You are on page 1of 4

SUBJECT: ADVANCED FLUID DYNAMICS

PROBLEM SHEET NO. 1

Pb. No.
1

Statement
What is the pressure at the center of pipe B in Fig.
1?

Figure

Fig. 1
2

The ratio of container diameter to tube diameter is


8. When air in the container is at atmospheric
pressure, the free surface in the tube is at position
1. When the container is pressurized, the liquid in
the tube moves 40 cm up the tube from position 1 to
position 2, as shown in Fig. 2. What is the container
pressure that causes this deflection? The liquid
density is 1200 kg m3.

Find the pressure, in Fig. 3, at the center of pipe A.


T = 10C.

Fig. 2

Fig. 3
4

A pipe slopes upward in the direction of liquid flow


at an angle of 30 with the horizontal. What is the
pressure gradient in the flow direction along the
pipe in terms of the specific weight of the liquid if
the liquid is decelerating (accelerating opposite to
flow direction) at a rate of 0.3g?

The closed tank shown in Fig. 4, which is full of


liquid, is accelerated downward at 1.5 g and to the
right at 0.9g. Here L= 2 m, H= 3 m, and the specific
gravity of the liquid is 1.2. Determine PC - PA & PB PA

The flow-metering device shown in Fig. 5 consists


of a stagnation probe at station 2 and a static
pressure tap at station 1. The velocity at station 2 is
twice that at station 1. Air with a density of 1.2
kg/m3 flows through the duct. A water manometer is
connected between the stagnation probe and the
pressure tap, and a deflection of 10 cm is
measured. What is the velocity at station 2?

Fig. 4

Fig. 5
7

A Pitot-static tube used to measure air velocity is


connected to a differential pressure gage. If the air
temperature is 20C at standard atmospheric
pressure at sea level, and if the differential gage
reads a pressure difference of 3 kPa, what is the air
velocity?
A rugged instrument used frequently for monitoring
gas velocity in smoke stacks consists of two open
tubes oriented to the flow direction as shown in Fig.
6, and connected to a manometer. The pressure
coefficient is 1.0 at A and 0.3 at B. Assume that
water, at 20C, is used in the manometer and that a
5 mm deflection is noted. The pressure and
temperature of the stack gases are 101 kPa and
250C. The gas constant of the stack gases is 200
J/kg K. Determine the velocity of the stack gases.
Fig. 6

10

A Pitot-static tube is used to measure the airspeed


of an airplane. The Pitot tube is connected to a
pressure-sensing device calibrated to indicate the
correct airspeed when the temperature is 17C and
the pressure is 101 kPa. The airplane flies at an
altitude of 3000 m, where the pressure and
temperature are 70 kPa and 6.3C. The indicated
airspeed is 70 m/s. What is the true air speed?
Liquid flows with a free surface around a bend. The
liquid is inviscid and incompressible, and the flow is
steady and irrotational. The velocity varies with the
2

11

radius across the flow as V= 1/r m/s, where r is in


meters. Find the difference in depth of the liquid
from the inside to the outside radius. The inside
radius of the bend is 1 m and the outside radius is 3
m.
The velocity in the outlet pipe from this reservoir
shown in Fig. 7, is 6 m/s and h = 15 m. Because of
the rounded entrance to the pipe, the flow is
assumed to be irrotational. Under these conditions,
what is the pressure at A?
Fig. 7

12

The hypothetical velocity distribution in a circular


duct, as shown in Fig. 8, is
, where r is the
radial location in the duct, R is the duct radius, and
V0 is the velocity on the axis. Find the ratio of the
mean velocity to the velocity on the axis.
Fig. 8

13

Water flows in a two-dimensional channel of width


W and depth D as shown in Fig. 9. The hypothetical
velocity profile for the water is
(

][

where Vs is the velocity at the water surface midway


between the channel walls. The coordinate system
is as shown; x is measured from the center plane of
the channel and y downward from the water
surface. Find the discharge in the channel in terms
of Vs, D, and W.
Fig. 9
14

Two streams discharge into a pipe as shown in Fig.


10. The flows are incompressible. The volume flow
rate of stream A into the pipe is given by QA = 0.02t
m3/s and that of stream B by QB = 0.008t2 m3/s,
where t is in seconds. The exit area of the pipe is
0.01 m2. Find the velocity and acceleration of the
flow at the exit at t = 1 s.

15

An end-burning rocket motor, as shown in Fig. 11,


has a chamber diameter of 10 cm and a nozzle exit
diameter of 8 cm. The density of the propellant is
1750 kg/m3, and the surface regresses at the rate of
1 cm/s. The gases crossing the nozzle exit plane
have a pressure of 10 kPa abs and a temperature

Fig. 10

16

of 2200C. The gas constant of the exhaust gases


is 415 J/kg K. Calculate the gas velocity at the
nozzle exit plane.
A tank has a hole in the bottom with a crosssectional area of 0.0025 m2 and an inlet line on the
side with a cross-sectional area of 0.0025 m2, as
shown in Fig. 12. The cross-sectional area of the
tank is 0.1 m2. The velocity of the liquid flowing out
the bottom hole is
, where h is the height

of the water surface in the tank above the outlet. At


a certain time the surface level in the tankis 1 m and
rising at the rate of 0.1 cm/s. The liquid is
incompressible. Find the velocity of the liquid
through the inlet.
Fig. 12

Arranged by:
Prof. Dr. Asad Naeem Shah
Department of Mechanical Engineering
UET Lahore