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Diesel Injection Pump

SERVICE MANUAL
FORD Puma Common Rail System
Functional Parts
OPERATION

February, 2006

00400090E

2006 DENSO CORPORATION


All Rights Reserved. This book may not be reproduced
or copied, in whole or in part, without the written
permission of the publisher.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Operation Section
1. ACCESSORY INFORMATION
1.1

Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

1.2

Functional Parts List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

2. SUPPLY PUMP
2.1

Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

2.2

Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3

2.3

Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5

3. RAIL
3.1

Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6

4. INJECTOR
4.1

Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7

4.2

Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7

4.3

Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10

5. SUPPLY PUMP COMPONENT PARTS


5.1

Feed Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11

5.2

SCV (Suction Control Valve) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11

5.3

Fuel temperature sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13

6. RAIL COMPONENT PARTS


6.1

Rail Pressure Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14

6.2

Pressure Limiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14

Operation Section

1 1

1. ACCESSORY INFORMATION
1.1 Outline
z This publication details the common rail system for the FORD Puma. This common rail system includes the following DENSO functional parts: supply pump, rail and injectors. Only the functional parts are described here.

1.2 Functional Parts List


Parts Name
Supply pump

Fuel temperature sensor

DENSO Part Number

Manufacturer Parts Number

Remarks

HU294000-040#

6C1Q-9B395-AB

For 2.2L

HU294000-041#

6C1Q-9B395-BB

For 2.4L

179730-010#

SCV (Suction Control Valve)

SM294200-010#

Rail

HU095440-073#

Rail Pressure Sensor

HU294390-001#

Pressure Limiter

HU095420-033#

Injector

HU095000-580#

6C1Q-9K546-AB

For low output

HU095000-581#

6C1Q-9K546-BA

For high output

6C1Q-9D280-AB

1 2

Operation Section

2. SUPPLY PUMP
2.1 Outline
z The supply pump consists primarily of the pump body (camshaft (eccentric cam), ring cam, and plungers), SCV (Suction Control
Valve), fuel temperature sensor, and feed pump.
z The two plungers are positioned vertically on the outer ring cam for compactness.

to Rail
Overflow to
Fuel Tank
Fuel Temperature
Sensor

SCV

from Fuel Tank

to Rail

Overflow to
Fuel Tank
Fuel Temperature
Sensor

SCV

from Fuel Tank


Q001030E

z The engine drives the supply pump at a ratio of 1:2. The supply pump has a built-in feed pump (trochoid type), and draws the fuel
from the fuel tank, sending it to the plunger chamber.
z The internal camshaft drives the two plungers, and they pressurize the fuel sent to the plunger chamber and send it to the rail. The
quantity of fuel supplied to the rail is controlled by the SCV, using signals from the engine ECU. The SCV is a normally open type
(the SCV opens during de-energization).

Injector

Rail

Intake Pressure
Feed Pressure
High Pressure
Return

Intake Valve
Discharge Valve

Plunger
Return Spring

Fuel Overflow
SCV

Return

Regulating Valve
Filter

Feed Pump

Camshaft
Fuel Inlet

Fuel Tank
Intake Fuel Filter
Q001019E

Operation Section

1 3

(1) Supply Pump Internal Fuel Flow


Fuel drawn from the fuel tank passes through the route in the supply pump as illustrated, and is fed into the rail.

Supply Pump Interior


Regulating Valve
SCV (Suction Control Valve)

Feed Pump
Overflow

Intake Valve

Rail

Discharge Valve
Pumping Portion (Plunger)

Fuel Tank
Q000394E

2.2 Construction
z The eccentric cam is formed on the camshaft and is attached to the ring cam.

Ring Cam
Camshaft

Eccentric Cam
Q000395E

z As the camshaft rotates, the eccentric cam rotates eccentrically, and the ring cam moves up and down while rotating.

Plunger

Eccentric cam

Drive shaft

Ring cam

QD0727E

1 4

Operation Section

z The plunger and the suction valve are mounted on top of the ring cam. The feed pump is connected to the rear of the camshaft.

Plunger A

Ring cam

Feed pump

Plunger B
QD0728E

Operation Section

1 5

2.3 Operation
z As shown in the illustration below, the rotation of the eccentric cam causes the ring cam to push Plunger A upwards. Due to the spring
force, Plunger B is pulled in the opposite direction to Plunger A. As a result, Plunger B draws in fuel while Plunger A pumps it to the
rail.

Suction valve

Delivery valve

Plunger A
Eccentric cam

Ring cam
SCV
Plunger B
Plunger A: complete compression

Plunger A: begin intake

Plunger B: complete intake

Plunger B: begin compression

Plunger A: begin compression


Plunger B: begin intake

Plunger A: complete intake


Plunger B: complete compression
QD0707E

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Operation Section

3. RAIL
3.1 Outline
z The rail stores pressurized fuel that has been delivered from the supply pump and distributes it to each cylinder injector. A pressure
sensor and a pressure limiter are adopted in the rail. The pressure sensor detects the fuel pressure in the rail and sends a signal to the
ECU. The ECU controls the supply pump SCV and the fuel pressure in the rail based on this signal.

To Injector
Rail Pressure Sensor

High-Pressure
Fuel Inlet
Pressure Limiter

Q001054E

Operation Section

1 7

4. INJECTOR
4.1 Outline
z A compact, energy-saving solenoid-control type TWV (Two-Way Valve) injector has been adopted.

4.2 Construction

16 Base 16 Characters
Sample
Upper
Side

Pressurized Fuel
(from Rail)

Solenoid Valve
Control Chamber
QR Codes
Sample

Leak Passage

Command Piston

Seat

Pressurized Fuel

Nozzle Spring
Pressure Pin

Multiple Hole Filter


Filter Orifice Dimensions: 0.045x2025

Nozzle Needle

Q001020E

1 8

Operation Section

(1) Injector with QR Codes


QR Code Location

(2)

(1)

QR Codes
( 9.9mm)
Sample

(2)

(1)
ID Codes (16 base 16 characters)
Base 16 characters nothing fuel
injection quantity correction
information for market service use.
Sample
Upper
Side

Q001055E

QR Code Correction Points

Pressure parameters
Injection
volume Q

QR code
Sample

Actuating pulse

TQ
Actuating pulse width TQ
Q001056E

Operation Section

1 9

(2) Service Instructions


When replacing the injectors or the engine ECU, it is necessary to record the ID codes in the ECU using a diagnosis tool (available
from the car manufacturer).
< CAUTION >
If the ID codes for the installed injectors are not registered correctly, engine failure such as rough idling and noise will
result.
Replacing the Injector

"As no correction resistance used, the fuel injection correction data cannot be detected electrically"

Replaced injector
Engine ECU

* Injector ID code must be registered with the engine ECU


Q001057E

Replacing the Engine ECU

"As no correction resistance used, the fuel injection correction data cannot be detected electrically"

Vehicle injectors
Replaced engine ECU

* Injector ID code must be registered with the engine ECU


Q001058E

1 10

Operation Section

4.3 Operation
z The TWV (Two-Way Valve) solenoid valve opens and closes the outlet orifice passage to control both the pressure in the control
chamber, and the start and end of injection.

To Fuel
Tank

Solenoid

Actuating
Current

Actuating
Current

Control
Chamber
Pressure

Control
Chamber
Pressure

Control
Chamber
Pressure

Injection Rate

Injection Rate

Injection Rate

Actuating
Current

TWV
Outlet Orifice
Inlet Orifice

Rail

Control Chamber
Command Piston

Nozzle

No Injection

Injection

End of Injection
Q001059E

(1) No injection
When no current is supplied to the solenoid, the TWV (solenoid valve) is pushed downward by the spring, closing the outlet orifice.
This equalizes the control chamber pressure forcing the command piston down, and the pressure forcing the nozzle needle up. A state
of no injection results because the nozzle needle closes due to the nozzle spring force and the difference in areas to which pressure is
being applied.

(2) Injection
When current is initially applied to the solenoid, the attraction of the solenoid pulls the TWV (solenoid valve) up, opening the outlet
orifice and allowing fuel to flow out of the control chamber. After the fuel flows out, pressure in the control chamber decreases, pulling
the command piston up. This causes the nozzle needle to rise and injection to start.

(3) Injection Ends


When current continues to be applied to the solenoid, the nozzle reaches its maximum lift where the injection rate is also at the maximum level. When current to the solenoid is turned OFF, the TWV (solenoid valve) falls and closes the orifice. Fuel then flows into
the control chamber via the inlet orifice, increasing pressure and causing the nozzle needle to close immediately and injection to stop.

Operation Section

1 11

5. SUPPLY PUMP COMPONENT PARTS


5.1 Feed Pump
z The trochoid type feed pump integrated into the supply pump, draws fuel from the fuel tank and feeds it to the two plungers via the
fuel filter and the SCV (Suction Control Valve). The feed pump is driven by the camshaft. With the rotation of the inner rotor, the feed
pump draws fuel from its suction port and pumps it out through the discharge port. This is done in accordance with the space that
increases and decreases with the movement of the outer and inner rotors.

Outer Rotor

To
Pump Chamber

Quantity Decrease

Quantity Decrease
(Fuel Discharge)

Inner Rotor

Intake Port
From
Fuel Tank

Discharge
Port

Quantity Increase

Quantity Increase
(Fuel Intake)
QD0708E

5.2 SCV (Suction Control Valve)


z A linear solenoid type valve has been adopted. The ECU controls the duty ratio (the duration in which current is applied to the SCV),
in order to control the quantity of fuel that is supplied to the high-pressure plunger.
z The supply pump drive load decreases because intake fuel quantity is controlled to achieve the target rail pressure.
z When current flows to the SCV, the internal armature moves in accordance with the duty ratio. The fuel quantity is regulated by the
cylinder, which moves in connection with the armature to block the fuel passage.
z With the SCV OFF, the return spring pushes the cylinder, completely opening the fuel passage and supplying fuel to the plungers.
(Full quantity intake => full quantity discharge.)
z When the SCV is ON, the return spring contracts and closes the fuel passage.
z By turning the SCV ON/OFF, fuel is supplied in an amount corresponding to the drive duty ratio and then discharged by the plungers.

Valve body

Needle valve

Return Spring
Q001060E

1 12

Operation Section

(1) When the SCV Energized Duration (Duty ON Time) is Short


Short duty ON => large valve opening => maximum intake quantity

Feed Pump

Needle valve Large Opening


Q001061E

(2) When the SCV Energized Duration (Duty ON Time) is Long


Long duty ON => small valve opening => minimum intake quantity

Feed Pump

Needle valve Small Opening


Q001062E

Operation Section

1 13

(3) Relationship Between the Drive Signal and Current (Magnetomotive Force)
Drive Signal and Current (Magnetomotive Force) Relational Diagram

High Suction Quantity

OFF

Current

Actuating
Voltage

Low Suction Quantity


ON

Average Current Difference

QD0710E

5.3 Fuel temperature sensor


z The fuel temperature sensor is used in rail pressure and injection quantity control. This sensor is installed on the fuel intake side and
utilizes the characteristics of a thermistor in which the electric resistance changes with the temperature in order to detect the fuel temperature.

Initial Resistance Value Characteristics


Temperature Resistance Value
(C)
(k)
-30
(25.4)

Thermistor

-20

15.04 +1.29
-1.20

-10

(9.16)

(5.74)

10

(3.70)

20

2.45+0.14
-0.13

30

(1.66)

40

(1.15)

50

(0.811)

60

(0.584)

70

(0.428)

80

0.3180.008

90

(0.240)

100

(0.1836)

110

0.14170.0018

120

(0.1108)
Q001063E

1 14

Operation Section

6. RAIL COMPONENT PARTS


6.1 Rail Pressure Sensor
z This sensor detects fuel pressure in the rail and sends a signal to the engine ECU. It is a semi-conductor piezo resistance type pressure
sensor that utilizes the characteristic whereby electrical resistance changes when pressure is applied to a metal diaphragm.

PFUEL (V)

4.2
3.56
2.6
1.32
1.0
0

A-VCC PFUEL A-GND

A-VCC = 5V

0 20
100 160 200
Rail Pressure (MPa)
Q001064E

6.2 Pressure Limiter


z When pressure in the rail is abnormally high, the pressure limiter opens the valve to relieve the pressure. It reopens when pressure in
the rail drops to approximately 200 MPa, and resumes operation when pressure drops to below the specified level. Fuel leaked by the
pressure limiter returns to the fuel tank.

Opening pressure: 200 9MPa


Housing

Valve Guide

Valve

Rail Side

Spring

Valve Body
Q001065E

Published

: February 2006

Edited and published by:

DENSO CORPORATION
Service Department
1-1 Showa-cho, Kariya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan