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 Arboviruses:
A- Belong to 3 main families: Togaviruses, Buynaviruses,
and Flaviviruses.

B- Transmitted between susceptible vertebrates via:

Haematophagus Arthropod Vectors (such as Mosquitoes,
Ticks, and Sandflies).

C- Usually replicate in the vector without causing harm to it,

establish persistent infection in its salivary glands, and
found in its saliva.

D- Arboviruses may be passed from one generation of the

vector to another via: the transovarial route.

E- In animals, Arboviruses may cause: Encephalitis, Febrile

diseases (with rash), and Hemorrhagic fevers.
 Transmission cycles of Arboviruses:
A- Man-Arthropod-Man:
• Reservoir may be in either man or arthropod
• Examples: Dengue Fever, and Urban Yellow Fever.

B- Animal-Arthropod-Man:
• Reservoir is in the animal.
• Example: Japanese Encephalitis, Jungle Yellow
Fever, EEE, and WEE.

** Both cycles can be seen with the Yellow Fever virus.

 Reservoir: A vertebrate host animal having a persistent
viraemia. In most cases, the reservoir is not severely
affected by the viral infection.
 Dead End Host: In many cases, if the virus is
transmitted to an animal other than its normal host,
viraemia is low or transient and there is little chance of the
infected animal being able to pass enough viruses to a blood
sucking arthropod to establish an infection. In this case, the
animal is said to be a dead-end host. Humans are dead-end
hosts for most Arboviruses, except Dengue Fever and the
Yellow Fever.
 Factors affecting transmission pattern of an
Arboviral disease:
1. Natural habitat of the vector. 2. Its diurnal
3. Seasonal activity of the vector. 4. Migration habits of
the reservoirs.
 Arboviruses Clinical Diseases: In most people, the
clinical presentation of the arboviral diseases is said to be
'atypical'. The antibodies produced by the body damage the
blood vessels which explain why Arboviruses often cause

Rift Valley
Dengue Fever Yellow Fever
Virus (enveloped,
Flaviviridae (RNA viruses)
family segmented, negative
s/s RNA)

Several subtypes
Virus Four with many
serotypes subtypes
the Zinga virus

Humans and Animals

Infected Humans and (such as sheep, goats,
Organisms Monkeys cattle, buffalo, cats,
dogs, pigs, and horses)

Wild, domestic, or Sand-flies and

Vector Mosquitoes (Aedes) semi-domestic Mosquitoes (Aedes /
mosquitoes (Aedes) Anopheles / Culex)

Monkeys (Jungle
Reservoir Humans Animals
Yellow Fever)

Transmissi Man - Arthropod - (Urban YF) and/or Animal - Arthropod -
on Cycle Man Animal-Arthropod-Man Man
(Jungle YF)
Route of Insect bite Insect bite
Transmissi (transovarial Insect bite / Direct
on transmission may also contact with the
occur) blood of an infected
animal (transovarial
transmission may also

Asymptomatic and
mild /
Infection Atypical, or Classical
Sub-clinical in cats
with a fever
and dogs

Biphasic fever with

Biphasic fever with
flu-like symptoms,
headache, muscle and
lymphadenopathy, Fever with flu-like
Symptoms joint pain, diarrhea,
muscle pain, and a symptoms
and sometimes
rash may also appear
photophobia and
on the 3rd - 5th day
petechial rash

In Humans:
Hemorrhagic fever,
Jaundice, liver or
necrotic hepatitis,
Hemorrhage (Dengue kidney failure,
kidney problems,
Hemorrhagic Fever) albuminuria,
Complicati hepato-renal failure,
and/or shock (very low leucopenia,
ons encephalitis, bilateral
BP Dengue Shock thrombocytopenia,
vision, blindness, and
Syndrome) and
even death. In
systemic bleeding
pregnant animals:

Non-immune people in
densely populated
Children areas (Urban YF) /
Forest workers (Jungle

50% (without
Mortality High (esp. in newborn
treatment) / Recovery High
rate animals)
is long and difficult

Tropics with rainy

Tropical rainforests of Sub-Saharan Africa and
Affected seasons (India,
Africa and South Madagascar. Epidemics
World Southeast Asia, Central
America (but not in Egypt, Kenya, and
Regions America, and the
found in Asia) South Africa
Diagnosis Serological detection Tissue biopsies of
of Abs either by High Transaminases animals examined for
ELISA or ICT test levels (15,000- anatomo-pathology /
(rapid detection of IgM 40,000) / Detection of IgM detection in
and IgG) / Antigen IgM Abs (5th day) / CSF / Virus isolation
Antigen detection
(only in early stages
detection (in the early of viraemia - 2/3 days)
viraemic stages) / / Virus isolation in
Neutralization Tests baby mice or
using cell cultures

In RT-PCR, the
presence of PCR-
Cross-reactive Abs inhibiting factors in
Problems formed against other the sample could give
in Flaviviruses may false (- ve) results.
Diagnosis interfere with the Qiagen viral RNA
results extraction Kit is used
remove such inhibitors

Neutralizing Abs with

a life-long immunity
against disease-
causing viral serotypes

Symptomatic (but
No specific TTT (just
avoid Aspirin), fluid
symptomatic but
balance, and
Treatment avoiding Aspirin in the
acute phase) /
Ribavirin can be used
(if necessary)

Live vaccine* given

subcutaneously with
Vaccine No vaccine available No vaccine available
booster doses every 10

Avoid contact with

Elimination of small
Vaccination / Vector infected animals /
water reservoirs /
Prevention control / Patient Cattle vaccination /
isolation Application of insect
of Larvicides

* Contraindications include: egg allergy, immune deficiency, and

hypersensitivity to previous dose. The vaccine may also have
adverse effects, and shouldn't be given to pregnant women or
infants younger than 6 months.