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ImmuneResponseto

Immune
Response to
InfectiousDiseases
Zhong yiwei
20110430

ImmunedefenseVSpathogeninfection

Infectious Diseases
InfectiousDiseases

ViralInfections
Bacterial Infections
BacterialInfections
ProtozoanDiseases
DiseasesCausedbyParasiticWorms(Helminths)

Immune Response to Viral Infections


ImmuneResponsetoViralInfections

sitesofinfection

Mechanismsofviral entryintohost
cells.
cells

acuteinfectionsandpersistent
infection

Hostresponseagainstacuteinfection

Theinnateimmuneresponsetoviral
infection

AdaptiveImmuneResponsetoViral
Infections

VirusesCanEvadeHostDefense
Mechanisms

i fl
influenzavirusinfection
i i f i

1918
19182009
2009

Sitesofinfluenzaentryinthe
respiratorytract.

Theadaptiveimmuneresponseduring
infectionwithinfluenzavirus.

influenzaVirusesEvadedHostDefense
Mechanisms
Theviruscanchangeitssurfaceantigensso
completelythattheimmuneresponse
Twodifferentmechanismsgenerateantigenic
Two different mechanisms generate antigenic
variationinHAandNA:antigenicdriftand
antigenicshift.
i i hif

Antigenicshift

Types of vaccine
Typesofvaccine
Inactivatedvirus
Liveattenuatedvirus
Live attenuated virus
Recombinantsubunit,DNAandvectored
vaccines.
i
Universalinfluenzavirusvaccines.

Newresearchforinfluenza

Eachgroupseemstosharearegionofsequence
conservationinthestemthatcanserveasatargetof
broadlyneutralizingantibodiesdirectedtothis
region.
i

Immune Response to HBV Infections


ImmuneResponsetoHBVInfections

HBV

ThethreemainpathwaysofHBvreplicationin
HBeAg positive patients
HBeAgpositivepatients

immuneresponsetoHBVinfection
p


1
1

HBV

HBV
2
2
TLRIFN
APC
APC
Ttreg

Differenthepaticantigenpresentingcellsuse
B7H1topromotelocalTcelltolerance.

Immune Response to HIV Infections


ImmuneResponsetoHIVInfections

HIV Infection
HIVInfection

dendriticcell
(DC)
(DC)mediated
di t d
HIVtransmission

CD4andCD8cellnumberduringthe
courseofHIVinfection

MechanismsofCD4+TcelldeathinHIVinfection

cDCs andpDCs duringHIVinfection.

viralload,andCD4cell countwillhelpyourdoctordeterminethe

righttimetostarttherapy

HIVmedicationsorARVtherapy,including:
NNRTIs(ornonNucs):Nonnucleosidereversetranscriptaseinhibitors
NRTIs(orNucs):Nucleosidereversetranscriptaseinhibitors
PIs:Proteaseinhibitors
hb
Entryinhibitors
Integraseinhibitors

HIVVaccine

ImmuneResponsetoBacterial
Infections

Extracellular vs intracellularbacteria
Extracellularvs
intracellular bacteria
Extracellularbacteria:
Phagocyte avoidance!!
Phagocyteavoidance!!
Intracellularbacteria:
Cellmediated
Cell
mediatedisthemajorimmuneresponse
is the major immune response
againstintracellularbacteria.

ImmuneResponsetoBacterialInfections

Antibodymediated
mechanisms
forcombating
infection by
infectionby
extracellularbacteria.

Invademechanismsbyextracellular
bacteria
bacteria

Immunity against intracellular bacteria


Immunityagainstintracellularbacteria

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

PhasesofinfectionMycobacterium
tuberculosis.
tuberculosis

ThenaturalhistoryofMycobacterium
tuberculosisinfection.

Immune Response to tuberculosis


ImmuneResponsetotuberculosis

Macrophagesarekeyeffectorcellsinmycobacterialkilling,butcanalsoprovidea
nicheforbacterialmultiplication.

EventsthatmightleadtofailureofBCGindeveloping
countries

ImmuneResponsetoDiseases
Immune
Response to Diseases
CausedbyParasiticWorms
y

Diseases Caused by Parasitic Worms


DiseasesCausedbyParasiticWorms

Bodycovering

Sex

Examplediseasesin
humans

Cestodes (tapeworms)

Trematodes (flukes)

Nematodes
Nematodes
(roundworms)

Tegument

Tegument

Cuticle

Hermaphroditic

Hermaphroditic,except
Hermaphroditic,
except
schistosomes whichare Dioecious
dioecious

Tapeworminfection
p

Schistosomiasis,
swimmer's itch
swimmer'sitch

Ascariasis,,
dracunculiasis,
elephantiasis,
enterobiasis (pinworm),
filariasis hookworm
filariasis,hookworm,
onchocerciasis,
trichinosis,trichuriasis
( p
(whipworm)
)

Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasisiscausedbydigeneticbloodtrematodes.
ThethreemainspeciesinfectinghumansareSchistosoma
haematobium S japonicum and S mansoni
haematobium,S.japonicum,andS.mansoni.

Life Cycle
LifeCycle

Afterinfectionwith
Schistosoma mansoni,
theinitialimmune
response

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