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FABRICATION OF MOTORISED

PUNCHING MACHINE
Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award

DIPLOMA

IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SUBMITTED BY:

1. D. VADIVEL
2. G. MOHANAM
3. K. ANBU

4. K. VIMAL KUMAR
5. A. VENKATESAN
6. P. SARAVANAN
Under guidance of

S.N. SUNDAR, M.E.


NOVEMBER 2010
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING .
A.M.K TECHNOLOGICAL POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE
CHENNAI 602103

A.M.K TECHNOLOGICAL POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE


CHENNAI- BANGALORE ROAD
SEMBARAMBAKKAM
CHENNAI 602103

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this Project work on
FABRICATION OF MOTORISED PUNCHING MACHINE

submitted by . Reg. No.


in partial fulfillment for the award of
DIPLOMA IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
This is the bonafide record of work carried out by him under our supervision
during the year 2010

Submitted for the Viva-voce exam held on ..

H.O.D

INTERNAL EXAMINER

PROJECT GUIDE

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

At the outset, we would like to emphasize our sincere thanks to the


Principal Mr. R.J. KUMAR, M.E.F.I.E, M.I.S.T.E for encouragement and
valuable advice.

we thank our Esquired Head of Department Mr. R. RAJKUMAR, M.E. for


presenting his felications on us.
We are grateful on our Entourages Mr. S.N. SUNDAR, M..E. For guiding
in various aspects of the project making it a grand success.
We also owe our sincere thanks to all staff members of the Mechanical
Department .

Ultimately, we extend our thanks to all who had rendered their cooperation for the success of the project.

CONTENTS

CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

SYNOPSIS

3.

SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE OF


PROJECT WORK

4.

OBJECTIVES

5.

SELECTION OF PROJECT

6.

CONSTRUCTION

7.

WORKING PRINCIPLE

8.

MAIN PARTS AND DESCRIPTION

9.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPONENT

10.

ADVANTAGES

11.

COST ESTIMATION

12.

CONCLUSION

13.

BIBILOGRAPHY

14.

PHOTOVIEW

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
This project concentrates on providing descriptions of all the basic
operating principles and design of solar cell.
In our technical education the project work plays a major role. Every
student is put in to simulate life particularly where the student required
bringing his knowledge, skill and experience of the project work.
It helps how to evolve specifications under given constrains by
systematic approach to the problem a construct a work device. Project work
thus integrates various skills and knowledge attainment during study and
gives orientation towards application.
As the students solve the various problems exposed by the project
work, the students get the confidence to overcome such problems in the
future life. It helps in expanding the thinking and alternatives for future
applications.

SYNOPSIS

SYNOPSIS

Press working techniques utilizing large quantities of economical


tooling equipment design and it quickly, accurately and economically cold
working of mild steel and other ductile materials. The component produced
range over an extremely wide field and is used throughout industry for
economical production of quantities of pressing; consideration has to be
given to the rate of production. The cost of the press tool to be employed .
Press may be defined as the chip less manufacturing process by which
various components are made from sheet. Mostly press use fabricated parts
of incite shape with thin walls. It uses large force by press tools far short
time interval
which results in cutting a shaping the sheet metal . In the early days, metal
forming press use simple crank and lever mechanism that convert rotating
motion into linear motion with the help of punch/ram. The rotating motion
achieved by motor and linear motion achieved by punch or ram,
punch applied on workpiece .

SCOPE AND
IMPORTANCE OF
PROJECT WORK

SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE OF PROJECT WORK

Enables to show the intrinsic knowledge of the individual.


Enables to develop the ability of the designing and developing factors
and its applications.
Enables to induce the collection of technical data and other related
standard data from the work.
Enables to apply the techniques of method study and time study.
Enables to have a complete knowledge of the particular work which
they have designed and fabricated.

OBJECTIVES

OBJECTIVES
The following are the main objectives of our project
To provide Smart hole and good bore finish.
To manufacture various sizes of punch machine.
Unskilled Labour is sufficient
To cover more area with minimum consumption of operational time.
To improve entrepreneurial skills

SELECTION OF
PROJECT

SELECTION OF PROJECT

Modern industries and business establishment has become very


complex and competitive in making up of machines based on their own
knowledge and skill.

We preferred to make the motorized punching machine, which is


simple in construction and design. It can be used in small scale industrial,
domestic and play ground.. This unit

require only 12VDC

electrical

power..

Most of them prefer for machine with less cost and more life. The
Punching machine is made up of mild steel material and coated with
primer. The unit can easy to operate and is harmless to people who makes
them and also who uses them.

CONSTRUCTION

CONSTRUCTION
This unit consists of
1) rotating crank
2) DC Motor with built in speed reduction gear
box
3) Rotating shaft with plummer block support
4) M.S. Fabrication stand unit.

The motorized punching machine consists of a base with the L angle


coloumn welded rigidly. A platform has rotatable crank with punching die
is fixed to the base. The main rotating shaft is fixed to the base stand by
means of a plummer block. The roller is mounted on the main shaft it
carries a DC motor which transmit the power to rotating crank .

DC Motor with built in speed reduction gear box

This DC motor is shunt type 12V DC motor. This motor is having built
in type speed reduction gear box unit. It has high torque and low speed
capacity. The electrical supply to the motor is from 12 V DC power supply.
The DC Motor drives the chain wheel and geneva wheel mechanism.

Crank and connecting rod mechanism;


A crankshaft has one (or more) offset sections where a connecting rod is
attached around it. The connecting rod moves back-and-forth (or up-anddown) ONCE for every rotation of the crankshaft. The crank will always
move in a circle, moving the connecting rod in a smooth sine wave like
motion. The power can flow in either direction. That is, the crankshaft can
drive the connecting rod, or the connecting rod can drive the crankshaft.

3.Frame Stand
This base frame stand made in 25mm x25 mm x 3mm M.S. l angle and is
used to hold the entire mechanism and support the motor also.

PRINCIPLE OF DC MOTOR
A DC motor is a dc machine working as a motor to convert dc
electrical energy into mechanical energy (dc) motor are very commonly used
in cars, trucks, aircrafts, etc. They are also used in large ratings, where wide
range of speed control is necessary.
When a conductor is carried a current and in lying in magnetic filed.
Force acting on the conductor. This is the principle of a Dc motor. The
conductor is housed in armature slots and current is applied from the dc
source through brushes and commutator. The field poles provide the
magnetic field.

The construction of dc motor and generator are similar. However


their external appearance may be somewhat different. A motor has a rather
closed frame because it is may be operating in dusty environment and
unskilled workers may be working in its vicinity.

RATINGS OF MOTOR
Motors are rated by their voltage, current draw, output speed, and torque.
Operating Voltage
Operating voltage specifies the nominal (normal) voltage the manufacturer
recommends for the motor. Most small DC motors are designed for 1.5 to 12
volt operation, with the majority in the 3-6 volt range. Larger DC motors
designed for heavy-duty applications usually require 12 to 24 volts, with
some needing upwards of 90 volts. Often, but not always, the higher the
voltage, the more powerful the motor (this does not apply to stepper motors,
where very low voltages on the order of just a few volts are common
for heavy-duty motors). Most motors can be run at operating voltages higher
or lower than the specified rating.

Lower voltages reduce torque and speed.

Higher voltages increase torque and speed.

(Note: For stepper motors, speed is not greatly altered by changing the
voltage.)
Avoid applying excessively high voltages to a motor, or else it could
overheat and burn out. R/C servo motors contain their own electronics which
are not designed for use over about 7.2 volts.
Current Draw

Current draw is the amount of current, specified in milliamps or amps, that


the motor requires to produce a certain amount of torque. Motors consume
different amounts of current depending on how they are operated:

No-load. A motor that doesnt have anything attached to its shaft


isnt doing any work, and is said to be free-running. No-load current
tends to be very low.

Load. As the motor does work, its load and current draw increases.
Manufacturers rate the current draw under load using different
standards, making it hard to judge a motor using this specification
alone.

Stalled. When the motor shaft stops rotating, it stalls and draws as
much current as will flow through the windings. This specification is
useful for worst case scenario engineering planning.

Shorted. Maximum current flows into the motor when the coils are
shorted out. The motor will not run, and like any short circuit, if
operated in this way for any length of time, serious damage can result
to other systems on the robot.

Torque
Torque is the way the strength of the motor is measured. It is typically
calculated by attaching a lever to the end of the motor shaft, and a weight or
gauge on the end of that lever. The length of the lever usually depends on the
unit of measurement given for the weight. Examples:

Metric measurements use Newton meters (Nm), kilograms-force


meters (kgf-m), or sometimes gram-centimeters (gm-cm).

Standard measurements use ounce-inches (oz-in), or pound-feet (lb-

ft), or pound-inches (lb-in). Its common to reverse the nomenclature


and call it foot-pounds and inch-pounds.
Speed
The speed of the motor indicates how fast its shaft is turning. DC motors
without a gearbox spin at 3,000 to over 12,000 RPM (revolutions per
minute). With a gear box, the speed can vary from under 1 RPM, on up.
Stepping motors are not rated in RPM, but pulses (or steps) per second. The
speed of a stepper motor is a function of the number of steps required to
make one full revolution, times the number of steps applied to the motor
each second. Typical values are 200 or 300 PPS.

WORKING PRINCIPLE

WORKING PRINCIPLE

The machine is seated without any vibration.


The machine can make punching without giving much effort..
The cutting die placed at the connecting rod which is reciprocated
by the crank wheel by the motorized drive.,
When the motor is rotated , the crank wheel is rotated and hence
the punching die with connecting rod also moved.
The machine is moved on the job.
During its movement the connecting rod with the die are forced
on the job to make punch.

The hole is cut by the die set and the job is removed.

MAIN PARTS AND


DESCRIPTION

MAIN PARTS AND DESCRIPTION

1.

BASE

2.

DRUM WITH BLADE

3.

BASE PLATE

4.

MAIN SHAFT

5.

V BELTS

6.

KNIFE EDGED BLADE

7.

PLUMMER BLOCK.

DESCRIPTION OF THE
COMPONENT

DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPONENT


BASE

Base is the foundation of the machine, which withstands the vibration


of the machine and transmits it to the ground. It holds the machine parts. It
has the provision for holding the base plate. Two trolley wheel is fixed to
the base.
BASE PLATE
It is the backbone of the machine. It is mounted to the main shaft by
means of the plummer block..
MAIN SHAFT
The shaft must have sufficient thickness to avoid bending, due to heavy
load and vibrations. They supported over the base by means of the sleeve.
The pulley is fixed to the main shaft that transmits the power to the base
plate by means of V belt drive transmission.
V-BELTS

V belt is a mechanical member that is to transmit the motion from


one to another pulley. It is made up of a hardened rubber. V belt is used
because of its lesser slippage and high tension.

DESCRIPTION OF
MECHANICAL PRESS

CLASSIFICATION OF PRESS
According to IS 8064:2002 standard [7], press classified into two principle
categories as hydraulic presses which operate on the principle of hydrostatic
pressure. Mechanical press which utilized kinematic linkage of elements to
transmit power. Mechanical press can be also classified into basis of the
design of the frame.

Fig.1.1 Classification of press frame

Fig.1.: Press frame

3. STUDY OF 300T AND 400T PRESS

PRESS :A machine having a stationary bed and a slide(Ram)which has


controlled reciprocating motion towards and away from the bed
surface and at right angle to it. The slide being guided in the frame
of the machine to give a definite path of the motion.
Arbor:A manual or power operated press used to force arbors or mandrels
into or out of holes and for similar assembly or disassembly
operations.
Arch :-A small crank press having its columns as uprights wider
slide flange, left to right between the columns or to permit larger
strike lengths.
Automatic:A press in which the work, either separate parts or strike or sheet
stock, is fed through the press in synchronism with the press
operating cycle and by means other than manual.
Bench :Any small press of a size to be mounted on a bench or table. These
presses are almost always gap frame and maybe fixed or inclinable.
Bottom drive :Any press with the drive mechanism located within or under the
bed. connections of the drive to slide or slides are within or
alongside the upright.

CLASSIFICATION OF PRESSES :Presses are classified by one or a combination of characteristics


which include the source of power and no of slides. Other
classification methods are the types of frames and construction,
types of drive and intended applications.
Source of power :The source of power for press orientation can be manual ,
mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic / hydraulic.
Manual presses :Manual presses are either hand or foot powered through levers,
series of gears. The most common press of this type is the arbor
press used for various assembly operations. These presses are often
converted to power operation by the addition of air or hydraulic
cylinders.
Mechanical presses :Mechanical presses utilize flywheel energy which is transferred to
the workpiece by gears, cranks , eccentric or levers. Mechanical
presses can be non geared or geared , with single or multiple
reduction gear drives , depending upon the press size.
Hydraulic presses :Hydraulic presses provide working face through the application of
fluid pressure.
Pneumatic presses :Using air cylinders to exert the required force , pneumatic presses
are usually smaller in size and capacity than the mechanical or
hydraulic presses. They are generally employed for lighter duty.

Advantages

include

low

cost

high

speed

and

minimum

maintenance.
STRUCTURE OF PRESSES:Presses are available in several different designs. The types include
permanently

upright

presses,

such

as

adjustable

bed

stationary(ADS),open back stationary presses, permanently inclined


presses, open back inclinable presses. The inclined presses often
facilitate feeding and permit finished stampings to fall out by
gravity or be blown out by air at the rear of the press. Crop frame
presses are made with either one or two points of suspension. Forge
gap frame presses are generally equipped for mounting cushions for
workpiece liftout or for shallow draw operations. Powered slide
adjustment systems are available for faster die changing. These
presses are commonly arranged with their crank shafts extending
from right to left of the die space .They are also available with the
crank shaft extending from front to back, with the flywheel or gear
at the rear of the press.
PRESS SELECTION :Proper selection of a press is essential for successful and
economical operation. The purchase of a press represents a
substantial capital investment , and return on investment depends
upon how well the press performs the job required. No general
purpose press exists that can provide maximum productivity and
economy for all applications. Compromises are usually have to be
made to permit a press to be employed for more than one job.
Careful consideration should be given to both present and future
production requirements.

Important

factors

influencing

the

selection of a press include size , force , energy and speed


requirements. The press must be capable of exerting force in the
amount , location , direction As well as for the length of time
needed to perform the specified operations. Other considerations
must include the size and geometry of the workpieces. Operations
to be performed, no of workpieces to be produced, production rate
needed , accuracy and finish requirements , equipment costs and
other factors.
Press speeds :Press speed is relative from that varies with point of reference. Fast
speeds are generally desirable , but they are limited by the
operations performed, the distances above stroke bottoms where the
forces must be applied, and the stroke lengths. However high speed
is not necessarily the most efficient or productive size and
configuration of workpiece, the material from which it is made , die
life, maintenance costs , and other factors must be considered to
determine the highest productivity rate at lowest cost per
workpiece. A lower speed maybe more economical because of
possible longer production runs with less downtime.
Speed ranges :Simple blanking and shallow forming operations can be performed
at high speeds. Mechanical presses have been built that operate to
2000 spm with one inch stroke , but applications at this
maximum speed are rare. Speeds of 600 to 1400 spm are more
common for blanking operations, and thick materials are often
blanked at much lower speeds.
Press systems :-

Press integrated with material handling equipment, feeding and


unloading devices and other manufacturing equipment.
TYPES OF FRAMES AND CONSTRUCTION :Basic function of a press frame are to contain the loads imposed
with a minimum of deflection which requires ample rigidity. The 2
major types of press frame are gap frame and straight side. Straight
side presses are sometimes constructed with column type frames.
Important criteria for selecting the type of frame to be used include
accessibility and operating characteristics, convenience of feeding
and unloading shift ness and profile.
Number of slides :With respect to function , presses maybe classified by the no of
slides incorporated and are referred to as single , double and triple
action presses. On multislide machines each.
Single action presses :A single action press has one reciprocating slide ( tool carrier )
acting against a fixed bed. Process of this type , which are the most
widely used , can be employed for many different metal stamping
operations , including blanking , embossing , coining and drawing.
Depending upon the depth of draw , single action presses often
require the use a die cushion for blank holding. In such
applications, a blank holder , ring is depressed by the slide (through
pins ) against the die cushion , usually mounted in the bed of the
press.
Die space :-

The maximum space or any part of the maximum space within a


press for mounting a die.
Dwell :A portion of the press cycle during which the movement of the
member is zero or at least insignificant. Usually refers to the
internal when the blank holder in a drawing process is holding the
blank while the punch is making the draw.
Eccentric gear :A main press drive gear within an eccentric as an integral part. The
unit rotates about a common shaft with the eccentric transmitting
the rotary motion of the gear into the vertical motion of the slide
through a connection.
Eccentric shaft :A crank with a crank join of such size that it contains or surrounds
the shaft. The eccentric with its connection is used in the eccentric
press and is also used for driving auxiliary attachments such as lift
outs and feeds.
Eccentric draw :The maximum limits of forming depth which can be accomplished
with the multiple action presses. For typical double action or the
upper action of a triple action press, effective draw is the distance
the inner is from the bottom of its stroke at the point at which the
outer slide begins its dwell. For the lower action of a triple action
press, it is the distance the lower slide is from the top its stroke

when the inner slide begins its dwell-sometimes called maximum


draw or maximum depth of draw.
Feeds :Various devices that move stack on workpieces to, in or from a die.
Flywheel :A heavy rotating wheel attached to a shaft, whose principle purpose
is to store kinetic energy during the man working portion of the
press cycle and to release energy during the working portion of the
press cycle.
Frame :The main structure of a press.
Knockout :A mechanism for releasing workpieces from a die, also called
ejector, kick out or lift out. crossbars, cams, springs or air cushions
are commonly used to actuate slide knock outs.
Load, press :Amount of force exerted in a given operation.
Pneumatic toggle links :A special main links of a toggle press which are equipped with
pneumatic cushions and a linkage to give air pressure controlled
flexibility. These links compensate for variation thickness under the
blank holder and also can be adjusted to exert different pressures at
different corners of the blank holder.
Eccentric :A mechanical press in which an eccentric is used to move the slide
instead a crank shaft.

Foot :A small press powered by foot pressure.


Geared :A press whose main crank or eccentric is connected to the driving
source by one or more sets of gears.
Mechanical press :A press having a slide or slides actuated by mechanical means.
Adjustable bed :The bed on the table of a gap frame press, such as a horn press,
which is bolted to the vertical front surface of the press. It is
supported and adjusted (up and down) by means of a screw usually
operated by hand. This term also refers to bed of a large straight
side press, mounted and guided in the press frame and provided
with a suitable mechanism, usually power operated for varying the
die space sheet height. Adjustable bed presses are also referred to as
knee type presses.
Adjustable stroke :The capacity of varying length of stroke on a press.
Adjustable slide :The distance that a press slide position can be altered to change the
sheet height of the die space. The adjustment may be by hand or by
power mechanism.
Automatic press stop :A machine generated signal for stopping the action of a press,
usually often a complete cycle, by disengaging the clutch
mechanism and engaging the break mechanism.
Bed,press :-

The stationary part of a press serving a table to which is affixed a


bolster, or sometimes the lower die directly.
Bolster plate :A plate attached to the top of the press bed for locating and
supporting the die assembly. It usually has holes as 7 slots for
attaching the lower die or die shoe. Moving bolster plates on self
powered for transferring dies in and out of the press for die
setting .Also called rolling bolsters, they maybe integral with or
mounted to a carriage. They are not to be confused with sliding
bolsters, the purpose of which is moving the lower die in and out of
the press for workpiece feeding.
Capacity,press :The rated press force that a press is designed to exert at a
predetermined distance above the bottom of the stroke of the slide.
Clutch :A coupling mechanism used on a mechanical press to couple the
flywheel to crankshaft, either directly or through gear trains.
Cushion :An accessory for a press which provides a resistive force with
motion required for some operations, such as blank holding ,
drawing or redrawing, maintaining uniform pressure on a
workpiece and knocking out or stripping or also called pads or
jacks. Although usually mounted in or under the press bed. They
are also used in or on the slide.
Power :-

A term used loosely to designate any press using electrical power as


compared to manual power.
Single action :A press with the single action.
Ram = slide :Shut height :The distance from the top of the bed to bottom of the slide of a
vertical press, with stroke down adjustment up, on moving bolster
presses, or shut height is measured from the top of the bolster
(when the bolster is integral with carriage) or the top of the carriage
when the bolster is separate.
Slide :The main reciprocating member of press, guided in the press frame
to which the punch or upper die is fastened. Sometimes called the
ram. The inner slide of a double action press is called the plunger or
punch holder slide. The outer slide of a double action press is called
the blank holder slide. The third slide of a triple action press is
called the lower slide, and the slide of a hydraulic press is often
called the platen.
Slide operation :The distance between the face of the die mounting surface of the
inner slide and the outer slide of multiple action presses at open
position.
Stroke :The distance between the terminal points of the reciprocating
motion of a press slide.
Strokes per minute :-

The specified continuous running speed of a press. It is not the no


of permissible single tripling of a press and consequently does not
measure the possible production per min, except when a press is
running continuously. The no of single tripling per min varies with
different types and makes of clutches as well as with the dexterity
of the operator.
Top stop :A machine generated signal for stopping a press

at the

top of a stroke.
CUSHIONS :Die Cushion :Die cushion often and more accurately referred to as pressure pods ,
are used to apply pressure to flat blanks for drawing operations.
They also serve as lift out or knock out devices to remove
stampings from the dies.
Pneumatic cushions :In cushions of this type ,the maximum pressure is controlled by the
diameter and no of cylinders and available air pressure. Shop line
pressure is generally used, but it is possible to use a booster or
intensifier to increase the air pressure. A pneumatic die cushion for
a single point press normally uses one cylinder and one piston. Two
ore more cushions maybe placed on top of one another, however
when a high capacity unit is required in a limited bed area in which
a vertical space is available.
LUBRICATION :Role of lubrication :-

Friction and lubrication are of vital importance in most metal


forming operation. Effective lubrication system results in low
friction levels which reduce the loads imposed on toolings or
workpiece failures or permit reduction in the no of steps required to
form a part. Lower force level also reduce tooling deflection and
can improve the dimensional accuracy of the product.
Lubrication regimes :The type of lubrication regime that occurs in a metal forming
operations has a strong influence on frictional conditions, as well as
on important factors such as product surface finish and tooling wear
rates.
The lubrication regime that occurs in a given metal forming process
is dependent on several factors of the process.
Contact macro geometry(varies with process and die design)
Load (contact force, tool to workpiece)
Speed (surface speed, tool to workpiece)
Environment (air, moisture, drawing compound etc )
Lubricant properties
Contact micro geometry (micro topography or surface finish)
Lubricity and L-P agents :The chemistry of a lubricant includes the additions of various
lubricity and extreme pressure agents that make the fluids slippery
and more wear and more weld resistant. These agents include fat ,
phosphorous , chlorine and sulphur. Percentages of agents used for
any given applications are dictated by the ductility of the material,
configuration of the part, temperatures generated, press cycle time
and other factors. The contents of viscosity and lubricity agents can

cause press working problems, if improperly specified. Lubricity


agents function under all temperature conditions but are least
effective below 50 degree F (10 degree C) and above 1200 F (649
C). fat is a good lubricity additive ( since it is attracted to most
metal surfaces and does not stain metal)
PRESS SAFETY :Press safety depends upon the proper design, manufacture,
installation, setup, operation and maintenance of the presses, dies
and related equipments. Safeguarding is complicated by the wide
variety of operations and conditions encentered due to variation in
size , speed and type of press, used , the size thickness and kind of
workpiece to be produced, the design and construction of the dies,
the required accuracy of the workpieces,the skill of operator, the no
of workpieces needed, the method of feeding, including scrap and
workpiece removal methods.
SAFETY STANDARDS :Information pertaining to safety requirements as they relate to
mechanical presses is available in ANSI standards. Safety
requirements for the construction, core and use of mechanical
presses. Most of the provisions of this standard are included in
section 1910-217 of the occupational safety and health act(OSHA).
Public law 91-596. some of the more important definitions included
in the ANSI and OSHA standards.
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS :The cylinder must incorporate means to retain the piston and rod in
case of breakage or loosening.
Stop the slide and attachment at any point of the stroke.

Cylinder must incorporate means to prevent failure of capability


(sudden loss of pressure)
Air controlling equipment must be protected against foreign
material and water entering the pneumatic system.
Means of air lubrication whenever needed.
Emergency stop deactivate the clutch control and activate the
brake to stop.
Press components must also be designed, secured or covered to
minimize hazards caused by breakage , loosening and failing or by
release of mechanical energy(in case of breaking spring)
Fig 3.1 400 T press

400TONNE, STRAIGHT SIDED, FOUR PIECE, TIE ROD


FRAME. SINGLE ACTION, TWO POINT, LEFT TO RIGHT
SHAFT,

DOUBLE

GEARED,

FRICTION

CLUTCH,

ECCENTRIC POWER PRESS.


Table 3.1 Specification of 400T Press
CAPACITY at 6mm,above BDC
at specified stroke
Stroke(fixed)

400 T

RAM (slide) Face

1800x1200mm

RAM Adjustment (powered)

150mm

Knock Out Bars in RAM

5 nos

Traveling in Knock Bars

80mm

Bolster Table

1800x1200

Holes for cushion Bolster

10x6 nos

PCD Cushion pins

150pcd

250mm

Maximum Shut height from table 200mm


Surface
SDAU (Shut down adjustment up) 150mm

SPECIFICATION OFCUSHION
Die cushion

75T

Stroke of Die Cushion

125mm

I/D of ejector pin Holes in Bolster

40mm

Fig 3.2 300 T press

1) 300 T Press
300TON,STRAIGHT SIDED,FOUR PIECE,TIE ROD FRAME,
SINGLE ACTION,TWO POINT, LEFT TO RIGHT SHAFT,

SINGLE GEARED,FRICTION CLUTCH, ECCENTRIC POWER


PRESS.
Capacity at 6mm, above BDC at
specified stroke
Stroke (Fixed)

300t

Stroke per hour

400 nos

Ram (slide) Face

1250x1800mm

Ram adjustment (Powered)

100 mm

Knock out bars in RAM

3 nos

Traveling of knock Bars

130 mm

Bolster table

1250x1800mm

PCD of cushion Pins

8x5

Maximum Shut height from table


surface
Minimum SDAU Shut Height from
Table Surface

150mm

200mm

100mm

Table 3.4 Specification of cushion :Die cushion capacity

50 t

Stroke of Die cushion

150mm

Ejector Pins Holes in Bolster

50 nos

Dia of Ejector Pins

40mm

ELECTRICAL
CIRCUIT DETAILS

POWER SUPPLY UNIT


INTRODUCTION:
All the electronic components starting from diode to Intel ICs only
work with a DC supply ranging from +5V to +12V. We are utilizing for the
same, the cheapest and commonly available energy source of 230V-50Hz
and stepping down, rectifying, filtering and regulating the voltage.
STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER:
When AC is applied to the primary winding of the power transformer,
it can either be stepped down or stepped up depending on the value of DC
needed. In our circuit the transformer of 230V/15-0-15V is used to perform
the step down operation where a 230V AC appears as 15V AC across the
secondary winding. Apart from stepping down voltages, it gives isolation
between the power source and power supply circuitries.
RECTIFIER UNIT:
In the power supply unit, rectification is normally achieved using a
solid state diode. Diode has the property that will let the electron flow easily
in one direction at proper biasing condition. As AC is applied to the diode,
electrons only flow when the anode and cathode is negative. Reversing the

polarity of voltage will not permit electron flow. A commonly used circuit
for supplying large amounts of DCpower is the bridge rectifier. A bridge
rectifier of four diodes (4 x IN4007) are used to achieve full wave
rectification. Two diodes will conduct during the negative cycle and the
other two will conduct during the positive half cycle, and only one diode
conducts. At the same time one of the other two diodes conducts for the
negative voltage that is applied from the bottom winding due to the forward
bias for that diode. In this circuit due to positive half cycle D1 & D2 will
conduct to give 0.8V pulsating DC. The DC output has a ripple frequency of
100Hz. Since each alteration produces a resulting output pulse, frequency =
2 x 50 Hz. The output obtained is not a pure DC and therefore filtration has
to be done.
The DC voltage appearing across the output terminals of the bridge
rectifier will be somewhat less than 90% of the applied rms value. Normally
one alteration of the input voltage will reverse the polarities. Opposite ends
of the transformer will therefore always be 180 degree out of phase with
each other. For a positive cycle, two diodes are connected to the positive
voltage at the top winding.

FILTERING CIRCUIT:

Filter circuits which is usually capacitor acting as a surge arrester


always follow the rectifier unit. This capacitor is also called as a decoupling
capacitor or a bypassing capacitor, is used not only to short the ripple with
frequency of 120Hz to ground but also to leave the frequency of the DC to
appear at the output. A load resistor R1 is connected so that a reference to
the ground is maintained. C1, R1 is for bypassing ripples. C2, R2 is used as
a low pass filter, i.e. it passes only low frequency signals and bypasses high
frequency signals. The load resistor should be 1% to 2.5% of the load.
1000f/25V : for the reduction of ripples from the pulsating
10f/25V

: for maintaining the stability of the voltage at the load side.

0.1f

: for bypassing the high frequency disturbances

LIST OF MATERIALS

LIST OF MATERIALS

Sl. No.

COMPONENT

MATERIAL

1.

CRANK- PLATE

2.

DC MOTOR

24VDC

3.

GENEVA WHEEL

MILD STEEL

4.

SPINDLE (SHAFT)

6.

PLUMMER BLOCK

1.

QUANTITY
No.

MILS STEEL
1

CAST IRON

CAST IRON

CHAIN DRIVE MECHANISM


1

STEEL

1
1

SAFETY,CARE AND
MAINTENANCE

SAFETY,CARE AND MAINTENANCE

Before using the machine, some of the points to be noted for safety
purpose,
1. Before starting the operation, check the following items
(1)

Check the mechanism for proper operation .

(2)

Check the alignment of chain drives, job feed rollers and


bearing in the unit.

(3)

Dont insert the any material or object between the during


operation of punching.

(4)

Check the lubrication of chain drive in the unit.

(5)

Handle carefully while punching the work .

ADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES
Low investment
Cutting time is less
Unskilled labour can operate the machine
Low blade cost
Maintenance cost is low
Number of part is less
Less floor space
Greater safety to the worker
Life span of the machine is high
To reduce the operator fatigue as handling operation is minimized
and simplified.

FEATURES OF THIS PROJECT

It is compact in size
It can be move
Low electrical power consumption
It can be utilized at our Place .
It is simple in construction
Low cost
Less weight and easy to handle
It reduces the man power
It is simple in operation..

FINISHING AND
PAINTING

FINISHING AND PAINTING


JOB PREPARATION;
Before welding, remove any bend in the L angle with the sludge
hammer on the anvil block. Then it is cut to the required length
with the hacksaw blade and fabricated to required dimensional
shape with arc welding.
FINISHING OPERATION BEFORE PAINTING;
After welding, any slag on the welded area is removed with the
chipping hammer and cleaned with the metal wire brush. Then all
the surfaces are rubbed with the emery sheet.
Metal primer is applied on the surfaces with the brush .After
drying the metal primer, the second coating is applied with the
paint.

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

We make this project entirely different from other projects. Since


concepts involved in our project is entirely different that a single unit is used
to various purpose which is not developed by any of other team members.
This apparatus can be easily manufactured and marketed
Cost of this apparatus is reasonable.

The experience gained in this project will give self confidence to


design simple machines and apparatus on similar lines under entrepreneurs
scheme of the Government.

We have successfully complete this project work at our Institute.


Once again we express our sincere thanks to our staff members.

COST ESTIMATION

COST ESTIMATION

1. Crank shaft (1x1200)--------------

1200.00

2. connecting rod WITH Die (1x1800) ----- 1000.00


3. DC MOTOR

ASSEMBLY --------- ------ 1000.00

4. PAINT------------- ----------------------

200.00

5. PLUMMER BLOCK 2 NOS ----------------- 1600.00


6. M.S. FABRICATION CASING ----------------1000,00

----------------6000.00
---------------------

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Machine Design by
R.S. Khurmi
J.K. Gupta
Production Technology by
R.K. Jain
Tool Design and Engineering by
Cyrll Donaldson
P. Rajagopal
Estimating & Costing by
Banga & Sharma

REFERENCES
[1] He, D. (1987). Crank presses. China Machine Press (in Chinese),
Beijing.
[2] He, D. (1989). Special presses. China Machine Press (in Chinese),
Beijing.
[3] Hongsen, Y., Weiren, C. (2000). A variable input speed approach for
improving the output motion characteristics of watt-type presses.
International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture vol. 40, p. 675-690.
[4] Yossifon, S., Shivpuri, R. (1993). Analysis and comparison of selected
rotary Linkage drives for mechanical presses.
International Journal of Machine Tools &Manufacture, vol. 33, p. 175-92.
[5] Yossifon, S., Shivpuri, R. (1993). Design Considerations for the Electric
Servo Motor Driven 30 Ton Double Knuckle
Press For Precision Forming. International Journal of Machine Tools &
Manufacture,vol. 33, p. 193-208.
[6] Yossifon, S., Shivpuri, R. (1993). Optimization of a double knuckle
linkage drive with constant mechanical advantage for mechanical presses.
International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, vol. 33, p. 209-222.
[7] Tokuz, L.C., Jones, J.R. (1991). Programmable modulation of motion
using hybrid machine. Proceedings of Imeche,C414/071, p. 85-92.
[8] Tokuz, L.C. (1992). Hybrid machine modeling and control. Ph.D. Thesis,
Department of Mech., Liverpool Polytechnic, UK.

[9] Tokuz, L.C., Jones, J.R. (1994). Power Transmission and flow in the
hybrid machines. The 6th International Machine Design and Production
Conference, MENU, p. 209-218.
[10] Tokuz, L.C., Jones, J.R. (1997). A design guide for hybrid machine
applications. Transactions Journal of Engineering and Environment
Sciences, vol. 21, p. 1-11.

PHOTO VIEW