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Original Title: 1862 Differential Equations Used to Analyse and Observe Effect of Impact Loads on Wind Turbine

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INCLUDING THE GRID NETWORK

1

5

6

EGBON OSAZEE J. EZE NDUBUISI D. OSARENKHOE EZEKIEL

Energy Consultants (Renewable Energy)

1

Asa-Lambda Technology Ltd. C/o: Crossing Over Ventures,

9, Akpakpava Road, Benin City, NIGERIA.

Email:adokosam@yahoo.com

Abstract

A moving mass of air that strikes a wind turbine delivers a dynamic or impact load or

force. Problems resulting from such forces to wind turbine may be analyzed or observed

using differential equation, under strict compliances on the basis of certain accepted

assumptions wind turbine structure needs to behave elastically, and no dissipation of

energy should take place at the point of impact, and finally, the effect of loads impact

should be directly proportional to the magnitude of the applied force, then, on the basis

of the principle of conservation of energy, it may be assumed that the wind force at the

instant of impact with the wind turbine, its kinetic energy is completely transformed into

the internal strain energy of the resisting system (wind turbine). At this instant, while the

transformation from kinetic energy to mechanical energy is taking place, there are

visible signs of vibrations being occurred within the wind turbine which may have

negative affects the general performances of the wind turbine and consequently,

hindering the purpose in which it is designed for.

However, since vibrations, deflections, and stability are of primary interest in this work,

other very fundamental issues as stresses will not be discussed in this paper.

It is clear that recent events towards the development of commercial wind turbines have

triggered special interest in wind energy applications. Considerable interest has been

manifested in the ability of wind turbine to be classified as a viable and cheap energy

source, compared with the fossil fuels based energy sources. Despite all these glorious

acknowledgements, there are some buckets of unsolved problems in wind energy

sector. Few among these obstacles are centered on the unpredicted nature of wind.

This paper used differential equation in observing the behaviour of wind turbine as it is

influenced by the wind forces across it.

1. INTRODUCTION

Considering the environment which the wind turbine plays its fundamental role,

engineering practices consider that for a given construction project, the selection of

structural and machine components should be based on some characteristics. Those

are: strength, stiffness, and stability.

For a wind turbine, we opine that the members making up the unit are assumed to be in

stable equilibrium. Although, not all structural arrangement are necessary stabled.

Physically looking at the wind turbine, it is obvious that it stands on one end, and might

conclude that the stress at the base would be equal to the total weight of the wind

turbine divided by its cross-sectional area.

However, the equilibrium of the wind turbine is

precarious. With the smallest imperfection in the

turbine or the wind turbulence, the turbine might lose

its equilibrium, sometimes fall down. This illustration

may initiate a sense of feeling of the importance in

wind turbines design ad implementation.

This paper will explore these phenomenal analytically

while observing certain behaviour of the wind turbine

under severe climate conditions. But the problem

becomes more complicated because different

phenomena contribute to the capacity of the wind

turbine structure, depending on its length, and the

weight of its rotor and cases [1] Various cases of

structural instability problems which may exist are

beyond the scope of this paper.

The chief concern of this paper will be the analysis of equations that describe the

behaviour of the wind turbine that is the turbine under an influence of a force as a

function of time as it affects the production of electricity, putting in mind the structural

instability, the buckling of the turbine at the worse case scenario. These are crucially

important problems of engineering design.

Turbine by high Wind

Speed. CourtesyWikipedia.

Courtesy Wikipedia

2.

Impact load or force causes the wind turbine structure to swing. The acceleration of the

structure is proportional to the vector sum of all forces acting on it. The wind turbine

being a one degree of freedom experiences rotational effects [2]

In furtherance of the above, consider the wind turbine structure with a torsional modulus

of stiffness K at the base.

The behaviour of the turbines structure is subjected to a vertical force P (mg) and a

horizontal force F. Keeping P constant, and F varies continuously, the simple question

then arises; how will this structure, behaves if, F = o ? This is a special situation and it

corresponds to the investigation of dynamic stability, self buckling, and much other

behaviour which may be exhibited under such condition.

In the list of boundary conditions, the wind turbines structure is assumed to experience

only rotational effect as it cannot bend i.e., its ability of having one degree of freedom.

Let us assumed

= rotation, the restoring moment will be K , then with F = , the

upsetting moment will be: P sin

=P

for <<< 1.

Hence, if

K

K

>P

<P

: the system is unstable.

Buf if K

= Pl , the equilibrium is

neither stable nor unstable, but is neutral.

under severe climate condition

3. THE PROCESS

Let

denotes the angular displacement, measured counter clockwise from the

equilibrium position. The weight of the nacelle and rotor is mg (g: gravity acceleration).

It causes a restoring force mgsin tangent to the curve of the motion [3].

Invoking Newtons second law which stipulates that, at each instant this force is

balanced by the force of acceleration m

, where

is the acceleration [4]. So, the

resultant of these two forces is zero, and this gives the mathematical representation as

follows:

m

+ mg sin

=o

(2)

(3)

+

K=

+ K sin

=o

For

<< 1, Sin

=

Let v =

= vl =

v2 = Kcos

+c

(4)

m (v)2 m2 Kcos

= m 2 C

(5)

Since

= v represents the angular velocity, is the velocity.

The first term in equation (5) is the Kinetic energy, the second term (including the minus

sign), is the potential energy of the wind turbine structure, and m2 C is the total energy.

This may be one the reasons wind turbine is not

recommended for roof mounts! From (5)

2 m2

cos

m 2 C / 2

mg cos

= mc

= P cos

+ mc

P: must remain constant

K: is the modulus of elasticity of the turbines materials.

When

F= mgsin

P = mg

: comprises the weight of the rotor and nacelle.

Visibly, the turbine structure will perform oscillations along an arc of a circle of radius .

The impact of F causes the turbine to be in a state of unstable equilibrium, that is any

slightest load impact will influence the wind turbine to initiate a motion [5].

In this analysis, we will equally try to predict the dynamic displacements, time history,

and modal analysis. But the latter may require an intensive analysis and such cannot be

elaborated in the present work.

4.

THE MOTION

Equation (4) represents the motion of the wind turbine under impact loads.

2 = K cos d

=

(6)

In the normal working conditions, the motion of the turbine structure may be restricted to

a relatively small aptitude with a small . This implies that:

Sin

=> I

I <<< 1.

=0

Hence,

and

(7)

For amplitudes beyond the above approximated ones, equation (3) can be inverted as

follow:

Integrating the above equation over one complete cycle, twice the half cycle, and 4

times the quarter cycle, yields:

T=4

T=4

T=4

Where F (K, ) is legends elliptic function

F (K,

)=

T=2

5.

INVESTIGATIONS / SIMULATIONS

What will be the behaviour of the turbine for a period of (m) swing at initial angle of 5,

10, 15 and 20 degrees?

This answer will portray series of mathematical conclusion of this work.

Swing

Length

Initial Angel

: degree

Period T=

Pulsation

W=2

Motion

Angular

Velocity

Cos

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

10

10

10

10

10

1.404

1.98

2.43

2.8

3.14

4.472

3.171

2.58

2.24

2

9.9400

9.9403

9.9401

9.96

9.939

0.0875

0.620

0.05012

0.0486

0.039

Table 1: Simulation at 10 degree initial angle, using different swing length of structure

under impact load

Swing

Length

Initial Angel

: degree

Period T=

Pulsation

W=2

Motion

Angular

Velocity

Cos

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

15

15

15

15

15

1.404

1.985

2.432

2.8

3.14

4.472

3.163

2.582

2.236

2

14.9105

14.9100

14.9100

14.9100

14.909

0.1317

0.094

0.076

0.0645

0.0587

Table 2: Simulation at 15 degree initial angle, using different swing length of structure

under impact load

Swing

Length

Initial Angel

: degree

Period T=

Pulsation

W=2

Motion

Angular

Velocity

Cos

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

20

20

20

20

20

1.404

1.985

2.432

2.8

3.14

4.472

3.163

2.582

2.24

2

19.880

19.880

19.885

19.881

19.879

0.169

0.120

0.889

0.0830

0.0757

Table 3: Simulation at 15 degree initial angle, using different swing length of structure

under impact load

6. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

While modern wind power turbine is becoming reliable, our results show that it is not

possible to eliminate structural failures and abnormal conditions.

Using differential equations, it is possible to achieve different results in different

direction that is, stability with respect to displacements in the x direction but instability

in the y direction. This is a saddle point. The wind turbine structure is not stable

because stability must be achieved in all directions and dimensions.

The procedures so established in this work evolve in a deterministic pattern, i.e.

simulations made will allow the prediction of the state of the system, even moderately

far into the future.

But, the wind turbine dynamic behaviour is not linear [7]. Nonlinearity simply means that

the measured values of the properties of a system in a later state may not depend on

the measured (observation) done earlier. Frequently, the problem of modeling realworld systems with mathematical equations begins with a linear model. But when finer

details or more accurate results are desired, additional nonlinear terms must be added

[8].

Adopting this technique, we have observed with keen interest that the behaviour

of the wind turbine structure subjected to impact load depends not only on the

fundamental laws of Newtonian mechanics that govern equilibrium of the forces

but also on the physical characteristics of the materials of which the turbine is

fabricated.

Although, there existe some efforts to improve or develop a vibration resistant and

fracture resistant cast material for offshore wind turbines. The research project being

carried by Siempelkamp Gieberei GmbH aims to reduce the weight of the nacelle.

This may have multiple positive impact. Our interest has been focused on the

possibilities that the mechanical stability of the system will be guaranteed under such

arrangement.

Equally, viewing the work being carried out by two German companies, Vensus

Energie System GmbH & Co. KG, Sanarbrucken towards producing the first ever

gearless 2.5 MW wind turbine [9]. This will reduce tower head weight. The weight

reduction will definitely improve the problem associated with impact load and guaranty

some level of stability.

7. APPLICATIONS / CONCLUSION

Differential equations arise in many engineering and other applications as mathematical

models of various physical and other systems. The fundamental goals in differential

equations and their applications is to find all solutions of given equations and investigate

their properties [6].

its involvement in many physical laws and relations which may be represented

mathematically. It allows a physical system to be modeled mathematically and then the

solution will have a physical interpretation. This has been the fastest way of obtaining a

first idea of the nature and purpose of differential equations and their applications.

Very often, it seems as if differential equations deals with pressing problems involving a

very large and complex system about which two little is know. The problem, as it is the

case here, for stability of wind turbine might be serious and urgent, but difficult to define

with the utmost precision. It is therefore necessary to predict what might happen thereby

suggesting what could be done about the situation at hand. In these circumstances, the

prediction or the study of the behaviour of the turbine might be done by modeling the

wind turbine using appropriate equations.

Then, the model will be fitted into an appropriate mathematical structure that embodies

techniques to convert input information into predictions.

Basically, the differential equation is a tool which applies by the systematic observation

and analysis of systems, structures to improve measures relating to prevention,

mitigation, preparedness and optimal response to situations. However, this descriptive

view seems not to have a wide acceptance from the scientists as being confirmed by

fewness of research in this respect.

We believe that the dynamic analysis of the behaviour of a wind turbines impact, with

longer term horizons.

In the thru perceptive, mitigating or preventing if possible the effect of loads impacts

may guaranty the stability of the generation and the transmission grid. The realization

that many disasters caused by load impacts could be prevented, as well as the

recognition of their devastating effects on the generation, transmission grid, and the

economics.

been underpinned by scientific knowledge. Differential equations with all its techniques

and involving methods have increased the scientists ability to forecast the probability of

structure collapse occurring during a particular time frame.

energy being transmitted to a wind turbine while the dynamic motions of the wind

turbine are being observed, thus, proving the gear box and rotors design.

Modeling techniques using differential equations have made long and short term

forecasting of eventualities, thus saving many lives.

In summary, differential equations are equally suitable for the learning techniques as

tools to assist in increasing knowledge and ability to understand complex systems and

processes in an ever-wider range of scales in space and time. [7].

8.

REFERENCE:

1.

behaviour of wind turbine International Solar Energy Society (ISES) Congress,

Beijing China 2007

2.

in Wikipedia.

3.

4.

5.

Wiley & Son, NY 1988

6.

contains the Newtons Law of Motion.

7.

8.

professional 2007.

9.

www.worldrenewableenergy.com

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