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PHARMACOLOGY
Pharmacology
- most simply defined as study of drug.
Fundamentals of Pharmacology
1. Pharmacokinetics
- study of drugs changes as it enters and passes through the body.
a. absorption
b. distribution
c. biotransformation
d. excretion
2. Pharmacodynamics
- mechanism by which drugs produce changes in body tissue.
a. desired effect - intended action of drugs
b. adverse effect - harmful unintended reactions
c. side effects consequence reactions
d. toxicity the degree which something is poisonous
digoxin = 0.5 2.0 ng/mL
lithium = 0.5 1.5 mEq/L
Safety and Efficacy
Nursing Principles :
1. Always verify the Five Rights .
a. the right medications
b. the right client
c. the right dosage
d. the right form, route and technique
e. the right time
2. Chart drug administration only after its been given, never before.
3. Never leave the medication on cart or tray unattended.
4. Chart observed therapeutic and adverse effects accurately and fully.
5. Check history for allergies and potential drug interactions before
administering a newly ordered drug.
6. Inform the prescribing physician of any observed adverse effects; if
cannot be located, inform the nursing supervisor
7. Question drug orders that are unclear, that appear to contain errors,
or that have potential to harm.

8. Take the following actions if an error occurs :


a. immediately notify the nursing supervisor, the prescribing
physician, and the pharmacist.
b. assess the clients condition and provide any necessary care.
9. For postpartum women, advice to take drugs after breastfeeding.
Administration of Drugs:
Routes and Nursing considerations:
1. Enteral oral, sublingual, rectal, gastric tubes
- capsulated pill, sustained release and enteric coated should not be
crushed.
2. Parenteral IV, IM, SQ, ID, IT, IA, epidural.
- vastus lateralis (safest site for IM)
3. Topical skin, inhalants, mucus membrane.
Eye medications :
- administer eyedrops first then ointment.
- use a separate bottle for each client.
- instruct the client to tilt the head backward, open eyes and look up.
- avoid contact of medication bottle to the eyeball.
- place prescribed dose in the lower conjunctival sac.
- instruct the client to press the inner canthus for 30-60 seconds.
- instruct the client to close the eye gently.
Ear drops
- in infant and children younger than 3 y.o, pull pinna downward and
backward.
- in older children and adult, upward and backward.
- direct the solution on the wall of the ear canal, not directly on the ear
drum.

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CLASSIFICATIONS OF DRUGS
DRUGS AFFECTING THE CENTRAL AND AUTONOMIC SYSTEM
Cholinergic Agents (Parasympathomemitics)
Prototype :
- synthetic acetylcholine, pilocarpine, carbachol, bethanecol
(Urocholine), edrophonium (Tensilon), neostigmine (Prostigmine),
pyridostigmine (Mestinon).
Mechanism of action :
- stimulates cholinergic receptors by mimicking acetylcholine or
inhibition of enzyme cholinesterase.
Indications :
- glaucoma, urine retention, Myasthenia Gravis
- antidote to neuromuscular blocking agents : tricyclic
antidepressants and atropine
Adverse effects :
- blurring of vision, miosis
- increase in salivation, intestinal cramps
- bronchoconstriction, wheezing, DOB
- hypotension and bradycardia
Nursing considerations :
1. Warn & monitor clients of the side effects.
2. Have atropine available for use as antidote.

Cholinergic Blocking Agents (Parasympatholytics,


Anticholinergics)
Prototype :
- atropine, scopalamine (Triptone), dicyclomine (Bentyl),
propantheline (Pro-Banthine).
Mechanism of actions :
- block the binding of acetylcholine in the receptors of
parasympathetic nerves.

Indications :
- use preoperatively to dry up secretions.
- treat spasticity of GI or urinary tract.
- use for treatment of bradycardia, asthma, parkinsonism.
- use for antidote in organophosphate poisoning.
Adverse effects :
- dry mouth , dilatation of pupils, tachycardia
- urinary retention, ileus, heat stroke
Nursing considerations :
1. Keep clients in cool environment.
2. Watch out for signs of heatstroke and dehydration.
3. Encourage clients to increase fluid intake and use of sugarless
gum/candy for dry mouth.
4. For GI spasticity, administer 30 minutes before meals and at bed
time.
Adrenergic Agents (Sympathomimetics)
Prototype :
- epinephrine, norepinephrine, ephedrine, dopamine, dobutamine,
phenylephrine, terbutaline, albuterol, isoproterenol.
Mechanism of actions :
- stimulate alpha and beta adrenergic receptor directly or trigger the
release of catecholamines indirectly causing sympathetic effects.
Indications :
- cardiopulmonary arrest, hypotension
- COPD and asthma, nasal congestions
- allergic reaction, anaphylactic shock
Adverse effects :
- restlessness, insomnia, tremors, nausea
- palpitations, angina, tachycardia, HPN
Nursing considerations :
1. Contraindicated in clients w/ hyperthyroidism,
pheochromocytoma & cardiovascular disease.
2. Monitor vital signs and advice precautions.
3. Should be taken with food.

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ADRENERGIC BLOCKING AGENTS
Prototype :
a. Alpha blockers
- phentolamine (Regintine), phenoxybenzamine, prazosin (Minipress),
reserpine (Serpasil), terazosin (Hytrin)
- clonidine (Catapress), methyldopa (Aldomet)
b. Beta blockers
- atenolol (Tenormin), esmolol (Brevibloc),
metoprolol (Lopressor), nadolol (Corgard),
propanolol (Inderal), timolol ( Blocadren)
Mechanism of actions :
a. alpha blockers
- inhibits action of a-receptors in vascular smooth muscle to cause
vasodilatation.
b. beta blockers
- compete with epinephrine in b-receptors in heart, pulmonary
airways, peripheral circulation and CNS.
Indications :
- Raynauds disease, hypertension, pheochromocytoma.
- angina, arrhythmias, mitral valve prolapse, glaucoma
Adverse effects :
- orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, CHF
- depression, insomnia and vertigo
- bronchospasm and dyspnea, nasal stuffiness, cold extremities
Nursing considerations :
1. Administer oral alpha-blockers with milk to minimize GI side effects.
2. Administer oral beta-blockers before meals and at a.m. if insomnia
occurs.
3. Check clients apical pulse rate before drug administration, refer if
below 60 bpm.
4. Hypotensive precautions.
5. Warn clients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery until
he/she has adjusted to medications.

SKELETAL MUSCLE RELAXANTS AGENTS


Prototype :
- methacarbamol (Robaxin), baclofen (Lioresal), dantrolene
(Dantrium), metaxalone (Skelaxin), orphanedrine (Norgesic),
chlorzoxazone
Mechanism of actions:
- depress CNS
- inhibit calcium ion release in the muscle
- enhance the inhibitory action of GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid)
Indications :
- for acute musculoskeletal pain
- for muscle spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, cerebral
palsy, CVA, and spinal cord injury.
Adverse effects :
- hypotonia, ataxia, hypotension, drowsiness
- blurred vision, bradycardia, depression, urine retention
Nursing considerations :
1. Caution clients that mental alertness may be impaired.
2. Monitor neuromuscular status, bowel and bladder functions.
3. Inform clients that maximum benefit of baclofen is attained for 1-2
months.
4. Reduce baclofen dosage gradually because of associated withdrawal
symptoms :
Confusion, hallucinations, paranoia & rebound spasticity.

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ANTICONVULSANTS
Prototype :
a. Hydantoins - phenytoin (Dilantin)
b. Barbiturates - phenobarbital ( Luminal)
c. Miscellaneous
- carbamazepine (Tegretol), diazepam, clorazepate (Tranxene),
valproic acid (Dapakene), ethosuximide (Zarontin).
Mechanism of action :
- treat seizures by depressing abnormal neuronal activity in motor
cortex.
Adverse effects :
- sedation & drowsiness, gingival hyperplasia
- diplopia, nystagmus, vertigo, dizziness
- thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia
Nursing considerations :
1. Advise female clients to use contraceptives.
2. Inform clients taking phenytoin that harmless urine discoloration is
common.
3. Warn clients with diabetes that hydantoins may increase blood
sugar level and that valproic acid may produce a false positive result in
urine ketone test.
4. Teach clients receiving carbamazepine to identify symptoms of bone
marrow depressions.
5. Reassure that barbiturates are not addictive at a low dosage.
6. Avoid taking alcohol with barbiturates.
7. Administer IV phenytoin slowly to avoid cardiotoxicity.
8. Avoid mixing other drugs in same syringe with phenytoin.

ANTIPARKINSONIAN AGENTS
Prototype :
a. Anticholinergic agents
- trihexyphenidyl (Artane), benztropine (Congentin)
b. Dopaminergic agents
- Levodopa, carbidopa-levodopa (Sinemet), amantidine (Symmetrel),
pergolide (Permax), selegiline (Eldepryl), bromocriptine.
Mechanism of actions :
a. anticholinergic agents
- inhibit cerebral motor centers.
b. dopaminergic agents
- increasing dopamine concentrations or
enhancing neurotransmitter functioning.
Adverse effects of dopaminergic agents:
a. levodopa nausea, vomiting, anorexia, orthostatic hypotension,
dark-colored urine and sweat
b. amantidine ankle edema, constipation
c. bromocriptine palpitations, tachycardia
Nursing considerations :
1. Give dopaminergic agents after meals to reduce GI symptoms.
2. Reassure client that levodopa may cause harmless darkening of urine
and sweat.
3. Avoid taking Vit B6 (pyridoxine) with levodopa because it speed up
metabolism.
4. Educate clients to minimize orthostatic hypotension.
5. Elevate leg to reduce ankle edema.

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CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANTS
Prototype :
- amphetamines, methylphenidate (Ritalin)
Mechanism of actions :
- increase excitatory CNS neurotransmitter activity and blocks
inhibitory impulses.
Indications :
- for obesity (amphetamines)
- attention deficit hyperactivity disorders
- narcolepsy
- drug-induced respiratory depressions.
Adverse effects :
- nervousness, insomnia, restlessness
- hypertension, tachycardia, headache
- anorexia, dry mouth.
Nursing considerations :
1. Should be given at morning.
2. Dont stop amphetamine abruptly to avoid withdrawal symptoms.
3. Monitor blood pressure and pulse.
4. Ice chips or sugarless gum for dry mouth.
5. Watch out for growth retardation in children taking
methylphenidate.

DRUGS AFFECTING MENTAL FUNCTIONING


Sedatives, Hypnotics, and Anxiolytics
Prototype :
a. Benzodiazepines
- diazepam (Valium), lorazipam (Ativan),
alprazolam (Xanax), flurazepam (Dalmane)
b. Barbiturates
- amobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital
c. Miscellaneous
- chloral hydrate (Noctec), buspirone (Buspar), paraldehyde (Paral)
Mechanism of actions :
a. Benzodiazepines
- increase the effect of inhibitory neuro transmitter GABA
(gamma-amino butyric acid)
b. Barbiturates and Miscellaneous agents
- depress CNS
Indications :
- induce sleep, sedate and calm clients
Adverse effects :
- hangover-effect, dizziness, CNS depression
- respiratory depression, drug-dependence
Nursing considerations :
1. Warn clients of injuries and falls.
2. Brief period of confusion and excitement upon waking up is common
with
benzodiazepines.
3. Warn clients not to discontinue medications abruptly without
consulting a physician.
4. Avoid alcohol while taking these drugs.
6. Rotate and dont shake the ampules of barbiturates. Dont mix with
other drugs.
7. Warn female clients that diazepam is associated with cleft lip.

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ANTIDEPRESSANTS AND MOOD DISORDER DRUGS

- maintain salt and adequate fluid intake


- tremors may occur but it is temporary
- monitor white blood cell count (increase).

Prototype :
a. Tricyclic antidepressants
- amitriptyline (Elavil), protriptyline (Vivactil),
- imipramine (Tofranil), desipramine
b. MAO (monoamine oxidase inhibitors )
- isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Pernate)
c. Second-generation antidepressants
- fluoxetine (Prozac), trazodone (Desyrel)
d. Lithium
Mechanism of actions :
a. Tricyclic antidepressants
- increase receptor sensitivity to serotonin and/or norepinephrine.
b. MAO inhibitors
- inhibit the enzyme MAO that metabolize the neurotransmitters
norepinephrine and serotonin.
c. Second generation antidepressants
- inhibits the reuptake of serotonin.
d. Lithium
- increase serotonin & norepinephrine uptake
Adverse effects :
- dry mouth, blurred vision, urine retention, constipation (anticholinergic
effects)
- orthostatic hypotension, insomnia
- hypertensive crisis (MAO)
- dehydration (Lithium).
Nursing considerations :
1. Caution client to rise slowly to reduce the effects of orthostatic hypotension.
2. Take antidepressant with food to enhance absorption
3. Explain to client that full response may take several weeks (2 weeks).
4. Assess client for constipation resulting from tricyclic antidepressant use.
5. Client taking MAO inhibitors should avoid tyramine-rich foods to avoid
hypertensive crisis.
- aged cheese, sour cream, yogurt, beer, wine, chocolate, soy sauce and yeast
- pentholamine (Regintine) is the drug of choice for hypertensive crisis.
7. Take lithium with food to reduce GI effects
- > 1.5 mEq/L blood level may cause toxicity manifested by:
confusion, lethargy, seizures,hyperreflexia.

ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS (NEUROLEPTICS)


Prototype :
a. Phenothiazines
- chlorpromazine (Thorazine),
- trifluoperazine (Stelazine),
- thioridazine (Mellaril)
b. Other Agents
- clozapine (Clozaril), haloperidol (Haldol)

Mechanism of action :
block dopamine receptor in the limbic system, hypothalamus, and
other regions of the brain.
Adverse effects :
Extra pyramidal symptoms such as dystonia, pseudoparkinsonism, and
an irreversible tardive dyskinesia as manifested by :
a. lip smacking
b. fine wormlike tongue movement
c. involuntary movements of arms and leg.
- Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
a. fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, diaphoresis, cardiovascular collapse
b. muscle rigidity, seizures.
- orthostatic hypotension
Nursing considerations :
1. Teach family members signs of EPS and NMS, and report to physician
immediately.
2. Normalization of symptoms may not occur for several wks after beginning
of therapy.
3. Avoid administering haloperidol intravenously
4. Watch out of neutropenia with clozapine.
5. Watch out for orthostatic hypotension and photosensitivity with
phenothiazine.
6. Be sure that oral doses are swallowed, and not hoarded.

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DRUGS USED IN PAIN MANAGEMENT
General Anesthetics
Prototype :
a. Inhalation anesthetics
- enflurane (Ethrane), halothane
- isoflurane (Forane), nitrous oxide
b. Injection anesthetics
- fentanyl (Sublimaze), ketamine (Ketalar),
thiopental Na (Penthotal), etomidate (Amidate)
Mechanism of actions :
- cause CNS depression, by producing loss of consciousness,
unresponsiveness to pain stimuli, and muscle relaxation.
Nursing considerations :
1. Instruct client NPO for 8 hours before administration.
2. Monitor cardio pulmonary depression and hypotension.
3. Monitor urinary retention.
4. Monitor body temperature
- malignant hyperthermic crisis :
dantrolene (antidote)
5. Avoid alcohol or CNS depressants for 24 hours after anesthesia.
6. In patient who received halothane, monitor signs of hepatic fatal S.E :
- rash, fever, nausea, vomiting
- jaundice and altered liver function.

LOCAL AND TOPICAL ANESTHETIC


Prototype :
local: bupivacaine, lidocaine, tetracaine, procaine, mepivacaine,
prilocaine
topical: benzocaine, butacaine, dibucaine,lignocaine
Mechanism of action :
- block transmission of impulses across nerve cell membrane.
Adverse effects :
- cardiac dysrhythmias
Nursing considerations :
- lignocaine + prilocaine (EMLA cream) should be applied topically 60
minutes before procedure.
- administer cautiously to the areas of large broken skin.
- observe for fetal bradycardia in pregnant clients.

ANALGESICS
Prototype :
a. Narcotic analgesics
- codeine, meperidine (Demerol) morphine, butorphanol (Stadol)
nalbuphine (Nubain)
b. Non narcotic analgesic
NSAIDs aspirin (aminosalicylic acid), mefenamic acid (Ponstan),
ibuprofen (Motrin), naproxen, ketoprofen (Orudis), ketorolac.
paracetamol and acetaminophen (Tylenol)
Mechanism of actions :
a. Narcotic analgesics
- alter pain perception by binding to opiod receptors in CNS.
b. Non- narcotic analgesic
- relieves pain and fever by inhibiting the prostaglandin pathway.
Nursing considerations :
1. Monitor respiratory depression & hypotension in clients taking
narcotic analgesic.
2. Injury and accident precautions in clients taking narcotic analgesic.
3. Warn clients about possibility of dependency,and do not discontinue
narcotics abruptly in the narcotic-dependent clients.
4. Naloxone is antidote for narcotic overdose.
5. Advice clients to take NSAIDs with food and monitor bleeding
complications.
6. Aspirin is contraindicated in clients below 18 years old with flu-like
symptoms.
7. Monitor hearing loss in clients taking aspirin.
8. Monitor liver function in clients taking acetaminophen.
9. N-acetylcysteine is antidote for paracetamol overdose.

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DRUGS AFFECTING THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
ANTICOAGULANTS
Prototype :
- Heparin (SQ and IV)
Warfarin (Orally)
Mechanism of actions :
a. Heparin
- prevents thrombin from converting fibrinogen to fibrin.
b. Warfarin
- suppress coagulation by acting as an
antagonist of vitamin K after 4-5 days.
Indications :
- thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction
Adverse effect :
- bleeding
Nursing considerations :
1. HEPARIN sodium
- if given SQ dont aspirate or rub the injection site (above the scapula
- best site).
- therapeutic level 1.5-2.5 times normal PTT;
normal PTT is 20-35 sec. = 50-85 sec.
- antidote : (protamine sulfate)
2. WARFARIN sodium (coumadin)
- warfarin is used for long-term .
- onset of action is 4-5 days.
- therapeutic level is 1.5-2.5 times normal PT;
normal PT = 9.6 -11.8 sec. = 25 - 30 sec.
INR = 2 - 3
- should be taken at the same time of the day to maintain at
therapeutic level.
- reduce intake of green leafy vegetables.
- antidote : Vitamin K ( Aquamephyton)

THROMBOLYTICS
Prototype :
Streptokinase, Urokinase
Mechanism of actions :
- activates plasminogen to generates plasmin (enzyme that dissolve
clots).
Indications :
- use early in the course of MI (within 4-6 hours of the onset)
Nursing considerations :
- monitor bleeding
- antidote : Aminocarpic acid
Antiplatelet Medications
Prototype: aspirin, Dipyridamole (Persantin)
Clopidoigrel (Plavix), Ticlopidine
Mechanism of action :
- inhibit the aggregation of platelet thereby prolonging bleeding time.
Indications :
- used in the prophylaxis of long-term complication following M.I,
coronary revascularization, and thrombotic CVA.
Nursing considerations :
- Monitor bleeding time ( NV = 1-9 mins)
- Take the medication with food.

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CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES
Prototype:
- digoxin (Lanoxin) and digitoxin (Crystodigin)
Mechanism of actions :
- increase intracellular calcium, which causes the heart muscle fibers
to contract more efficiently, producing positive inotropic & negative
chronotropic action.
Indications :
- use for CHF, atrial tachycardia and fibrillation
Nursing considerations :
- Monitor for toxicity as evidence by :
nausea, vomiting, anorexia, halo vision, confusion, bradycardia and
heart blocks .
- Do not administer if pulse is less than 60 bpm.
- Should be caution in patient with hypothyroidism and hypokalemia.
- Antidote : Digi-bind
- Phenytoin is the drug of choice to manage
digitalis-induced arrhythmia.
Nitrates
Prototype :
- isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil)
- nitroglycerine (Deponit, Nitrostat)
Mechanism of action :
- produce vasodilatation including coronary artery.
Indications :
- angina pectoris, MI, peripheral arterial occlusive disease.
Adverse effects:
- headache, orthostatic hypotension .

Nursing Considerations :
1. Transdermal patch
- apply the patch to a hairless area using a new patch and different
site each day.
- remove the patch after 12-24 hours, allowing 10-12 hours patch
free each day to prevent tolerance.
2. Sublingual medications :
- note the BP before giving the medication.
- offer sips of water before giving because dryness may inhibit
absorption.
- one tablet for pain and repeat every 5 mins. for a total of three doses;
if not relieved after 15 mins., seek medical help.
- stinging or burning sensation indicates that the tablet is fresh.
- instruct patient not to swallow the pill
- sustained release medications should be swallowed and not to be
crush.
- protect the pills from light.

ANTI-ARRHYTHMIC DRUGS
Class I (block Na channels)
IA - quinidine, procainamide
IB - lidocaine
IC - flecainamide
Class II (Beta-blockers)
propanolol, esmolol
Class III (block K channels)
amiodarone, bretylium
Class IV (block Ca channels)
verapramil, diltiazem
Nursing considerations :
1. Watch out for signs of CHF.
2. Have client weigh themselves and report
weight gain.
3. Watch out for signs of lidocaine toxicity :
- confusion and restlessness

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ANTILIPEMICS
Prototype :
a. cholesterol-lowering agents
- cholestyramine, colestipol, lovastatin
b. triglyceride-lowering agents
- gemfibrozil, clofibrate
Mechanism of actions :
- interfere with cholesterol synthesis as well as
decreasing lipoprotein & triglyceride synthesis.
Nursing considerations :
- monitor liver functions while using statins.
- prevent constipation, flatulence, cholelithiasis
- encourage increase fluid and fiber intake.

Indications :
- hypertension, angina, arrhythmia
Adverse effects :
- bradycardia, hypotension, headache
- reflex tachycardia, constipation
Nursing considerations :
- Administer between meals to enhance absorption.
- Take clients pulse rate before each dose, withhold if pulse is below
60 bpm.
- Refer for signs of congestive heart failure.
DIURETICS

ANTI HYPERTENSIVE
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
Prototype :
captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), quinapril, lisinopril
Mechanism of actions :
- prevent peripheral vasoconstriction by blocking conversion of
angiotensin I to angiotensin II decreasing peripheral resistance.
Adverse effect :
- it cause hyperkalemia
- induce chronic cough
Nursing considerations :
- not to discontinue medications because it can cause rebound HTN.
- avoid using K+ sparing diuretics.
CALCIUM-CHANNEL BLOCKERS
Prototype :
- Nifedipine (calcibloc, adalat), Amlodipine (norvasc), Felodipine
(Plendil)
Verapramil (Isoptin)
Mechanism of action :
- decrease cardiac contractility and the workload of the heart, thus
decreasing the need for O2.
- it also promote vasodilatation of the coronary and peripheral vessels.

- usually given at morning


CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS
- Acetazolimide (Diamox)
- increase Na+, K+, & HCO3 secretion, along with it is H2O
- metabolic acidosis
OSMOTIC DIURETIC
- Mannitol
- Increase osmotic pressure of the glomerular filtrate.
- hypotension
THIAZIDE DIURETICS
- hydrochlorothiazide
- blocks Na and K reabsorption; reabsorb Ca
- hypercalcemia
LOOP DIURETICS
- Furosemide (Lasix)
- blocks Na, K, and Ca reabsorption
- hypocalcemia
POTASSIUM SPARING DIURETICS
- Spironolactone (Aldactone)
- excrete Na and water but it reabsorb K
- hyperkalemia

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RESPIRATORY MEDICATIONS
Bronchodilators
Prototype :
Symphatomimetic
Xanthines
- albuterol, salbutamol
- aminophylline
- isoproterenol, salmeterol - theophylline
- terbutaline
Mechanism of actions:
- sympathomimetic (b-receptor agonist) bronchodilators, dilate
airways.
- xanthine bronchodilators, stimulate CNS for respiration.
Indications :
- bronchospasm, asthma, bronchitis, COPD.
Adverse effects :
- palpitations and tachycardia
- restlessness, nervousness, tremors
- anorexia, nausea and vomiting, headache, dizziness.
Nursing considerations :
- Contraindicated hyperthyroidism, cardiac dysrhythmia, or
uncontrolled seizure disorder.
- Should be used with caution in patient with HPN and narrow-angle
glaucoma.
GLUCOCORTICOIDS (CORTICOSTEROIDS)
Prototype :
- dexamethasone, budesonide, fluticasone, prednisone,
beclomethasone.
Mechanism of actions :
- act as anti-inflammatory agents and reduce edema of the airways,
as well as
pulmonary edema.
Adverse effects :
- Cushings syndrome, neutropenia. osteoporosis
Nursing considerations :
- Take drugs at meal time or with food.
- Eat foods high in potassium, low in sodium.
- Instruct client to avoid individuals with RTI.

- Instruct client not to stop medication abruptly, it should be tapered to


prevent
adrenal insufficiency
- Avoid taking NSAID while taking steroids.
- Take inhaled bronchodilators first before taking inhaled steroids, and
rinse mouth
after using.
MAST CELL STABILIZERS
Prototype : cromolyn sodium (Intal)
Mechanism of action :
- stabilize mast cells that release histamine triggering asthmatic attacks.
Nursing Consideration:
- Should be given before asthmatic attacks.
- Administer oral capsule at least 30 mins before meals for better
absorption.
- Drink a few sips of water before & after inhalation to prevent cough &
unpleasant taste
- Assess for lactose-intolerance.
ANTI-HISTAMINES (H-1 BLOCKERS)
Protoytype :
- Astemizole (Hismanal), Loratidine (Claritin),
Brompheniramine (Dimetapp),
Diphenhydramine (Benadryl),
Cetirizine (Iterax), Celestamine (Tavist).
Mechanism of action :
- decrease nasopharyngeal secretions and decrease nasal itching by
blocking histamine
in H1-receptor.
Indications :
- common colds, rhinitis, nausea and
vomiting, urticaria, allergies and as sleep aid.
Nursing Considerations :
- Administer with food and drink.
- Given IM via Z-track method or orally.
- Precautions in handling machine and driving while taking these
drugs.
- Ice chips or candy for dry mouth

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ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS
Prototype :
First line
Second line
- Isoniazid (INH)
- Cycloserine
- Rifampicin (Rifadin)
- Kanamycin
- Ethambutol
- Ethonamide
- Pyrazinamide
- Para-aminosalicylic acid
- Streptomycin
- active tuberculosis are treated with drug combination for 6-9 mos.
- multidrug-resistant strain (MDR-TB) are medicated for 1 up to 2 years
- given before meals
Isoniazid
- should be given 1 hr before or 2 hrs after meals because food may
delay absorption.
- should be given at least 1 hr before antacids.
- instruct to notify physician for signs of hepatoxicity (jaundice), and
neurotoxicity numbness of extremities.
- administer with Vitamin B6 to counteract the neurotoxic side effects.
- avoid alcohol.
Rifampicin
- given on an empty stomach with 8 0z. of water, 1 hour before or 2
hours after meals and avoid taking antacids with medications.
- hepatotoxic thus avoid alcohol.
- instruct the client that urine, feces, sweat, and tears will be red-orange
in color.
Pyrazinamide
- given for 2 months.
- increase serum uric acid and cause photosensitivity.
Ethambutol
- contraindicated in children under 13 years old.
- obtain a baseline visual acuity because it can cause optic neuritis.
- Instruct the client to notify the physician immediately if any visual
problems occurs.
Streptomycin
- aminoglycoside antibiotic given IM.
- nephrotoxic and ototoxic.
- obtain baseline audiometric test and repeat every 1-2 months
because the medications impairs the CN VIII.

DRUGS AFFECTING GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM


Antacids
Prototype :
- aluminum/magnesium compounds (Maalox)
- sodium bicarbonate (Alka-Seltzer)
- calcium carbonate (Tums)
- magnesium hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia).
Mechanism of actions :
- neutralize the stomach acidity.
Adverse effects :
- metabolic alkalosis, stone formation
- electrolyte imbalance
- diarrhea (magnesium), constipation (aluminum).
Nursing considerations :
- Give 1 hr after meals.
- Avoid giving medications within 1-2 hrs of antacid administration
(decreases absorption).
- Take fluids to flush after intake of antacid suspensions.
- Monitor for changes of bowel patterns.
HISTAMINE 2 BLOCKERS
Prototype :
- cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac),
famotidine (Pepcid), nizatidine (Axid).
Mechanism of action:
- blocks H2 receptors in the stomach, reducing
acid secretions.
Nursing considerations :
- Given before or with meals
- Avoid giving other drugs with cimetidine
- Gynecomastia may developed with chronic use of cimetidine.

13
Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI)
Prototype :
- omeprazole (Losec), Lansoprazole (Lanz), pantoprazole (Pantoloc).
Mechanism of action :
- inhibit the proton H+ to combine with Cl- toform hydrochloric acid.
Nursing considerations :
- Given before meals preferably at morning.
Mucosal Barriers
Prototype :
- sucralfate (Carafate), misoprostol (Cytotec).
Mechanism of action :
- coats the mucosa to prevent ulcerations.
Nursing consideration :
- Given before meals.
- Misoprostol is contraindicated for pregnants.
- Sucralfate cause constipation.
Anti-diarrheal Agents
Prototype :
- diphenoxylate (Lomotil), loperamide (Imodium), kaolin/pectin
mixture (Kaopectate).
Mechanism of actions :
- decrease stomach motility and peristalsis.
Nursing considerations :
- Monitor for rebound constipation.
- Be cautious taking if with infectious diarrhea.
- Monitor atropine toxicity with diphenoxylate.
- Clay, white or pale stool is common with kaopectate.

Laxatives
a. lactulose (Cephulac), Na biphosphate (Fleet enema) & magnesium
salt (Milk of Magnesia)
- retain fluid and distend intestine
b. ducosate (Dialose)
- emulsify fecal fat and water
c. bisacodyl (Dulcolax) & senna (X-prep)
- irritates intestinal mucosa and stimulate intestinal smooth muscles
d. bulk-forming laxative (Metamucil)
- increase fecal bulk and water content
e. mineral oil
- lubricates & prevent colon absorption
EMETICS
Prototype : ipecac syrup, apomorphine
Mechanism of actions :
- induce vomiting through stimulation of vomiting center of medulla.
Indications :
- ingestion of poisonous or toxic substances.
Nursing considerations :
- Consult poison control center before induction of vomiting.
- Administer ipecac syrup with large amount of fluid.

14
DRUGS AFFECTING THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
THYROID AGENTS
Prototype :
- Proloid (thryroglobulin )
- Synthroid (levothyroxine)
- Cytomel ( liothyronine).
Mechanism of action :
- function as natural or synthetic hormones.
Nursing considerations :
- Taken in the morning.
- Caution with coronary artery disease.
- Monitor for signs of hyperthyroidism and refer to decrease dose.
PARATHYROID AGENTS
Prototype :
a. calcitonin (Calcimar), etidronate (Didronel),
b. calcitrol (Rocaltrol), calcifediol (Calcedrol)
Mechanism of action :
a. reduce bone resorption
b. promotes calcium absorption
Nursing considerations :
- Monitor signs of calcium imbalance
- Report for bone pains.
- Remain sitting upright after taking etidronate.

Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (OHA)


1. Sulfonylureas
- stimulate insulin secretions and increase tissue sensitivity to
insulin.
First Generation :
Chlorpropamide (Diabenese)
- disulfiram precautions
Tolbutamide (Orinase)
- congenital defect
Second Generation :
Glypizide, Glymepiride

2. Biguanides
- facilitates insulin action on the peripheral receptor site.
Metformin and Glucophage (Glucovance)
- side effect is lactic acidosis
3. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
- delay carbohydrate absorption in the intestinal system.
Acarbose (Precose) side effect is diarrhea
4. Thiazolinidine
- increase tissue sensitivity of insulin.
Rosiglitazone (Avandia)
5. Meglitinides
- stimulate insulin release in pancreatic B-cells.
Repaglinide (Prandin)
Nursing considerations :
- Effective only for type II DM.
- Contraindicated to pregnant & breastfeeding.
- Given before meals.
- Monitor for signs of hypoglycemia.

15
Insulin
Insulin
Immediate-acting
(lispro)
Short-acting
(regular, semilente)
Intermediate-acting
(NPH, lente)
Long-acting
(ultralente)
Mixed
(regular 30%, NPH 70%)

Onset
0.15h

Peak
0.51h

Duration
5h

0.5-1 h

2-4 h

5-7h

1-3 h

6-12 h

18-24 h

4-6h

10-30 h

24-36 h

0.5 h

4-8 h

25 h

Nursing considerations :
- Usually given before meals.
- Roll the bottle in palm of hands, dont shake.
- Inject amount of air that is equal to each dose
into the bottle short acting last (clear).
- Aspirate short acting first, then long or intermediate (cloudy).
- Alcohol is recommended for cleansing bottle but not with skin.
- Pinch skin, avoid I.M, dont aspirate.
- Rotate the injection site an inch a part.
- Prefilled syringes are stored vertically, needle-up.
- May increase dose during illnesses.
- Used bottles stored in room temperature, unused bottle stored in
refrigerator.
- Monitor for acute hypoglycemia :
a. 3-4 commercially prepared glucose tablet
b. 4-6 ounce of fruit juice or regular soda
c. 2-3 teaspoon or honey
d. Glucagon 1 gm SQ or IM
e. D50-50 IV.

ESTROGENS AND PROGESTINS


Prototype :
- conjugated estrogen (Premarin), estrone (Bestrone), estradiol
(Estrace), diethylstilbestrol (DES).
Indications :
- prostate cancer, contraceptions
- estrogen replacement
Adverse effects :
estrogen - endometrial CA, gallbladder disease, HPN, migraine, breast
tenderness
progesterone - altered menstrual flow, risk of thrombo embolism
Nursing considerations :
1. Mix estrogen or progestins prior to IM administration by rolling vials
between palms.
2. Monitor blood pressure
3. Teach patient how to perform BSE.
4. Regular follow-up examination is required to detect associated risk of
acquiring CA
DRUGS AFFECTING LABOR and LACTATION
Uterine Stimulating Agents
Protoytpe :
a. Oxytocin (Pitocin), ergonovine (Ergotrate), methylergonovine
(methergine)
b. carbopost (Prostin), dinoprostone (Prostin E2)
Mechanism of actions :
a. stimulates uterine smooth muscles
b. ripening of cervix
Adverse reactions :
- fetal bradycardia (oxytocin),
- hypertension (ergonovine), palpitations
- allergic reactions (Prostaglandins)

16
Uterine Inhibiting Agents (Tocolytic)
Prototype :
- ritodrine (Yutopar), terbutaline (Brethine)
Mechanism of actions :
- relaxes the uterus by stimulating the B2- adrenergic receptors
Adverse effects :
- tremors, nausea, vomiting and tachycardia
Lactation Suppressants
Prototype :
- bromocriptine (Parlodel)
Mechanism of action :
- decrease serum prolactin levels
Adverse effects :
- drowsiness, headache, nausea, palpitations
DRUGS FOR TREATING INFECTION
Antibacterial Agents
1. Cell wall inhibitors
a. penicillins - pen G, amoxicillin, cloxacillin
b. cephalosphorins - cephalexin, cefaclor
c. glycopeptide - vancomycin
2. Protein synthesis inhibitors
a. aminoglycosides - amikacin, gentamycin
b. macrolide - erythromycins, roxithromycin
c. lincosamides - clindamycins
d. chloramphenicol, tetracyclines
3. Antimetabolites - blocks folic acid synthesis
a. Sulfonamides - cotrimoxazole
4. DNA synthesis inhibitors
a. quinolones - ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin
b. metronidazole
Adverse effects :
1. Aminoglycoside - nephrotoxicity & ototoxicity
2. Sulfonamides - Steven-Johnsons syndrome, photosynsetivity
3. Quinolones - insomnia
4. Tetracyclines - bone problems
5. Chloramphenicol - Gray syndrome, bone marrow depression
6. Erythromycin - hepatitis

Nursing considerations :
1. Collect appropriate specimen for C & S before starting antibiotics.
2. Check clients history of allergies.
3. Avoid administering erythromycin and quinolones with food.
4. Pregnant precautions.
5. Report for diarrhea - pseudomembranous colitis (clindamycin)
6. Monitor adverse effects.
Antiviral Agents
Prototype :
- acyclovir (Zovirax), ganciclovir (Cytovene),
vidarabine (Vira-A), amantidine (Symmetrel),
ribavirin (Virazole), zidovidine (Retrovir).
Mechanism of actions :
- inhibits virus specific enzymes involve in DNA
synthesis. They only control the growth of
virus but it does not cure.
Adverse effects :
- granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea,
nervousness, headache, nephrotoxicity.
Nursing consideration :
- Pregnant and breastfeeding precautions.
- Administer IV antivirals to avoid crystallization in renal tubules.
- Give ribavirin only with aerosol generator.
- Monitor CBC and creatinine level.
- Refer for signs of bleeding.
- Take amantidine after meals.

17
Antifungal Agents
Prototype :
- amphotericin B (Fungisone), nystatin,
fluconazole (Diflucan), ketoconazole (Nizoral).
Mechanism of actions :
- inhibit the synthesis of fungal sterol.
Adverse effects :
- nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity
- bone marrow depression
- chills, fever, joint pains, abdominal pain and headache.
Nursing considerations :
- Dilute amphotericin B with sterile water solution not with electrolyte
solution.
- Tell clients that fever, chills, GI upset, joint and muscle pain will
subside as amphotericin B continues.
- With oral candidiasis, let nystatin tablet dissolve in mouth rather than
swallowing it.
- Refrain ketoconazole with antacids.
- Report for signs of bleeding, infection & fatigue.
ANTIPARASITIC AGENTS
Prototype :
a. Antimalarial
- chlroquine, mefloquine, primaquine, quinine, pyrimethamine
b. Antiamebiasis
- metronidazole (Flagyl), iodoquinol, furozolidone (Furoxone).
Mechanism of actions :
a. antimalarial alters protozoal DNA, depleting folates, & reducing
nucleic acid production
b. antiamoeba block protein synthesis.
Nursing considerations :
1. Administer anti-malarial drugs with food.
2. Take seizure precautions while administering antimalarial drugs.
3. Refer cinchonism during quinine treatment:
- tinnitus, headache, vertigo, fever, and visual changes.
4. Inform clients that iodoquinol falsify thyroid function test for up to 6
months.

ANTIHELMINTIC
Prototype :
- mebendazole (Vermox), thiabendazole,
niclosamide (Niclocide), piperazine (Antepar),
praziquantel (Biltricide).
Mechanism of actions :
- paralyze larva and adult helmints by acting on parasite microtubules.
Adverse effects :
- GI upset, urinary odor (thiabendazole)
- headache, dizziness, fatigue
Nursing considerations :
1. Treat all family members for nematodes infection to prevent recurrence.
2. Praziquantel must swallowed rapidly because of its bitter taste to
avoid gagging.
3. Other antihelmintics should be chewed.
ANTI-NEOPLASTIC DRUGS
General considerations :
- kills or inhibit the reproduction of neoplasmic cells but as well as
normal cells.
- it could be cell cycle phase specific or cell cycle non-specific.
- preferably given through IV route.
Prototype :
1. Alkylating Agents
- inhibits cell production by causing cross linking of DNA
a. Busulfan hyperuricemia
b. Chlorambucil gonadal suppression
c. Cisplatin ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
d. Cyclophosphamide hemorrhagic cystitis.
2. Antitumor Antibiotic Agents
- interfere in DNA and RNA synthesis
a. Plicamycin affects bleeding time
b. Doxurubicin cardiotoxicity
c. Bleomycin pulmonary toxicity.

18
3. Antimetabolites
- replace normal proteins required for DNA synthesis by inhibiting
the S phase
a. Cytarabine hepatotoxicity
b. 5-flourouracil phototoxicity reaction and cerebellar dysfunctions
c. 6-marcaptopurine hyperuricemia
d. Methotrexate photosensitivity
- given with leucoverin to lessen its toxicity.
4. Mitotic Inhibitors (Vinca Alkaloids)
- prevent mitosis acting on the M phase causing cell death
a. Vincristine sulfate neurotoxicity, numbness
5. Hormonal Medications and Enzymes
- block the normal hormones in hormone sensitive tumors
a. Tamoxifen citrate visual problems
elevate cholesterol & triglycerides level
b. Diethylstilbestrol impotence and gynecomastia in men.
Side Effects:
stomatitis
- bland diet, avoid strong mouthwash
- soft tooth brush, ice chips
diarrhea, nausea and vomiting
- anti-emetic, replace fluids and electrolytes
alopecia
- reassure that it is temporary
- encourage o wear wigs, hats and head scarf
skin pigmentation
- inform that it is only temporary
tumor lysis syndrome
- hyperuricemia & hyperkalemia
- force fluids

infection
- notify physician if WBC is <2000/mm3
- monitor for signs of infection
- reverse isolation
- low bacteria diet
anemia
- iron, B-12, folic acid rich food
- provide rest periods
bleeding
- avoid NSAIDs
- minimize invasive procedures
- use soft toothbrush and electric razor
menstrual changes
- reassure that menstruation will resume.

19
THE END
REVIEW QUESTIONS
SITUATION: Mr. Hero Fernando, a 60 year-old bank manager
had experienced a sensation of chest tightness, chest pain,
sweating and a feeling of apprehension. A diagnosis of CAD
with angina pectoris was established
1. The physician orders for nitroglycerin tablet. The nurse knows
that the pharmacological action of the drug is:
a. To dissolve the atheromatous plaque in the coronary
artery
b. Constrict the venous vessels and capillaries
c. Dilate the coronary arteries
d. Decrease the myocardial consumption of oxygen
2. The nurse gave instructions to the patient on nitroglycerin
intake. He remarked, I think I will try not to take too many of
these pills. At this instance, the nurses BEST reply would be:
a. I agree, nitroglycerin can cause drug addiction, that is
why you must not take too many of the pills
b. I must inform you that nitroglycerin is non-habituating
and you should take the pills many times to relieve the
pain
c. You will be needing only three tablets to ease the pain
and if unrelieved, you must seek medical attention
d. There is no problem with continuous daily intake
because nitroglycerin does not cause a tolerance effect
3. The nurse must emphasize to the patient which ONE of the
following side-effects of nitroglycerin:
a. Headache
c. Nausea and vomiting
b. Hypertension
d. Visual changes
4. What other information must the nurse provide to the patient
taking the nitroglycerin?
a. Keep the tablet in a clear container
b. Take the tablet with meals
c. Continue to take as many tablets of nitroglycerin until
chest pain subsides
d. A burning sensation under the tongue is expected

5. The nurse applies the ordered nitroglycerin ointment on the


patients chest wall. Which nursing action is considered
inappropriate?
a. The nurse chooses a hairless area
b. She spreads the ointment with her fingers
c. She removes the ointment on the skin from the previous
dose
d. She rotates the sites of ointment application
6. The nurse gives which of the following discharge instructions to
this patient with angina regarding nitroglycerin therapy?
a. Only take the nitroglycerin as desired
b. The drug should be taken before engaging in exertional
activities
c. The tablet should be taken only in the morning
d. If the drug does not relieve the pain, increase the
frequency of the dose
7. Hero asked the nurse what he could do about his concern about
sex activity. The nurse best suggests:
a. Tell him to avoid sex for several months while his heart is
on therapy
b. Suggests that his wife assume the top position
c. Tell him to avoid sex on days when he is anxious
d. Advise that he should have sex only once a month
8. The nurse understands that her discharge teaching is effective
regarding life style modification when the patient says:
a. I know that I will need to eat less, so I will eat once a day
only
b. I will stay on bed most of the time so I wont experience
chest pain
c. I will stop what Im doing whenever I have pain and take
the pill
d. I need to enroll in a gym class to have a vigorous
exercise to condition my heart

20
SITUATION: Manny is admitted to the medical ward with the
diagnosis of essential HTN. He had hypertensive emergency 2
hours ago and was hospitalized for further observation.
9. The nurse administers prescribed anti-hypertensive meds. If it
can be any of the following, she will check the pulse prior to
giving:
a. Nifedipine
b. Metoprolol
c. Clonidine
d. Captopril
10. After administering a blood-pressure lowing agent, the nurse
must caution the patient:
a. To avoid straining during defecation
b. To avoid low-sodium and potassium diet
c. To avoid abrupt change of positions
d. To take warm shower immediately after taking the drug
11. The nurse prepares to give a diet appropriate for a hypertensive
patient. Which food should the nurse include in the menu?
a. Canned meat loaf
b. Scallops and shrimps
c. Fresh citrus juice and cake
d. Butter and pork steaks
12. If the physician orders Captopril as the home medication for the
high BP, the nurse must caution that the side-effect of this drug
that is disturbing is:
a. Rashes
b. Cough
c. Pruritus
d. Ringing of the ears
13. If the client is discharged with home medication of Propranolol
hydrochloride, the nurse must include in her medicationteaching plan which one?
a. Take the medication on an empty stomach
b. Obtain blood pressure readings regularly
c. Perform active exercises to prevent Hypotension
d. Caution to avoid hazardous activities after taking the
drug

14. The nurse determines that the following drugs are calcium
channel blockers that can be prescribed by the physician to the
patient. One is not included:
a. Nifedipine
b. Verapamil
c. Telmisartan
d. Diltiazem
SITUATION: Joseph,, 50 y.o. Businessman awakens in the middle
of the night with dyspnea, bilateral basilar rales and frothy
sputum. He is brought to the Mulawin hospital. His diagnosis is
congestive heart failure.
15. The physician gives the patient furosemide and digoxin. The
nurses main concern is to:
a. Take the central venous pressure reading
b. Observe for decrease edema
c. Observe for signs and symptoms of hypokalemia
d. Force fluids
16. The mechanism of action of dioxin that makes it useful in
patients with CHF is that it:
a. Produces a negative inotropic effect
b. Increases cardiac conduction
c. Enhances cardiac contractility
d. Increases the heart rate
17. The nurse is very vigilant about digoxin overdose. Which one
statement below by the patient may alert the nurse of a possible
development of toxicity?
a. Nurse, I dont feel like eating for the past few days
b. I am having constipation lately
c. I am developing a nagging cough and night terrors
d. I am experiencing dryness of the eyes and sandy
sensation
18. The nurse evaluates that the drug digoxin is effective when the
patient manifests:
a. Decreased bowel sounds
b. Increased urine output
c. Increased drowsiness
d. Decreased sympathetic response of the body

21
19. The following manifestations must be assessed by the nurse to
detect beginning digitalis toxicity, with the exception of:
a. Nausea and vomiting
b. Palpitations
c. Diplopia and visual yellow-green halos
d. Hypertension

24. The nurse administers the oral iron tablet. She will give the
medication:
a. With milk and dairy products
b. With antacids to minimize gastric upset
c. With fruit juices like calamansi and orange
d. With a full glass of coffee or tea

20. The nurse instructs the patient on diet modification during


digitalis therapy. She is certain that her teaching is effective
when the patient will choose all the foods items below, except:
a. Fresh orange juice and potato fries
b. Dried mangoes and tomato juice
c. Broccoli salad with bean sprouts
d. Flavored gelatin and iced tea

25. The nurse instructs the patient to eat iron-rich foods. She determines
that her teaching is effective when the client will choose:
a. Pomelo juice and hamburger
b. Gelatin and marshmallows
c. Lean meat and buttered corn
d. Liver and eggyolk

21. The nurse obtains an apical pulse of 78 beats/min. She is


bringing the next dose of digoxin and then proceeds to do which
one action below?
a. Withhold the drug and notify the physician
b. Start IV infusion of Digibind (digoxin antibody)
c. Instruct patient to consume more meat and nuts
d. Administer the drug
SITUATION: Armida, an 18-year-old adolescent is seen in the
health center because of easy fatigability and frequent dizziness
22. The health center physician determines that she has irondeficiency anemia. The nurse will anticipate doctor to order for:
a. Bone marrow aspiration
b. Hemoglobin level determination
c. Platelet count
d. BUN and Creatinine
23. A drug is administered to correct anemia, such as an iron. This
drug is classified as:
a. Antihelminthic
b. Anticoagulant
c. Hematinic
d. Antihistaminic

26. The doctor decides to order Iron dextran one ampoule. The
nurse prepares to administer the drug:
a. Intravenously. Slow IV push
b. Intamuscular, Z-track method
c. Subcutaneous
d. Intrathecal
27. The nurse must warn the patient taking oral iron preparations
that it can cause which side effect/s?
a. Yellowish discoloration of the skin and mucus membrane
b. Darkening of stool color
c. Anorexia and loss of hair
d. Ulceration of the skin and cough
28. The patient remained pale and weak, upon further examination,
it was determined that she has pernicious anemia. The
pathophysiology of this hematological disorder is:
a. Absence of Vitamin E in the diet
b. Presence of excessive iron in the liver
c. Absence of intrinsic factor in the stomach
d. Temporary bone marrow depression.

22
DRUGS THAT AFFECT THE HEMATOLOGICAL SYSTEM
SITUATION: Mrs. Rosalinda Amor, 23 year-old actress is
admitted because of a diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis.
29. The nurse employs which of the following non-pharmacological
measures in caring for Mrs. Amor?
a. Ice compress over the involved leg TID
b. Elevate the legs with a pillow
c. Maintain on strict bed rest with minimal bathroom
privileges
d. Massage the involved area
30. The physician orders Heparin sodium for Mrs. Amor. The nurse
understands the reason for this therapy is that:
a. Heparin will dissolve the clots in the inflamed veins to
prevent emobolization
b. There is a need to prevent further clot formation in the
involved vessels
c. Heparin will anticoauglate the blood by inhibiting
vitamin K metabolism
d. The clot formed in the vein must be lysed by activating
plasmin, the action of heparin
31. If the doctor orders for heparin therapy monitoring, the nurse
must obtain which laboratory tests from the lab unit?
a. Prothrombin time
b. Clotting time
c. Partial thromboplastin time
d. Prothrombin consumption test
32. The above laboratory value must is considered therapeutic if the
result is about:
a. 3 times the normal
b. 2 times the normal
c. Equals the normal
d. Less than the normal
33. The nurse must administer heparin to Mrs. Amor. She
determines that the most common routes of administration are:
a. IV and IM
b. SC and IV
c. ID and IM
d. IV and intrathecal

34. When the nurse is monitoring the patient for heparin overdose,
she is observing for the following signs/symptoms, except?
a. Ecchymoses
b. Positive Homans sign
c. Dark, cola-colored urine
d. Epistaxis
35. Which one effect of heparin therapy will cause nursing concern?
a. Thrombocytopenia
b. Constipation
c. Bone marrow depression
d. Dizziness
36. In the event of an overdose of heparin injection, the nurse
prepares which one antidote for toxicity?
a. Phytomenadione
b. Atropine Sulfate
c. Protamine sulfate
d. Deferoxamine chelators
37. The doctor switched from standard heparin to low molecular
weight heparin injection. The advantage of LMWH over the
standard heparin is:
a. The LMWH can be administered IM
b. The LMWH does not need frequent laboratory
monitoring
c. The LMWH has a better potency
d. The LMWH does not cause bleeding problems
38. The nurse reads the chart and notes for an order of oral Warfarin
sodium, while the patient is on heparin therapy. The nurse will:
a. Question the order because of potential excessive
bleeding if given simultaneously
b. Administer the drug as ordered
c. Withhold the heparin and administer the Warfarin orally
d. Report the error to the nurse supervisor as the patient
may be at risk for toxicity

23
39. IF Mrs. Amor is discharge with warfarin sodium, the nurse must
include in her discharge teaching which one?
a. Keep Vitamin A ampule available for injection c/o the
health center in case of emergency
b. Report any bright red blood in the stool or urine
c. Take aspirin to manage the headache side-effect of the
drug
d. Utilize firm toothbrush when brushing to prevent build
up of plaques and gingival hyperplasia
40. The nurse must remind the patient that warfarin therapy is
monitored with the use of which laboratory examinations?
a. PT and PTT
b. PT and INR
c. Clotting time and bleeding time
d. Platelet count and PT
SITUATION: Mrs. Avery had a previous attack of mild stroke and
coronary artery disease. She is taking Aspirin.
41. The reason aspirin is utilized as an anti-platelet medication is
because:
a. Aspirin can prolong the bleeding time
b. Aspirin affects the thromboxane production of platelet
c. Aspirin interferes with the receptor binding of the
platelets
d. Aspirin blocks the degranulation process inhibiting
release of histamine
42. The nurse administers aspirin:
a. On an empty stomach to increase absorption
b. With meals
c. In Between meals
d. Intramuscularly
43. Mrs. Avery had a sudden severe and prolonged chest pain. Acute
MI is suspected. The nurse anticipates the doctor to order a
fibrinolytic, and this may be:
a. Tranexamic Acid
b. Dipyridamole
c. Steptokinase
d. Coumadin

44. If the above drug is ordered to be given IV drip, the nurse must
be aware of which potential effect?
a. Hypersensitivity reaction
b. Congestive heart failure
c. Further damage to the myocardium
d. Excessive clot formation
45. If the patient is receiving tissue-plasminogen activator, the nurse
must make which one priority intervention?
a. Have heparin sodium available
b. Monitor closely the renal status
c. Observe for psychotic symptoms
d. Obtain a stand by Aminocaproic acid
SITUATION: A patient is determined to have
hypercholesterolemia and is admitted in the hospital for
treatment of her condition. The doctor ordered Lovastatin OD.
46. The nurse determines that the BEST time to give the drug is:
a. In the morning before breakfast to promote absorption
b. In the afternoon to promote sleep because it is sedating
c. At bedtime
d. In between meals
47. The nurse is knowledgeable about the mode of action of
lovastatin that it:
a. It Inhibits the formation of chylomicrons in the intestinal
cells
b. It prevents the enzyme that synthesizes cholesterol
c. It binds with bile acids and cholesterol promoting
excretion
d. It promotes cholesterol metabolism in the adipose tissue
to lower the plasma cholestero
48. The nurse is prepared to provide comfort measure to the
common side effects of the drug. She monitors the patient for:
a. Abdominal fullness, flatulence and diarrhea
b. Confusion and psychoses
c. Palpitations and arrhythmias
d. Hypertension and rashes

24
49. The nurse must monitor for these serious adverse effects of
lovastatin. Which one is not included?
a. Glaucoma
b. Cataract
c. Myositis
d. Hepatic failure
The nurse reads the drug order sheet and is most
concern to consult the physician if he orders:
e. Paracetamol
f. Gemfibrozil
g. Vitamin supplements
h. Omeprazole
50. The nurse is giving Guaifenesin to a patient. She includes in her
teaching which of the following interventions?
a. Warn the patient that extreme drowsiness may occur
b. Offer a full glass of water
c. Nausea and vomiting are potential problems alleviated
by small frequent meals
d. Suggest to buy a nebulizer machine to be used at home
e. Vitamin ADEK supplements because of impaired
absorption
51. To be able to detect the effectiveness of Salbutamol, the nurse
should check for:
a. Blood pressure and CVP readings
b. Urinary output per hour
c. Breath sounds
d. Level of consciousness
e. Pupillary reflexes
52. The patient is receiving theophylline capsule OD. The nurse
cautions the patient to avoid foods with components similar to
theophyline and they can be:
a. Sugar and cream
b. Coffee and chocolate
c. Spinach and broccoli
d. Beans and aged cheese
e. Canned goods and wine

53. The patient is receiving theophylline capsule OD. The nurse


cautions the patient to avoid foods with components similar to
theophyline and they can be:
a. Sugar and cream
b. Coffee and chocolate
c. Spinach and broccoli
d. Beans and aged cheese
e. Canned goods and wine
54. The nurse is administering acetylcysteine nebulization to a
patient. It is very much important to keep which item below at
bedside?
a. Scissors
b. Ambu bag
c. Suction machine
d. Tracheostmy set
e. NG tube
55. After giving diphenhydramine to the patient, the nurse must
ensure that the patient understands the teachings below,
EXCEPT:
a. Refrain from manipulating delicate machines
b. Take sugarless candy in the mouth to relieve dryness
c. Avoid taking the drug with alcohol
d. Check pulse rate before taking the drug
e. Manage gastric upset by taking it with food
56. The nurse watches out for a side-effect associated with intake of
codeine sulfate and provides appropriate intervention, this can
be:
a. Constipation- provide liberal fluids
b. Excitement- provide less stimulation
c. Tachycardia- administer lidocaine
d. Polyuria- give the drug in the morning
e. Tachypnea- position on semi-fowlers

25
57. Terbutaline sulfate is administered to a patient with asthma. If
the patient has another disease, the nurse is most vigilant and
cautious if this condition exists:
a. Hypothyroidism
b. Rheumatoid arthritis
c. Diabetes mellitus
d. Polycystic ovarian disease
e. Emphysema

61. Inhaled corticosteroid like beclomethasone is administered to


the patient with asthma. It is important for the nurse to stress
that this drug:
a. Acts rapidly to decrease inflammation
b. Promotes the secretion of mucus
c. May depress the immune function
d. Highly effective in terminating acute asthma attack
e. Is habituating and addicting

58. The nurse is administering oxymetazoline nasal decongestant.


She includes in her care plan all of the following interventions,
EXCEPT?
a. Instruct the patient to clear the nasal passage of mucus
before instilling
b. Remind patient to keep the head tilted for a few seconds
after administration
c. Advise increased fluid intake
d. Encourage the use for one week for better effect
e. Caution that tachycardia and urinary retention may
occur with systemic absorption

62. The second generation anti-histamines like cetirizine have the


advantage over the first generation antihistamines like
diphenhydramine because second generation antihistamines:
a. Have shorter duration of action that can be reversed
rapidly
b. Have less sedation and anticholinergic properties
c. Posses less drug sensitivity reactions
d. Have a greater safety profile
e. Have less abuse potential

59. The physician asks the nurse for an anticholinergic drug to be


used for the asthmatic patient. The nurse obtains from the
pharmacy which drug?
a. Albuterol
b. Terbutaline
c. Metaproterenol
d. Ipratropium bromide
e. Salbutamol
60. The physician orders dextromethorphan for a patient who is
complaining of very uncomfortable coughing. The nurse
understands that this drug acts to suppress cough by:
a. Increasing the secretions of the bronchial glands
b. Removing the irritation from the respiratory tract
c. Inhibiting the medulla oblongata cough center
d. Inhibiting the stretch receptors in the lungs
e. Triggering the vagal responses

63. The nurse cautions the patient taking diphenhydramine


(Benadryl) to expect all of the following side effects, except?
a. Dry mouth
b. Blurred vision
c. Urinary frequency
d. Drowsiness
e. Dizziness
64. The nurse must remember to administer theophylline slowly or
with an infusion pump because this drug, if given rapidly can
cause:
a. Increased alertness
b. Severe hypotension
c. Tachycardia
d. Pallor
e. Headache