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May | June 2010

Feature title: Extending the shelf life of farmed juvenile Southern

Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii)
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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

F: Tuna F: Lipid F: Aquaculture 2010
F: Tuna

Global production of crude palm oil recent advances in the nutrition of fin fish
(CPO) exceeded 43 million tonnes and and crustacean species. A dedicated session
together with about nine million tonnes of chaired by Diane Bellis, Delber t Gatlin,
coconut and palm kernel oils, constitutes Michael Rust, Jeffrey Silverstein and Frederick
a highly available and sustainable source of Barrows concerned alternative feedstuffs for
lipids for the aquafeed industry. aquaculture.
When freshly extracted, CPO is the The quest for replacing fish meal or at least

Figure 1: Stacks of imported fish oil in drums are a

richest known natural source of β-carotene reducing our burden on meal and oil from
and is also a rich source of vitamin E, oceanic sources seems eternal but major
consisting of tocopherols and tocotrienols. steps have been taken. Although it may seem
Several studies have shown that various that such plant by- products as soya bean meal

common sight at aquafeed mills in Asia

palm oil fractions can be successfully used and oil seed rape meal and various protein
either singly or in combination with other concentrates derived from corn, rapeseed

Extending the shelf life of

plant oils in the aquafeeds of commercially etc have been fully studied, there is much
farmed species. The limited PUFA content, more information to be gained from con-
Figure 3: Palm
combined with the presence of natural tinuingoil processing
is the mostdevelopments.
produced andImproved fractionated oil in the world

farmed juvenile Southern

and many fractions have been successfully evaluated in aquafeeds
antioxidants (in the case of CPO), has been nutritional quality has resulted for fish such
Figure 2: The role of glutahione peroxidase in the
reported to impart enhanced pellet and Figure
as trout1:and Commercial
salmon with cuts of meat such
refinements reduction of lipid organic peroxide-hyperoxides
fillet oxidative stability. as enzyme treatments and enhanced milling work addressed trout, salmon and sea bass. Live foods and their use in aquaculture has

Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii)

(MUFA)-rich oil produced
Furthermore, the overall fatty acid modi- is rapeseed
technology to remove physiologically
non-starch polysac- important n-3 Carly LC-PUFA by gave a splendid first talk
Daniels (UK) always been a key aspect of the hatchery
(canola) oil with olive,haspeanut
fication of the fish fillet is less detrimentally
resulted and
andin rice
anti- many
a recently farmed species, albeit
renewed wild mostly
at counterparts
such a largeat lim-
venue onCondition
(CI<20). with the thephase
her work index girthofoffish
also production.
increases. AThe
bran oils making up thebyrest
affected by SFA-rich oils, when compared to of manufactures
feed this class
there was ited capabilities.
to produce discussion
larval, canEuropean
be expressed lobsterasexamining the use of prebi- largeconference sessionstoaddressed
girth relative the length this of
of lipids. Oleic acid (18:1n-9)
other alternative lipid sources. regarding
juvenile and the other
use of oils
grow-out feedsDespitelipid encouraging
andtailored spe- in evidence
sources otic andofprobiotics
poten- in larval diets for different fishexamples
indicatesof aimprovements
fish with high in husbandry,
Weight (Kg)
MUFA are readily digested
Nevertheless, concerns have been and for
cifically β-oxidized
aquafeeds in tiala bio-conversion
session under the of ALAstages
CIand= of SDA into
development and survivability. Carly fatnutritional
Highof condition
artemia and equates
by Dr Philip Thomas, University of New England, Length (m3)
by fish to produce energychair
expressed on its potential negative effect and of
During haveJesse
the been
ongrowing n-3 LC-PUFA,
phase the the inclusion
farmed is of these
based at oilsNational Lobster Hatchery to larger
the There is resurgence
amounts of in
value incuts
New South Wales, Australia
reported to have no known
on nutrient digestibility, particularly when
SBTRon adverse
will gain effect
Hardy and
greater (i.e. Turchini.
weights linseed/flaxseed,
and have Mosta ofcamelina, in perilla
Padstow, and
Cornwall which
and is a measure of SBT fatness. is devoted to of at present
fatty and
muscle this
and relates as
therefore much
a to
more algal
on fish growth performance.
fed to cold water fish species during the the
higher presentations
filler 4 23/2/10 16:27 Page 1
index (CI >25)the in aquafeeds
than of
theirlipidsis limited,
As the the as
release they
fat lobsters
content for a conser-
increases based
valuable bio-fuel
carcass. applications as well as fish

winter season. Depending in relation to the physiological as well as met- vation and stock
n Australia, ranching of Southern on market abolic requirements of fish with new insights enhancement
Bluefin Tuna (SBT) (Thunnus maccoyyi), Bio High quality sources prices, rape- into the use of novel sources from algae scheme.
one of the most closely managed of dietary energy seed oil is cur- andTHE macro-algaeESSENTIAL(seaweeds) for a GUIDE
variety of PFOR
Marine phospholipids
Dr Philip Thomas is currently principal research fellow in
fisheries, occurs in the offshore Soybean, corn, safflower,
the Business Economics and Public policy group at the cottonseed and rently one of EVERYONE
species. Speakers reported INVOLVED
effects on carcass IN Simon THE Davies
region of Port Lincoln in South Australia. sunflower oils are the main n-6
University of New England, New South Wales, Australia and PUFA-rich the commonly GLOBAL AQUAFEED INDUSTRY an
composition, fillet quality, as well as on growth, presented
(namely linoleic acid, 18:2n-6) oils produced. utilized lipid health and immune function. Advances in the overview on the
the work presented in this article took place while he was
new generation of omega-3 lipids
The farming of SBT started in 1991 as a When incorporated into aquafeeds, alternatives in use of alternative terrestrial plant oils were complexities of
senior researcher of biological science at Flinders University publication
these n-6 PUFA-rich plant oils have been commercial also featured. the ver tebrate
forwith a broader spectrum of health
result of diminishing fishery catches and a as part of Aquafin CRC - Cooperative research centre for
manufacturers of fish
reduction of fishing quotas, which resulted reported to be high quality sources of However, another area of interest seemed gut and how
sustainable aquaculture of finfish where his research focus
dietary energy and fatty acids during the especially those feedbenefi
to be
of feed additives which the fish intes-
in the operators allocating a portion of their was on the relationship between husbandry, production
catch to farming rather than for sale. Over grow-out cycle in most fish tested to date. formulated for Designed
warranted to
a identify session.
separate all This was tine is as compli-
performance and flesh quality in aquaculture.
However, a major concern of using these cold water
- HighDelbert
aquafeed DHA contents,
chaired by ingredients,
preferably in cated as higher
Gatlin and Ann Gannam
the last 19 years this activity has developed
into a commercially significant seafood oils is that linoleic acid is abundantly and and temperate raw iteasily
andmaterial digestible
was pleasing to beand
feedstuffs, directly highlyinvolvedbio2010a /n i m a l s w i t h
sector in Australia. Considerable research preferentially deposited in the fish fillet. species. feed available
presentations form
micro- fromformyself,
aquaculture my PhD euse. ditdistinct
ion involve-
out no
effort has gone into developing this industry catch of 5239 tonne (DAFF). Prior to theSince March our human alongdietsthe already
Great contain
Australian too Bight Plant oils ingredients,
student Carly production Daniels and work presented w
ments in immu-
with initiatives from the Fisheries Research export of fresh farmed SBT experiencedmuchregion n-6 PUFA, some scientists
and transferred believe towrich in n-3
in specialized
- Numerous
by John Sweetman
ts on improvingnology, endo-
and Plymouth. There
and Development Cooperation (FRDC) Japanese graders will routinely removethat apontoons good fishtooilthe substitute should limit
farm pontoons off PortPUFA [namely was athe
equipment immune
review available response,
on functional dietarybetter compo- crine function as
and Aquafin CRC. These initiatives included a small redundant section of the tailthe depositionLincoln. Fish of theseare lessthendesirable
on-grown fatty to aα-linolenic acid, nents weight
on the world market. as gain
MOS, and
FOS physical
and various algal, well as nutrient
a focus on nutrition, health, product qual- of individual fish during processing andacids weight of 25-40 kg in a period of approxi-ALA (18:3n-3),
in fish fillets. microbial conditions of land animals.
and yeast extracts as well as pro- absorption. The
ity and marketing and fish husbandry and ascribe a subjective grade to each fish. Once mately deposited,
six to nine linoleic
months. acid is also and steari- biotic applications.
Sections include: Rebecca Lochman from effects of various
management. A more recent focus has This opportunity allows them to assessknown to Thebetuna selectively
are fedretained
baitfish insixfish days adonic acid, the University of Arkansas gave
■ Extruder & Expander Guide - Technical specification an inter- feed additiveschart
been research into the propagation of SBT. flesh quality, carcass shape and condi-fillets week and resistant
twice pertoday. ‘dilution’
This iseven by feed-SDA (18:4n-3)]
doneafter ■ Product Guide - locate suppliers by products as
esting review on various dairy yeast prebi- modulator s
This endeavour has been driven by Clean tion thereby allowing the target market,switching to a local
ing fresh fish pilchards
oil finishing or diet. Thisfrozenhas generated
placing ■ otic
Trade agents
Names on index
golden shiners, goldfish and of gut immune
Seas Tuna in collaboration The Australian method of sale and the product price tomay be problematic
blocks of baitfishin theincontext
mesh cages of usingwithinmuch research ■ A-Z Company Index with full contact details function, micro-
channel catfish culture with a very southern
Seafood CRC. be determined. The price obtained onfish oil eachfinishing
pontoon. diet strategies
Commercial feed pelletsinterest
to restore due ■ USA
Diarytheme.of Events biology and gut
SBT currently ongrown in sea based the auction floor has been shown to bebeneficial haven-3 beento n-6 PUFA ratios
developed for SBT but underto the ability
in farmed John Sweetman spoke on mannan oligosac-
To request further information or to be included in the next directory,
integrity were
aquaculture facilities are particularly the current price conditions are unlikelyof these fatty
correlated to the subjective quality gradesfish fillets. charides (Bio-Mos) and their benefits from
please contact Barbara Williams at a stated and the
attractive to the Japanese sashimi (raw- given prior to export. (Douglas et al, 2000) Several
to replaceselected the baitfish these feedacids to be
cultivarsas ofa major Fiskerihavnsgade
commercial standpoint
To obtain copies, please35 contact Phone
with sound +45 79120999
our Circulation role on
Department of com-
fish) market due to the high fat content of oilseeds have However
source. been recently with developed
the prospect to of abio-converted P.O. Box 359
evidence for their +44
positive (0) 1923
effectsFax 692674
on +45 79120888 a l M O S
gastro- m e r c i
their muscle and in 2007–08, the value of Culture contain significantly
closed lifecycle lower
for concentrations
Bluefin tunas includinginto the longer 6701 Esbjerg
intestinal function, The
growth International
and health Aquafeed
poten- Directory
repo is rpublished
ted for
by Turret Group Ltd,
the fishery’s commercial production was Traditionally tuna are caught at approxi-of linoleic
SBT, acid.
there is an associated necessity chain,
for more Denmark
tial in experiments conducted WebRickmansworth,
173 High Street,
Europe a range
Herts WD3 1AY.
of fish
approximately AUD$44.5 million from a mately 15 – 20 kg from December to The major monounsaturated
a commercially produced pellet acid Thisu n s a t u r a t e d ,
fatty feed. form several universities and institutions.
Tel: +44 (0) 1923 692660 This species.

onal AquAFeed | May-June 2010 26 14 | InternatIonal

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999_AD_IAF0904V3.indd 1 22/06/2009 14:01
F: Tuna F: Tuna

Key machinery and

complete process plants
for the aquatic feed industry
Traditionally tuna are caught at approximately 15 – 20 kg
from December to March along the Great Australian Bight Figure 4
region and transferred in specialized tow pontoons to the
farm pontoons off Port Lincoln

Farmed fish also have much higher levels process begins, which leads to peroxidation specifically in place of methionine, which
of tissue fat in comparison to the wild SBT. of susceptible polyunsaturated fatty acids provides tissue reserves of this critical trace
The differences in condition index and and ultimately membrane damage. element. Normal cell and protein turnover
tissue fat levels in the different cuts of meat The occurrence of selenium (Se) in the releases the required selenium, a process
from wild and farmed SBT are shown in enzymes involved in controlling or reducing that escalates during periods of increased
Figure 1. oxidative and free radical damage to the cell demand such as oxidative stress.
membranes is critical in fish. Fish under a The farming success in any aquaculture
Flesh quality and state of stress may draw on tissue reserves operation is dependant on optimal growth
antioxidant protection of selenium to prevent oxidative damage and and performance with the product qual-
Oxidative metabolism in aerobic tissues membrane lipid peroxidation through the ity meeting the consumer preferences. In
results in the continuous production of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) pathways. Atlantic salmon farming, fillet colour and
superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Davies et al. 2008 describe the biochemical texture are two very important characteris-
However oxidative stress occurs when function of GSH-Px and its role in reducing tics. Fillets with a soft texture or fillets with
the generation of reactive oxygen species lipid organic peroxide-hyperoxides to their slits or holes in the surface (gaping) cannot Figure 5
(ROS) exceeds their normal removal. As corresponding alcohols and reducing the be satisfactorily processed resulting in poor
fish contain a high percentage of polyun- free hydrogen peroxide to water. appearance and downgrading by customers.
saturated fatty acids they are particularly For the GSH-Px to be active it must be Fillet gaping is responsible for 38 percent the meat. During storage, the myoglobin is for farmed SBT has
vulnerable to attack by free radicals and are in the reduced state. The major inter and of the downgraded material in the second- oxidised to met-myoglobin and gradually been evaluated to
very dependant on antioxidants for protec- intracellular reducing capability of ascorbic ary processing of salmon (Mitchie, 2001). changes from red to brown. determine whether
ANDRITZ FEED & BIOFUEL extruders provide the new-
tion. Under conditions of oxidative stress, acid can provide the required proton to The inclusion of selenium as a selenoyeast In addition, and unlike beef, the high lev- a muscle dose
est technology for production of the most demanding
induced by ROS, the lipid peroxidation expedite the reduction of the GSH-Px from in salmon diets has been demonstrated els of highly unsaturated fatty acids found in response could extrudates in the aquatic feed industries.
the oxidized form back to the to improve product quality in terms of SBT meat in the presence of ROS can start be achieved and ANDRITZ is one of the global market leaders for supply-
reduced form. This interrupts decreased gaping and resulted in a higher the lipid peroxidation process resulting in result in improved ing plants, equipment, and services for the animal feed in-
phospholipid peroxidation and content of selenium in the fillet. unstable highly reactive lipid hydroperox- antioxidant defence dustry (pet food industry, fish and shrimp feed industries).
reduces further cell membrane In terrestrial animals drip loss has been ides which can threaten cell integrity and and extend the With the efficient and simple ANDRITZ FEED & BIOFUEL
structural damage (Figure 2) associated with the oxidative process that increase the rate of post mortem browning. colour shelf life of “one-stop-shop” concept, we cover all operations in the pro-
promotes post-mortem development of Within the wild fishery, capture stress is farmed SBT. duction flow. Our solutions are tailor-made to the specific re-
The role of organic compromised cell membranes and facili- unavoidable and hard to control while aqua- For five years, quirements, be it for know-how, engineering, process lines,
selenium tates increased moisture loss from proc- culture offers the opportunity to manage all from the 2001 single unit machines, spare and wear parts, or service.
Meet us at Vietfish in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet nam, on
Substituting an organic sele- essed meat. The use of organic selenium has aspects of the ongrowing, pre-harvest and farming season and
June 12-14, 2010.
nium yeast source for inorganic been shown to significantly reduce the drip harvest practices, thereby minimizing stress up to and including
sodium selenite has been dem- loss in poultry (Naylor et al. 2000). and any negative effect that this will have the 2004 season,
onstrated to improve uniformity on product quality. In addition it has been our research group
and product quality. The reason Shelf life shown that pre-mortem conditions that can ran experiments
for this is that the organoseleni- As with terrestrial red meats, shelf life alter the physiology of the fish can in turn that were designed
um compounds formed by yeast is an important product quality feature of affect the post-mortem tissue biochemistry, to investigate and
are more easily metabolized and farmed Southern Bluefin Tuna (SBT). Also which is then directly related to product evaluate the use of
Figure 3
can be taken up into tissue in common with beef, the bright red colour quality (Thomas et al.1999). feeds (baitfish and USA and Canada:
proteins, such as muscle non- of SBT is due to the myoglobin content of The use of antioxidant fortified diets pelleted) fortified

28 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2010 May-June 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 29

F: Tuna
Growth, Safety,
Carcass Quality, Growth, Safety, He
in the fish fed the
(Figure 4).
CRC participants. The author wishes to
thank DSM Nutritional Products for their
ongoing support of this research and
Genetic Potential,
Traceability, Genetic Potential, Rel
Profitability, Oxidative
Health, Profitability, Oxidative Stre
Higher levels Alltech® for providing the organoselenium
of these antioxi- from Sel-Plex selenium.
dants in the fish

Nutritional Value
Value of
of Food
Shelf Life, Nutritional
muscle consist-
ently result in an
Buchanan J and Thomas P. 2008. Improving the
extension of the colour shelf-life of farmed Southern Bluefin
colour shelf life Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) flesh with dietary
of sashimi grade supplements of vitamins E & C and selenium.
tuna meat as illus- Journal of Applied Food Product Technology, 17
trated in Figure 5. : 3.
By slowing Davies S, Rider S and Sweetman. 2008. The
the oxidation nature of selenium and its role in fish nutrition.
process in SBT International Aquafeed, July/August issue, p28-33.
meat it is possible
Douglas A, Carragher J, Thomas P and Patterson
to extend the
B. 2000. Flesh quality and market price
window of sale
determination of farmed fresh Southern Bluefin
opportunity at Tuna in Japan. In Responsible Aquaculture in the
the market and Seleniumisisan
New Millenium, European Aquaculture Society Selenium
reduce the losses Special publication, No 28.
for allaquatic
that may current-
Mitchie I. 2001. Causes of down grading in the directlyimpacts
ly be experienced directly
salmon farming industry. In; Kestin, S.C., Warris,
through the prac- outofofthe
out thewater.
P.D, (Eds.) Farmed fish quality. Oxford: Blackwell
tice of trimming Science, Fishing New Books. Pp 129-136.
portioned car-
casses during cold Morkore T and Austreng E. 2004. Temporal Sel-Plex®®from
Sel-Plex fromAlltech
changes in texture, gaping, composition and
storage. These FDAreviewed
FDA reviewedand
copper status of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.)
benefits obviously
fed moist feed or extruded dry diet. Aquaculture organicselenium
organic seleniumsource
have the capacity 230: 425-437.
to improve the market.Sel-Plex
market. Sel-Plexsupports
reputation of this Naylor A, Choct M and Jacques K. 2000. Effects health,performance
health, performanceand
valuable product. of selenium source and level on performance and
meat quality in male broilers. Poultry Science 79 qualityofofaquatic
quality aquaticspecies.
Pellet diets
(suppl), 17.
fortified with
"The farming success in any aquaculture antioxidants are Thomas P, Pankhurst N and Bremner H. 1999. Sel-Plexisisan
Sel-Plex anesSential
by far the most The effect of stress and exercise on post-mortem
aqua dietsworldwide.
operation is dependant on optimal growth effective delivery biochemistry of Atlantic salmon and rainbow
trout. Journal of Fish Biology, 54, 1177-1196.
system for these
and performance with the product quality nutrients and Thomas P. 2007. Aquafin CRC - Southern bluefin
meeting the consumer preferences" therefore the tuna Aquaculture Subprogram: Maximising the
most effective control of quality in farmed SBT (Aquafin CRC
way to improve Project 2.2 FRDC Project No. 2001/248) Final
the shelf life of Report.
with the natural antioxidants vitamin E (dl-α- farmed SBT flesh. In other work, not illus- Thomas P, Thomas M, Schuller K and
tocopherol acetate), vitamin C (l - ascorbic trated here, it was shown that feeding D'Antignan T. 2009. Aquafin CRC - Southern
acid monophosphate) and selenium, initially SBT pellets fortified with a higher level of bluefin tuna Aquaculture Subprogram: Application
as sodium selenate (Buchanan & Thomas vitamin E alone may not be as effective in of the use of dietary supplement for improving
2008) and then selenomethionine as Sel- extending the shelf life of SBT meat as a flesh quality attributes of farmed SBT. (Aquafin
Plex® (Alltech), organic selenium based combination of higher levels of vitamins E CRC Project 2.2(2) FRDC Project No. 2004/209)
Final Report.
on the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C plus selenium as Sel-Plex.
CNCM I-3060 (Thomas 2007 and Thomas
et al. 2009). Acknowledgements
When standard baitfish or pellet feed This work formed part of a project
were coated or fortified with boosted of the Cooperative Research Centre for For
For more
levels of vitamins E and C and selenium, as the Sustainable Aquaculture of Finfish More inforMation: or
or e-mail
Sel-Plex, significantly higher selenium levels (Aquafin CRC), and received funds from the Email:
were recorded in the muscle of SBT (Figure Australian Government’s CRCs Program,
3). This reduced the muscle oxidation status the Fisheries R&D Corporation and other

30 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2010

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