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ADVERBS

An adverb is a word that adds more to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
I dreamt about you last night. (dreamt=verb; last night=adverb)
The monster was incredibly ugly. (ugly=adjective; incredibly=adverb)
The heart patient collapsed quite suddenly. (suddenly=adverb; quite=adverb)

An adverb is usually placed after the verb when it is used in a sentence as follow:

He called yesterday.

The train will arrive soon.

They struggled hard to reach the top.

The patient is sleeping soundly.

Unlike adjectives, adverbs do not modify nouns.


CORRECT: The woman has a beautiful daughter. (Adjective)
INCORRECT: The woman has a beautifully daughter. (Adverb)
CORRECT: She was still sad about it. (Adjective)
INCORRECT: She was still sadly about it. (Adverb)

Some words can be both adverbs and adjectives as follow: far, hard, and long. It is important
to distinguish how they are used.
I dont live far away from here. (Adverb)
Where I live isnt far from here. (Adjective)
She worked quite hard. (Adverb)
She found the work quite hard. (Adjective)
If we exercise regularly, we may live longer. (Adverb)
If we exercise regularly, we may live longer lives. (Adjective)

1. Types of Adverbs
2. Comparison of Adverbs
3. Forming Adverbs from Adjectives
1. Types of Adverbs

Adverb of Time This shows when an action or something is done or happens. It


answers the question "When?" It is either placed at thebeginning or at the end of a
sentence. When they are at the beginning, they are often emphasized.

Example: I phoned you yesterday.


Example: I saw her a few months ago.
Example: Last week I saw them walking together.

Adverb of Place This shows where an action or something is done or happens. It


answers the question "Where?" Such adverbs are placed after the verb.

Example: I live here. / He fell down. / They are talking outside. / He walkedin.
Example: We met her in the zoo.
Example: They like to walk along the river.

Adverb of Manner This shows how an action or something is done. It answers the
question "How?" The adverb is placed just after the verb when it is used in a sentence.

Example: She cried loudly. / He drives quickly. / She speaks softly.

Adverb of Degree or Quantity This answers the questions, "To what degree?" or
"How much?" It is usually placed before the adjective and the adverb.

Example: It is too dark for us to see anything. (Before adjective)


Example: Last night it rained very heavily. (Before adverb)

Adverb of Frequency This answers the question "How often?"Adverbs of


frequency are very important because we often use them. Examples of these adverbs
include: never, rarely, seldom, hardly ever, occasionally, sometimes, generally,
usually, frequently, nearly always, often and ever. Also included are: quite, just,
already, almost and nearly.

Example: He will never have finished in time.


Example: Jane is rarely late for work.
Example: Peter seldom reads the Bible.
Example: Sue hardly ever wore lipstick.
Example: We only write to each other very occasionally.
Example: Sometimes he stays late in the office to complete his work.
Example: The proposal is not generally acceptable to the public.
Example: It is usually the man who proposes marriage.
Example: While overseas, he frequently phoned home.
Example: She's not nearly always right although she thinks she's always right.
Example: We always go to school by bus.
Example: Sharon has often forgotten her books.
Example: Does he ever come to play chess?

Affirmative Adverb (yes) and Adverb of negation (No) - examples of this adverb
includes: yes, surely, certainly, indeed, by all means, no,not at all, by no means.

Example: I hope my parent just for once will say yes to my latest idea.
Example: You must have heard about the haunted house surely?
Example: Certainly we'll try to rid this place of the foul odor.
Example: It would indeed help if I had a bodyguard.
Example: By all means eat whatever you want, but I think you will not be able to finish all the
food.
Example: Oh no, not another breakdown at the traffic lights?
Example: It is not at all certain that the match will take place.
Example: It is by no means easy that we will finish it soon.

Interrogative Adverb (Question): When? Where? How? Why? How much/often?

Example: When was the last time you saw the accused?
Example: Where have you been all the while?
Example: How could you have overlooked all these mistakes?

Example: Why do you have to do such a stupid thing?

Relative Adverb: when, where, how, why


These words are the same in form as Interrogative Adverbs; but they are not questions.

Example: The time when he arrived is still unknown.


Example: The scene where the accident occurred is close to the hospital.
Example: He is the only one who knows how to do it.
Example: Nobody knows why he left in such a hurry.

2. Comparison of Adverbs

Similar to the comparison of adjectives, adverbs have three degrees of comparison


the Positive, the Comparative and the Superlative. Most adverbs which end in '-ly' form
the Comparative with 'more' and the Superlative with 'most'.
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

comfortably

more comfortably

most comfortably

happily

more happily

most happily

kindly

more kindly

most kindly

loudly

more loudly

most loudly

noisily

more noisily

most noisily

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

bad, badly

worse

worst

little

less

least

much

more

most

well

better

best

3. Forming Adverbs from Adjectives

Adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding ly. However, not all words ending in ly are
adverbs. The following words are good examples of adjectives ending in ly: costly, deadly,
friendly, kindly, likely, lively, lowly, manly, sickly, and timely

LIST 4 shows a list of adverbs formed from adjectives.

List 4 - Forming Adverbs from Adjectives

ADJECTIVES

ADVERBS

ADJECTIVES

ADVERBS

abrupt

abruptly

lawful

lawfully

absolute

absolutely

lazy

lazily

accidental

accidentally

light

lightly

active

actively

lone

lonely

actual

actually

loud

loudly

adamant

adamantly

lucky

luckily

additional

additionally

mad

madly

affectionate

affectionately

main

mainly

angry

angrily

mannish

mannishly

annual

annually

magic

magically

anxious

anxiously

mental

mentally

apparent

apparently

merciful

mercifully

appreciative

appreciatively

mere

merely

apprehensive

apprehensively

merry

merrily

appropriate

appropriately

momentary

momentarily

approving

approvingly

monthly

monthly

approximate

approximately

narrow

narrowly

apt

aptly

natural

naturally

ardent

ardently

near

nearly

arduous

arduously

neat

neatly

arguable

arguably

nebulous

nebulously

attentive

attentively

necessary

necessarily

audible

audibly

needless

needlessly

awkward

awkwardly

nervous

nervously

bad

badly

new

newly

beautiful

beautifully

nice

nicely

bitter

bitterly

nightly

nightly

boastful

boastfully

noisy

noisily

bold

boldly

obedient

obediently

brave

bravely

occasional

occasionally

brief

briefly

open

openly

bright

brightly

oppressive

oppressively

brutal

brutally

optimistic

optimistically

busy

busily

oral

orally

calm

calmly

outward

outwardly

careful

carefully

painful

painfully

careless

carelessly

partial

partially

casual

casually

particular

particularly

cautious

cautiously

passionate

passionately

certain

certainly

patent

patently

cheap

cheaply

patient

patiently

cheerful

cheerfully

peaceful

peacefully

clean

cleanly

perfect

perfectly

clear

clearly

permanent

permanently

clever

cleverly

personal

personally

close

closely

pessimistic

pessimistically

comfortable

comfortably

physical

physically

complete

completely

pious

piously

conclusive

conclusively

playful

playfully

conscious

consciously

pleasant

pleasantly

constant

constantly

polite

politely

continual

continually

poor

poorly

continuous

continuously

popular

popularly

copious

copiously

possible

possibly

correct

correctly

posthumous

posthumously

courteous

courteously

pretty

prettily

crooked

crookedly

previous

previously

cruel

cruelly

primary

primarily

cunning

cunningly

private

privately

curious

curiously

probable

probably

dangerous

dangerously

problematic

problematically

daring

daringly

promiscuous

promiscuously

dear

dearly

proper

properly

deep

deeply

proud

proudly

definite

definitely

punctual

punctually

deliberate

deliberately

pure

purely

delightful

delightfully

puritanical

puritanically

dim

dimly

purposeless

purposelessly

dirty

dirtily

quick

quickly

double

doubly

quiet

quietly

dull

dully

rapid

rapidly

eager

eagerly

rare

rarely

easy

easily

rational

rationally

economic

economically

ready

readily

efficient

efficiently

real

really

enjoyable

enjoyably

recent

recently

enormous

enormously

regular

regularly

entire

entirely

ridiculous

ridiculously

essential

essentially

rough

roughly

eternal

eternally

rude

rudely

ethical

ethically

sad

sadly

ethnic

ethnically

safe

safely

etymological

etymologically

satisfactory

satisfactorily

euphemistic

euphemistically

savage

savagely

evasive

evasively

secret

secretly

even

evenly

seeming

seemingly

eventual

eventually

sentimental

sentimentally

evident

evidently

separate

separately

exorbitant

exorbitantly

serene

serenely

extreme

extremely

serial

serially

faithful

faithfully

serious

seriously

fastidious

fastidiously

severe

severely

fatal

fatally

shaky

shakily

fearful

fearfully

shameful

shamefully

fierce

fiercely

shameless

shamelessly

final

finally

sheepish

sheepishly

financial

financially

shy

shyly

first

firstly

significant

significantly

foolish

foolishly

silent

silently

forgetful

forgetfully

simple

simply

fortunate

fortunately

sincere

sincerely

free

freely

single-handed

single-handedly

frequent

frequently

skilful

skillfully

friendly

friendily

sleepy

sleepily

frightful

frightfully

slight

slightly

full

fully

slow

slowly

general

generally

soft

softly

generous

generously

sole

solely

gentle

gently

sound

soundly

gentleman

gentlemanly

special

specially

genuine

genuinely

steadfast

steadfastly

glad

gladly

steady

steadily

graceful

gracefully

stealthy

stealthily

gradual

gradually

strange

strangely

grim

grimly

strong

strongly

grudging

grudgingly

stupid

stupidly

gruelling

gruellingly

subtle

subtly

gruesome

gruesomely

successful

successfully

half-yearly

half-yearly

sudden

suddenly

haphazard

haphazardly

sure

surely

happy

happily

surprising

surprisingly

hard

hardly

sweet

sweetly

harsh

harshly

swift

swiftly

hasty

hastily

tactical

tactically

hateful

hatefully

tactless

tactlessly

heavy

heavily

terrible

terribly

helpful

helpfully

terrifying

terrifyingly

helpless

helplessly

terse

tersely

high

highly

thankful

thankfully

holistic

holistically

thorough

thorougly

honest

honestly

thoughtful

thoughtfully

honourable

honourably

thoughtless

thoughtlessly

hopeful

hopefully

total

totally

horrible

horribly

tremendous

tremendously

hourly

hourly

tremulous

tremulously

hungry

hungrily

true

truly

hypothetical

hypothetically

truthful

truthfully

hysterical

hysterically

unacceptable

unacceptably

immaculate

immaculately

unarguable

unarguably

immediate

immediately

understandable

understandably

impatient

impatiently

undoubted

undoubtedly

individual

individually

unexpected

unexpectedly

inescapable

inescapably

untruthful

untruthfully

inestimable

inestimably

unusual

unusually

inevitable

inevitably

urbane

urbanely

inexorable

inexorably

urgent

urgently

infallible

infallibly

usual

usually

instant

instantly

vast

vastly

instantaneous

instantaneously

verbal

verbally

instinctive

instinctively

veritable

veritably

jealous

jealously

weary

wearily

joint

jointly

weekly

weekly

joyful

joyfully

whole-hearted

whole-heartedly

justifiable

justifiably

wide

widely

keen

keenly

wild

wildly

kind

kindly

willing

willingly

knowing

knowingly

wise

wisely

knowledgeable

knowledgeably

wrong

wrongly

last

lastly

yearly

yearly

late

lately

youthful

youthfully