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Mie Scattering Summary

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Lorenz-Mie Scattering

Topics:

1. Lorenz-Mie theory

2. Scattering amplitudes/phase matrix

3. Mie scattering results: extinction, absorption, phase function vs. x

4. Anomalous Diffraction Theory

5. Index of refraction for water/ice/aerosols

6. Mie scattering results for size distributions

Lorenz-Mie Theory

Mie scattering is a solution method for light scattering from spheres.

Applicable for any size parameter, but Mie regime 0.1 < x < 100.

Overview of Mie scattering solution for spheres:

1) Express electric field inside and outside sphere in a vector spherical harmonic

expansion, which satisfies Maxwells equations.

2) Apply boundary conditions - match transverse fields at sphere surface to obtain

outgoing spherical wave coefficients an and bn .

3) Use series involving an and bn to obtain extinction and scattering efficiencies

(Qext and Qsca ).

4) Use series in Mie angular functions to obtain scattering amplitude functions

S1 () and S2 (), from which phase function is derived.

Scattering Amplitudes

Complex functions that describe pattern and polarization of scattered electric field

in terms of the incident field.

The electric field in the far field (R kr 2, k = 2/) is

Ek

E

sca

exp(ikR + ikz) S2 S3

=

S4 S1

ikR

Ek0

E0

S2 S3

is the amplitude scattering matrix (unitless).

S4 S1

For spheres S3 = S4 = 0.

is the outgoing scattered wave.

The exp(ikz) is the incident plane wave. exp(ikR)

ikR

The matrix

4

Re[S1,2(0)]

2

k

ext = Cext =

Phase Matrix

The phase matrix is the phase function with polarization.

For randomly oriented particles it is

Isca

Qsca

Usca

Vsca

sca

4R2

P11 P12

0

0

P12 P22

0

0

0

0

P33 P34

0

0 P34 P44

I0

Q0

U0

V0

For spheres P22 = P11 and P44 = P33.

The off diagonal terms are usually small for Mie scattering, so polarization does

not affect intensity (then need only P11 for I).

Intensity component of phase matrix

4 |S1 |2 + |S2 |2

P11 () = 2

k sca

2

Mie Scattering Amplitudes

Mie theory scattering amplitudes

S1 () =

2n + 1

[an n (cos ) + bn n (cos )]

n=1 n(n + 1)

2n + 1

[bnn (cos ) + an n (cos )]

n=1 n(n + 1)

The complex Mie coefficients an and bn are obtained from matching the boundary

conditions at the surface of the sphere. They are expressed in terms of spherical

Bessel functions evaluated at x and mx.

The Mie angular functions are

S2 () =

n (cos ) =

1

Pn1 (cos )

sin

2

n (cos ) =

d 1

P (cos )

d n

The number of terms needed and amount of angular structure is proportional to

size parameter x.

Spherical Bessel functiuons of the first (a) and second (b) kind. [Bohren and Huffman, 1993; Fig.

4.2]

3

Polar plots of the first five Mie angular functions n and n . Both functions are plotted to the same

scale. [Bohren and Huffman, 1993; Fig. 4.3]

The Mie efficiency factors are derived from the scattering amplitudes.

Extinction efficiency:

Qext =

2 X

(2n + 1)Re(an + bn )

x2 n=1

Scattering efficiency:

Qsca

2 X

(2n + 1)(|an|2 + |bn|2 )

= 2

x n=1

Asymmetry parameter:

4 X n(n + 2)

2n + 1

Qsca g = 2

Re(an an+1 + bn bn+1) +

Re(an bn )

x n n+1

n(n + 1)

How a Mie code works:

1. Compute an and bn for n = 1 . . . N from size parameter x and index of

refraction m (uses recursion relations for the spherical Bessel functions).

N x + 4x1/3 + 2.

2. Compute Qext , Qsca, and g from an and bn .

3. (optional) Compute S1() and S2 () at desired scattering angles from an

and bn and n () and n () (n and n from recursion). Compute phase

matrix elements P11, P12, P33 , P34 from S1, S2 .

4. Integrate numerically over a size distribution n(r) to get volume extinction

, single scattering albedo , and phase function P ().

Lorenz-Mie theory applies to spheres of all size parameters x.

Extinction efficiency vs size parameter (no absorption):

1) Small in Rayleigh limit Qext x4

2) Largest Qext when particle and wavelength have similar size.

3) Qext 2 in geometric limit (x ).

4) Oscillations from interference of transmitted and diffracted waves.

5) Ripple structure from surface waves - resonance effects

Period in x of interference oscillation depends on m.

Absorption reduces interference oscillations and kills resonance ripples.

Scattering and absorption efficiency vs size parameter with absorbing m:

as x , Qsca 1, Qabs 1; entering rays are absorbed inside particle.

Smaller imaginary part of m requires larger particle to fully absorb internal rays.

Phase functions: Forward peak height increases dramatically with x.

For single particles - number of oscillations in P () increases with x.

4.5

m=1.33

m=1.55

4.0

3.5

Qext

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

10

15

20

25

Size parameter x

30

35

40

4.0

m=1.33-0.00i

m=1.33-0.01i

m=1.33-0.03i

m=1.33-0.10i

3.5

3.0

Qext

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

10

20

30

40

50

Size parameter x

60

70

80

Extinction efficiency vs. size parameter. Top panel shows effect of real part of index of refraction,

while bottom panel shows effect of imaginary part.

4.0

m=1.33-0.003i

m=1.33-0.01i

m=1.33-0.03i

m=1.33-0.1i

3.5

3.0

Qsca

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

10

20

30

40

50

Size parameter x

60

70

80

4.0

m=1.33-0.003i

m=1.33-0.01i

m=1.33-0.03i

m=1.33-0.1i

3.5

3.0

Qabs

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

10

20

30

40

50

Size parameter x

60

70

80

Scattering and absorption efficiencies vs. size parameter for varying amounts of absorption.

x=0.1

x=1

x=3

10

Phase function

8

6

4

2

0

20

40

60

80 100 120

Scattering angle

140

160

180

3

10

x=0.1

x=3

x=10

x=30

Phase function

10

10

10

-1

10

-2

10

20

40

60

80 100 120

Scattering angle

140

160

180

Phase functions for single nonabsorbing spheres of increasing size parameter x: linear scale (top),

log scale (bottom).

Geometric optics limit is x .

As x extinction efficiency is Qext = 2.

Extinction cross section is twice particle area!

One r2 from blockage by particle, second r 2 from diffraction.

Light diffracted by particle edge is scattered by small angles.

Solution to paradox: need to be in far field (xr 1) to see diffraction.

If optical path in particle 4r/ 1, all light entering is absorbed:

Cabs = r2 Csca = r2 = 0.5

If 4r/ 1, all light entering particle is transmitted:

Cabs = 0 Csca = 2r2 = 1

Optical depth is proportional to second moment of size distribution:

=

Z Z

0

2r2 n(r)dr dz =

3 LWP

2 l re

for x

Anomalous Diffraction Theory (ADT)

Simple scattering theory - explains main Mie Qext (x) oscillations.

ADT applies to limits:

x 1 so treat waves as rays,

m 1 1 so no refraction or reflection.

But phase lag in particle is significant = 2x(m 1).

ADT integrates sum of incident and transmitted E field (in = 0 direction) for

all rays through particle. Then uses optical theorem (Cext = (4/k 2)Re[S(0)])

to obtain extinction cross section, and bulk absorption coefficient (4Im[m]/) to

obtain absorption cross section.

Oscillations in Qext due to constructive and destructive interference of diffracted

and transmitted waves.

For non-absorbing spheres ADT gives

Qext = 2

4

4

sin + 2 (1 cos )

10

ADT can be used on any convex shaped particle. But not that accurate for realistic

index of refraction.

Extinction curves computed from Lorenz-Mie theory for m=1.5,1.33,0.93,0.8. The abscissa is

= 2x(m 1) and is common to the upper two Lorenz-Mie curves as well as to the bottom

anomalous diffraction theory (ADT) curves [van del Hulst, 1957; Stephens, 1994]

11

x0

Cext

r3 or r6

( > 0) 0

g

0

Mie results:

Qext oscillations

reaches maximum

increases

x

2r 2

1/2

constant (.71)

Results

4.0

3.5

Qext

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

10

20

30

40 50 60 70

Size parameter x

80

90

100

4

5

6

Size parameter x

10

4.0

3.5

Qext

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

Extinction efficiency (Qext ), single scattering albedo (), and asymmetry parameter (g) as a function of size parameter for a slightly absorbing index of refraction.

12

See graphs for complex index of refraction m = n i

Debye and Lorentz models used to understand index (see Stephens).

Microwave: water - very high n and , ice - n = 1.78, low

Index is temperature dependent for water but not much for ice.

Thermal IR: high (highest at 3 m); wiggle in n with each peak in .

Visible/near IR: mostly constant n,

= 0 in visible and increases with wavelength in near IR.

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

1

10

Real Part

Water T=20 C

Water T=0 C

Ice

T=-20 C

Imaginary Part

10

-1

10

-2

10

10

10

-3

-4

20

40

60

80

100 120

Frequency (GHz)

140

160

180

200

Real and imaginary part of the index of refraction of water and ice in the microwave.

13

2.0

Water

Ice

1.8

Real Part

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0

10

-1

Imaginary Part

10

10

-2

10

-3

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

-1

Wavenumber (cm )

3000

3500

Real and imaginary part of the index of refraction of water and ice in the infrared.

14

4000

1.7

Water

Ice

1.6

Real Part

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.0

0

10

10

Imaginary Part

10

-1

-2

10

10

-3

-4

10

-5

-6

10

10

-7

10

-8

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Wavelength ( m)

3.0

3.5

4.0

Real and imaginary part of the index of refraction of water and ice in the visible and near infrared.

15

except for soot (carbon) and dust (e.g. hematite) aerosols. Sulfates and quartz

absorb in 8-12 m region.

Imaginary part of index of refraction as a function of wavelength for some common aerosol materials. [Bohren and Huffman; Fig. 5.16]

16

Real distributions of particles smooth out oscillations in extinction efficiency Qext (x)

and phase function P ().

The extinction efficiency as a function of the effective size parameter x e = 2re / for gamma size

distributions of various effective variances b. Mie theory with index m = 1.33 was used. [after

Hansen and Travis, 1974; Stephens, Fig. 5.16]

17

For cloud droplets at solar wavelengths: still have forward diffraction peak (width

1/x), rainbow near = 140, and glory at = 180.

4

10

Water droplets

=1.65 m

10

Phase function

10

10

10

-1

10

reff=5 m

reff=10 m

reff=20 m

-2

10

20

40

60

80 100 120

Scattering angle

140

160

180

The phase function for gamma distributions ( = 7) of water droplets for three different effective

radii.

18

Extinction: constant in visible and near IR; decreases in far IR.

Single scattering albedo: 1 for < 1.6 m; low in mid IR.

Asymmetry parameter: 0.8 to 0.9 from visible to mid IR.

Normalized extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter for a cloud

droplet size distribution with ref f = 6 m. [Liou, 1992; Fig. 5.3]

19

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