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Transducers

Environmental
Changes e.g.
Heat, pressure,
Light etc.

Changes in
Resistance,
Voltage,
Current,
Inductance,
Frequency,
Capacitance,
Shape, colour
Etc.

Signal
Conditioning

Sensor (transducer primary)

Display
Available output:
4 20 mA or
0 - 1 volt electrical.
0.2 1.0 kg/cm 2
Pneumatic.

(Secondary)

Transducer characteristics
   



   


    


     

1. Transfer function, f =
or Sensitivity, G =

= Gain

2. Error
- Scale error, e.g. zero (offset), sensitivity, non-conformity, hysteresis
& dead space.
- Dynamic error - from internal sensor/ transducers capacitor.
- Due to noise, from DC & AC lines, either voltage or current.
- Noises, e.g. pickup, crosstalk, interference.
- Frequency change
3. Effected by environmental changes, e.g. temperature, pressure,
Humidity.
4. Linearity

Types of error

(a) Offset (zero)

(d) Non comformity

(b) Sensitivity

(e) Hysterisis

(c) Combined

(f) Dead space

4. Linearity

5. Sensor time responses:


a. Zero order

b. First order
b(t) = bi + (bf bi)[1 e-t/T]

c. 2nd order oscillatory

R(t) = Roe-atsin(2fnt)

2nd and 3rd orders the instrument/ transducer takes ~ms to settle
at the actual reading.

Analog signal conditioning


- Convert the signal from sensor, etc. , suitable for process control.
- Sensor produces change in voltage/ current/ pulse (frequency).
(electrical signals)
Types:
1. Offset (bias), also called zero error.

E.g.
Fine pot. to eliminate offset.
Coarse pot. - for full scale deflection (FSD)
adjustment on the Ammeter, so that,
0.1 V 1 mA range.
2. Linearization shall design to provide output that varies linearly
with physical parameter.

3. Conversion
e.g. Thermocouple sensitivity 20 mV/oC
i) Shall increase mV to V OR to current [4, 20] mA = [0.25, 1.25] V
via 62.5 .
ii) Convert freq. to V/I
iii) Digital interface (ADC & DAC).

d. Loading effect
- Open circuit no load, Vy = Vc

- With load, Vy =   
Vc


e. Noises unwanted signal


- Eliminate using - a discriminator or comparator.
- Filters
- Fast Fourier Tf +
Averaging etc.
f. Wheatstone bridge convert the sensors
resistance into voltage or current (D).

Va =  Vs
  

Vb=   
Vs



   
      

V(D) = Va Vb= = 

Vs

Eg. R1 is RTD from a thermistor, Pt100, with conversion range:


[95, 100, 105] [-100, 0, 100]oC.
Then, for NULL condition, choose R2, R3 and R4 = 100, Vs = 5V.
Using MATLAB, R1= [95:0.1:105]
dV=5*(100*100-R1.*100)./(R1+100)/(100+100);
plot(R1,dV)
If R3 is the sensor (Pt100) and other Rs = 100

Re-arrange for Real & Imag.,

Band reject RC filter (notch filter):

fL= 0.187fc and fH = 4.57fc, fc = 1/(2RC)

Important features:
- Open loop gain
- Freq. responses
- Offset
- Slew rate
- CMRR

Comparator rules:

Example:

Power, PL = i2ZL

Matched: no reflection, & Amplitude


not changed.

Amplifier with impedance of 500 drives 8 speaker

70V line matching transformer:

Insert a buffer here!