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DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS USED TO ANALYSE AND OBSERVE EFFECT OF

IMPACT LOADS ON WIND TURBINE AS IT AFFECT THE ENTIRE SYSTEM


INCLUDING THE GRID NETWORK
1

ADOKO SAMBWA OKOM ANTHONY C. IDIAGBONYA EDDIE A.


5
6
EGBON OSAZEE J. EZE NDUBUISI D. OSARENKHOE EZEKIEL
Energy Consultants (Renewable Energy)
1
Asa-Lambda Technology Ltd. C/o: Crossing Over Ventures,
9, Akpakpava Road, Benin City, NIGERIA.
Email:adokosam@yahoo.com

Abstract
A moving mass of air that strikes a wind turbine delivers a dynamic or impact load or
force. Problems resulting from such forces to wind turbine may be analyzed or observed
using differential equation, under strict compliances on the basis of certain accepted
assumptions wind turbine structure needs to behave elastically, and no dissipation of
energy should take place at the point of impact, and finally, the effect of loads impact
should be directly proportional to the magnitude of the applied force, then, on the basis
of the principle of conservation of energy, it may be assumed that the wind force at the
instant of impact with the wind turbine, its kinetic energy is completely transformed into
the internal strain energy of the resisting system (wind turbine). At this instant, while the
transformation from kinetic energy to mechanical energy is taking place, there are
visible signs of vibrations being occurred within the wind turbine which may have
negative affects the general performances of the wind turbine and consequently,
hindering the purpose in which it is designed for.
However, since vibrations, deflections, and stability are of primary interest in this work,
other very fundamental issues as stresses will not be discussed in this paper.
It is clear that recent events towards the development of commercial wind turbines have
triggered special interest in wind energy applications. Considerable interest has been
manifested in the ability of wind turbine to be classified as a viable and cheap energy
source, compared with the fossil fuels based energy sources. Despite all these glorious
acknowledgements, there are some buckets of unsolved problems in wind energy
sector. Few among these obstacles are centered on the unpredicted nature of wind.
This paper used differential equation in observing the behaviour of wind turbine as it is
influenced by the wind forces across it.

Keywords: Motion, Impact Loads, Differential Equations and Application.

1. INTRODUCTION
Considering the environment which the wind turbine plays its fundamental role,
engineering practices consider that for a given construction project, the selection of
structural and machine components should be based on some characteristics. Those
are: strength, stiffness, and stability.
For a wind turbine, we opine that the members making up the unit are assumed to be in
stable equilibrium. Although, not all structural arrangement are necessary stabled.
Physically looking at the wind turbine, it is obvious that it stands on one end, and might
conclude that the stress at the base would be equal to the total weight of the wind
turbine divided by its cross-sectional area.
However, the equilibrium of the wind turbine is
precarious. With the smallest imperfection in the
turbine or the wind turbulence, the turbine might lose
its equilibrium, sometimes fall down. This illustration
may initiate a sense of feeling of the importance in
wind turbines design ad implementation.
This paper will explore these phenomenal analytically
while observing certain behaviour of the wind turbine
under severe climate conditions. But the problem
becomes more complicated because different
phenomena contribute to the capacity of the wind
turbine structure, depending on its length, and the
weight of its rotor and cases [1] Various cases of
structural instability problems which may exist are
beyond the scope of this paper.
The chief concern of this paper will be the analysis of equations that describe the
behaviour of the wind turbine that is the turbine under an influence of a force as a
function of time as it affects the production of electricity, putting in mind the structural
instability, the buckling of the turbine at the worse case scenario. These are crucially
important problems of engineering design.

Figure 2: A damaged Wind


Turbine by high Wind
Speed. CourtesyWikipedia.

Figure 3: Wind turbulence


Courtesy Wikipedia

2.

THE IMPACT LOADS AS IT AFFECTS TRANSMISSION

Impact load or force causes the wind turbine structure to swing. The acceleration of the
structure is proportional to the vector sum of all forces acting on it. The wind turbine
being a one degree of freedom experiences rotational effects [2]
In furtherance of the above, consider the wind turbine structure with a torsional modulus
of stiffness K at the base.
The behaviour of the turbines structure is subjected to a vertical force P (mg) and a
horizontal force F. Keeping P constant, and F varies continuously, the simple question
then arises; how will this structure, behaves if, F = o ? This is a special situation and it
corresponds to the investigation of dynamic stability, self buckling, and much other
behaviour which may be exhibited under such condition.

Figure 4: Damaged Wind turbines by impact loads.

In the list of boundary conditions, the wind turbines structure is assumed to experience
only rotational effect as it cannot bend i.e., its ability of having one degree of freedom.
Let us assumed
= rotation, the restoring moment will be K , then with F = , the
upsetting moment will be: P sin
=P
for <<< 1.
Hence, if
K
K

>P
<P

: the system is stable


: the system is unstable.

Buf if K
= Pl , the equilibrium is
neither stable nor unstable, but is neutral.

Figure 5: Artist impression of wind


under severe climate condition

3. THE PROCESS
Let
denotes the angular displacement, measured counter clockwise from the
equilibrium position. The weight of the nacelle and rotor is mg (g: gravity acceleration).
It causes a restoring force mgsin tangent to the curve of the motion [3].
Invoking Newtons second law which stipulates that, at each instant this force is
balanced by the force of acceleration m
, where
is the acceleration [4]. So, the
resultant of these two forces is zero, and this gives the mathematical representation as
follows:
m
+ mg sin
=o

Dividing the above expression by m, yield;

(2)

(3)

+
K=
+ K sin
=o
For
<< 1, Sin
=

Fig. 6: System dynamic representation

Let v =

: the angular velocity, then

= vl =

v2 = Kcos

+c

(4)

Let multiply equation (4) by m 2


m (v)2 m2 Kcos
= m 2 C

(5)

Since
= v represents the angular velocity, is the velocity.
The first term in equation (5) is the Kinetic energy, the second term (including the minus
sign), is the potential energy of the wind turbine structure, and m2 C is the total energy.
This may be one the reasons wind turbine is not
recommended for roof mounts! From (5)
2 m2

cos

m 2 C / 2

mg cos
= mc
= P cos
+ mc
P: must remain constant
K: is the modulus of elasticity of the turbines materials.
When

varies, the angular velocity v is determined.

F= mgsin
P = mg

: is the resultant of all forces towards the turbine


: comprises the weight of the rotor and nacelle.

Visibly, the turbine structure will perform oscillations along an arc of a circle of radius .
The impact of F causes the turbine to be in a state of unstable equilibrium, that is any
slightest load impact will influence the wind turbine to initiate a motion [5].
In this analysis, we will equally try to predict the dynamic displacements, time history,
and modal analysis. But the latter may require an intensive analysis and such cannot be
elaborated in the present work.
4.

THE MOTION

Equation (4) represents the motion of the wind turbine under impact loads.
2 = K cos d
=

(6)

In the normal working conditions, the motion of the turbine structure may be restricted to
a relatively small aptitude with a small . This implies that:
Sin

=> I

I <<< 1.

=0

Hence,

Initial condition dictates that

and

(7)

For amplitudes beyond the above approximated ones, equation (3) can be inverted as
follow:

Integrating the above equation over one complete cycle, twice the half cycle, and 4
times the quarter cycle, yields:
T=4

T=4

T=4
Where F (K, ) is legends elliptic function
F (K,

)=

T=2

5.

INVESTIGATIONS / SIMULATIONS

What will be the behaviour of the turbine for a period of (m) swing at initial angle of 5,
10, 15 and 20 degrees?
This answer will portray series of mathematical conclusion of this work.
Swing
Length

Initial Angel
: degree

Period T=

Pulsation

W=2

Motion

Angular
Velocity
Cos

0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5

10
10
10
10
10

1.404
1.98
2.43
2.8
3.14

4.472
3.171
2.58
2.24
2

9.9400
9.9403
9.9401
9.96
9.939

0.0875
0.620
0.05012
0.0486
0.039

Table 1: Simulation at 10 degree initial angle, using different swing length of structure
under impact load

Swing
Length

Initial Angel
: degree

Period T=

Pulsation

W=2

Motion

Angular
Velocity
Cos

0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5

15
15
15
15
15

1.404
1.985
2.432
2.8
3.14

4.472
3.163
2.582
2.236
2

14.9105
14.9100
14.9100
14.9100
14.909

0.1317
0.094
0.076
0.0645
0.0587

Table 2: Simulation at 15 degree initial angle, using different swing length of structure
under impact load
Swing
Length

Initial Angel
: degree

Period T=

Pulsation

W=2

Motion

Angular
Velocity
Cos

0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5

20
20
20
20
20

1.404
1.985
2.432
2.8
3.14

4.472
3.163
2.582
2.24
2

19.880
19.880
19.885
19.881
19.879

0.169
0.120
0.889
0.0830
0.0757

Table 3: Simulation at 15 degree initial angle, using different swing length of structure
under impact load

6. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
While modern wind power turbine is becoming reliable, our results show that it is not
possible to eliminate structural failures and abnormal conditions.
Using differential equations, it is possible to achieve different results in different
direction that is, stability with respect to displacements in the x direction but instability
in the y direction. This is a saddle point. The wind turbine structure is not stable
because stability must be achieved in all directions and dimensions.
The procedures so established in this work evolve in a deterministic pattern, i.e.
simulations made will allow the prediction of the state of the system, even moderately
far into the future.
But, the wind turbine dynamic behaviour is not linear [7]. Nonlinearity simply means that
the measured values of the properties of a system in a later state may not depend on
the measured (observation) done earlier. Frequently, the problem of modeling realworld systems with mathematical equations begins with a linear model. But when finer
details or more accurate results are desired, additional nonlinear terms must be added
[8].
Adopting this technique, we have observed with keen interest that the behaviour
of the wind turbine structure subjected to impact load depends not only on the
fundamental laws of Newtonian mechanics that govern equilibrium of the forces
but also on the physical characteristics of the materials of which the turbine is
fabricated.
Although, there existe some efforts to improve or develop a vibration resistant and
fracture resistant cast material for offshore wind turbines. The research project being
carried by Siempelkamp Gieberei GmbH aims to reduce the weight of the nacelle.
This may have multiple positive impact. Our interest has been focused on the
possibilities that the mechanical stability of the system will be guaranteed under such
arrangement.
Equally, viewing the work being carried out by two German companies, Vensus
Energie System GmbH & Co. KG, Sanarbrucken towards producing the first ever
gearless 2.5 MW wind turbine [9]. This will reduce tower head weight. The weight
reduction will definitely improve the problem associated with impact load and guaranty
some level of stability.
7. APPLICATIONS / CONCLUSION
Differential equations arise in many engineering and other applications as mathematical
models of various physical and other systems. The fundamental goals in differential
equations and their applications is to find all solutions of given equations and investigate
their properties [6].

It is no doubt that differential equation has tremendous engineering benefit, because of


its involvement in many physical laws and relations which may be represented
mathematically. It allows a physical system to be modeled mathematically and then the
solution will have a physical interpretation. This has been the fastest way of obtaining a
first idea of the nature and purpose of differential equations and their applications.
Very often, it seems as if differential equations deals with pressing problems involving a
very large and complex system about which two little is know. The problem, as it is the
case here, for stability of wind turbine might be serious and urgent, but difficult to define
with the utmost precision. It is therefore necessary to predict what might happen thereby
suggesting what could be done about the situation at hand. In these circumstances, the
prediction or the study of the behaviour of the turbine might be done by modeling the
wind turbine using appropriate equations.
Then, the model will be fitted into an appropriate mathematical structure that embodies
techniques to convert input information into predictions.
Basically, the differential equation is a tool which applies by the systematic observation
and analysis of systems, structures to improve measures relating to prevention,
mitigation, preparedness and optimal response to situations. However, this descriptive
view seems not to have a wide acceptance from the scientists as being confirmed by
fewness of research in this respect.
We believe that the dynamic analysis of the behaviour of a wind turbines impact, with
longer term horizons.
In the thru perceptive, mitigating or preventing if possible the effect of loads impacts
may guaranty the stability of the generation and the transmission grid. The realization
that many disasters caused by load impacts could be prevented, as well as the
recognition of their devastating effects on the generation, transmission grid, and the
economics.

Figure 8: The effect of load impact (courtesy: Internet pages)

The prevention and mitigation as fundamental elements of disaster management has


been underpinned by scientific knowledge. Differential equations with all its techniques
and involving methods have increased the scientists ability to forecast the probability of
structure collapse occurring during a particular time frame.

Differential equations applications have made it possible to predict the amount of


energy being transmitted to a wind turbine while the dynamic motions of the wind
turbine are being observed, thus, proving the gear box and rotors design.
Modeling techniques using differential equations have made long and short term
forecasting of eventualities, thus saving many lives.
In summary, differential equations are equally suitable for the learning techniques as
tools to assist in increasing knowledge and ability to understand complex systems and
processes in an ever-wider range of scales in space and time. [7].
8.

REFERENCE:

1.

Adoko et al [2007]: Differential equations used to observe the dynamic


behaviour of wind turbine International Solar Energy Society (ISES) Congress,
Beijing China 2007

2.

J. Turner et al [1956], stiffness and deflection of complex structures, extracted


in Wikipedia.

3.

Feynman, R.P et al [1963], lectures on physics. Vol. 1 Addison - Wesley

4.

Kleppner. D. et al [1973], an introduction to mechanics, McGraw - Hill

5.

Erwin Kreyszig [1988] Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Sixth Edition. John


Wiley & Son, NY 1988

6.

Isaac Newton [1687], Philosophiae Naturalis Pricipia Mathematica which


contains the Newtons Law of Motion.

7.

Adoko et al: ibid

8.

S. Neil Rasbad [2007], Chaotic Dynamics of nonlinear systems Wiley


professional 2007.

9.

www.worldrenewableenergy.com