very important content for heat and mass transfer

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very important content for heat and mass transfer

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magnitude, and thus it is a vector quantity

Coordinate System

location of a point in different coordinate systems

systems.

for one-dimensional heat conduction:

dT

&

Q cond = kA

( Watt )

dx

If n is the normal of the isothermal surface at

point P, the rate of heat conduction at that point

can be expressed by Fouriers law as

& = kA T ( Watt )

Q

n

n

always normal to an isothermal

surface and can be resolved

into its components like any

other vector

r

r

r

r

&

&

&

&

Qn = Qx i + Q y j + Qzk

P.Talukdar/Mech-IITD

T

&

Q x = kA x

x

& = kA T

Q

y

y

y

& = kA T

Q

z

z

z

Transfer

The term steadyy implies

p

no

change with time at any point

within the medium, while

transient implies variation

with time or time dependence.

Therefore, the temperature or

heat flux remains unchanged

with time during steady heat

transfer through

g a medium at

any location, although both

quantities may vary from one

location to another

Multidimensional Heat

Transfer

Heat transfer pproblems are also classified as being

g onedimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional,

depending on the relative magnitudes of heat transfer rates in

different directions and the level of accuracy desired

Ex:1Dheattransfer:

Heattransferthroughtheglassofa

i d

b

id d t b

windowcanbeconsideredtobeone

dimensionalsinceheattransferthrough

theglasswilloccurpredominantlyinone

(

direction(thedirectionnormaltothe

surfaceoftheglass)andheattransferin

otherdirections(fromoneside

edgetotheotherandfromthetopedge

to the bottom) is negligible

tothebottom)isnegligible

Heat Generation

A medium through which heat is conducted may involve the

conversion of electrical,

electrical nuclear,

nuclear or chemical energy into heat

(or thermal) energy. In heat conduction analysis, such

conversion processes are characterized as heat generation.

Heat generation is a volumetric phenomenon. That is, it occurs

throughout the body of a medium. Therefore, the rate of heat

generation in a medium is usually specified per unit volume

whose unit is W/m3

& = g& dV

G

P.Talukdar/Mech-IITD

Watt

medium may vary with time as well

as position within the medium.

When the variation of heat

g

generation with p

position is known,

the total rate of heat generation in

a medium of volume V can be

determined from

q

Assume the density of the wall is , the specific

heat is C, and the area of the wall normal to the

direction of heat transfer is A.

a small time interval t can be expressed as

E element

& Q

&

&

Q

+

G

=

x

x + x

element

t

&

&

&

G

element = gVelement = g.A.x

E element

&

&

&

Q x Q x + x + G element =

t

(Tt + t Tt )

&

&

Q x Q x + x + g& .A.x = C.A.x

t

Dividingg byy

Ax gives

&

&

Tt + t Tt

1 Q

x + x Q x

&

+ g = C

A

x

t

Taking the limit as x 0 and t 0 yields and since from Fouriers Law:

&

&

&

Q

Q

T

x + x Q x

=

=

kA

lim

x 0

1

T

T

&

kA

+

g

=

x

t

A x

Variable conductivity:

T

T

+ g& = C

k

x x

t

Constant conductivity:

2 T g& 1 T

+ =

2

x

k t

where the property k/C is the thermal

diffusivity

L

Long

C

Cylinder

li d

Consider

C

id a thin

thi cylindrical

li d i l shell

h ll element

l

t off

thickness r in a long cylinder

The area of the cylinder

y

normal to the

direction of heat transfer at any location is A =

2rL where r is the value of the radius at that

location. Note that the heat transfer area A

depends on r in this case

case, and thus it varies with

location.

E element

l

& Q

&

&

Q

+

G

=

r

r + r

element

t

&

&

&

G

element = gVelement = g.A.r

(Tt + t Tt )

& Q

&

&

Q

+

g

.

A

.

r

=

C

.

A

.

r

r

r + r

t

dividing by Ar

gives

&

&

Tt + t Tt

1 Q

r + r Q r

+ g& = C

A

r

t

&

&

&

Q

Q

T

r + r Q r

=

=

kA

lir0 r

lim

r r

r

1

T

T

&

kA + g = C

A r

r

t

Different Expressions

Variable conductivity:

Constant Conductivity:

1

T

T

&

r

.

k

+

g

=

C

.

r

r r

t

1 T g& 1 T

r

+ =

r r r k t

1 d dT g&

r

+ = 0

r dr dr k

1 T 1 T

=

r

r r r t

d dT

r

=0

dr dr

Heat Conduction Eq

Eq. in a Sphere

A = 4r2

Variable conductivity:

Constant Conductivity:

1 2 T

T

&

r

.

k

.

+

g

=

r 2 r

t

r

1 2 T g& 1 T

r

+ =

2

r r r k t

CombinedOneDimensional

HeatConductionEquation

P.Talukdar/Mech-IITD

1 n T

T

&

r

.

k

.

g

C

+

=

r

r n r

t

E

Equation

i

E element

l

& +Q

& +Q

& Q

&

&

&

&

Q

Q

+

G

=

x

y

z

x + x

y + y

z + z

element

t

&

&

&

G

element = gVelement = g.x.y.z

E element

& +Q

& +Q

& Q

&

&

&

&

+

=

Q

Q

Q

G

x

y

z

x + x

y + y

z + z

element

t

Tt + t Tt

& +Q

& +Q

& Q

&

&

&

&

Q

Q

Q

g

.

x

.

y

.

z

C

.

x

.

y

.

z

x

y

z

x + x

y + y

z + z

t

&

&

&

&

&

&

Q

Q

Tt + t Tt

1 Q

Q

1

1 Q

+

y

y

y

x + x

x

z + z Q z

&

+ g = C

y.z

x

x.z

y

x.y

z

t

&

&

&

&

&

&

Q

Q

Tt + t Tt

1 Q

Q

1

1 Q

y

+

y

y

x + x

x

z + z Q z

&

+ g = C

y.z

x

x.z

y

x.y

z

t

&

&

&

1 Q

1 Q

1

T

x + x Q x

x

=

=

=

k.y.z

x

y.z x

y.z x

x

x 0 y.z

&

&

&

1 Q

1 Q

1

T

y + y Q y

y

k.x.z

=

=

=

lim

y

x .z y

x.z y

y

y 0 x.z

lim

T

k

x

x

T

k

y

y

&

&

&

T

1 Q

1 Q

1

T

z + z Q z

z

lim

=

=

k.x.y

= k

z

z z

x.y z

z

x .y z

z 0 x.y

T T T

T

+ k

k

+ k

+ g& = C

x x y y z z

t

Under what condition?

2 T 2 T 2 T g& 1 T

+ 2+ 2 + =

2

z

k t

x

y

2 T 2 T 2 T g&

+ 2 + 2 + =0

2

x

y

z

k

2 T 2 T 2 T 1 T

+ 2+ 2 =

2

x

y

z

t

2 T 2 T 2 T

+ 2 + 2 =0

2

y

z

x

1 T 1 T T

T

&

k

.

r

+

k

.

r

+

k

+

g

=

C

.

r r

t

r r 2 z z

1 2 T

1

1

T

T

T

&

k

+

k.r

+

k. sin + g = C

r r 2 sin 2 r 2 sin

r 2 r

t

The temperature distribution in a medium depends on the

conditions at the boundaries of the medium as well as the heat

transfer mechanism inside the medium. To describe a heat

transfer problem completely, two boundary conditions must be

given for each direction of the coordinate system along which

heat transfer is significant.

Therefore,

Th

f

we needd to specify

if two

boundary conditions for one-dimensional

problems, four boundary conditions for

two dimensional problems,

two-dimensional

problems and six

boundary conditions for three-dimensional

problems

A condition,

diti which

hi h is

i usually

ll specified

ifi d att time

ti t = 0,

0 is

i called

ll d

the initial condition, which is a mathematical expression for

the temperature distribution of the medium initially.

T( x, y, z,0) = f ( x, y, z)

Note that under steady conditions, the heat conduction

equation does not involve any time derivatives, and thus we do

not need to specify

p y an initial condition

The heat conduction equation is first order in time, and thus the initial

condition cannot involve any derivatives (it is limited to a specified

temperature).

However, the heat conduction equation is second order in space

coordinates, and thus a boundary condition may involve first

d i ti

derivatives

att the

th boundaries

b

d i as well

ll as specified

ifi d values

l

off temperature

t

t

C di i

Condition

The temperature of an exposed surface can

usually be measured directly and easily.

Therefore, one of the easiest ways

y to

specify the thermal conditions on a surface

is to specify the temperature. For onedimensional heat transfer through a plane

wall of thickness L, for example, the

specified temperature boundary conditions

can be expressed as

T(0, t ) = T1

T(L, t ) = T2

C di i

Condition

The sign of the specified heat flux is

determined by inspection: positive if

the heat flux is in the positive

direction of the coordinate axis,

a is and

negative if it is in the opposite

direction.

Note that it is extremely important to

have the correct sign for the specified

heat flux since the wrong sign will

invert the direction of heat transfer

and cause the heat gain to be

interpreted as heat loss

medium from both sides, for example, the specified heat flux boundary

conditions can be expressed as

T(0, t )

= 50

x

and

T(0, t )

=0

x

or

T(0, t )

=0

x

T(L, t )

= 50

x

Thermal Symmetry

L

T , t

2 =0

x

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