation,
an explanation of electromagnetism
as
fluid,
is
propose this
does not
to construct
illustration of
possible to contem
Ampere and
followers,
his
all
two systems
for
fluid.
though
are different.
am
constrained
agree
to
magnetism
which, as
associated with
is
with
because
view,
this
the
electric
current
translation,
is
whUe
to
it
it is
I shall conclude
phrases
to
feel
the
express
obliged to
greatly
applied.
by proposing
results
for
of
Hamiltonian operator A.
the
me
suggestions on
is
this
it
should be
subject,
as
can be success
V
where
^.
,,
IS
the operation
i,
j,
The
are
"^
unit
subject of linear
vectors
d
1~
'^^
parallel
d
'J"^
d
Tfy'
to x, y, z respectively.
The
result
of
MATHEMATICAL CLASSIFICATION
264
is
the well
known
operation
(of
Laplace)
The discovery
of
due to Hamilton
is
but most
development of the
theory of this operation, are due to Prof. Tait, and are given in several papers,
which
of
April
the
first
in
is
28,
is
that on
it
applied.
is
For
if
of the sphere,
we
shall
the value of
Qa
\b
or
the value of
obtain Q,
at the centre
of the
when r
If
is small,
mean value
of
within the sphere by a quantity depending on the radius, and on V^*^. Since,
therefore, V=Q indicates the excess of the value of Q at the centre above its
mean value
If
if
is
an
a scalar quantity,
is
electric potential,
its
V'^
it
the concentration of Q.
concentration
is
is,
Thus,
the potential.
also
much
the
"
diffidence^,
first
to call
differential
this
the slope of P.
parameter
"
Lamd
calls
the magnitude of
VP
OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES.
265
where
graphy,
two
only
independent
variables
are
used,
to
space
three
of
dimensions.
If
represents
surface
propose to
vector
may
function,
Vtr
may
call
both a
contain
because,
cr,
o
considered as an
But
vcr
has,
great diffidence,
in
to
general,
this
call
also
a closed
if
which expresses
cr,
of SVo
integral
its
and a
scalar
FVo.
is
is
think,
vector portion,
and
with
propose, but
function.
represents
It
the
direction
cr.
is
all.
N
CONVERGENCE.
If
cTo
we
at the
convergence,
gentially
in
CITRLb
point P,
point
of the
towards
P.
When
is
there
cr
is
vector function
a^
pure
will,
when
curl,
it
cr
will
curl,
its
it
value
is
pure
point
tan
there
will point
a spiral manner.
are true
The
The
VOL.
11.
34
266
The
concentration
of
The quaternion
vector
function
is
is
its
concentration.
the slope of
its
convergence,
its curl.
were given by Prof. Tait, in his paper in the Proceedings of the Royal Society
of Edinburgh, April 28th, 1862; but for the more complete mathematical treat
v,
see
Tait,
"On
Green's
for
187071,
p.
318.
(Transactions of the
the
On
XLVII.
that
All
we
is
among
or shade
It
vision
distinguish the
was
forms of
are
of
Colour Vision.
is
include differences
objects.
in
first
distinct
which I propose to
colours
We
illustrate.
these
sensations
different
in
proportions,
colour
produced.
are
That word
our attention.
is,
Sensation.
is
It
state
it
all
there
are
is
sensation
three
the
We
is
by the
different
we must
of
thus
it
and
fix
may
excites
brightness
of
differences of colour.
it
vi.]
Even
this
far
fact that
fact,
of those
ele
as
not in
who have
written on colour since the time of Young, some have supposed that they ought
to study the properties of pigments, and others that they ought to analyse
for
something
out of themselves.
Now, if the sensation which we call colour has any laws, it must be
something in our own nature which determines the form of these laws and I
need not tell you that the only evidence we can obtain respecting ourselves
;
is
The
science
of
colour
as
essentially
a mental
342
COLOUR
268
It
science.
differs
But
of
it
we always
shall
science.
coveries
it
which
illustrations
In this place
physical
it
and anatomy.
numerous
VISION.
Newton
to
is
it
is
mental science in
called
sciences,
and
in
particular
of
feel
therefore
begin by shewing
the
When
purest.
light
appears
coloured,
it
known
all
was supposed
to
have
become contaminated by coming into contact with gross bodies. We may still
think white light the emblem of purity, though Newton has taught us that
its
We
now form
We
a great
many hues
in
avail
that
ourselves
of
the
we become aware
it
labours
of
the
is
when
of
those
immense
multitude of different kinds of light, every one of which has been the object
Every increase of the power of our instruments increases in
of special study.
the same proportion the number of lines visible in the spectrum.
All light, as Newton proved, is composed of these rays taken in different
Objects which
proportions.
make a
selection
of
we
these rays,
call
falls
red rays, it appears all red, but the red quadrants brightest.
the green rays both papers appear green, but the red paper is
This, then, is the optical explanation of the colours of bodies
If I place
it
in
with white
light.
contains bichromate
copper.
If I
COLOUR
be able to explain
shall
The yellow
this.
269
VISION.
solution
the blue
cuts off
end
of
the spectrum, leaving only the red, orange, yellow, and green.
cuts
off
green,
you
will
see
which
light
falls
the green.
is
as
The
particles
if
many
is
persons have
not only gone on believing, on the evidence of the mixture of pigments, that
blue and yellow
make
green,
in
even
persuaded
themselves
and of yellowness
blueness
of
sensations
We
substances.
We
must now
prismatic spectrum.
return,
enough to receive
large
wellknown principles
it
it
the
of
analysis
light
by coloured
all
in
all
together again.
We
on a screen we
allow
the coloured
But
see
image
is
white.
pure
spectrun),
through
pass
to
it
lens
rays.
This image
and you
the result
have here a
optics, to
is
of
still
to
they have
but that
if
;
formed by rays of
is
all
colours,
and
if
only
let
through
rays
of
here an arrangement of
portions
of the
light
all
slits
and
This gives
me
a perfect conunand
shade of colour by adjusting the breadth and the position of the sUts through
passes.
can
also,
by interposing a
The
colours
are
at
slits,
lens
in
the
by which you
passage
will
of
see the
green, and
blue^
COLOUR VISION.
270
as
you
three colours
is,
two of these
colours.
nearly
see,
Red and
white.
of
effect
Tiniying
He
is
No
known.
The
painter, wishing to
result
would be a
light
is
You
see
it
is
the
to
slits
transmit
point of
as
it
is
The
of a
result
warm
you
as
see,
is
hue, but
we
if
spectrum.
homogeneous in a physical
it into two portions
spectrum.
yeUow
The prism,
view.
yellow of the
the
this yellow
we may make
choose a greenish
pink
it
if
our
a good white.
the others
differ
these colours, and to concentrate your attention upon the colours you saw, that
are here
is to say on certain sensations of which you were conscious.
We
surrounded by
physical inquiries.
They
have names
them.
of a kind which
difficulties
We
can
all feel
in
purely
We
incommunicable.
sensations,
but not
for
When we
look
at
broad
field
of
uniform
colour,
whether
it
is
really
that the sensation of colour appears to our concannot directly recognise the elementary
sciousness as one and indivisible.
sensations of which it is composed, as we can distinguish the component notes
simple or compound,
we
find
We
COLOUR VISION.
of a musical
chord.
To bring a
must be regarded
therefore,
colour,
271
a single
aa
quality within
we must
conceive
as
step
our
in
scientific
thing,
capable of variation.
is
progress
number
of
these
of
determine
to
is
sufficient
the
the
it
first
variables
We
colour.
do not require any elaborate experiments to prove that the quality of colour
can vary in three and only in three independent ways.
One way
may
The
colours
in
tint,
difference in
The
the spectrum.
Tint
may
yellow, buff,
by the
illustrated
series
of hues
in the
we must blend
difference
The
tint.
colour
spectrum
is
tints,
the spectrum
between adjoining
is
not complete
but varying in
that
painters,
series
hue may be
for,
is
and shade.
example of a
finest
itself.
expressing this
of
vary in hue,
series of colours
Thus,
bright
series,
beginning with the most pronounced colour, and ending with a perfectly neutral
tint.
Shade may be
we begin with any
black,
to
may
and
this
The quality
We
80
defined
as
the greater
may vary
to
less
defect
of
illumination.
If
is
of a colour
agree in hue,
indistinguishable.
or
in
tint,
in three different
In
and
fact,
in
if
shade,
we
absolutely
which may be
called
anything
we may
experiment,
scientific
in
determine the number of quantities upon which the variation of colour depends
floor,
at
my
the
left
distance
hand.
from the wall behind me, and the distance from the wall
COLOUR
272
This
is
If
we
we
only one of
is
many ways
it
VISION.
of
Now,
stating the
of
a point, but
three things.
position
and
call
are able in
intensities,
we may
Hence the
if
consider
specification of
some
of intensity.
Then we may
say,
exceedingly clear
manner
You
in
will find
Mr
Benson's
stated
of the
very few books on colour in which the statements are founded on legitimate
experiments.
still more convenient method of representing the
relations of
is a
by means of Young's triangle of colours. It is impossible to represent
on a plane piece of paper every conceivable colour, to do this requires space of
If, however, we consider only colours of the same shade
three dimensions.
There
colours
that
is,
colours
in
intensities of the
by points on a
For
plane.
this
purpose
all
three sensations
is
may be
such colours
we must draw a
plane
cutting off equal lengths from the three lines representing the primary sensations.
The part
colours will be
an equilateral
triangle.
we have been
distributing our
three angles, white or gray will be in the middle, the tint or degree of purity
hue
will
its
line
which joins
it
and
its
with the
middle point.
Thus the ideas of tint and hue can be expressed geometrically on Young's
To understand what is meant by shade we have only to suppose the
illumination of the whole triangle increased or diminished, so that by means of
triangle.
COLOUR
VISION.
273
this
them
may
variety
of colour.
in
If
in
colour
have said nothing about the nature of the three primary sensations, or
colours they most resemble.
In order to lay down on paper
what
the
particular
relations
primary
between actual
colours
colours,
may
it
not
is
necessary
any three
take
to
know what
provisionally,
colours,
the
as the
of a triangle,
angles
We
are.
Of
which we
colours
all
have
see,
prismatic
spectrum
either
of
the
by the
those excited
greatest
rays
different
importance.
scientific
All light
of the
consists
therefore
we can form
between
the
of
bodies will
colours
different portions,
its
all
natural
be found
also
trum must be
in
entirely
the spectrum
is
must be
spectrum
us to
every sensation
essentially
is
thing,
positive
help
Since
identical
in
if
any colour
the form of
line
have
colours
the
intensity
colour side
till
it
any
of
by
side
when the
instrument
it
make a mixture
of
any three of
of
the
three
components.
requires
If
we
place
by altering
compound
this
which
and
can
exactness
an
how we
the
may
call
so
It can
colours.
daylight,
is
nearly white.
colourbox,
for
purpose
of
making
it
with
me
tonight.
It
is
II.
35
COLOUR
274
in
separate
left
two
of
sisting
slits,
into
looks
into its
it
means of
Optica,
Lectiones
his
VISION.
of light
consists
The
semicircles
semicircle on the
breadth of
and the operator, by means of screws outside the box, alters the
the right
till
on,
so
and
red
less
mixture
one of the slits, so as to make the
hne of
the
and
left,
the
as
appearance
same
the
of
semicircle is made exactly
;
the operator and the observer have worked together for some time,
and the colours are adjusted much more
When
When
first.
the match
pronounced
is
are registered,
by a scale,
means of a gauge.
asserts
It
equation."
name is
Each
Standard White.
observer (whose
scale,
slit,
which
which
a measure of
is
of
is
In order to
purposes
colour
make
comparison,
is,
in
given),
specified
in the
by the
which we
position of the
shall call
slit
on the
its intensity.
survey
and
we
of the
call
spectrum
we
select
three
points
Standard Colours.
for
The
standard colours are selected on the same principles as those which guide the
They must be conspicuous and
enoineer in selecting stations for a survey.
invariable
and not
In the chart
in the
of
same straight
line.
may
see
the relations of
the various
of the
two
of the spectrum
may
be described as con
COLOUR
auout a
275
VISION.
fifth
This green
lias
a wave length
either
we can
which
ever
we
the spectrum,
or at
it
This green
is
to
it
see.
find
line.
least
is
any two colours on opposite sides of it, and in the same straight line. The
extreme red is considerably beyond the standard red, but it is in the same
straight line, and therefore we might, if we had no other evidence, assume the
extreme
red
primary red
It
the
as
primary
true
lies
On
the
blue
The
accurate.
We
red.
shall see,
is
of
side
colours,
primary
however,
lie
red,
but
green
the
in a
line
same straight
in the
equations
colour
which
is
line.
are
seldom so
nearly straight.
have
not been able to detect any measurable chromatic difference between the extreme
indigo and the violet.
The colours
by a number of points very close
primary blue
is
a sensation differing
of this
We
each other.
to
little
may
spectrum near G,
Now, the
first
by no means a
is
that
separate
received
names.
is
The
colours between
fair
one.
other hand, have an obvious resemblance to one or both of the extreme colours,
and no
distinct
experience.
to
names
make
It
it
is
impossible
by a mere act
Consciousness
scientific
of introspection
is
worthy
results.
structure of bodies
mode
which
in
like rods
and cones
or pegs,
and
it
is
differs
according to the
particular
conceivable that
the
by a consciousness
rods on the ends of which the light
is
352
276
COLOUR
mode
VISION.
in which the perforated cards act on the system of moveable rods in that
machine.
structure,
Metaphysics
lies like
in physiology
may
It
is
"Up
but this would make us no wiser than we are about those coloursensations
which we can only know by feeling them ourselves. Still, though it is impossible
to become acquainted with a sensation by the anatomical study of the organ
with which
it
is
connected,
of the
sensation as a means of
is
the deduction of
Young
asserts
Young with
Helmholtz's
for
its
theory of
function,
when acted on by
light or
in
the
retina,
each
No
way
in
when
it
may
it
is
If
this
inference
that
these three modes of variation arise from the independent action of three differ
field
of view, which
many
of us
may have
casually observed.
COLOUB VISION.
M. Exner states that the character of
the colour of the light employed.
is
seen
when the
light
green, the
is
dots,
is
blue,
structure
this
When
red light
according to
different
is
is
field
spots
277
are
a larger
of
seen,
size
than
the
Whether
they have
their
physical
that
if
themselves
present
nerves of
sure
appearances
these
for
Helmholtz's
to
theory I
and whether
eyes,
all
arrangement
the
in
cannot
these
the
of
but
say,
am
more
is
Colour Blindnesn.
The most valuable evidence which we possess with respect to colour vision
by the colourblind.
A considerable number of persons in
every large community are unable to distinguish between certain pairs of colours
is
furnished to us
Dr
this
peculiarity
a letter written
in
to
of vision
was
first
his
Dr Henry.
The
The best
description
In
cases
all
of
own
colourblind
vision
is
been
we
sufi&cient
chart of
call
care,
The point
red.
absent
If
chart,
lie
it
it
three.
the absent
on
the
the
box furnished
Pole.
would be
absolutely black,
invisible,
to
Professor
which we
of
sensation to
by Professor
Colourblind
instead
1859.
examined with
sensation
not
defect consists
that
which have
case.
vision
the founder
own
till
Dalton,
an account of
call
red,
though
it
Pole.
we cannot
As
it
does
exhibit
it
appears to them
the intensities of the three sensations excited by different parts of the spectrum,
COLOUR
278
the upper
marked P,
figure,
VISION.
is
is
The only
same
absent.
sensations which
the
is
of
result
one
that in
the
upper
are
nearly the
We
both observers.
for
colour
This
is
difference
is
my
calculations;
whom
The colourblind
confounding them with red.
sensations.
know
in
with every
agrees
one
is
of his
are always
The
cer
tainly blue and yellow, and they persist in saying that yellow, and not green,
is
see.
we
we
we
call
yellow,
see
shall
is
example
of
their
is
call
yellow.
The
figure
of
the
what a
colourblind person
attention to
for if
it,
On
Experiments on
vision
for
colour
of different persons,
instance,
pinkish,
which one
the
indicate
all
of
person
Yelloiv Spot.
very considerable
whom
are
between
differences
on comparing
it
white
with
will
the
colour,
pronounce
not arise from any diversity in the nature of the colour sensations in different
persons.
It
is
In
fact,
observed
if
one of the
the retina a yellow spot through which the rays must pass before they reach
the sensitive organ
this
it
COLOUR
the line F,
My own
strongly developed.
of very
yellow spot.
chloride
of
us
am
looking at a
in
indebted to Professor
whether
through
has
he
a
are
Stokes
for
this
solution
of
solution
this
account.
a method by
consists
It
Some
colour.
on this
value
little
the knowledge of
27!)
VISION.
thrown
is
is
This light
[exhibited].
it
is
the yellow
is
nerve,
optic
when
and we
falls
it
on
see a red
field.
Very few persons are unable to detect the yellow spot in this way. The
observer K, whose colour equations have been used in preparing the chart of
the spectrum,
As
yellow spectacles.
parts
in
if
through
the chart of
is
of the
as
see everything as
on the yellow side of true white even when I use the outer
retina; but as soon as I look direct at it, it becomes much
the spectrum
yellower,
who do not
is
is
WC.
we do not
yellow.
But
if
we wear
spectacles
we
One
is
it
is
only
when some
alteration takes
can
nearly
to
red.
If
produced
is
artificially
described by
in
by taking doses
Dr Edmund
Rose,
which blue
is
of Santonine.
of Berlin.
It
than headaches.
not appear to be followed by any more serious
this medicine,
of
course
a
undergone
I must ask your pardon for not having
hand about
firat
at
information
give
you
able
to
becoming
even for the sake of
consequences
colour blindness.
XLVIII. On
the
the Geometrical
Mean
Vol. xxvi.]
There
we
sum
given
The
point.
calculation
in
is
to
that in which
find
adding the reciprocals of the distances of the particles from the given point.
There is this difference, however, that whereas the reciprocal of a line is com
pletely defined
meaning
till
of logarithms.
In both
cases,
may
ment of the result by dividing, by the number of wires in the first case, and
by the number of particles in the second. The result in the first case is the
logarithm of a distance, and in the second
and
in
centrated
at
potential as
In the
this
it
distance
is
it
such that,
is
if
it
actually does.
first case,
of
of
In the second
arithmetical
mean
case,
since
is
the
we may
THE GEOMETRICAL MEAN DISTANCE OF TWO FIGURES ON A PLANE.
mean
the harmonic
call
distance
of the
281
given point.
The
of
of a
result
process
we cannot
which
mean
distances
may
length
the
gyration,
of these
use
practical
of
in
Dynamics
as the radius
of
integration
recorded,
is
and presented
to
misunderstand,
coefficients,
particles.
we may
so
form
those
in
If
The
on.
us in
ele
we have anv
the mean distance by taking the point at a great distance from the system,
for
which case the mean distance must approximate to the distance of the centre
in
of gravity.
Thus
of which
it is
is
shall
which lead to
I
distance
of
is
any
figure
shell.
mean
distance,
because
the
calculations
it
mean
it.
shall,
shew
to
known
mean
the harmonic
encloses it
well
is
its
to
me
to
be rendered both easier to follow and more secure against error by a free use
of this imaginary line.
If the coordinates of a point in the first of
points,
^ and
in the second
then R,
the
geometrical
rj,
and
mean
if
two plane
figures be
x and
distance
the
of
two
figures,
Let
(1)
in
The
not
the
AB
he
2i
and
line,
OP
is
the geometric
if
line
mean
a point
be the perpendicular
from
if
necessary, then
distance of
from the
AB,
AB
VOL.
II.
(\ogR+l) = PB
log
y,
36
is
282
is
(2)
itself,
from
AB
AB{\ogR + l) = PB\ogPBPA\ogPA.
When P
logarithm of
If
(3)
between
lies
PA
we
PA
the geometric
is
AB.CD(2\ogR +
If
(4)
of
AB
must be taken
distance between
mean
two
finite
lines
AB
with
CD, we
find
the geometric
for
mean
R = ABeK
If
(5)
rectangle
POR
72
from the
QOS
and
mean
geometric
the
is
ABCD
are
point
parallel
distance of the
in
to
the
its
plane,
and
of
the
sides
rectangle through 0,
ABCD
(6)
of
all
If
is
geometric
the
of
the
mean
rectangle
of
the
ABCD
distances
from
the
points
logi2
= log^(7ig^log^i^^logg^
each
other,
When
AB
and
line,
= ADnogAD + BCnogBCACnogACBDno^BD.
coincides
the points oi
all
2>)
PA
and B,
regard
the rectangle
is
logi2 = loga
= a,
+ ilog2 + ^f
= log a 08050866,
i2
= 044705o.
distance
283
The
(7)
point in
the
circle,
mean
geometric
and a
if
encloses
it
 a/)
(log
mean
concentric
any
of
distance
circles,
the
radius
from a
if
figure
it,
is
of
figure
the
from a
circle
which 'com
circle.
R, where
from a
and
a,
circle
an annular space
The geometric
between two
figure
mean
the geometric
is
of
line
is
circle.
(8)
pletely
a,
of a circular
distance
its
circle,
is
circle.
The geometric mean distance of all the points of the annular space
between two concentric circles from ^ach other is R, where
(9)
(,'
When
 clJ
(log
a,,
vanishes,
circle,
we
find
R = aei.
When
outer
a^,
circle,
circle,
R=
a,.
coil
the
coil
exhibits the sections of the wires arranged in square order, the distance
coil
be
of dimensions
Let
it
of this coil on
1st.
the
If
whole
insulating
itself,
we
coefficient
matter,
of
the
then
if
coil,
is
of induction
section
Avire d.
n.
fill
up
3C
284
tion
circuit of the
of a linear
coil
on a similar
parallel cir
The
2nd.
It is confined
current, however,
to
length of a conductor
is
Now
the wires.
is
C2logjR,
where
is
the
Now
is
mean geometric
for
itself.
a square of side D,
for a circle of
diameter d
log Ri = log
Hence
and the
log;^'
coefficient
d log ^ i
= log^ + f log2l^,
of
of selfinduction
square wire by
2 {log
^f 01380606}
3rd.
We
must
and
the
also
neighbouring
cylindric
is
square
wires next
wires.
it
The
cylindric
mean
distance
of gravity as
of
two
0*99401
is
to unity.
comer
is
is
Hence the
2
X (001971).
TOO 11
is
to
to unity.
to
The
is
285
less
than onethousandth
The
therefore
is
7r3f+2/log^ + 011835},
wliere n
is
the
number
For a circular
coil
of windings,
of radius
and
= a,
is
the geometrical
mean
2),
XLIX.
On
the Induction
the
Royal
Society,
Uniform Conductivity.
the
if
This
of
any
electrois
by Faraday.
nite extent.
system of magnets or electromagnets is supposed to exist on
the positive side of this sheet, and to vary in any way by changing its
position
We
or its intensity.
the
and
sheet,
their
mutual
their
somewhat
2.
inductive
action;
so
The
result
of
the
investigation,
by the
aid
however,
of the
part
of this principle
positive side of a
certain
closed
is,
or
that
we
at
first
sight,
infinite
surface
if it
presented in a re
of images
by
conceive the
may be
principle
appears,
difficult.
Sir
existed,
which was
first
Thomson.
The
(which
to
W.
is really caused by
an imaginary system on
and if the action of the
287
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
were
surface
abolished,
would give
the
of things in
actual state
the
to
rise
The
of things on
state
expressed by a
is
different in
is
of things on the negative side, but which is identical with that which
would be due to the existence, on the negative side, of a certain system which
state
is
The image,
what we should
therefore, is
mathematical function as
the
far
as
arrive at
go; just
will
it
by producing,
as,
in
as
it
the
optics,
were,
\'irtual
image is found by producing the rays, in straight lines, backwards from the place
where their direction has been altered by reflexion or refraction.
it
in hydrokinetics
is
If
when the
surface
conducting circuit
is
is
it
is
a conductor,
it
reckoned
of the
when the
surface
is
a rigid plane,
The image of a
is
positive
when the
electric
current flows
The image
is
it
electricity,
in
the
is
reversed.
In the case of the plane conducting sheet, the imaginary system on the
not the simple image, positive or negative, of the
of a mo\nng
real magnet or electromagnet on the positive side, but consists
define.
to
proceed
now
we
which
of
train of images, the nature
negative side of the sheet
length
a,
is
be
the specific
and
if
is
is
is
whose
2na, be E.
on the electromagnetic
measured
p denotes
cube
electric
to
is
velocity,
[If
the
Let
4.
is
independent
resistance
of
the
of
system, and
material
then
is
therefore
magnitude of the
the
of
line
a
a.
R = ^/,
and
the specific resistance of the sheet for a unit (or any other) square,
if cr
denotes
^ = ^]
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
288
5.
we take
The smaller
Bt.
definition
which we
of images
train
shall
now
describe.
6.
magnet
At
a given time
image of the
let a positive
t,
electromagnet be formed
or
on
negative
the
:
i
As soon as it is formed,
move away from the sheet
normal,
with
remaining
the
After
at the time
an
interval
the
direction
that
as
the
of
and intensity
form
its
same
the
constantly
magnet had
R,
velocity
image begin to
this
let
in
which
the
t.
that
Bt,
is
to
at
say,
time
the
+ Bt,
let
a negative
image, equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to this positive image, be formed
in the original position of the positive image,
and
let it
The
between the
arrival of these
Leaving
this
pair
instant
let
position,
and
velocity
E,
new
let this
will
Let these
be RBt.
or
electromagnet,
it
is
at the time
image be
after
an
operations
as
and be followed
negative image.
interval of time
of
positive
image
Bt,
interval
of
time
Bt
let
+ Bt.
in
its
us
At
new
by a corresponding
will
be a train or
trail
of
images,
and
intensity,
and moves
as
whole away
from
the
conducting
sheet
with
If
we now suppose
Bt
to
be diminished without
limit, and the train to be extended without limit in the negative direction, so
as to include all the images which have been formed in all past time, the
magnetic effect of this imaginary train at any point on the positive side of the
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
sheet
conducting
with
be identical
will
that
28l>
the
of
which
currents
electric
which
assumes in certain
it
10.
originally
intensity,
instant
this
positive
real
suddenly becomes
zero,
image
let
cases.
is
formed,
After an interval
/,
which
begins
to
travel
ht
its
At
the
along
is
formed;
but at the same instant a second negative image is formed at the same place,
which exactly neutralizes its effect. Hence the result is, that a single positive
image travels by itself along the normal with velocity R. The magnetic effect of
this
is
of induction actually existing in the sheet, and the diminution of this effect, as
the
sheet,
accurately
represents
the
of the
effect
sheet.
the image
is
so
no
with
R.
velocity
The currents
in
therefore
be
of
same
the
in
11.
intensity,
its
it
intensity
also
It
appears
from
this
that,
is
increasing in
will
is
appears that
if
is
produced
and when
in the
sheet
and then left to itself, the effect of the decay of the currents, as observed at
a point on the positive side of the sheet, will be the same as if the sheet, with
its currents remaining constant, had been carried away in the negative direction
w^ith velocity
12.
R.
If a
is
z is
VOL.
infinite
distance
with a force
4?
where
brought from an
velocity v
R^'
II.
37
it
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
290
This formula will not apply to the case of the pole moving away from the
because in that case we must take account of the currents which are
sheet,
excited
when the
13.
when near
does
If the
it
will be acted
it
v,
the sheet.
parallel
to
the
sheet,
and equal to
7)v
jR + ^ + Rv
'
{^E'+'if+Ey
42^
it is
it
from the
sheet, equal to
42=
E+
v'
+ EjE + v''
helix,
15.
shewn,
is
circle.
my
in
treatise
0)i
Electricity
and Magnetism
(Vol.
n.
of Arago's rotating disk, provided the induced currents are not sensibly affected
by the
sets of images,
which we
16.
now
shall not
Hence
in
differ
17.
If the
would be
sheet,
material,
whether from
the greater
is
its
thinness or
the velocity E.
trail of
little
is
its
1).
or its
resistance
zero,
zero.
of the
resistance
These
investigate.
291
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
would be reduced to a
~, on the
sive force
I
pole,
in
motion or at
supposed
is
exist
to
in
in
the
rest.
nature as
interior
we know
it.
of molecules in
Mathematical Investigation.
Let the conducting sheet coincide with the plane of xy, and let its
so small that we may neglect the variation of magnetic force at
18.
thickness be
its
and
substance,
same
the only currents which can produce sensible effects are those which are
reason,
Currentfunction.
We
19.
function
of time,
j).
define
shall
This
crosses from
right
to
left
unit
in
the point P.
This quantity will be the same for any two curves drawn from this point
left is
y as.
ds
By drawing
to
the axis of
directions of
ds
y,
first
we
The curves
20.
and
for
which
</>
is
x and of y respectively
=#,
ay
<^
x,
is
,=
_#
ax
(I).
lines.
372
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
292
S<j>
flowing in
Is
circuit
the
magnetic
its
its
that
direction,
positive
equivalent In
Is
is,
from
x towards
to a magnetic
effects
shell
Such a
y.
of strength
B(j>,
edge*.
electric currents
in
valent to a complex magnetic shell, consisting of all the simple shells, defined
The strength of the equivalent complex
as above, into which it can be divided.
shell at
any point
We
may
will
suppose
be
<^.
shell
this
to
consist
of
two
^ on the
positive sheet,
To
21.
{^,
density
C)
7),
is
<f>,

plane
sheets
of
find the
and
parallel
c,
its
xij,
is
, and which
is
at a distance
on
is
l(p4of..c.).
That due to the negative
plane of xy is
sheet,
at a distance
is
(^)
^'i
This,
any
therefore, is
point
given
magnetic
potential,
sheet the
potential
on the positive
'
W.
and at
is
any point
(^,
rj,
Q
side.
(i,
q,
Cj
293
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
At the
22.
is
K=g = 2..^
At the negative
(3).
surface
f=M
W
;
dV
is
d'P
/x
^^'
^^dC^W
In the case of the magnetic
the surface
shell,
is
discontinuous at
but in the case of the currentsheet this expression gives the value
itself,
23.
any point
that of the currents in the sheet, then the electromotive force in the direction
of
is
_dF_d^
dx'
dt
where
is
xft
where
cr
is
the
electric
potential'^;
and by
Ohm's law
this
is
equal to
au,
dF dxP]
^''=dt~di
Hence
(6).
cru=
Similarly,
dG_dxp
dt
by
dP
~
dy
its
magnetic potential
is
represented
r=(P.+P)
and
F=^{P. + P),
"Dynamical Theory
(7),
(8).
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
294
Hence equations
(6)
dtdy^
dy
'
<j>
from
(1),
dx
'
(9).
dtdx^
dx
is
o<^=^(P + P),
Substituting the value of
<}>
dy
'
"
i/,
= constant
(10).
(")
2^f=l(^+^)
The quantity
call it
is
R, then
ff^f24.
()
Let Po' be the value of P^ at the time tT, and at a point on the
y, (z Rt), and let
=\>
At the upper limit when t is infinite P^
when T = and P^ = P^, we must have
(13).
vanishes.
dQ
Hence
at the
dQ
lower limit,
^^o^_dPj,dP
dt
dt
will be satisfied if
dz
we make
(^)
^=f=y>^^
25.
differ
This,
then,
is
a solution
of the
problem.
Any
of the sheet,
initial
state
not due to any external cause, and which therefore must decay
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
Hence,
rapidly.
we assume an
since
eternity
295
of
past time,
this
tlie
is
only
This
expresses P,
solution
current, in terms
function due to
and through
of P/,
z,
to
t,
we
we
the induced
differentiating
obtain,
first
relation
relation
its trail
paper
part of this
6,
meaning of equation
an explanation of the
simply
of
between
tion
By
the action
this of P,
7,
8,
which
9),
combined
(16)
is
with
the
to refer to
two
At
when
the time
this paper
was written,
in
to
Neither of these writers have attempted to take into account the inductive
action of the currents on each other, though both have recognised the existence
of such an action,
of
case
Jochmann
plane
the
magnetic
solves
of the
He
disk.
lines,
poles of opposite
name
sides
Matteucci at
of
first
it,
it.
M.
Felici
equipotential
opposite
placed
pole
pole
is
at
finite
considers
the
rotating
disk.
distance
from the
E.
the
case
at equal
of a single pole,
distances
and
in
but on
disk,
not,
as
which he
traced experimentally.
I am not aware that the principle of images, as described in the paper
presented to the Royal Society, has been previously applied to the phenomena
of induced
currents,
or
that the
problem of the
induction
of
currents
in
an
ELECTRIC INDUCTION.
29 G
infinite
of these currents, so as to
make the
any degree
of conductivity.
The statement
what
strange,
equation
in
(10),
that the
we know
since
that
currents
to
lies
may
be
a magnetic system
collected
electrodes
circuit
is
so arranged as not
interfere
of potential in
ference
of
motion
who shews
that
when the
This
circuit.
is
pointed out by
dif
Felici,
tion of a magnet, these currents are not accompanied with differences of potential
in different parts of
When
the sheet
the sheet.
is itself
in motion, it appears,
Electricity
where
^ ^
are
of
any
my
treatise
point,
as
applied.
z,
this
becomes
dP
dx
Note
thickness
cities
of
2.
The
velocity
for
dP}
dy
millimetre in
Hence it is only for very small velothe apparatus that we can obtain any approximation to the true result
is
currents.
Feb.
13.
L.
0)1
the
Coordinates in
equal
London Mathematical
the
to the
May
[Read
in
9th, 1872.]
x + >r:^ly=f{^+J^lr))
where
x,
is
more
,
is
(1).
t^
in the other.
restricted.
Let
X,
y,
are rectangular
system
coordinates,
corresponding to
the surfaces
dx dx
The condition of
dzdz^_
dr)dC~
dy dy
d^dC'^d^dl
with two other equations in
If
we now
and
^,
and ^ and
dyy
dn.
t;,
in
the
(2).
rj.
dzV
/
dn.
^*{i)'*(f
II.
^,
is
WTite
^
VOL.
this
(3);
first
298
and d^
the
is
surfaces ^
intercept
of the line
(7^
= const.,
= const.)
and ^+d^.
line
mh&<PMm<i)*m
Expressing this in terms of
$,
rj,
^.dldl_^
dp dq
= cose
In
{x,
y,
lines in
that
the system
these
'
dCdC
dp dq
the angle
e,
rj,
are
at which the
e,
and
intersect, it is necessary
c^
for
drjdrj
dp dq
(4).
becomes
it
C,
f(f^(i)^(i)}'{'*'''^r^
order
z),
and
cuts
2^
system
corresponding
sufficient that
=^=7
(6).
(4)
and
(5)
form.
Now
the
7}
consider
surface
the quadrilateral
(^ = const.) by
A BCD,
the surfaces
$,
^+d^,
rj,
and
+ drj.
AB = adl
AD = ^drj,
OD=[a^%d,)dl
BC=[^^^f^di^dyj.
Since the three sets of surfaces are orthogonal, their intersections are lines
of curvature,
by Dupin's Theorem.
Hence
AB
is
a line of
curvature
of the
299
drawn
t),
at
some point 0.
of
a,
parallel to a.
Let us
call
AB
DC
7^
::
J^,^
+ '^D.
^^'^"^
^"^^^''^^^^^
Hence
^^"^^Zl'
dr]
cIt)
or the
in the xdanc
then
/*,,
surfaces,
intersect
will
principal
= y8 = 7,
Hence the
the other
for
find
radii
we
surfaces
t]
flimilies of surfaces
r)
are
must be spherical.
 and
must
also
be spherical.
take one of the points where three spherical surfaces meet at right
These spheres when inverted
angles for the origin, and invert the system.
and the other spheres become
angles,
right
at
intersecting
planes
three
become
Now
spheres,
centres
from
each
lie
the
intersecting
are
(/
?'
= 6 + r,
p'
whence
the
planes,
systems, and
three
these
Let
planes.
a, b,
of the
let
their
Hence
their
c be the distances,
centres
radii
of spheres
be
p,
q,
respectively.
all
of
or
angles two
right
at
spheres
tangent plane.
pass
Hence
if
r+p
= a,
q
= c + (r,
= h,
r^
_2)'
+ 2' = ' + ^^
= c;
system has a common
through
we take
write
x"
we have rp = R\
+ 7f{z = r,
a constant quantity,
?/
382
300
whence
X
&C.
[From Nature,
LI.
Vol. vii.]
By
Sir
W. Thomson,
in the University of
Glasgow.
(London:
W.
Thomson's.
It
is
of the ideas developed in the course of the inquiry, which preserve the results
of former
we must
place
One
is
Sir
W.
scientific
on
level.
problems,
considered
from
subject
of
the
first
paper
quite
different
points
of
view.
in
this
collection.
Two
difficulty,
the particles of electricity exert on each other forces which vary inversely as
On
the
other
investigated the laws of the steady conduction of heat on the hypothesis that
the flow of
are
colder
is
the
rate
at
The physical
which
the
temperature
varies
from
two problems
quite
are
at
AND MAGNETISM.
ELECTROSTATICS
302
electricity
problems,
determined
In the other
expresses
their
in
this
as
colder
to
parts.
on a
force
the
of
resultant
the
we have
relation
paper,
elementary
methods, are
hotter
different.
to solve a certain
between
the
of
rates
in
both
different,
so
be
Thomson, in
a point.
throuoh
to
which
equation
of temperature
variation
has
differential
partial
were also
investigation
of
particle
attraction of all
tions
in
The methods of
given
dift'erent.
a distance,
that,
points
ideas
that
out
and
by a proper
these
their
two
analytical
substitution
of
electrical for
Fourier's solutions
all
of
flow of heat.
To render the
available
but
it
is
the students of
still
that
idea
of
electrical
it
action
first
earned
on
introduced
by means
into
of
mathematical
a
continuous
of
science,
of electrical
of
medium
obtained by the
to
another,
were not
only consistent
in
with
a
the
mathe
of Electrical Inversion."
AND MAGNETISM.
ELECTROSTATICS
303
in
seems to liave observed that when the external electrified system is reduced
to a point, the resultant external action is equivalent to that of this point,
together with an imaginary electrified point within the sphere, which Thomson
the electnc image of the external point.
calls
Now
small
spherical
directions
all
calculate
surface,
which we may
through the
infinite
call
solid,
it
One
of
these
by
easy,
methods, to
Fourier's
the
in
solid,
sphere,
and
and
to
draw
the
problem, this sphere becomes a conducting surface in connection with
the earth, and the external source of heat is transformed into an electrified
is
if,
in
electrical
point, the
flow
of heat at any point outside the sphere will become the electric potential
solution of
already solved.
in
a letter to M.
beautiful
Liouville,
example of
this
dated October
8,
method
is
suggested by Thomson
Liouville's
mathematician,
Thomson
till
himself,
by any
in
This,
the
most
important case of a
flat
method
electrical
circular
dish,
forces.
and of an
The
solution
infinite
flat
includes
screen
a very
with
it.
idea
AND MAGNETISM.
ELECTROSTATICS
304
by
of inversion
having
geometers,
we
though, unless
reciprocal
we
been,
is
and
discovered
suppose,
now
well
are mistaken,
known
rediscovered
to all
repeatedly,
than 1845,
later
But
we have
science,
No.
in
a paper of even
vii.
Thomson shews how the force acting on an elecbody can be exactly accounted for by the diminution of the atmospheric
trified
pressure
to
return to physical
to
earlier
on
pressure
name
only another
is
Now
by means of which,
in
of that
diminution of
of speculation
course
this
for that
bodies
takes place.
everywhere proportional
electrified
its
lines
of force.
to
"We have dwelt, perhaps at too great length, on these youthful contributions
in order to shew how early in his career, Thomson laid a soHd
science,
foundation
theories
his
for
and
future
labours,
both
in
the
development
various branches
to
the apphcations
xni.,
them,
furnish
of science will
mathematical
of
Mathematicians how
in
if
they be dihgent,
We
now turn to
now
must
mathematical
electrician,
attention to the
practical
the mathematician,
if
the
next
part
established
as
of
he succeeds at
man
volume,
this
which
in
the
his
In such work
his science.
all,
of science.
And
we have an account of
demand for electro
first
meters
then a
improving species
and
lastly,
results
many
of
but
classified,
years'
experience
are
given
in
most
instructive
and
scientific form.
so
new instrument
suit his
own
is
wants.
He may
also
study,
in
the recorded
permanence
of
species,
the
retention
of
rudimentary organs
in
manufactured
AND MAGNETISM.
ELECTROSTATICS
articles,
305
control.
A
to
in this volume.
ELCCount
pended
many
of his
coils,
papers on
It
W.
is
Thomson's practical
to be
hoped that he
measurement
of
resistance,
is
not referred
electrolysis,
work
electrical
galvanometers,
this
collection
qualities
electric
of
sus
by
his
metals,
thermoelectricity,
way
prepares the
for
on electromagnets
years, during
is
This paper
which time a great deal has been done both at home and abroad
Though
trenching
in these papers
we
equations bristling with old English capitals, the reader will do well to obser^*e
often
obtained
without
note at
electric
419
p.
relating
flowing in
currents,
goes on to say
to
"
Ampere's
circuits
From twenty
use
of
this
full
theory of magnetism,
within the
the
scientific English.
molecules
as
of
meaning as the
depending on
the
magnet
when the
he
materials
of the present compilation were worked out, I had no belief in the reality of
this theory
At
is
Oxford, I learned from Joule the dynamical theory of heat, and was forced
abandon at once many, and gradually from year to year all other, statical
preconceptions regarding the ultimate causes of apparently statical phenomena."
in
to
After a short, but sufficient, proof that the magnetic rotation of the plane
of
polarised
light
discovered by Faraday
is
part
implies an actual
of the
W.
rotatory motion
Thomson, Vol.
L,
Cambridge University
Press, 1882.]
VOL. XL
of
phenomenon of magnetism, he
39
AND MAGNETISM.
ELECTROSTATICS
30G
"The
adds:
of
explanation
all
phenomena of
electro magnetic
attraction
or
repulsion,
inertia
matter
this
or
is
is
whether
or
finite
impossible
matter
all
vortical
decide,
to
or
is
itself
interper
fluid
molecularly grouped
is
or
a continuous
is
it
and perhaps
contiguous parts of
a body
it
is
in vain
science."
The date
of these remarks
is
1856.
of nature,
realities
may have
served
its
The concluding
of magnetic
force
sections
of magnetic
a perfect
force,
for
in
They
fluid.
fact
the
forces
are
are
not
of
opposite
Tlie
is
It
true
of those
of the
perfect
fluid.
of ordinary
But
it
is
of pure geometry.
very imperfect
illustrations
is
are
fluids
circle.
truly continuous
for
It follows, however,
if
fluid
in large masses.
fluid is truly
The
perfect circle
homogeneous.
of the
circle
is
is
fluid,
the portion
all
its
wanderings through the fluid mass, the character of the motion thus impressed
on
it.
calls
it,
be
it
ELECTROSTATICS
of
molecule,
while
characteristics
and
permanence
character
at
individuality
unchanged both
infinite variety of
AND MAGNETISM.
in
it
is
which we
capable,
307
attribute
while
to
retaining
its
its
material
essential
form in an
of the
But
is
complete
his
new conception
of the
papers on
It
is
to be
the same
field
Has the
But why
multiplication of symbols
LII.
On
the
Proof
the
of the
Cambridge Philosophical
when the
forces are
The
difficult
The expressions
for
the
forces
1876.]
ii.,
Society, Vol.
first
it
is
not so impor
method of physical
science.
given
by Lagrange
in
Lagrange's investigation
may
be
namical equations, of which there are originally three for every particle of the
system, to a
In other words
as
he
tells
the power of the calculus, and therefore he had to express dynamical relations in
teiTQS of the corresponding relations of numerical quantities.
sciences.
We
must
it is
may
quantities,
certain
309
Thomson and
in
Xatuml
Tait's
especially
Philosophy,
method
the
of
*I have applied this method in such a way as to get rid of the explicit
consideration of the motion of any part of the system except the coordinates or
It is important to the
variables on which the motion of the whole depends.
be
student to
able
to
way
the
trace
in
it
is
That
this
can be done
is
evident from the fact that the symbols by which the dependence of the motion
of the parts on that of the variables was expressed, are not found in the final
equations.
of motion
It
ought to be
application
its
to
for it is
so,
is
matter.
to
The true method of physical reasoning is to begin with the phenomena and
forces from them by a direct application of the equations of
deduce the
The
motion.
during
the
difficulty
first
stages
we have no terms
that
is
of doing so
of the
investigation,
sufficiently general to
strictly deducible
at
results
express
we
arrive,
which are so
at
least
indefinite
men
some method
of statement by which ideas, precise so far as they go, may be conveyed to the
mind, and yet sufficiently general to avoid the introduction of unwarrantable
details.
For
instance,
such a method
is
of statement
is
greatly
On
Electricity
needed
in
order
to
of light.
v.,
the reader
On a Problem
LIII.
the
Cambridge Philosophical
The
a problem in
in
Mr
its
4,
was
is
1^ to
was involved or
a curve
1876.]
discontinuous.
ii.,
January
Society, "Vol.
set
In some of
possibility
its
as
Mr
impUed
when
must not be negative. In the case of figures of revolution congenerated by a plane curve revolving about a line in its plane, this
curvature
sidered as
lie,
and therefore
and
is
it
efiicients
of a certain equation as
we
minimum
At a
certain point
condition
coalesce
with each other and with a maximum root. Beyond this point the root which
formerly indicated a maximum indicates a minimum, and the other two roots
become impossible.
* Hesearclies in the Calculus of Variations,
<L'C.
problem?]
circle.
How
is
LIV.
I
HAVE no new
you to go
Royal
the
On
Action at a Distance.
bring before you this evening.
discovery to
attention
must ask
to
question
which has been raised again and again ever since men began to think.
The question
Does
We
see that
two bodies
this
medium
is
at a distance from
the
bodies,
do the
or
bodies act on each other immediately, without the intervention of anything else
The mode
kind
aim
difiers
will
in
my
this
special
scientific
When we
observe
assume that
there
action
this
is
intermediate
to
distance.
when we
Thus,
first
ring
taken
part
ways,
as
cylinder
one
by
with
after the
forcing
air
piston
all
which
a
is
at last the
bell
is
rung at
We
other.
into
till
may
made
to
fly
which
bell.
is
We
ACTION AT
312
may
DISTANCE.
also
we may
it,
connect
it
at one end
with a voltaic battery, and at the other with an electromagnet, and thus ring
the bell by electricity.
different
ways of ringing a
bell.
They
agree,
all
the circumstance that between the ringer and the bell there
in
communication,
of
line
process
and that at
point
of this line
however,
an unbroken
some physical
is
of time after the impulse has been given to one extremity of the
an interval
of communication,
line
is
every
is
is
is
on
way,
its
clear,
is
distance
may
therefore,
that in
many
cases
successive
and it is asked,
pair of a series of bodies which occupy the intermediate space
we cannot
which
in
cases
those
in
whether,
action,
mediate
of
advocates
by the
perceive the intermediate agency, it is not more philosophical to admit the
;
existence of a
it is
at present perceive,
not.
is
passed
on from one
Why then should we not admit that the familiar mode of communicating
motion by pushing and pulling with our hands is the type and exemplification
of all action between bodies, even in cases in which we can observe nothing
between the bodies which appears to take part in the action?
Here for instance is a kind of attraction with which Professor Outhrie
has made us familiar. A disk is set in vibration, and is then brought near a
light
if
drawn towards
it
by an
invisible cord.
What
is
this cord
Sir
W.
Thomson
has pointed out that in a moving fluid the pressure is least where the velocity
The velocity of the vibratory motion of the air is greatest nearest
is greatest.
the disk.
side nearest
pressure,
air
disk.
side,
is
less
on the
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
The
in
it,
this motion
of
portions
therefore,
disk,
motion by pushing
is
the
of
excess
of
The
pressure.
not.
is
it
it
313
pressures
it
force
is
in
conse
therefore
matter which
the
occupies
the
intervening
space
If the
wood,
glass, or copper,
tliis
space
on
act
gravitation,
act on
which
each
another
the
across
immense
or whether
intervals
of
it
two
of
in
if
but that
the interior
space,
or not,
asserts
the earth,
sun,
matter,
of
portions
one
air
depends on
with
filled
is
action
cannot surely be a
it
If
instances
phenomena, even at
first
sight,
appear to
maintain
that
portions of matter,
the contiguity
is
that
only apparent
They
far
vis
it
is
terrjo
it,
is
VOL.
II.
to
to
prove that
it
does not
glass lenses,
40
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
314
one of which
is
By means
The
particular colour of
of the pieces
we may
table,
corresponding to
ascertain
arranged
are
colours
so
distances,
different
Newton formed a
of glass.
in
are
spherical,
The
and therefore
the interval between the surfaces depends on the distance from the line joining
The
of the rings
spot
central
indicates
the place
where the lenses are nearest together, and each successive ring corresponds to
4000th
surfaces.
The
an ounce
place
this,
they
I
are
is
now
apply a greater
nearer than at
all
first,
weight.
to
therefore
increase the
for
if
weights,
But what we
cates
even at the
nearest together.
spot,
are
but there
where
prove
now
are
lenses
;
call optical
contact
is
surfaces
is
much
less
than a wave
contact.
Thus we have shewn that bodies begin to press against each other whilst
at a measurable distance, and that even when pressed together with great
force they are not in absolute contact, but may be brought nearer still, and
still
many degrees.
Why, then, say
that by
the
advocates
of
direct
action,
should
we
continue to
ACTION AT A DISTANCE.
founded only on the rough experience of a
facts
in
reality
cases
of
it
not,
is
that contact
at a distance,
action
we
are
up
philosophical language
in
the
we must do
of nature,
facts
men
of
who
introduce cetherial,
or
other media,
the
all
were
essential to action
opinions
loose
is
the
prescientiiic
315
to
And
laws.
account for
by obtaining
so
these
as
those
for
actions,
without
any direct evidence of the existence of such media, or any clear understanding
of how the media do their work, and who fill all space three and four times
over with aethers of different sorts, why the less these men talk about their
philosophical scruples about admitting action at a distance the better.
If the
it
progress
of science
first
in
fifty
law of motion,
years
ago
we should
and by
obtain
the
The progress of
science
in
of the
rid
celestial
heavens,
off
the sky."
they were
When Newton
heavenly
the
l)odies,
phers
bodies
demonstrated that
depends
on
its
the
relative
force
position
which
with
on
respect
each
to
of
the
the
other
new theory met with violent opposition from the advanced philosoday, who described the doctrine of gravitation as a return to the
of the
and the
causes,
attractive
viitues,
like.
Newton
speculations,
l)y
acts
which
is