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# Heat Transfer

## Heat transfer has direction as well as

magnitude, and thus it is a vector quantity

Coordinate System

## The various distances and angles involved when describing the

location of a point in different coordinate systems
systems.

## Fouriers law of heat conduction

for one-dimensional heat conduction:

dT
&
Q cond = kA
( Watt )
dx
If n is the normal of the isothermal surface at
point P, the rate of heat conduction at that point
can be expressed by Fouriers law as

& = kA T ( Watt )
Q
n
n

## The heat transfer vector is

always normal to an isothermal
surface and can be resolved
into its components like any
other vector

r
r
r
r
&
&
&
&
Qn = Qx i + Q y j + Qzk

P.Talukdar/Mech-IITD

T
&
Q x = kA x
x

& = kA T
Q
y
y
y

& = kA T
Q
z
z
z

Transfer
p
no
change with time at any point
within the medium, while
transient implies variation
with time or time dependence.
Therefore, the temperature or
heat flux remains unchanged
transfer through
g a medium at
any location, although both
quantities may vary from one
location to another

Multidimensional Heat
Transfer
Heat transfer pproblems are also classified as being
g onedimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional,
depending on the relative magnitudes of heat transfer rates in
different directions and the level of accuracy desired
Ex:1Dheattransfer:
Heattransferthroughtheglassofa
i d
b
id d t b
windowcanbeconsideredtobeone
dimensionalsinceheattransferthrough
theglasswilloccurpredominantlyinone
(
direction(thedirectionnormaltothe
surfaceoftheglass)andheattransferin
otherdirections(fromoneside
edgetotheotherandfromthetopedge
to the bottom) is negligible
tothebottom)isnegligible

Heat Generation
A medium through which heat is conducted may involve the
conversion of electrical,
electrical nuclear,
nuclear or chemical energy into heat
(or thermal) energy. In heat conduction analysis, such
conversion processes are characterized as heat generation.
Heat generation is a volumetric phenomenon. That is, it occurs
throughout the body of a medium. Therefore, the rate of heat
generation in a medium is usually specified per unit volume
whose unit is W/m3

& = g& dV
G

P.Talukdar/Mech-IITD

Watt

## The rate of heat generation in a

medium may vary with time as well
as position within the medium.
When the variation of heat
g
generation with p
position is known,
the total rate of heat generation in
a medium of volume V can be
determined from

## 1-D Heat Conduction Equation

q
Assume the density of the wall is , the specific
heat is C, and the area of the wall normal to the
direction of heat transfer is A.

## An energy balance on this thin element during

a small time interval t can be expressed as

E element
& Q
&
&
Q
+
G
=
x
x + x
element
t

## E element = E t + t E t = mC(Tt + t Tt ) = C.A.x (Tt + t Tt )

&
&
&
G
element = gVelement = g.A.x
E element
&
&
&
Q x Q x + x + G element =
t

(Tt + t Tt )
&
&
Q x Q x + x + g& .A.x = C.A.x
t
Dividingg byy
Ax gives

&
&
Tt + t Tt
1 Q
x + x Q x
&

+ g = C
A
x
t

Taking the limit as x 0 and t 0 yields and since from Fouriers Law:

&
&
&
Q
Q

T
x + x Q x
=
=

kA

lim

x 0

1
T
T
&
kA
+
g
=

x
t
A x

## Plane wall: A is constant

Variable conductivity:

T
T
+ g& = C
k
x x
t

Constant conductivity:

2 T g& 1 T
+ =
2
x
k t
where the property k/C is the thermal
diffusivity

## Heat Conduction Equation in a

L
Long
C
Cylinder
li d
Consider
C
id a thin
thi cylindrical
li d i l shell
h ll element
l
t off
thickness r in a long cylinder
The area of the cylinder
y
normal to the
direction of heat transfer at any location is A =
2rL where r is the value of the radius at that
location. Note that the heat transfer area A
depends on r in this case
case, and thus it varies with
location.

E element
l
& Q
&
&
Q
+
G
=
r
r + r
element
t

## E element = E t + t E t = mC(Tt + t Tt ) = C.A.r (Tt + t Tt )

&
&
&
G
element = gVelement = g.A.r
(Tt + t Tt )
& Q
&
&
Q
+
g
.
A
.

r
=

C
.
A
.

r
r
r + r
t
dividing by Ar
gives

&
&
Tt + t Tt
1 Q
r + r Q r

+ g& = C
A
r
t
&
&
&
Q
Q

T
r + r Q r
=
=

kA

lir0 r
lim
r r
r

1
T
T
&
kA + g = C
A r
r
t

Different Expressions
Variable conductivity:

Constant Conductivity:

1
T
T
&
r
.
k
+
g
=

C
.

r
r r
t

1 T g& 1 T
r
+ =
r r r k t
1 d dT g&
r
+ = 0
r dr dr k
1 T 1 T
=
r
r r r t
d dT
r
=0
dr dr

Heat Conduction Eq
Eq. in a Sphere
A = 4r2

Variable conductivity:

Constant Conductivity:

1 2 T
T
&
r
.
k
.
+
g
=

r 2 r
t
r

1 2 T g& 1 T
r
+ =
2
r r r k t

CombinedOneDimensional
HeatConductionEquation

P.Talukdar/Mech-IITD

1 n T
T
&
r
.
k
.
g
C
+
=

r
r n r
t

E
Equation
i

E element
l
& +Q
& +Q
& Q
&
&
&
&
Q

Q
+
G
=
x
y
z
x + x
y + y
z + z
element
t

## E element = E t + t E t = mC(Tt + t Tt ) = C.x.y.z.(Tt + t Tt )

&
&
&
G
element = gVelement = g.x.y.z
E element
& +Q
& +Q
& Q
&
&
&
&

+
=
Q
Q
Q
G
x
y
z
x + x
y + y
z + z
element
t
Tt + t Tt
& +Q
& +Q
& Q
&
&
&
&
Q
Q
Q
g
.
x
.
y
.
z
C
.
x
.
y
.
z

x
y
z
x + x
y + y
z + z
t

&
&
&
&
&
&
Q

Q
Tt + t Tt
1 Q

Q
1
1 Q
+

y
y
y
x + x
x
z + z Q z
&

+ g = C

y.z
x
x.z
y
x.y
z
t

&
&
&
&
&
&

Q
Q
Tt + t Tt
1 Q

Q
1
1 Q
y
+

y
y
x + x
x
z + z Q z
&

+ g = C

y.z
x
x.z
y
x.y
z
t
&
&
&
1 Q
1 Q
1

T
x + x Q x
x
=
=
=
k.y.z
x
y.z x
y.z x
x
x 0 y.z
&
&
&
1 Q
1 Q
1

T
y + y Q y
y
k.x.z
=
=
=
lim
y
x .z y
x.z y
y
y 0 x.z
lim

T
k

x
x

T
k

y
y

&
&
&
T
1 Q
1 Q
1
T

z + z Q z
z
lim
=
=

k.x.y
= k
z
z z
x.y z
z
x .y z
z 0 x.y

T T T
T
+ k
k
+ k
+ g& = C
x x y y z z
t
Under what condition?

2 T 2 T 2 T g& 1 T
+ 2+ 2 + =
2
z
k t
x
y

2 T 2 T 2 T g&
+ 2 + 2 + =0
2
x
y
z
k
2 T 2 T 2 T 1 T
+ 2+ 2 =
2
x
y
z
t
2 T 2 T 2 T
+ 2 + 2 =0
2
y
z
x

## Cylindrical and Spherical

1 T 1 T T
T
&

k
.
r
+
k
.
r
+
k
+
g
=

C
.

r r
t
r r 2 z z

1 2 T
1
1

T
T
T
&
k
+
k.r
+
k. sin + g = C
r r 2 sin 2 r 2 sin

r 2 r
t

## Boundary and Initial Conditions

The temperature distribution in a medium depends on the
conditions at the boundaries of the medium as well as the heat
transfer mechanism inside the medium. To describe a heat
transfer problem completely, two boundary conditions must be
given for each direction of the coordinate system along which
heat transfer is significant.
Therefore,
Th
f
we needd to specify
if two
boundary conditions for one-dimensional
problems, four boundary conditions for
two dimensional problems,
two-dimensional
problems and six
boundary conditions for three-dimensional
problems

A condition,
diti which
hi h is
i usually
ll specified
ifi d att time
ti t = 0,
0 is
i called
ll d
the initial condition, which is a mathematical expression for
the temperature distribution of the medium initially.

T( x, y, z,0) = f ( x, y, z)
Note that under steady conditions, the heat conduction
equation does not involve any time derivatives, and thus we do
not need to specify
p y an initial condition
The heat conduction equation is first order in time, and thus the initial
condition cannot involve any derivatives (it is limited to a specified
temperature).
However, the heat conduction equation is second order in space
coordinates, and thus a boundary condition may involve first
d i ti
derivatives
att the
th boundaries
b
d i as well
ll as specified
ifi d values
l
off temperature
t
t

## Specified Temperature Boundary

C di i
Condition
The temperature of an exposed surface can
usually be measured directly and easily.
Therefore, one of the easiest ways
y to
specify the thermal conditions on a surface
is to specify the temperature. For onedimensional heat transfer through a plane
wall of thickness L, for example, the
specified temperature boundary conditions
can be expressed as

T(0, t ) = T1
T(L, t ) = T2

## Specified Heat Flux Boundary

C di i
Condition
The sign of the specified heat flux is
determined by inspection: positive if
the heat flux is in the positive
direction of the coordinate axis,
a is and
negative if it is in the opposite
direction.
Note that it is extremely important to
have the correct sign for the specified
heat flux since the wrong sign will
invert the direction of heat transfer
and cause the heat gain to be
interpreted as heat loss

## For a plate of thickness L subjected to heat flux of 50 W/m2 into the

medium from both sides, for example, the specified heat flux boundary
conditions can be expressed as

T(0, t )
= 50
x

and

T(0, t )
=0
x

or

T(0, t )
=0
x

T(L, t )
= 50
x

Thermal Symmetry
L
T , t
2 =0
x