CHAPTER ONE Introduction 1.

0 INTRODUCTION This chapter will introduce the background of study, statement of the problem, objectives, research questions, assumptions, delimitations, limitations and the importance of the study. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY According to Mushongahande (2007), the timber industry is an oligopoly dominated by five players which are; the Wattle Company Limited, Mutare Board and Paper Mills, Allied Timbers, Boarder Timbers Limited and Forest Company of Zimbabwe. These companies have been experiencing a decline in production since 2005 due to some damages on their plantations. Mushongahande added that, the Wattle Company Limited is the third largest producer of pine-sawn timber in Zimbabwe. It produces approximately twenty percent of Zimbabwe's total annual timber output. Pine plantations of the Wattle Company, are located at Nyanga, Chimanimani, Vumba, Silverstream, Chipinge and Dunsinane Estates. Logs from these plantations are supplied to the Nyanga estates to be processed. Mushongahande pointed out that, of the thirty nine million hectares of Zimbabwe, one hundred and eight thousand two hundred and fourteen (3%) of the total area is under commercial plantations which are mainly found in the eastern highlands. The distribution of commercial tree species, is as follows: pines occupies seventy one thousand seven hundred and seventy one hectares (66.32%), eucalyptus occupies twenty six thousand two hundred and seventy four hectares (24.28%), wattle have ten thousand and nine (9.25%) and other has one hundred and sixty hectares (0.15%). According to Mahonye and Makate (2009), timber production declined from a peak of 400000m3 to less than 350000m3 due to: influx of illegal settlers in Chimanimani plantations who are building houses in plantations, power outages and collapse of

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cluster industries, prevented foresters from accessing plantations to replant or carry out other forestry operations, and fire outbreaks. Muchinguri (2009), also added that timber exports during the 2008/09 season declined by 15.2%, against a backdrop of mounting challenges in the sector. Mabugu (2009), stated that timber declined from 400000m3 in 2006 to 360000m3 in 2009. Mahonye and Makate recorded a 12.5% decrease, Muchinguri 15%, and Mabugu recorded a decrease of 10%. From these statistics we can come up with an average of 12.5% decrease in timber output in the year 2009. Timber output is affected by damages from people and animals. Nicolas and Beebe (1999), explained that once a plantation has been established it will be necessary to protect it against weather, fire, pests and animals. This calls for the implementation of security systems to protect the plantations. The Wattle Company has its security systems to protect its plantations from danger but however the systems are not operating effectively. The Wattle Company in trying to improve the efficiency of its security systems, bought new firefighting vehicles and bulldozers. But all these efforts did not yield good results, instead they increased the operational costs of the company and further increased the company’s losses. This resulted in the company retrenching some of its workers in 2008. Retrenchment reduced the company’s costs to some extend but it did not increase timber output. As stated by Nicolas and Beebe (1999), timber output can only be improved by improving the operations of security systems. The security systems need to be effectively managed so as to reduce the loss of timber from plantations. However managers are facing many challenges in the process of managing these security systems. Such challenges create some loopholes in the security systems making them less effective. These challenges include economic, political, environmental, social and legal challenges.

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Social challenges - Social challenges include land conflicts with the community, activities of the community members and damages by domestic animals. According to Nicolas and Beebe (1999), many plantation fires arise from disputes over land ownership. They also added that burning by farmers in preparation of land for farming usually results in wild fires. Hirst (2007) also added that hunting activities may damage plantations.

Economic challenges – Due to economic hardships many households have become relatively poor. Because of poverty people are doing whatever it takes to live and this is the reason why some of the individuals have turned to timber poaching. Some people who are desperately looking for employment deliberately burn plantations to create employment in the fire suppression and subsequent replanting.

Environmental challenges - The unpredictable weather and climatic conditions impose a great threat on the plantations. The location and terrain of the plantations make it difficult to protect them from fire, animals and poachers.

Political challenges - In many cases political violence poses great threat on the security of the plantation. Political activists sometimes burn plantations for political reasons. Replanting is also disturbed on situations where workers are forced not to go for work so as to attend to some political meetings.

Legal challenges - Changes in rules and regulations have a negative impact on the timber production. The policies that are meant to protect plantations are doing very little if any to protect them from damages.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Companies in the timber industry have been facing low production output since year 2006. The Wattle Company bought new machinery, divisionalised its operations and trained its employees with the hope to increase output but to no avail. There seem to be some challenges in the management of plantation security systems and the researcher seeks to evaluate these challenges

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1.3 OBJECTIVES • • • • To identify challenges faced on managing plantation security systems of a To come up with strategies to overcome the challenges. To investigate how a plantation security system operates. To identify major threats on plantations. timber producing company.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS • • • • What are the challenges faced in managing plantation security systems? What can be done to overcome the challenges? How does the plantation security system operates? What are the major threats on plantation security?

1.5 IMPORTANCE OF STUDY This research is important as it seeks to give knowledge and crucial ideas to different users which are the researcher, Midlands State University and the forest companies. The researcher • • • This research was conducted in partial fulfillment of the Bachelor of Commerce Degree in Business Management. The researcher gained knowledge and important ideas in the field of study. The research assisted the researcher in sharpening and improving his skills and abilities in research and all other academic fields. Midlands State University • The research will form part of the literature and research material for the University library to be used by other students and academics. This research also lays a platform for debate and further research in the area of study.

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Timber producing companies • • • • The research will form a basis on how security systems can be effectively managed to improve output in the timber industry. The companies will be able to identify the challenges in their security systems and come up with strategies to overcome those challenges. Forestry companies will be able to identify major threats in their plantations and deal with them to increase production. By knowing how the plantation security system is supposed to work, companies will be able to identify loopholes in their systems. 1.6 ASSUMPTIONS • • • The Wattle Company Limited used as a case study is assumed to be a fair The information collected is adequate to make the research credible. The respondents interviewed are assumed to be cooperative. representation of the forestry industry. the

1.7 DELIMITATIONS • • • • The research focuses on the Wattle Company Limited of Zimbabwe. The research is limited to the study of security systems of the Wattle The research will cover a period between 2005 and 2010. The respondents are the managers and employees in the security

Company.

department. 1.8 LIMITATIONS • The research focused only on one forestry company as the researcher had limited time to take into account all players. 1.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY

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In this chapter the researcher gave the background of study, statement of the problem, objectives, research questions, importance of study, assumptions, delimitations and limitations. The following chapter will highlight the relevant literature used to carry out this research. CHAPTER TWO Literature Review 2.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter gives an overview of the plantation security system, the challenges faced on managing the security systems, strategies to overcome the challenges and the major threats on plantations. 2.1 DEFINING TIMBER Pine timber comes from pine trees. According to Nicolas and Beebe (1999), pine trees take twenty years to mature and become ready for harvest. Pine trees are planted every year so that there will be a continuous harvest and a continuous supply of timber in the future. Failure to replant in one year will mean that there will be a year in the future when the company will not harvest anything. Replanting each year is done after some projections of future demand of timber in twenty years to come. According to Lara (1993), timber can be categorized as processed or unprocessed timber that is sawn timber or logs. Processed timber output quantity is determined by two factors: • The effectiveness of the processing system (the sawmilling) that is, how efficient is the machinery and the production personnel. If there are some problems in the processing system then that means there will be more wastes and as a result the sawn timber output will be low. • The output of sawn timber is also determined by the quantity of logs from the plantations. Fewer logs brought to the sawmill means the processed timber quantity will be low as well.

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Unprocessed timber are the logs direct from the plantations before they are processed (Evans 1992). The output of raw timber is directly affected by: • The security systems that are put in place to protect the plantations from damages. Nicolas and Beebe (1999), explained that, the more effective the system is, the less the plantations are likely to face the unnecessary damages and the higher the output. • Another factor that affect the output of raw timber is the size of pine plantations harvested on a specific year. If the area is small that means the output will be low as well.

2.2 PLANTATION SECURITY SYSTEM “A forest of any kind; commercial, amenity or village woodlot, is a considerable investment and an accumulating asset of raw material. Its protection is very important. But the nature of a plantation, its uniformity in age and species often along with the kind of site it occupies, renders it more susceptible to some forms of damage, notably fire and climatic hazards. Nevertheless, successful plantation forestry is only possible provided there is adequate protection,” (Evans 1992:267). Damage is unpredictable, irregular, not always easily detected at first and varied in severity, all of which often lead to its importance being under-estimated. Security is a condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile acts or influence, (O’Brien 2005). A System is a group of interrelated components working together toward a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organised transformation process (O’Brien 2005). According to Schulthers and Summer, (1999), a system is an integrated set of components or entities, that interact to achieve particular function or goal. A system has characteristics such as inputs, outputs and methods of converting inputs into outputs.

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Inputs – involve capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be processed. For example; raw material, energy, data and human effort must be secured and organised for processing.

• •

Processing – involve transformation processes that convert input into output Output – involve transferring elements that have been produced by a transformation process to their destination. For example, finished goods.

Security system is a device or multiple devices designed, installed and operated to monitor, detect and communicate about activity that may pose a security threat in a location or locations, on a vessel or facility (Schulthers and Summer 1999). Gordon (2007), refers security system to policies and procedures that reduce the likelihood of a security breach and increases the likelihood of detecting security breaches that occur. Therefore a security system is a system meant for protection. As noted by Nicolas and Beebe (1999), a plantation security system is a group of interrelated protective measures that are designed to detect, communicate and monitor any activity that may damage plantations. The system has inputs, transformation process and outputs as outlined on table 2.2. Table 2.2 Plantation security system Inputs Employees Machinery and equipment Neighbouring companies Transformation process Observations Communication Physical protection Outputs An effective security system that reduces losses of timber from plantations.

The community Firefighting, chasing Source Nicolas and Beebe (1999) 2.2.1 Inputs.

According to Nicolas and Beebe (1999), the inputs of the plantation security system consist of; employees, the community, neighbouring companies, equipment and machinery.

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Employees - The security department should have enough employees who are well trained and experienced in the field, (Nicolas and Beebe 1999). These employees may consist of; foresters, fire fighters and guards. Foresters are responsible for patrolling throughout the plantations during the day for early detections of danger. Firefighters are those individuals who are trained to deal with any kind of fire. Young plantations are usually guarded by some individuals who will be chasing away animals from the plantation.

The community - The community refers to those people who are close to the plantations or those who benefit from the plantation resources. Nicolas and Beebe (1999), suggested that, it is a major step forward if the forest companies integrate key communities into the protection management of their plantations. Key communities are those with access to the area to hunt and collect forestry produce, or simply because they are close to the plantations boundaries.

Neighbouring companies - Most fires start from outside and enter plantations as wildfires. It is essential, if security management is to be successful, that neighbouring companies cooperate and coordinate to protect their areas. The companies as suggested by Raymond (1999), need to discuss; communications to coordinate protection operations, early warning and danger issues, plans for patrolling along the borders of the plantations, approaches to and cooperation with local communities, training and awareness campaigns; sharing of equipment and personnel.

Equipment and machinery - Lara (1993) noted that, the company should buy the necessary equipment and machinery to be used in the protection program. Firefighting vehicles, motor bikes, bulldozers, surveillance cameras, two way radios, chainsaws and rakes are very important in the system. The available equipment must be operated by people who know how to use it.

2.2.2 Transformation Process.

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All the inputs are put together and transformed into a security system that is effective enough to reduce the plantation losses. The transformation process have functions that include observations, communication, protection firefighting and chasing. • Observations - The functions of the process as stated by Nicolas and Beebe start by observations which are meant to detect threats on plantation security. Rapid detection and quick movement of the security teams to the scene will reduce damage. For large plantations, detection is usually by watchers posted at times of high danger in lookout towers. Where there are no towers observers can be posted at good vantage points with views over the plantation. • Communication - Communication is the second function of the system. If there is any threat detected, it should be communicated immediately to everyone involved in the security system. Communication can be done through two way radios, sirens, bells or phones. Rapid detection is the first step, the alarm must be raised and information about a threat, its location and possible size, relayed to the security department, (Lara 1993). Rapid detection of fire and raising the alarm are first two essentials of good communication, the third is enabling the firefighting teams to reach the scene quickly. Thus a plantation requires at least a rudimentary system of roads and tracks passable by vehicles. • Physical protection - The third function is physical protection. According to Abberger (2009), as the managers anticipate damage at any time, they are forced to put some protective measures to reduce the effects of the unpredictable damages. Protecting a plantation in anticipation of danger is only meant to reduce the effects that may be caused by any threat but does not completely get rid of the threat. For example firebreaks may only prevent an outside fire but is of no value to the internally started fires. Firebreaks, fuelbreaks, security fence, guards and repellents can be used as protection measures.

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Firefighting, chasing away and arresting - When a threat is detected and all the people are informed, the necessary action should be taken. If it is the fire outbreak, people should fight the fire; wild animals must be chased away from plantation and thieves arrested.

2.2.3 Output The output of the system is a perfect security system that reduce loss of timber from plantations. If the security system is perfect, the result will be that at the end of the period the company will harvest the same amount of trees as it planted. Inputs will be equal to outputs. This however is not applicable in real life situations. No matter how effective the system is there will be some losses at the end of the period.

2.3 MAJOR THREATS ON PLANTATIONS According to Bryant (2004), low timber production in Indonesia in 2004 was a result of damages caused by fire, animals and illegal logging. Nicolas and Beebe, (1999), explained that once a plantation has been established it will be necessary to protect it against fire, animals and thieves. The above authors consider fire, theft and animals as the major threats on plantations hence plantations managers are required to take considerable measures to protect their plantations from the damage caused by these threats. 2.3.1 Fire Abberger (2009), cited that fire is often the most important danger facing Indonesian plantations in the Sumatra and the Kalimantan provinces. He pointed out that the greatest danger of fire is when the plantation is young before the canopy have closed and suppressed the ground vegetation, though in dry conditions with strong winds, mature plantations can also be destroyed. Many plantations suffer from fire damages every year in the dry season though how much is burnt can vary enormously. Damage by fire impose a serious threat to plantations.

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According to Lara (1993), though some forest fires are caused by lightning, the sad fact is that most are caused by people, both accidentally and deliberately. Plantation fires can start from fire spreading from farmland on the perimeter, from activities of hunters or from burning by herdsman to improve livestock grazing. Fire danger is most high when the plantation is young and in the dry season as mentioned by the above authors, meaning that, the security managers should implement tight security strategies during this period of time when the risk is very high. It can also be noted that, fire can originate either from natural causes such lighting or from human activities such as farming, hunting, transportation and children play. Human causes can either be deliberate or by mistake. 2.3.2 Animals Animal damages can be in form of wild animals (baboons, deer, rabbits, hare) or domestic animals (horses, donkeys, sheep, goats, cattle). • Wild animals. Evans (1992), pointed out that, there are three orders of wild animals responsible for damage; rodents (rats, mice, moles and squirrels); lagomorphs (hares and rabbits); and artiodactyls (deer, antelopes, pigs and buffaloes). Artiodactyls – Deer feed on new growth during the growing season and nip branches and terminal shoots during the winter. Deer browsing is characterised by torn or irregular cuts on twigs and can kill conifers. Young trees are favoured by bucks for rubbing. Rodents – Moles can cause problems when they tunnel near young trees. Mole tunnels create air pockets that can dry out and stress the root system of young trees. Lagomorphs –Rabbits can chew off the stems of newly planted trees, seedlings and sometimes they will scrape off and eat substantial patches of bark, (Bowen 2008). • Domestic animals. “Grazing domestic animals has and continues to be a most destructive agent of forest, both natural and plantations. Because cattle, sheep,

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goats and camels, eat tree foliage, they must be excluded from a plantation while it is young”, (Evans 1992:152). Inevitably, this means that, a young plantation often has dense ground vegetation growing between the trees, which further increases the attractiveness for grazing. Cattle, sheep and horses tend to congregate beneath certain trees for shade and to rest, a behavior that causes both direct and indirect injuries to trees. Both wild and domestic wild animals have some effects on the timber production. As mentioned by the authors above they affect both quality and quantity of timber to be harvested. Domestic animals like goats, cattle and sheep eat the tree foliage of young plantations. 2.3.3 Timber poaching. In 2004 more than one million cubic meters of timber (about 95%) of Burma’s total timber exports to China were illegally logged and illegally exported from northern Burma to Yunnan province. This trade amounted to $250 million loss for Burmese people every year (Buckrell 2005). Abberger (2009) noted that, in areas where there are shortages of firewood for cooking and heating, stealing from a nearby plantation is almost inevitable. Sometimes villagers cut trees for the construction of houses, kraals and fencing. Zaikowski (2007), stated that, resettled farmers in Zimbabwe are illegally cutting down timber from plantations in the process of clearing land for farming. People poach timber to make money; to construct their houses, kraals and fencing.

2.4 CHALLENGES ON MANAGING SECURITY SYSTEMS Nicolas and Beebe (1999) suggested that, once the security system is designed, it needs to be effectively managed so as to reduce external damages. However managers are facing many challenges in the process of managing these security

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systems. These challenges include economic, political, physical environmental, social and legal challenges. 2.4.1 Physical environmental challenges The physical environment seem to be a continuous challenge faced by the management in their protection programme. Physical environment include weather, climate, terrain and geographical location. • Unpredictable weather According to Abberger (2009), the occurrence of damaging weather phenomena is usually unpredictable. In 1973, a hailstorm killed several hundred hectares of twenty year old plantations in northern Swaziland. In 1985 cyclone Nigel, during a six hour period, irreparably damaged one third of all Cordia Alliodora trees in 450 hectares of plantations in Vanuatu. In 1988 hurricane Gilbert destroyed a quota of all Jamaica’s pine plantations. Gonda (2008) explained that, Zimbabwe’s timber industry is under threat amid projections that the country could face shortages in the next fifteen years as a result of the tropical cyclones of 2000 and 2002. High cyclone induced rainfall caused severe destruction of forests, particularly in the eastern highlands. Little can be done to protect timber plantations against the damage caused by weather, except to grow tree species known to be resistant to the detrimental effects of local weather patterns, or locating the stands of trees in sheltered areas. • Climatic changes. As noted by Matarira and Mwamuka (1996), across Zimbabwe, 17% to 18% of the total land area is projected to shift from subtropical thorn woodland and subtropical dry forest to tropical very dry forest. The projected shift in forest distribution is attributable to a future decline in precipitation patterns and an increase in ambient temperatures.

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According to Evans (1992), some climatic damage if serious and destructive not only directly influences the growth of trees but, because of its social consequences, can affect forest growth and tree planting activities. Drought will reduce growth and even kill trees and if prolonged, other destructive influences on plantations begin to take place. Such effects were seen in the Sahel drought of 1970-76, 1983-86 and again 1990-91. Though herds of domestic animals declined and many people became refugees and dependent on famine relief for food, the shortage of grass led to acute overgrazing and many trees were cut to provide material for cattle stockages, hut construction, fodder and fuel wood. • Geographical location. The Papua province of Indonesia was the major target of timber poachers in 2005 because of its location (Butler 2005). The plantations are located at the island of New Guinea and there is easy access of poachers through the waters of Indonesia. This resulted in the plantations losing around 300000m3 every month through timber poachers. According to Hammond (2006), most of the timber plantations in Zimbabwe are located in the eastern highlands. Plantations are at the exit points to Mozambique and as a result border jumpers going to Mozambique pass through them. Cooking fires and smoking stubs left by these people sometimes result in wild fires. Being at exit points plantations in the eastern district of Zimbabwe are experiencing heavy destructions from fires by careless border jumpers. 90% of the timber plantations in Indonesia are in rural remote areas where there are no telephone facilities, electricity nor good roads. This make communication very difficult. Communication is very important for the security of plantations. According to Lara (1993), if any threat is detected on the plantation it should be communicated quickly. Without good roads the movement of vehicles is very

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slow, however the security team is advised to reach the scene of danger very quickly. • Terrain. Abberger (2009) highlighted that plantations in the Kalimantan region faced damages from fires which originated from El Nino in 1998. Because of the slopes in this area the fires were very difficult to control. Hirst (2007), explained that, fire spreads far more quickly uphill than along flatland or downhill. For every increase in slope a fire will double its rate of speed traveling upslope. Northerly aspects receive the sun’s greatest intensity and therefore fuels on these slopes are likely to be drier and more combustible than those on south or east-facing slopes. In addition the north west aspect is likely to experience the hottest and driest winds of summer, drying fuels out even further. Slope greatly influence speed of fire spread. Fuel breaks planted on hillsides are much more quickly burned through than those on the flat ground. Fuel breaks, 100meters wide can be burned across in half an hour under dry and windy conditions. This short time underscores the need for: frequent patrols when fire danger is high, a dependable communication system, and initial attack crews and equipment to be ready to respond when a patrol spots fire approaching a fuel break. • Limited sources of water Bowen (2008) pointed that, water problems within the plantation contributed to the damages of timber plantations caused by fire in the Sumatra and Kalimantan regions in Indonesia. Water has a high capacity to absorb heat and is therefore a very efficient agent to extinguish forest fires. Ready supplies from rivers, lakes or dams are needed to fill tanks and sources for pumps. Quantity and the accessibility are points to consider. The installation of man made sources and access are a part of fire management planning where natural sources of water within a plantation are limited.

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In the south Sumatra coastal swamps, holes (2 x 2 x 2 meters) are dug before the dry season to help ensure a water supply in drought years. The Sribunian Company has installed eight water tanks of 10000litres along the light railway, (Bowen 2008). Dams and fixed water tanks were also constructed in Sumatra . Mushongahande (2007), also stated that natural sources of water are very limited within the Zimbabwean plantations in the eastern highlands. Because of the slopes in the eastern highlands, water from the rains usually run downhill to the rivers. The sources of water for fire suppression are therefore limited to rivers and dams. 2.4.2 Social challenges. The neighbouring communities are a threat to pine plantations. There are always some conflicts between the community and the forestry companies. Key communities are those with access to the area to hunt and collect forestry produce, or simply because they are close to the plantation boundaries (Evans 1992 ). • Land conflicts. As noted by Maunati (2005), rapid changes in production patterns from agriculture and livestock rearing to forestry, causing displacement of the traditional peasants in Indonesia, left many people with a feeling of rejection towards forestry plantations. Land ownership concentrated into major timber product companies who did not allow neighbouring communities access to their estates, or only a number of these provided this type of benefit. Thus recreational, fishing and hunting areas are lost, as well as grazing land, the possibility of fuel removal and the use of other forest products. There are conflicts with rural communities over water supply, due to the fact that the plantations demand more water as a result of their rapid growth. This causes a drop in the flow of springs and streams. Raymond (1999) added that, many fires

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arise from disputes over land ownership when arson is seen by the villagers as a ready revenge for land unfairly taken by the plantation owners. In an attempt to reduce the conflicts on land many companies have engaged in participatory land use planning followed by participatory boundary mapping. Abberger (2009) recognised that, if this is to work, the companies must demonstrate goodwill and be prepared to concede more land than they would readily wish. But their alternative may be uncontrolled fires in every dry season. In addition the companies should allow access of villagers to plantations for hunting, fishing and collection of firewood, this will create a good relationship between the companies and the villagers. The villagers from the Nyaruwa and Chinyai clans in Chimanimani, as stated by Sifile (2008), resettled themselves on the timber plantation of Border Timbers Limited (BTL) at the height of the land invasions, arguing that the plantation was situated on land that used to belong to their ancestors. Repeated attempts including a high court order- to have the estimated five hundred families evicted have been in vain. • Activities by the community The activities by the community in their daily life pose dangers to the plantations. It is true that most of the human causes of fire is deliberate, but in some cases fire results from mistakes and carelessness. Plantation fires can start from activities of hunters or from burning by herdsman to improve livestock grazing. To reduce damage by community activities in the Sumatra and Kalimantan regions, they encouraged the community to participate in fire prevention. This involve the employment of local villagers as prevention aides. Local communities are compensated to prevent fires as well as paid to form volunteer fire crews. Arisman (2007), suggested that, it is a major step forward if the concessions and plantations integrate key communities into the protection management of forests.

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• Domestic animals The grazing domestic animals from the villages has been the most destructive agent of forests both natural and plantations. Abberger (2009), pointed out that a young plantation often has dense ground vegetation growing between the trees which further increases the attractiveness for grazing. In Kalimantan in 1999, grazers prevented foresters from replanting in areas they used to pasture their animals. In some areas, grazing by goats is a traditional land use. Extensive enclosures of plantations can impose drastic changes in the habits of the rural communities affected. According to Nicolas and Beebe (1999), before planting, land acquired for afforestation may be casually grazed. This is of no direct concern to a forester and may even be encouraged to keep down rank vegetation, but when planting begins, the curtailment of this right may be deeply resented by grazers used to pasturing their animals on the land. The community will let their animals into the plantations to graze and sometimes they cut the tree branches for fodder. In Sahel countries both fencing and shepherding (employing watchmen) are essential for establishment of plantations. In Ethiopia a low boundary wall is erected to demarcate the plantation and shepherds are posted at intervals to keep out livestock. With plantations in Nigerian savanna four measures are needed to combat damage from man and animals – fencing, mass propaganda, complete cultivation (clean weeding so there is no grass for grazing) and watchmen (Arisman 2007).

2.4.3 Economic challenges.

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The hyper inflationary period and high levels of unemployment in Zimbabwe are still haunting the companies in timber business thereby affecting their security systems.

• High level of inflation. According to Gumede (2009), the hyper inflation in the recent years resulted in many experienced workers leaving their employment in search for greener pastures. Companies in Chimanimani and Nyanga have been hit by a critical flight of workers who abandoned their chainsaws for gold panning in nearby Mozambique. Currently the companies are facing a shortage of skilled personnel such as telelogger operators. Inflationary period in the recent years is still affecting the Wattle Company Limited. During the period many of its experienced workers left to seek for greener pastures in countries like South Africa and Botswana. Among these individuals, were some professionals from the security department and because of this, the company is facing a shortage of experienced personnel in the security department. • High level of unemployment. The peasants in Papua province of Indonesia turned to timber poaching because they had failed to get any form of formal employment. They turned to illegal logging since there was a ready market in Jakarta, Singapore and Hong Kong. The dealers demanded large supplies of timber as they bought it from the villagers at very cheap prices of $10/m3 which they sold at $270/m3 making huge amounts of profits. Ready market and quick cash attracted the people to illegal logging. Hammond (2006) stated that, the increasing levels of unemployment and poverty in Zimbabwe have led many households to turn to timber poaching for survival. Zimbabwe has a 60% unemployment rate. Many people in the nearby

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communities turn to plantation burning as a way to create employment for themselves in the fire suppression and subsequent replanting.

2.4.4 Political challenges. Political challenges also have great impact on the plantation security. Because of political reasons people turn to plantation burning, timber poaching and other activities that make plantations prone to damages. • Political violence. According to Abberger (2009) political instability has resulted in an acute shortage of trained forestry practitioners in Indonesia. In many areas forestry management has been suspended and illegal loggers have at times devastated forest resources. Post-conflict periods do not necessarily lead to more sustainable systems. There may, for example, be an increased demand for wood during postconflict reconstruction which can worsen the situation. Zaikowski (2008) added that, Zimbabwe’s commercial timber production has shrunk by fifty percent, largely because of uncertainties caused by changes in land tenure legislation, uncontrolled veld fires and increases in production costs. Uncertainty brought about by the government’s chaotic land redistribution exercise has resulted in non expansion of plantations. In many cases political violence disturbs replanting programmes since some of the workers will be involved in politics. Failure to replant will mean a shortage of timber in the future. Workers may be forced not to go to work for political reasons. For example, attending some meetings. There are cases of people who died or injured because of political violence. For the safety of their lives people always leave the country to seek refugee in other countries. • Illegal settlements.

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Kanyekanye (2007), cited that, Zimbabwe’s timber industry was under threat from resettled farmers who were causing fires when clearing land for farming or illegally cutting down timber from plantations. During the year 2007 alone the resettled farmers cost the nation above one trillion Zimbabwean dollars worth of timber through illegal harvests or fires. According to Hammond (2006), due to fires resulting from arson attacks or land clearing activities by unauthorised settlers in the plantations, trees of all ages have been destroyed and consequently log shortages will occur for many years. Added to that, the new farmers were preventing foresters from replanting in the fire damaged areas. 2.4.5 Legal challenges Katerere (1996) highlighted that, conservation of forest resources in Zimbabwe is responsibility of the Zimbabwe forestry commission which was established by an act of parliament. The forestry commission has four technical divisions namely research and development, indigenous resources, commercial and forestry extension. These divisions implement the different aspects of two acts (the Forest Act and the Communal Forest Produce Act) • The Forest Act According to Katerere (1996), the Forest Act of 1996 forbids people from burning, growing or standing vegetation on any land without prior notice to the occupants of all adjourning land and the police. The act further stipulates that in the event that one is found guilt in a court of law, the accused should be liable of either a fine or imprisonment. Katerere added that, the Forest Act has been criticised as being inadequate. The fines that the people are paying are so light that they can not stop people from poaching timber or burning the plantations but rather encourages such activities. • The Communal Land Forest Produce Act

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The Communal Land Forest Produce Act restricts the use of forest products in communal areas by the local people to “own use”. It further states that communal people are not allowed to enter the plantations or use plantation resources like dams, hunting, and so forth without permission from the owners (Katerere 2006). This Act was criticised for being too restrictive. The act in its present form fails to recognise the rights and interests of communities. The community is left with no incentive to protect the plantations and sometimes they end up burning those plantations because of frustration.

2.5 STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES There are some ways through which the company may overcome the challenges mentioned earlier. There are some companies in other countries who faced the same challenges and were able to overcome them. The strategies that were taken by the companies in Indonesia were very successful since its timber production increased from 14000m3 in 2004 to 26000m3 in 2008. The fire outbreaks and illegal logging have been reduced 2.5.1 Strategies for physical environmental challenges. • Wide fuelbreaks - To reduce the problem of fire on steep slopes at Kalimantan, the plantation owners are constructing wide fuel breaks ranging from 250 – 350 meters (Abberger 2009). If it is an economic necessity to make narrower fuel breaks, these are restricted to flat areas. Width must not be compromised where the ground next to road is steep. Cleaning of the fuel breaks should be most thorough where they are on slope. • Man made sources of water - Rathfon and Farlee (2002) noted that, the installation of man made sources and access of water are a part of a fire management planning where natural sources of water within a plantation are limited. In the south Sumatra coastal swamps holes (2*2*2meters) are dug before

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the dry season to help ensure a water supply in the dry seasons (Arisman 2001). In Kalimantan, the Sribunian plantations installed eight water tanks of 10000liters along the light railway. Water tanks are filled with water pumped from the nearby dams or rivers. Canals are also dug for drainage system to areas with water problems. 2.5.2 Strategies for social challenges. • Community involvement - To reduce damage by community activities in the Sumatra and Kalimantan regions, the companies encourage the communities to participate in fire prevention. This involve the employment of local villagers as prevention aides. Local communities are compensated to prevent fires as well as paid to form volunteers fire crews. Arisman (2007), suggested that, it is a major step forward to integrate key communities into the protection management of plantations. Raymond (1999) suggested that, villagers should be equipped with radios as they will be patrolling along the boundaries and report every fire they spot. If a local fire does start they should fight it immediately and join the company’s crews who attend later. No additional pay is given for fire fighting. The scheme has the merit that members of the community are paid even if there are no fires and they thus do not have to work to earn. Properly trained and equipped village fire crews are paid to patrol close to the village and to maintain the fuel breaks on the plantation boundaries. • Participatory land use - In an attempt to reduce the conflicts on land, companies must engage in participatory land use planning followed by participatory boundary mapping. Abberger (2009) recognised that, if this is to work, the companies must demonstrate goodwill and be prepared to concede more land than they would readily wish.

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Fencing and shepherding - At times hedges and fences can be used to prevent intrusion by domestic animals. Where fencing costs are high, trespass by livestock is controlled by guards. In Sahel countries both fencing and shepherding (employing watchmen) are essential for establishment of plantations. In Ethiopia a low boundary wall is erected to demarcate the plantation and shepherds are posted at intervals to keep out livestock.

2.5.3 Strategies for economic challenges. • Employing the villagers - To reduce the effects of economic problems, as noted by Abberger (2008), the company should employ people from the nearby communities whenever vacancies exist. By doing so, the company will reduce the poverty of the community so that in the future there may be no cases of illegal logging. A mutually beneficial happy relationship will exist between the company and the villagers. • Better packages and services - Abberger added that, to retain the experienced workers from leaving, the company must pay them favourable wages and better working conditions. Schools, hospitals, banking, transport and other services should be provided by the company in these remote rural areas. The workers will feel very comfortable with the environment they will be working in and never think of leaving the company.

2.5.4 Strategy for legal challenges. • Better policies - According to Maunati, the Indonesian government designed policies to preserve the timber plantations. One such a policy was to increase fines and jail time for those who are found guilty of illegal logging. Such a policy was meant to reduce illegal logging if not complete elimination.

2.5.5 Strategy for political challenges.

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Government intervention - The Indonesian government assisted the concession owners by sending hundreds of police and paramilitaries with tear gas and guns to evict the illegal settlers from timber plantations (Arisman 2001). The police and the army would guard the plantations during the day and night to protect them from illegal loggers.

2.6 EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE Case study: Indonesia Maunati (2005), stated that, Indonesia has around 112.3 million hectares of state forests, consisting of protected forests (29.3 million hectares), reserve forests (19 million hectares) and production forests (64 million hectares). Most of the challenges that are being faced by Zimbabwean timber companies were faced in Indonesia in 1980s and the many strategies were used to solve these challenges. • Physical environment – According to Abberger (2001), the Sumatra and Kalimantan provinces are characterised by steep slopes which affect the speed of fire and the fighting teams. Slopes also affect sources of water within the plantations. Wide fuelbreaks ranging from 250 – 350 meters are constructed in these areas. The fuelbreaks that are on slopes are thoroughly cleaned. To cater for water problems, Rathfon and Farlee (2002) stated that, the companies installed man made sources of water within plantations. Holes are dug within the plantations before the dry season to help ensure water supply in the dry season. Water tanks and canals were also constructed in these areas. • Social challenges - According to Maunati (2002), villagers in south Sumatra burned timber plantations claiming that the land belonged to their ancestors. In most cases the community caused fire outbreaks through activities such as hunting, farming, children play among other activities. The companies also had some conflicts with the villagers who graze their animals in plantations or prevent them from replanting in areas being used for grazing. Sometimes trees are cut for construction of houses, kraals and so on.

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The villagers are given opportunities to participate in land use planning and boundary mapping. This is meant to reduce conflicts over land. Nicolas and Beebe added that the plantation owners employed the villagers as prevention aids. Communities are compensated to prevent fires as well as forming volunteer fire crews. • Economic challenges – Keenan (2008), the peasants in Papua province of Indonesia turned to timber poaching because they had failed to get formal employment. They decided to poach timber and sell since there was a ready market in Jakarta, Singapore and Hong Kong. The companies are employing people from the nearby communities whenever vacancies exist. This will reduce poverty of the community in the long run. Case study: Cambodia • Legal challenges – Cambodian government facilitated illegal logging and export of illegally sourced timber by its failure to implement rules and regulations to control this. To circumvent the logging ban, harvesting operations were being disguised under a variety of illegal permits, to meet the demand of illicit cross border timber trade with Thailand, Vietnam and Laos. The documents were provided by senior officials in the ministry of commerce and the forest administration, (Davis 2010). According to Maunati, the Cambodian government designed policies to preserve the timber plantations. One such a policy was to increase fine paid by illegal loggers and jail time. Such a policy is meant to reduce illegal logging if not complete elimination. People are becoming afraid of taking risks of stealing timber. But it is believed that with the implementation of more other policies the rate of timber poaching will be reduced by 70%. 2.7 CHAPTER SUMMARY

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In this chapter the researcher gave reference to articles and books that covered key factors in the research. The researcher analysed the challenges faced in the management of plantation security systems and how these challenges can affect the effectiveness of a security system in trying to protecting a plantation from the such threats as fire, animals and theft. Solutions to the challenges are also highlighted in this chapter. CHAPTER THREE Research Methodology 3.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter clearly defines the research methods used to conduct the study. The researcher explained how the necessary data and information to address the research objectives and questions was collected, presented and analysed. Reasons and justifications for the research design, research instruments, data sources, data collection techniques, data presentation techniques and analytical techniques used are given. 3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN Heppner et al (1992:15) describe a research design as a plan or structure for an investigation or a list of specifications and procedure for conducting and controlling a research project. In other words it can be described as a master plan which indicates the strategies for conducting a research. A research design serves as a master plan of the methods and procedures that should be used to collect and analyse data needed by the decision maker. The research design is a deliberately planned arrangement of conditions for the analysis and collection of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to research purpose with the economy procedure. 3.1.1 Descriptive research design. Saunders et al (2003) defines the descriptive survey method as one which looks with intense accuracy at the phenomena of the moment and then describes precisely what the researcher sees. Descriptive research design is concerned with describing

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characteristics of a problem. Questionnaires and interviews are the two methods used to elicit information in a descriptive research. Justification - The method was chosen because the data solicited is not static, the challenges faced today may not be the same in future. Descriptive research thus allowed for the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data, therefore, some statistical techniques were used to summarise the information. Through descriptive research, the researcher was also able to use both primary and secondary data, which could not have been utilised if exploratory research had been used. The researcher used questionnaires and interviews to find information concerning the challenges faced in the management of security systems. The interviews were used to come up with detailed information on the subject.

3.2 SAMPLING A sample is a group in a research study in which information is obtained. Or a population selected for observation and analysis. It is a representative of a population taken to show what the results are like. Sidhu (2003), stresses the importance of sampling and further explains that if the population is very large, it can be satisfactorily covered through sampling. 3.2.1 Population Varden Bergh and Katz (1999) defined population as the group of people from which a sample can be drawn for the purposes of a research. Population is the total collection of elements about which to make some inferences. The population of this research consisted of the security management team for the Wattle Company Limited and all the security department employees. There are ten managers and forty four employees and the total population is fifty four. 3.2.2 Sample size.

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Deciding on a sample size for a qualitative enquiry can be more difficult than for a quantitative one because there are no rules to follow. It all depends on what will be useful, what will have credibility and what can be done within available time and resources. A sample refers to a representative sub-group of the population. For the purpose of this research the sample chosen comprises of randomly selected individuals from the selected population A total of twenty respondents which constitutes 37% of the entire population was selected to represent the whole population. The information is tabulated on the following table. Table 3.2 Research sample size Sample Frame Security management team Security department employees Totals Source: primary survey Sample Population 10 44 54 Sample Size 6 14 20

Justification - According to Fielding (2007), a sample size must be at least 30% of the total population under research. The sample size from all respondents was 37% which is above 30%. The researcher made the sample relatively smaller so as to cut down on costs and save time as well. 3.2.3 Sampling techniques. These are ways used to choose research subjects that were used to constitute a sample that is representative of the population. These are classified into two that is probability and non-probability sampling procedure. A probability sampling procedure is one in which every element has known non-zero probability of being chosen (Hair, 1998:160). Non probability sampling relies on the judgment of the researcher and is only representative as far as the researchers’ skill permits.

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In this research the researcher adopted both sampling method at different stages. The researcher used stratified sampling first and then judgmental sampling. • Stratified random sampling This method falls under probability sampling and it involves segregating the population of study into mutually exclusive population or strata. The total population is divided into segments or strata. Individuals to be included in the sample are then selected from these segments or strata. In this case the population was divided as employees and management for the security department of the Wattle Company Limited. They were then further grouped according to the estates that is Nyanga, Vumba, Dunsinane, Chimanimani, Chipinge and the head office Mutare. Justification - Stratified random sampling was used in this research because it ensures an equal representation of each of the identified segments or strata. Also it allows the use of other sampling procedures, thus after using this technique; individuals from each department were selected using judgmental technique. • Judgmental sampling According to Kotler (2000), judgmental sampling is whereby the researcher finds and interviews a prescribed number of people and exercises his or her own judgment this helped the researcher to make a judgment on whom to give questionnaires and not to give. Judgmental sampling is a non-probability sampling technique based on judgment. For the purposes of this research the researcher chose the participants who were viewed as the best source of information as the sample was likely to bring out the required data specific to the research problem through the experience with the organisation. The researcher used his discretion and judgment to choose the managerial staff that he thought had information that could help in the assessment

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of challenges faced on managing the security system. The researcher mainly focused on people with knowledge about security systems and these were the management and employees in the security department. Justification - Judgmental sampling ensures optimisation of time and resources since information is sought from those people with valuable information and knowledge about the area under study. This makes the technique cheaper and easier since a few individuals with relevant information are chosen. 3.3 SOURCES OF DATA The research relied on both primary and secondary data. 3.3.1 Primary data. Primary data refers to data collected for the first time in the field. Jewel (2001), defines it as data that has been collected for the purpose for which it is originally used. Primary data for this particular research was collected using interviews and questionnaires. Interviews were carried out with the security management personnel for the Wattle Company Limited while questionnaires were given to the employees in the security department. Justification - Primary data collection was given the highest priority in this research as there was limited published material on the subject under study. For a subjective study like this one primary data is of prime importance because primary data draws information directly from the field. The researcher used the primary source of data because it was free from misinterpretations and loss of data as the researcher mainly focused on relevant data specifically for the research problem although its major draw back was that it was time consuming.

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3.3.2 Secondary data. According to Jewel (2001), secondary data is data that is collected for purposes other than the original use. It is an analysis of data that have already been collected for some other purpose. These may be contemporary or historical and the data may be qualitative or quantitative and usually needs adjustments and validation before being put to use. This data can include survey data and documentary data. Sources used to gather secondary data were document analysis collected from published and unpublished company documents and subject-relevant literature, internal company journals (monthly reports and news letters) requested from the Wattle Company and frequent visits to related websites became crucial in collecting up-to-date secondary data as well as publications by renowned authors on security management. Justification - Using secondary data saves time and money since the work has already been done to collect the data. It avoids the problems associated with the data collection process. Unlike primary data, secondary data generally provides a source of data that is both permanent and available in a form that may be checked relatively easily by others. The published documents gives the researcher extra information on the research problem. Some of the information may not be found within the organisation.

3.4 DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES The study was carried out using questionnaires and interviews. 3.4.1 Interviews. An interview is an interactive forum involving two or more people engaged in a conversation initiated and coordinated by the interviewer so as to get information specific to a certain area of aspect. Interviews are generally classified as either

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structured or unstructured. Structured interviews are formalised such that all respondents hear the same question in the same order and in the same manner. Unstructured interviews leave the wording and organisation of the question and even the topic to the discretion of the interviewer. The researcher to used a semi-structured interview approach. Semi-structured interviews encouraged the interviewer to develop new ideas, adjust questions and change direction as new insights emerge. For example, during the interview following the formalised questions would deter aspects that emerged hence additional probes were thrown into play. Table 3.4.1 Interviews conducted Sample frame Mutare head office Chimanimani Chipinge Vumba Nyanga Dunsinane Security management team Population Sample size 1 1 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 6

Total 10 Source: primary survey

Face to face interviews were carried out at the Wattle Company Head Office in Mutare and at the company’s estates at Chimanimani, Chipinge, Vumba, Nyanga and Dunsinane with key respondents being the management team of the organisation. All interviews were carried out prior to setting of appointments with the concerned respondents. The interviews had specified time limits of approximately 25 - 30 minutes. All interviews were carried out with the help of already prepared interview guide question papers and were recorded alongside the respective questions.

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Justification - Interviews were used to gather data in this research because they allow for probing on answers and questions that require further clarification. Unclear questions and answers can be clarified in the dialogue between the interviewer and the interviewee. Also this helped the researcher to obtain information that cannot be obtained by using questionnaires such as how the security system operates and the technological jargon that required more clarification. Face to face interviews enabled the researcher to build strong relationships with the respondent because after or before the interview informal discussions could be held. 3.4.2 Questionnaires. Reason (1985) defined a questionnaire as a formalised list of questions that are used to solicit information from respondents. For this research the researcher made use of both structured and unstructured questions to gather necessary data. Structured or closed questions are meant to save the respondents’ time and get definite answers and unstructured or open-ended questions are meant to ensure that respondents’ feelings are not disregarded and further explanations are made. The questionnaires were delivered in person. Questionnaires were distributed after initial communication with the respondents to seek consent. The respondents were given one day to answer the questionnaires after which the questionnaires were collected for analysis. No public postal service or email service was used to distribute questionnaires. Table 3.4.2 Distribution of questionnaires Security department employees Sample frame Population Sample size

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Chimanimani Chipinge Dunsinane Nyanga Vumba

10 9 3 16 6

3 3 1 5 2 14

Total 44 Source: primary survey

Justification - The questionnaire survey provided greater uniformity across research situations as respondents responded to the same standardised questions. At the same time the questionnaire survey technique gave the respondents enough time to respond to the questions as they were given the whole day to answer the questionnaires. Finally the element of anonymity associated with the questionnaire survey technique enhances the chances of getting honest responses.

3.5 RELIABILITY OF TECHNIQUES Peterson (1982) defines reliability as the extent to which measures are free from errors. Thus the greater the reliability of an instrument, the less likely the errors of measurement to occur. More than one data collection instrument was used in order to eliminate the weaknesses inherent in each instrument.

3.6 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS After data has been collected, it needs to be presented in a way that communicates the information and enables conclusions to be drawn (Jewell, 2001). Data was collected from both primary and secondary sources, processed, analysed and presented. 3.6.1 Data presentation techniques.

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Clear, accurate and appropriate ways of presenting data were chosen out of the several ways of data presentation. Tables and graphs were used in this research. Tables were used to present large quantities of data arranged in labeled rows and columns. Justification - The researcher used tables to present data because measurement units are shown clearly. Tables are also easy to refer and the data can be easily interpreted. Graphs are easy to understand and quick to interpret. 3.6.2 Data analysis techniques. The researcher used inductive and deductive techniques to analyse the data. • Inductive analysis This is a technique which analyses data from particular instances to general principles, from facts to theories. One starts from the observed data and develops the generalisation that explains a relationship between objects observed. This technique was used because it condenses extensive and varied raw text data into a brief summary format. It establishes clear link between research objectives and the summary findings derived from the raw data and ensure these links are both transparent (able to demonstrate to others) and defensible (justifiable given the objective of the research). The researcher used his own opinion to analyse the findings of the research. For example on the issue of gender on the respondents the researcher discovered more males than females and the reason was because most females prefer to work in towns. Justification - This technique was used by the researcher because it did not construct a rigid methodology but rather permitted the researcher to explore alternative explanations and get a feel of the situation on the ground and so understand the nature of the problem much better.

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• Deductive analysis According to Bryman and Bell (2000) deductive analysis represents the commonest of the nature of the relationship between theory and research. Deductive techniques analyse data from the general to the particular, applying a theory to the particular case. One starts from the same general law and applies it to a particular instance. The major concern is that, does the premises used in the argument still valid. The researcher used the views from other authors on the findings to analyse the data. For example if the majority said political challenges are the major challenges faced by the company, the researcher quoted the views of other authors on the subject. Justification - Deductive analysis was used because it reconciles theory and research. The researcher used deductive techniques because they represent the commonest view of the nature of relationships between theory and research. It is the common best view of the nature of existing relationships of cases under study. The researcher found it easy to use deductive technique because data analysis is determined by the research objectives.

3.7 CHAPTER SUMMARY This chapter looked at the research methodologies used in this research. Justifications on why the researcher chose to use those methodologies were given. Interviews and questionnaires were the main methods of data collection used to gather relevant data to achieve the research objectives. In data presentation, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Data was analysed using inductive analysis and the deductive analysis techniques. the

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CHAPTER FOUR Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of Findings 4.0 INTRODUCTION In this chapter the research findings was analysed by means of tables and graphs. The analysis of the concepts reviewed in chapter two was done in this chapter. Both the quantitative means and qualitative means of analysis were employed and content analysis that took into consideration the objectives of the research was done. 4.1 RESPONSE RATE Table 4.1 Response rate for questionnaires and interviews. Interviews Questionnaires Total Source: primary survey. Twenty people was the sample size and seventeen people responded giving the overall response rate of 85%. Six interviews were carried out with the security management of the Wattle Company and four interviews succeeded making a response rate of 66%. Fourteen Sample size 6 14 20 Response 4 13 17 Response rate 66 % 93 % 85 %

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questionnaires were sent to Wattle Company employees in the security department and thirteen questionnaires were responded and the response rate of questionnaires was 93%. The respondents were very cooperative as supported by a high response rate (85%). Two interviews failed because there was a meeting on that day so the respondents were attending a meeting. One questionnaire was spoiled therefore did not yield some results. 4.2 AGE AND GENDER. Table 4.2 Respondents by age and gender. Age Male Female Total Source: Survey From a total of seventeen respondents, thirteen (76 %) were male and four (24 %) were female. There was no respondent below twenty years. At the age range of twenty one to thirty years, there were ten respondents (59 % of the total respondents). Seven of them were male and three were female. At the age range of thirty one to forty years there were six respondents (35 %) of the total respondents. Five were male and one was female. And at the age range of forty one years and above there was only one (6 %) respondent of the total respondents and was a male. In terms of gender there are more male workers than female in the security department as noted by thirteen males compared to four females. The reason may be that women usually prefer to work in towns than in the far remote areas. The most dominant age range is 21 – 30 years. This is because the work requires young and efficient workers. The other reason may be the new recruits recently recruited to fill the gap of the workers who were lost during the inflationary period. Below 20 0 0 0 YEARS 21 – 30 31 – 40 7 5 3 10 1 6 41 + 1 0 1 Total 13 4 17

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4.3 EDUCATION LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS One (6 %) of the respondents had attended primary school and eleven (65 %) respondents attended secondary school. Five (29 %) had tertiary education. The majority of the workers in the security department have reached secondary level of education. Most educated and experienced workers have left the company in search for greener pastures. Those with tertiary education are in the management team and a very small number of foresters who have attained a national diploma. Fig 4.3 Education level of respondents.
primary 6% tertiary 29%
secondary tertiary primary

secondary 65%

Source: Survey

4.4. CHALLENGES FACED ON MANAGING SECURITY SYSTEMS The first objective of the research was to identify challenges that are being faced by the company in the management of security systems. The researcher questioned the respondents to find out their opinion on the challenges faced. Generally the respondents highlighted that the company is facing political, economic, social and environmental challenges. Fig 4.4 Response on the severity of the challenges

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14 12 10
number of respondents

8 6 4 2 0 political social economic legal physical

very great moderate slight no effect

Source: Questionnaires Political challenges have the greatest effect on the security systems of the Wattle Company as supported by thirteen (100%) of the respondents. Eight (62%) of the respondents supported that social challenges have a very great effect on the company’s security systems. Economic challenges were supported by seven (54%) respondents as having a moderate effects. Eight (62%) respondents supported that, legal challenges have a slight effect and twelve (92%) respondents revealed that physical challenges have no effect. Therefore political and economic challenges are the major challenges faced by the company. Political challenges: For political reasons political activists would sometimes turn to plantation burning. Political violence disturbs replanting programs. Workers may be forced not to go to work for political reasons. For example, attending some meetings. For the safety of their lives, people usually leave the country to seek refugee in other countries and among these people, there will be experienced and skilled workers of the company. From the researcher’s point of view political challenges have the greatest impact on the management of the security systems. As stated by Hammond (2006), high plantation destructions were first recorded during the land reform period. Sanctions and other political events further worsened the situation by affecting the country’s economy. This brought about hyper inflation and the highest level of unemployment

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Social challenges: There are some conflicts of land between the company and the community which result in people destroying plantations. There are also some activities by people from nearby communities such as hunting, farming and children play which may damage plantations. On social challenges, the researcher supports the results from the research (that social challenges have a very great effect on the security system management) because there is always a conflict of interest between the company and the community in which it is operating. These conflicts are very difficult to completely eradicate, one part need to compromise. Economic challenges: Villagers burn plantations as a way of creating employment in the fire suppression and subsequent replanting. Hyper inflation in the recent years forced many experienced workers to leave their employment in search for greener pastures elsewhere. From the researcher’s point of view economic challenges have slightly affected the timber production. The main reason being that economic crisis was a secondary issue everything started with political instability. Unemployment for example was a result of failure of many companies to operate which had political origin. Legal challenges: The Forest Act and the Communal Land Forest Produce Act are respectively inadequate and too restrictive to protect the timber plantations. The Forest Act is said to be inadequate because, fines that are paid for those found guilt are very light and insignificant. The Communal Land Forest Produce Act do not allow villagers to benefit from the forest produce such as hunting and fishing. Katerere (1996), stated that, such laws will never give the community an incentive to protect the plantation but will rather make the people angry and facilitate in the destruction of those plantations.

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Physical environment: 92% of the respondents from questionnaires supported that the physical environment has no effect on the management of security systems. However from the interviews with the management the researcher found out that physical environment do have some effects on the management of security systems. The recurring droughts in Zimbabwe are causing a tremendous reduction of timber production. Floods from the cyclones in year 2000 caused a great damage to timber plantations as many trees were uprooted and others damaged by the strong winds.

4.5 STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME THE CHALLENGES The second objective of this research was to come up with strategies that can be used to overcome the challenges that are being faced in managing the security systems. The researcher asked the respondents on how they view the strategies that can be used to overcome the challenges that are faced by the company. He wanted to know if the company considers the strategies as important and why. The researcher further asked the respondents on how the strategies can be implemented and the results were as follows.

Fig 4.5 Strategies to overcome the challenges

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120%
response rate

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%
government intervention comm unity involvem ent better forest law s neighbors participation buy new equipm ent

strategies to overcome challenges

greatly

moderately

slightly

not important

Source: Survey Twelve (92%) respondents supported government intervention as the major strategy to be taken to overcome the challenges faced by the company. Ten (76%) were in favour of community involvement and implementation of better forestry laws as of great importance. Seven (54%) were in favour of participation of neighbouring companies. Buying new equipment was supported as of moderate importance. The major strategies that should be taken to overcome the challenges are government intervention, community involvement and implementation of better forest laws. The interviews concurred that, government intervention, community involvement and implementation of better forest laws are the major strategies to overcome the challenges faced by the company. Mushongahande (2009), stated that, since all the problems the company is facing are a result of political instability in Zimbabwe, political issues must be solved first then all other strategies will be implemented successfully. Allowing the villagers to participate, will give them a sense of responsibility and willingness to protect the plantations. As noted by Abberger (2009), community involvement include paying the villagers to patrol around the plantations and for fire

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suppression. Participatory land-use planning and participatory boundary mapping also can be used to reduce land conflicts between the company and the villagers. The Forest Act and the Communal Land Forests Produce Act which are meant to protect the forests were viewed as inadequate and too restrictive to protect the forests. According to Katerere (1996), fines paid should be increased for those found guilt and the community must be allowed access into plantations for forest resources. It is also very important to take into account the neighbouring companies if the company is to successfully overcome the challenges it is facing. Nicolas and Beebe (1999) noted that, the companies should cooperate and share their resources. The machinery and equipment are available in the company, but they need to be replaced because they are becoming old and inefficient.

4.6 THE PLANTATION SECURITY SYSTEM The third objective of this research was to find out how the security system of the Wattle Company operates. This information was needed so as to analyse if there are any loopholes in the system. According to Schulthers and Summer, (1999), a system has characteristics such as outputs, inputs the transformation process. 4.6.1 Inputs The researcher asked the respondents their opinions concerning the inputs of a security system. He wanted to find out how important the company considers each of the inputs. According to Nicolas and Beebe (1999), the inputs of the plantation security system consist of employees, the community, neighbouring companies, equipment and machinery, and the government. Fig 4.6.1 Response on the importance of the inputs of the security systems

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government community neighbors machinery employees 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

number of respondents greatly moderately slightly not important

Source: Survey As noted by thirteen (100%) of the respondents, the company considers its employees as major inputs of the security system. Twelve (92%) supported that equipment and machinery are of great importance. Eight (62%) of the respondents viewed nearby companies as not very important but can be of moderate importance. Six (46%) viewed the community as not important and ten (77%) agreed that government is also not important in the security systems. Generally the major inputs of the company’s security systems are the employees and machinery and equipment. The company train its employees to handle multiple tasks such as firefighting and patrolling. Nicolas and Beebe (1999), concurred that since employees are the backbone of the company, investing in them will help the company carry out its operations successfully. From this perspective the strategy that is being used by the company (investing more on its employees) is not a bad decision. The company is also investing in machinery and equipment to protect its plantations. It is buying new firefighting vehicles, motor bikes, bulldozers, two-

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way radios and chainsaws. The available equipment is kept serviceable and operated by people who know how to use it. The company also cooperates with the neighbours when the fire outbreak takes place at the boundaries. In such a situation the companies will work together sharing equipment and other resources. According to Arisman (2001), companies with nearby plantations must offer full participation in the protection program therefore their importance must not be compromised. The company considers the community as of little importance in the security system. The reason is because the company feel that the villagers lack knowledge of forestry. Their contributions are not very significant. Lara (1993), argued that the community is the greatest threat to plantations therefore a major factor to consider in the protection program of plantations. Government is not important in the security system. This is because of its failure to intervene in the protection of forest plantations. Because the government is not playing its part, the company is no longer considering it as important input for its security system. However according to Bowen (2008), the government should be considered as the major factor in the security system.

4.6.2 Processing The researcher also asked the respondents how often the company perform the activities in the security systems. This information was needed to find out the activities which are given more priority by the company and those that are not considered important. According to Nicolas and Beebe (1999), the processing stage involve observations, communication, physical protection, firefighting and chasing away animals.

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Fig 4.6.2 Response on the performance of activities in the security systems.
90% 80% 70% response rate 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
firefighting observations physical protection communication

always rare very rare sometimes

Source: Primary survey

84% of the respondents supported that firefighting is always done in the plantations. 69% were in favour of observations as being always done. Physical protection and communication are sometimes done as respectively supported by 61% and 54% of the respondents. Therefore the major activities of the company’s security system are firefighting and observations. There are many fire outbreaks taking place so the company is spending more time extinguishing fire than any other activity. This clearly shows that fire is the major threat facing the Wattle Company plantations. Observations are meant to detect threats before they do great harm to the plantations. The foresters are always on patrol for early detection of threats. The company creates physical barriers such as firebreaks and fuelbreaks. In some cases a threat may enter the plantation without being noticed and cause a great

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damage to the plantation. As the managers anticipate damages any time, they are forced to put some protection measures to reduce the effects of the threats. The interviews with the management showed that communication is very important for the success of the system though 54% of the questionnaire respondents showed that communication is not always done. If any threat is detected, it must be communicated quickly to the depot using radios, bells and sirens. It can be seen that firefighting and observations are the major activities that are taking place in the organisation and are given the highest priority as compared to communication and physical protection. However according to Nicolas and Beebe (1999), all these activities are equally important and must be treated equally. Each activity relies on the other. For example, when one detect a danger through observations, he or she must communicate it to all the people responsible and the necessary action is taken. If it is fire, the crew need to be notified of the location and intensity of the fire.

4.7 MAJOR THREATS ON THE PLANTATION SECURITY The fourth objective was to identify major threats on the plantation security system. The researcher asked the respondents the extent to which each of the threats affect their plantation security. Evans (1992) stated that, fire, animals, poachers, pests and weather are the major threats on plantation security. The researcher found out different views from the respondents which are summarised on the following table.

Fig 4.7 (a) Response on the effects of threats on plantations.

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120% 100% response rate 80% very great 60% 40% 20% 0% -20% fire animals poachers plantation threats pests weather moderate slight no effect

Source: primary survey Fire is the major threat of the company as supported by 100% of the respondents. 77% of the respondents viewed animals as a moderate threat. Poachers have a slight effect to plantations as supported by 54% of the respondents. Pests and weather have no effect on plantation as noted by 92% of the respondents. The major threat of the company’s plantations is fire. Fire can originates from natural causes such as lightning, but many occur as a result of activities from man. Human causes are either by mistakes or deliberate. The damage by animals was grouped in two; wild animals and domestic animals. Wild animals that impose greatest harm to the company are the baboons. It was stated that people usually turn to timber poaching for firewood, construction of houses, kraals and fences. It is very difficult to protect plantations from the weather changes. Floods in the year 2000 caused a great damage on plantations. many trees were uprooted and damaged by strong winds.

4.8. CHAPTER SUMMARY

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The chapter looked at the findings of the research in relation to the objectives of the study which are: to identify challenges faced in managing the plantation security system of a timber producing company, to come up with strategies to overcome the challenges, to investigate how the plantation security system operates and to identify threats on timber plantations .

CHAPTER FIVE Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

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5.0 INTRODUCTION The chapter is concerned with the simplification, analysis and presentation of information, which can be communicated so as to get an accurate picture of the data collected. One of the main objective of this chapter is to identify the main features of information given by the collected data and to present them in such a way that they become intelligible and interesting. 5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 5.1.1 Challenges faced on managing plantation security systems The findings identified that the management is facing political, economic, social, physical environmental and legal challenges. The major challenges were political and social challenges. It was discovered that for political reasons; people burn plantations, illegally settle in plantations, workers are forced not to go to work, the country is isolated by international countries and the economy of the country is shrinking. The findings also showed that the company is having conflicts with the people from nearby communities on land ownership issues. The community claim that the land belonged to their ancestors and so they cannot face some shortages of land while their land is used for plantations. The villagers also damage plantation through activities such as hunting, farming and children play. Economic challenges have moderate effect on the company’s security systems. The research proved that because of high levels of unemployment in the country, people are engaging in unethical practices such as burning plantations for employment creation and timber poaching. Hyper inflation in the recent years also has resulted in the company loosing some of its experienced workers who sought greener pastures in other countries. Legal challenges slightly affect the company’s security systems. The Forest Act and the Communal Land Forest Produce Act were viewed as inadequate and too

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restrictive to protect timber plantations. Physical environment have no effect on the company’s security systems. 5.1.2 Strategies to overcome the challenges The research showed that for the company to overcome the challenges, there must be government intervention, community involvement, better forest laws, neighbouring companies involvement, new equipment and machinery. The government can assist by implementing policies that protect timber plantations. The community can be involved in the security system by employing the villagers as prevention aids and participatory land-use planning and boundary mapping. Better forest laws include increasing the fines paid for those people who are found guilty. The community must be allowed access to dams and other forest resources. There is need for the company to buy new vehicles and other equipment since the old ones are becoming very old and inefficient. 5.1.3 How the plantation security system operates The findings were that the system has inputs, transformation process and outputs. The inputs of the system include the company’s employees, its equipment and machinery, the community, neighbouring companies and the government. The company’s major inputs are its employees, equipment and machinery. On transformation process the activities of the security system are communication, observation, firefighting and protection. The company’s major activities are firefighting and observations. Finally, the output is the imbalanced security system with many loopholes resulting in low timber production output.

5.1.4 Major threats on timber plantations The research findings were that the plantations are facing damages from fire, animals, poachers, weather and pests. Fire was identified as a major threat on the

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company’s plantations. Fire outbreaks may be deliberate or accidental but most of the fires are of deliberate causes. Accidental causes may result from farming, hunting, forestry and other activities such as children play, transit and transport. Animals have a moderate effect and poachers have slight effect on plantations. Animal damage is usually by baboons and livestock. Timber poaching is accelerated by increased poverty in this country forcing many people to engage in unethical practices. Pests and weather have no effect on plantations.

5.2 CONCLUSIONS The security management are facing political, economic, social, physical environmental and legal challenges in their endeavour to protect their plantations from danger. These challenges are weakening the security system creating loopholes through which the threats can get access and affect the plantations. The end result of this is reduced timber output. The inputs of the system include the company’s employees, its equipment and machinery, the community, neighbouring companies and the government. The company’s major inputs are its employees, equipment and machinery. The major activities are communication, observation, firefighting and protection. The major threats affecting the timber plantations are fire, animals, poachers, weather and pests. The most disastrous among them all being fire. The company is facing many damages from fire every year during the dry season. The security systems do not call for full participation of the neighbouring companies, community and government and this further worsen the situation of damaged plantations. All the challenges the company is facing need support from other companies and the community. Buying new equipment and machinery as well as

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employing highly experienced workers only cannot totally reduce the damages of timber plantations. 5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 5.3.1 Participatory land use and boundary mapping In an attempt to reduce the conflicts with the community on the issue of land the company should engage in participatory land-use planning followed by participatory boundary mapping. This will make the community feel that they are recognised and are important. Evans (1992) suggested that, before replanting an area that has been used as a grazing area by the community, the company should first negotiate with the community and try to find them an alternative grazing area for their animals. In addition the company should allow access of villagers to plantations for hunting, fishing and collection of firewood, this will create a good relationship between the companies and the villagers. 5.3.2 Community involvement in protection program To reduce damage by community activities, the company should encourage the communities to participate in the protection programme. This involves the employment of local villagers as prevention aides. According to Lara (1993), local communities should be compensated to prevent fires as well as paid to form volunteers fire crews. To gain involvement of the community, the company should pay a sensible wage to groups of villagers to man lookout positions. Properly trained and equipped village fire crews should be paid to patrol close to the village and to maintain the fuel breaks on the plantation boundaries. Abberger (2008) suggested that, the community members should be equipped with radios and they should report every fire spotted. If a local fire does start they fight it immediately and join company crews who attend later. No additional pay is given for fire fighting. The scheme has the merit that members of the community are paid even if there are no fires and they thus do not have to work to earn. Giving the

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villagers salaries will make them loyal to the company and do their best to protect the plantations as they will be expecting more in the future.

5.3.3 Sell firewood at low prices To prevent theft, the company should sell firewood at a very low price or at least at no profit. At times hedges and fences can be used to prevent intrusion by domestic animals. Where fencing costs are high, trespass by livestock can be controlled by guards. 5.3.4 Construct wide fuel breaks According to Abberger, to reduce the problem of fire on steep slopes, the company should make wide fuel breaks ranging from 250 – 350 meters. Wide fuelbreaks will take time for the fire to break through. If it is an economic necessity to make narrower fuel breaks, these are restricted to flat areas. Width must not be compromised where the ground next to road is steep. Cleaning of the fuel breaks should be most thorough where they are on slope. 5.3.5 Install man-made sources of water As suggested by Rathfon and Farlee (2002), the company should install man-made sources of water where natural sources of water within a plantation are limited. Holes can be dug within the plantations before the dry season to help ensure a water supply in the dry seasons. The company should also install water tanks inside the plantations. Water tanks should be filled with water pumped from the nearby dam or river. Canals should also be dug for drainage system to areas with water problems. 5.3.6 Give the nearby communities first preferences to fill the vacancies To reduce the effects of economic problems, the company should give people from the nearby communities first preferences whenever vacancies exist. By doing this the company will be trying to reduce the poverty level of the community so that in

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the future there may be no cases of illegal logging. A mutually beneficial happy relationship will exist between the company and villagers. 5.3.7 Better working conditions The company should retain the experienced workers from leaving the company by paying them favourable wages and better working conditions. Arisman (2001) suggested that, schools, hospitals, banking, transport and other services should provided by the company in these remote rural areas. This will make workers feel very comfortable with the environment they will be working in. 5.3.8 Better forest laws Katerere suggested that, The government should design policies to preserve the timber plantations. One such a policy should be to increase the fines paid and jail time for those who are found guilt of illegal logging or deliberately burning plantations. Such a policy will reduce illegal logging and deliberate burning or damages. Action should be taken for everyone who breaches the law. 5.3.9 Participation of nearby companies It is also very important to take into account the companies with nearby plantations if the company is to successfully overcome the challenges it is facing. Nicolas and Beebe (1999) suggested that, the companies should cooperate to protect their plantations. They must share their resources. It is noted that sometimes fire may start from neighbouring plantations, cooperation will mean such fires are avoided before they reach the company’s plantations. 5.3.10 Plantation policy The company should call for the adoption of a plantation policy that was crafted by the industry, which among other issues calls for settlement bordering estates to be at least five kilometers away from the edge of the forest plantation.

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5.4 PLAN OF ACTION: OPERATIONAL CHANGES 5.4.1 Identify the neighbouring communities The first step is for the company to identify all the neighbouring communities. The key communities here are those who have access to the plantation for hunting, fishing, collecting firewood and other activities as well as all those who are on the boundaries of the company’s plantations. All the nearby and major communities as well as their population sizes should be listed down. 5.4.2 Identify neighbouring companies The company should also identify the companies who are in the same industry and with the plantations that are nearby. The company should list all those company with plantations that are at the boundaries of its plantations. Their security employees, equipment, machinery and their relationship with the community must also be considered. 5.4.3 Talk to the community leaders After the company has identified the key communities, it must then talk to their leaders on how they will benefit from cooperating with the company to protect the plantations. The company need to discuss issues relating to; salaries and compensation (how they will be paid and when), training and equipment for the village protection team, patrolling and communication procedures, maintenance of fuelbreaks on the plantation boundaries, land use planning and boundary mapping. 5.4.4 Discuss with the neighbouring companies The company also need to discuss with the neighbouring companies on issues relating to: communications to coordinate protection management operations, early warning and danger issues, plans to establish and safeguard fuelbreaks (patrolling) along the borders of the plantations, approaches to and cooperation with local communities, training and awareness campaigns, sharing of equipment and personnel in the case of fire

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5.4.5 Coordination with the community and the nearby companies The company should coordinate the protection activities with the village crews and the neighbouring companies. The community must be quickly and strongly supported to provide effective services in the field. The company need to establish strong links with the neighbouring communities and companies. Finally, ensuring the whole process is subjected to reviews during and after implementation and take corrective measures as and when it is necessary.

5.5 FURTHER RESEARCH There are very few researches concerning the security systems of Zimbabwean timber plantations. Most researches were carried out on the causes and prevention of fires on plantations. The importance of security systems are overlooked. Further researches should be carried out on the same topic “an evaluation of the challenges faced on managing plantation security systems of a timber producing company”, so as to explore and find more information concerning the subject. Further researches should also be carried on the importance of security systems to increase productivity. How the security systems and productivity are related?

5.6 CHAPTER SUMMARY The chapter highlighted the summary of findings in the research and the conclusions on the objectives. It also takes into account the recommendations as well as the plan of action.

REFERENCES

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1. Abberger (2009), Timber Plantations in Indonesia, www.fao.com 2. Arisman (2001), Fire Management in the Sumatra Province, www.fao.com 3. Bowen (2008), Illegal Logging in Papua, www.pes.purdue 4. Evans S, (1992), Plantation Forestry in the Tropics, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, New York. 5. Gumede G, (2009), Forestry Workers Abandon Jobs, www.zimtelegragh.com 6. Hammond P, (2006), Forests Destroyed in Zimbabwe, www.frontline.com 7. Hirst F, (2007), Fire Risk Management for Farm Plantations, www.dpi.gov.au 8. Kanyekanye J, (2005), Land Invaders Burn Plantations, www.zimonline.com 9. Kanyekanye J, (2007), Farmers Harm Timber Industry, www.woodbusiness.com 10. Keenan J, (2008), Australian Forest Plantations, www.brs.gov.au 11. Lara A, (1993), Forest Plantation in Chile, Belhaven Press, London. 12. Mabugu R, (2009), Accounting for Forestry Resources, www.ceepa.co.za 13. Mahonye and Makate (2009), Annual Congress of the Confederation of Zimbabwe, www.brdisolutions.com 14. Matarira C and Mwamuka (1996), Vulnerability of Zimbabwe Forestry to Global Climate, Change, Climate Research vol. 6:135-136. 15. Mushongahande M (2009) Zimbabwe’s Forestry Industry, www.fabinet.up.ac.za 16. McKenna J and Woeste K, (2009), Diagnosing and Controlling Wildlife Damage in Hardwood Plantations, www.ces.purdue.edu 17. Nicolas M and Beebe G, (1999), Fire Management , Jakarta, Indonesia. 18. O’Brien J, (2005), Introduction to Information Systems, Twelfth Edition, McGraw Hill, New Delhi 19. Rathfon R and Farlee L, (2002), Keeping the Forests Healthy and Productive, Third Edition, Purdue University, West Lafayette. 20. Raymond (1999), The Role of Community in Fire Management, www.fao.com 21. Sculthers R and Summer M, (1999), Management Information System: the manager’s view, Forth Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, New York. 22. Zaikowski L, (2008), Environmental Management, www.eoeart.org APPPENDIX 1 – Research Questionnaire

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My name is Chapanda Kudakwashe Gracious a student at Midlands State University. I am carrying out a research on the challenges faced in managing plantation security systems of a timber company in Zimbabwe. This questionnaire seeks your contribution on the topic. 1. Gender. Please tick in the box below. Male 2. How old are you? Below 20 years above 4. Education level. None. 5. Profession Manager Forester Firefighter Other Primary. Secondary Tertiary 21–30 years 31–40 years 41 years and Female

6. To what extent do the following challenges affect the management of security systems of your company? Use the scale to tick your answer: 1 – very great 2 – moderate 3 – slight 4 – no effect 1 Political challenges Economic challenges Legal challenges Social challenges Physical environment 7. How important are the following solutions to overcome the challenges mentioned above? Use the following scale to tick your answer 1 – greatly 2 – moderately 3 – slightly 4 – not important 1 2 3 4 2 3 4

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Government intervention Community involvement Buying new equipment & machinery Allow neighboring companies participation Implementation of Better forest laws 8. How important are following factors in the protection of your timber plantations? Use this scale: 1 – greatly 2 – moderately 3 – slightly 4 – not important 1 Government Community Equipment & machinery Neighboring companies Employees 9. How often do you perform the following activities in your timber plantations? Use the scale to tick your answer: 1 – always 2 – sometimes 3 – rare 4 – very rare 1 Observations Communication Protection Fire fighting Repelling animals 10. To what extent do the following threats affect your plantations? Scale: 1 – very great 2 – moderately 3 – slightly 1 Fire Animals Poachers Pests Weather 12. What is the organization doing to reduce the effects of the above threats? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …… THANK YOU 2 4 – no effect 3 4 2 3 4 2 3 4

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APPENDIX 2 – Interview Guide

1. What challenges are you facing in the management of security systems of your company? 2. What strategies can be used by the company to overcome the challenges 3. What are the major inputs of your security systems? 4. What are the major activities in your security systems? 5. What are the major threats that affect you plantations 6. What is the organization doing to reduce the effects of the above threats?

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