You are on page 1of 16

Unit 1

In simple terms, HRD is concerned with the development of the human resource fun
ction in an organization. The term Human Resource development involves mainly tw
o terms: Human resource and Development:Human resource which consists of the total knowledge, creative abilities, skills
, talents and aptitudes of an organization's work force, as well as the values,
benefits, and benefits of an individual involved in the organization.
Development on the other hand involves enhancement of the skills and abilities o
f the employee in the present job as well as making him capable of doing so in t
he future assignments too.
Nadler (1970), HRD as a series of organized activities conducted within the spec
ified period time, and designed to produce behavioral change.
Common Activities within HRD are:
Education &
Revised Definition, Nadler (1984), HRD as organized learning experience in a def
ined time period to increase the possibility of job performance & Growth.
A recent review of the definition of HRD by Mclean and Mclean (2001) provides ma
ny insight into the field of Human Resource Development (HRD) >>
HRD may vary from one country to another and national differences are crucial fa
ctor in determining the way professionals works. Examples >>
* In several countries, HRD is not distinguished from HR but is seen systematica
lly as a part of HR.
* Professionals, organizations and Academics seems to contribute to the definiti
on of HRD.
* US definition of HRD seems to have influenced the definition on many other cou


The Centre for HRD at XLRI, Jamshedpur surveyed the practices of 53 public and p
rivate sector organizations (Rao and Abrham, 1985). From this survey the followi
ng trends were observed:
1) About 32% of them had a formally stated policy focusing on HRD. Another 59% d
id not have a formally stated HRD policy but claimed to emphasize it. It is only
in 9% of organizations that there was no formally or informally know HRD policy
2) About 89% of the organizations surveyed had personnel policies that emphasize
continuous development of their employees. 19
3) In 30% of these organizations there is a separate HRD department and in anoth
er 38% of them the HRD function is a part of the personnel function with special
ly designated persons to look after it.
4) About 26% of the organizations reported to have fully development oriented pe
rformance appraisal system and another 62% reported to have appraisals that have
development as one of the main objectives
5) Some form of identification of tasks and targets jointly by the appraiser and
appraise, performance review discussions to help appraise recognize his strengt
hs and weakness, appraisal feedback to appraise for improvement, self-appraisal,
identification of development needs, potential appraisal, and identification of
factors affecting performance seem to characterize about 7-% of the appraisal s
6) About 55% of them had a definite training policy. For example, one of the org
anizations surveyed had a policy that all the executives should be trained in al
l areas of general management. In 64% of them there is a separate training depar
7) Fifty per cent of the organizations reported that they have someone to look

after OD activities although 44% of them only had undertaken some OD activity or
the other by the time of the survey. In most of these organization the OD activ
ity was focused on team building and role clarity exercise. About 36% of them re
ported using OD for developing a work organization, 26% for interpersonal sensit
ivity and personal growth and 15% on stress management. 20
8) About 80% of the organizations required their executives to counsel their sub
ordinates at least once-a-year although a large number of them encourage more fr
equent counselling sessions.
Challenges for HRD
* Changing workforce demographics
* Competing in global economy
* Eliminating the skills gap
* Need for lifelong learning
* Need for organizational learning
> It is used as a mechanism to understand the difficulties/weaknesses of the sub
ordinates and help/encourage them remove all these and realize these. Other obje
ctive is to identify their strengths and weaknesses of the subordinates too and
to provide them a positive environment and them to understand their positive att
> In HRD, corporate strategies and business expansion plans should not be kept s
ecret. Long term plans of the organization should be made transparent to the emp
loyees. Most individuals want to know their career growth and other possibilitie
s. Hence the managers should transform the organization plans to the employees,
thus making way for the employees to plan their growth possibilities accordingly
> The training is directly linked with career growth and appraisal of the employ
ees as such. Employees are given on the job training as well as off the job trai
> The capabilities should be developed within the employees to grow/perform new
goals & responsibilities by themselves continuously. A dynamic and growing organ
ization needs to continuously review its structure and systems, creating new rol
es and assigning new responsibilities.
> Rewarding employees is a significant part of HRD. By this, the organization in
motivating & recognizing the employee talents as such. It also helps in communi
cating the values of the organization also.
> HRD systems focus on employee welfare and quality of work life by continually
examining employee needs and meeting them to the extent possible.
> A continuous effort is maintained to maintain the development of the organizat
ion as a whole. This may be mainly through research methods and all, where in po
ssible development in specific areas may be reviewed and corrective action may b
e taken.
> This is the responsibility of the supervisors to continuously monitor the empl
oyee performance and review and provide necessary suggestions to improve them.
A Framework for the HRD Process
HRD efforts should use the following four phases (or stages):
* Needs assessment
* Design
* Implementation
* Evaluation

Needs Assessment Phase

* Establishing HRD priorities
* Defining specific training and objectives
* Establishing evaluation criteria
Design Phase
* Selecting who delivers program
* Selecting and developing program content
* Scheduling the training program
Implementation Phase
* Implementing or delivering the program
Evaluation Phase
Determining program effectiveness
* Keep or change providers?
* Offer it again?
* What are the true costs?
* Can we do it another way?
Role of Human resource Development in Public sector
- Examines the relationships and problems that exist between the theory and prac
tice of human resource development in the Public Sector. Aims at enhancing the c
apability of human resource management systems to adapt and respond proactively
to a constantly changing environment in the 1990s and beyond.
-Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) is continually in the spotlight of human res
ource (HR) management even after over 40 years of progress. The number of EEO co
mplaints and lawsuits remains significant, indicating that ongoing progress is n
eeded to decrease employment discrimination. EEO issues in HR Management are so
prevalent that it has become one of the biggest concerns for HR professionals.
While HR professionals agree that equal employment opportunities are a legit
imate focus, there is considerable controversy over best way to achieve equality
. One way is to use the "blind to differences" approach, which argues that diffe
rences among people should be ignored and everyone should be treated equally. Th
e second common approach is affirmative action through which employers are urged t
o employ people based on their race, age, gender, or national origin. The idea i
s to make up for historical discrimination by giving groups who have been affect
ed enhanced opportunities for employment. The former approach emphasizes equal t
reatment regardless of individual differences; the latter emphasizes fairness ba
sed on individual circumstances.
-The role of the human resource development department has become even more impo
rtant in countries like ours and specially in the government organization becaus
e of the inefficiency of our government employees and the laziness of these peop
le ,the main reason for the Indian government being so ineffective and having su
ch an low productivity is the human resource of our government, so the importanc
e of the human resource department becomes even more because of this very reason
, generally in the private sector companies the human resource is an very import
ance department and they look after all the growth, performance and other variou
s important aspects of the employees of the company but even though it exists in
the public sector but the functioning is not at the same level ,it s very importa
nt that the human resource department in the public sector takes following few s
teps for the better working of our government employees :
1. Generally its seen that the promotion in an government department is very slo
w sometimes a employees does not get promoted for even more than ten years and h
e stays in the same post that makes the employee disheartened and his working ef
ficiency decreases drastically ,so the human resource department may see to it t
hat this does not happen ,maybe they should create some extra posts and divide t
he work of one post between two or three posts that gives ample opportunity for
an employee of getting an promotion every three or four years and the promotion
should be performance best and not on the basis of the any reservation or senior

ity that will make the employees work hard and efficiently for their promotion.
2. The human resource department should also start conducting training for the g
overnment employees of all the post and cadre regularly so that they are also eq
uipped with all the modern techniques and the ways, they should know how to deal
with the common man because that aspect of our government employees is really b
ad and brings an bad image to government
3. Also the government employees should be taken for regular rejuvenating tours
and trios because this will keep them happy and also make them more efficient
4.The most important of all before giving the performance incentive to the gover
nment employee the most important factor that should be considered is the public
response on his performance ,this can be found out by having an feedback form f
rom each person visiting the particular office and these feedback forms should b
e given due respect and really considered as the most important factor giving in
centives because the government employees are there for the service of the peopl
e and if the people are not happy with him then there is no point of him doing t
he job and hence and no incentives.
Key areas where gains have been made in HRD in the public sector
Legislative framework and overall awareness of policies
Greater access to a wider spectrum of training at all levels
Generally more funds are available for training
More skills and knowledgeable HRD personnel
Comprehensive strategies which frame and guide HRD activities in organizations
Growing alignment of strategies
Clearer definition of responsibilities of HRD professionals
Existence of learnerships and internships, bursaries
Improvement in HRD budget utilization
Coordination of HRD initiatives with the transformation and development prioriti
es of the nation and province
Conceptualization of competency profiles
Availability of ETDP qualifications and continuous professional development
Identification and concern regarding scarce skills
Growing partnerships with institutions of higher learning
Growing HRD and HRM coordination
Unit standard-based learning, competency assessment and accreditation
Management structures, for HRD
HRD forum, Skills Development
Committees, SDF
Greater application of advanced methods in HRD
skills audit, needs assessment, c
ompetency profiling
Reduction of discriminatory barriers to training and more consideration for issu
es of equity
The application of transversal training methods in the Public Service
The growing use of Professional Development Plans (PDPs)
Greater availability of accredited courses and accredited providers
Growing alignment of HRD to PMDS
More opportunities for gaining and improving educational qualifications
Availability of learning frameworks which promote quality courses and acceptable
standards for training
Promotion of representativity in planning and decision making for HRD e.g. invol
vement of labor in Skills Development
Key areas where problems still exist in HRD in the public sector
No buy-in and support from senior management
HRD not seen as an organizational priority
Fragmentation of HRD functions, activities and initiatives
Inability to retain senior managers and officials with scarce skills and lack of
comprehensive retention strategies
Lack of overall career planning and pathing for officials

Ad hoc selection of courses and service providers

Lack of integration alignment and consolidation of the systems, structures and a
ctivities to complete, support and sustain HRD
Managers not taking responsibility for the HRD component of their jobs
Inadequate allocation of budgets
Inadequate allocation of staff
Little or no succession planning
PMDS not integrated with HRD
Shortage of accredited providers in many fields of training
Training still too theoretical and unrelated to practice
Poor implementation of policies and strategies
Lack of performance focus and impact assessment for training
Lack of proper and integrated information system for reporting and knowledge man
agement system enhancing practice
Non-availability of model organizational structures and arrangements for HRD in
Public Sector organizations
Lack of role clarity and proper alignment of roles and responsibilities
Poor implementation of a growing number of learnerships
Lack of thoroughness in the development of WSPs and lack of integrity in their i
Lack of comprehensive and integrated HR plans
Lack of monitoring and enforceability of key legal provisions for HRD e.g. SDA
1% allocation to training
Lack of adequately qualified coaches and mentors
Dysfunctional and disempowered Skills Development Committees
Sub-optimal utilization of staff
poor recruitment, poor placement, irrelevant tr
aining, mis- assignment of responsibilities
Little use of RPL
Constant change of organizational structures, personnel and structural arrangeme
nts for HRD
Poor alignment and coordination between SETAs
Lack of pre- and post- training interventions
Discontinuity in leadership
Inconsistency and lack of thoroughness in induction and re-orientation
Too few partnerships with educational institutions
Lack of optimization of the HRD role of DPSA and SAMDI

Unit 2
Good HR Practices
* Any practice that deals with enhancing competencies, commitment and culture bu
ilding can be considered an HR practice.
* The practice can take the form of a system, a process, and activity, a norm, a
rule, an accepted or expected habit, or just a way of doing things
* Eg :-Strategic Planning ,Training ,Outsourcing ,Employee Feedback and Evaluati
on etc


Corporate strategy/ business strategy which is linked with HRD System and system
-driven HRD.
Appropriately structured and competently handled HRD.
Corporate strategy and business linked HRD---the organization may use a variety of strategies i.e. Changes in technology, c
hanges in market, acquisitions and mergers, internationalization of business, ad
dition of new products and services, cost-reduction efforts, quality enhancement
programs. If all these strategies have to succeed the people who are required t
o implement them, should have a high degree of commitment.
HRD strategy
A strategy is a course of action planned to be undertaken to achieve desired goa
ls. HRD strategy indicates the desired course of action planned by an organizati
on to achieve HRD goals or HRD outcomes. The course of action may deal with the
choice of various means to achieve the desired goal and a plan for implementing
the chosen activity or action. Thus HRD strategy adopted by an organization may
deal with the following dimensions:
1) What are the HRD goals? What major purposes is the HRD strategy supposed to
2) What instruments are expected to be used ? In what order are they expected to
be used ? What are the assumptions made in choosing these instruments ?
3) What are the ways in which the HRD methods/instruments are envisaged to be im
Communication strategy. In today's scenario it is essential to educate and train emp
loyees about the change

Quality Strategy Quality needs to be fostered in the employees through training and
Entrepreneurship Strategy Every employee needs to be an independent entrepreneur, wh
o can generate ideas and bring them to reality by using the existing resources a
nd support of the org to create innovative and creativeproducts and services.
Culture building Strategy Organization s valuing its employees have a sustainable comp
etitive edge over competitors because employees are highly charged, motivated an
d commitment to the org.
Systematic Training Strategy The planning and organization of formal on-job training
and off-job training leads to improving vital employee characteristics, build a
nd sustain appropriate work culture and brings in more professionalism in action
Learning Strategy Continuous learning and development environment promote self-deve
lopment ofemployees, of self and by self.
Hrd Culture
HRD facilitates development of an enabling culture in an organization.
In a changing environment, organizations are required to go frequent restructuri
ng and redesigning of activities.
Without an enabling culture it is difficult for the organization to withstand th
e change requirements.
Enabling culture is creating, an environment where employees are motivated to ta
ke initiative and risk, they feel enthused to experiment, innovate and they make
things happen.
Thus HRD culture, which develops an enabling culture in an organization, is char
acterized by following practices:

Hrd Styles
The leadership and supervisory style of the chief executive plays an important r
ole in promoting HRD in the company. The style should be in congruence with the
HRD philosophy.
The leadership styles followed by chief executives may be classified into three
Benevolent (Paternalistic)
Critical (task centered)
Developmental (Self-dispensing)
Benevolent (Paternalistic) Style
A benevolent chief executive is one who is like a father figure
a giver and a
er of the needs of his employees.
He believes that the best way to manage people by constantly understanding the n
eeds and guiding them like a parent giving them instructions and treating with w
armth and affection.
He is nurturant and values relationships at times even at the cost of task.
Critical style
A critical chief executive is one who believes that people are generally lazy a
nd tend to avoid work unless they are closely supervised. He , therefore, tend t
o keep a close watch on his subordinates, at times reprimanding them or express
ing his dissatisfaction.
Developmental Style
A developmental style involves a belief in the competencies of the people. A chi
ef executive with this style attempts to educate his subordinates constantly.
He believes that his success lies in his dispensability and, therefore, strives
to make his subordinates as competent people capable of handling most tasks on t
heir own.
He uses mistakes by subordinates as learning opportunities and develop their com
petencies to handle conflicts by themselves.
Hrd structure

Unit 3
HRD functions are carried out through its systems and sub systems. HRD has five
major systems and each of the systems has sub systems as elaborated below: the f
irst three systems viz., Career system, Work system and Development system, are
individual and team oriented while the fourth and the fifth systems viz. Self re
newal system and Culture Systems are organization based.
1. Career system: As an HRD system, career system ensures attraction and retent
ion of human resources through the following sub-systems.
* Manpower planning
* Recruitment
* Career planning
* Succession planning
* Retention
2. Work system: Work-planning system ensures that the attracted and retained hum
an resources are utilized in the best possible way to obtain organizational obje
ctives. Following are the sub systems of the work planning system.
* Role analysis


* Role efficacy
* Performance plan
* Performance feedback and guidance
* Performance appraisal
* Promotion
* Job rotation
* Reward
3. Development system: The environmental situation and the business scenario is
fast changing. The human resources within the organization have to raise upto th
e occasion and change accordingly if the organization wants to be in business. T
he development system ensures that the retained (career system) and utilized (wo
rk system) human resources are also continuously developed so that they are in a
position to meet the emerging needs of the hour. Following are some of the deve
lopmental sub - systems of HRD that make sure that human resources in the organi
zation are continuously developed.
* Induction
* Training
* Job enrichment
* Self-learning mechanisms
* Potential appraisal
* Succession Development
* Counselling
* Mentor system
4. Self-renewal system: It is not enough to develop individuals and teams in the
organizations but occasionally there is a need to renew and re-juvenate the org
anization itself. Following are some of the sub systems that can be utilized to
renew the organization.

Action research
Organizational Development interventions
Organizational Retreats

5. Culture system: Building a desired culture is of paramount importance in tod

ay s changed business scenario. It is the culture that will give a sense of direct
ion, purpose, togetherness, and teamwork. It is to be noted that whether an orga
nization wants it or not along with the time common ways of doing things (cultur
e) will emerge. If not planned carefully and built systematically such common tr
aits may not help the business but may become a stumbling block. Hence it is ver
y important to have cultural practices that facilitate business. Some of the cu
lture building subsystems are given below:

Vision, Mission and Goal

Get-togethers and celebrations
Task forces
Small Groups

// making HRDfor
HRD Practitioners
There are five fundamental skill that need to be mastered by Human Resource Deve
lopment (HRD) practitioners: (1) needs assessment, (2) program design, developme
nt, and evaluation (including individual evaluation), (3) marketing of HRD progr
ams, (4) cost/benefit analysis, and (5) facilitation of learning.
HRD practitioners must be proficient in designing and conducting needs assessmen
ts prior to designing and developing the learning programs and training activiti
es. There are four reasons for this: (1) to identify specific problem areas in t
he organization; (2) to identify specific learning deficiencies to serve as the

bases of programs and activities; (3) to determine the bases of future learner e
valuations; and (4) to determine the costs and benefits of the programs and acti
vities in order to get organizational support.
At the heart of all learning programs and training activities is their design, a
blueprint from which to construct all learning in the organization. Without a p
roperly designed program, learning will not be consistent, nor will desired resu
lts become evident. HRD practitioners wise enough to develop the competencies an
d skills they need will design and develop effective programs and activities and
will be able to evaluate outcomes accurately.
Many HRD programs are severely reduced during financially difficult periods. Oft
en they are eliminated altogether. HRD practitioners should therefore develop a
clear understanding of and appreciation for marketing. By doing so they can impr
ove the overall image of the program, the field, and its practitioners and help
position HRD as a serious and vital component of the organization's strategic fu
Cost-benefit analysis is often used as a means of justification or evidence of i
mpact. It provides upper management with information they understand and moves t
he evaluation of HRD effectiveness from qualitative to quantitative.
HRD practitioners need to develop teaching skills and an ability to facilitate l
earning in a variety of settings. They must also understand how adults learn and
how to evaluate learning and behavioral change.
* HRD audit is a comprehensive evaluation of the current human resource developm
ent strategies, structure, systems, styles and skills in the context of the shor
t and long-term business plans of a company.
* HRD audit attempts to find out the future HRD needs of the company after asses
sing the current HRD activities and inputs available.
The HRD audit starts with attempts to answer the following questions:
Where does the company want to be ten years from now, three years from now and o
ne year from now? (Answers to this question ensures business linkages part of th
e HRD score card)
What is the current skill base of HRD staff in the company in relation to variou
s roles and role requirements? (HRD Competencies Score on the HRD score card)
What are the HRD sub-systems available today to help the organization build itse
lf competency base for the present, immediate future as well as for long term go
als? (HRD systems maturity score of the HRD score card)
What is the current level of effectiveness of these systems in developing people
and ensuring that human competencies are available in adequate levels in the co
mpany? (HRD systems maturity on the HRD score card)
Is the HRD structure existing in the company adequate enough to manage the HRD i
n the company?
(Contributes to HRD competencies score)
Are the top management and senior manager styles of managing people in tune with
the learning culture? (answers to these questions contribute to the HRD culture
score of the HRD score card)
A team of auditors visit the corporation and using a variety of methodologies as
sess the appropriateness and adequacy of the various HRD systems, strategies, st
ructures, competencies, culture, processes etc. The methodology used include:
Secondary data analysis
And Examination of documents and communications
? The HR Scorecard is a strategic HR measurement system that will help you measu

re, manage and improve the strategic role of your HR department.

? The HR scorecard is a method for Human Resources to position itself as a strat
egic planning partner with line managers and executives within an organization.
? Most HR scorecards are developed based on the work of Robert Kaplan and David
Norton, who built upon the original Balanced scorecard" theories of Art Schneider
man. Kaplan and Norton wrote a couple of papers in the early 1900s on the subjec
t, followed by a book in 1996 called "The Balanced Scorecard."
? "The HR Scorecard," recommends a four-step process that includes identifying t
he critical deliverables for human resources, identifying human resource custome
rs, defining HR activities that provide deliverables like high-talent staffing o
r employee-retention initiatives, and conducting cost-benefit analyses of delive
rable-providing activities.
? The HR Scorecard is a really useful tool to measure the level of maturity of a
ny HRD of organizations. This tool focuses on 4 perspectives:
1. HRD Systems Maturity 2. HRD Competence 3. Linking business Objectives wi
th HR 4. HRD Culture

OD Intervention
The term Intervention refers to a set of sequenced, planned actions or events in
tended to help an organization to increase its effectiveness.
Interventions purposely disrupt the status quo; they are deliberate attempts to
change an organization or sub-unit toward a different and more effective state.
Criteria for Effective Interventions
1. The Extent to Which it (the Intervention) fits the needs of the organization.
2. The degree to which it is based on causal knowledge of intended.
3. The extent to which the OD intervention transfers change-management competenc
e to organization members.
Factors That Impact the Success of OD Interventions
I. Factors relating to Change Situation
1. Readiness for Change
2. Capability to Change
3. Cultural Context
4. Capabilities of the Change Agent (OD Consultant):
II. Factors Related to the Target of Change
A. Organizational Issues
1. Strategic Issues
2. Technology and Structure Issues
3. Human Resource Issues
4. Human Process Issues
B. Organizational Levels
HRD Audit as an OD Intervention
The nature of interventions undertaken by the HRD departments include:
Cultural change through new performance management systems
TQM based interventions (in most cases these are undertaken also by a separate g
roup of professionals)
Survey Feedback
Role clarity and Role negotiation exercises
Career Planning and Succession exercise
Assessment Centres and promotion policies
Visioning and value clarification exercises
Performance coaching workshops
Team building interventions

Unit 4
OD interface,
* An Organization Development practitioner is to an organization as a physician
is to a human body. The practitioner "diagnoses" (or discovers) the most importa
nt priorities to address in the organization, suggests a change-management plan,
and then guides the organization through the necessary change. There are differ
ent definitions and views on how the change should occur.
* The Human Resources Development (HRD) department should be an integral part of
the overall OD strategy by directing personnel toward the desired outcomes.Since
HRD is a part of OD the strategic planning will involve similar and or the same
* In recent years, one particular concept of increased interest is the measuring o
f the processes and affects of HRD.These HRD measurements are seen as a leading in
dicators rather than lagging indicators such as financial reports.
* The HRD measurements are documented to track how well each process is contribu
ting to the overall OD strategy.
* HRD must define and identify the performance drivers and enablers of the organ
ization that fit into the OD strategy.
* A performance driver that is identified to increase customer satisfaction may
stem from training sales associates to ask customers certain questions that will
better describe the customer's needs and desires.These measurements also allow fo
r the verification of how HRD contributes to the strategy and bottom line of the
* A major concept in HRD is the process of defining and training personnel in sp
ecific competencies.
* One of the functions of training is developing behavioral changes in personnel
to the betterment of both the person and the organization.These are valued changes
such as increasing competencies that improve process skills that further lead t
o the creation of opportunities for recognition, promotions for the employee and
increased productivity for the organization.
* The process of matching proper personnel to the position or tasks is also an i
mportant concept in HRD.Spending the right amount of time and money in recruiting
quality personnel is a trade off that, done properly, will result in lower turno
ver rates, higher aptitude toward learning the required competencies of the posi
tions and innovations of improving the positions and processes.
* HR and OD share similar roots in the human aspect of organizations. In the pas
t, distinct differences between HR and OD served to clearly differentiate the tw
o disciplines. However, as each discipline has evolved, the differences between
them have diminished. Currently, the fields of HR and OD are blurred, with no ev
ident dividing line drawing distinction between these two disciplines
* In the present, as HR functions are outsourced and OD departments emerge in or
ganizations, we have HRD and OD battling over who should be located inside the o
rganization. HRD is trying to protect their internal location as OD begins to mo
ve in
HRD experiences in India
Recent Approaches
o Design, delivery and resourcing of learning interventions and opportunities wi
thin organizations with the aim to enhance the contribution of individual employ
ed in order to secure an organization s skill base.
o The integrated use of training and development, organization development and c
areer development to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness.
o Emphasis on the development of comprehensive, coordinated and dynamic approach
es for major learning initiatives within and outside an organization to order to
facilitate the achievement of corporate objectives in a competitive environment
Findings from Research of 20 leading Companies
o Individual initiative is encouraged. Skills are developed through training.

o Creation and leveraging of knowledge takes place through organizational learni

ng, with new career paths, investment, teamwork, action learning and networking
to ensure knowledge transfer.
o There is continuous renewal through challenge imposed internally; refinement b
alanced with regeneration and knowledge is used to supplement strategic fit with
strategic challenge
o Contracts of compliance and control are replaced with commitment and initiativ
e based on learning and self-confidence
o Individual competence are developed based on appropriate knowledge, skills and
attitudes of front-line, middle and top managers
o Transformational processes are managed by developing new leaders
Emerging Trends
Some of the trends that can be discerned in HRD practice and theory:
i. Talent Management and Leadership Development - A preoccupation of those at th
e top and concerned with succession planning while ensuring that each senior pos
ition has one or two candidates ready to fill it.
ii. The connection to corporate strategy
The need to position HRD as a strategic
ally important partner by giving it the same level of importance as other functi
ons. Need for learning that emerges from the strategic directions and aims. Deve
lopment of people can also influence strategy. Hence important to determine the
type of learning that will contribute directly to the objectives of the organiza
iii. Clarifying who benefits from learning Why should organizations provide indi
viduals with transferable skills which enhances their marketability? In order t
o build skills and capacities through:
i. The use of systematic & planned training activities
ii. Adopting a policy of continuous development
iii. Creating maintaining a learning organization
iv. Ensuring that all training activities are performance related
v. Paying particular attention to management development and career planning
iv. Individual Development: Coaching and Mentoring
Organizations are using coach
ing and mentoring as part of an integrated strategy of change combined with othe
r HRD interventions.
v. HRD as a Business Partner As the rationale for action of HRD is similar to ot
her departments, it contributes to the mission of the organization while adding
value by collaborating in supporting the goals and projects of the organization.
vi. Visionary and Transforming Leadership
Leadership has a central position in t
he development of all types of organizations. Helping to develop catalytic and e
nabling leadership seems to be an important component of HRD.
vii. E-Learning: Integration of IT and HR Face to face learning combined with elearning with the recognition that certain learning need to be face to face
uding social skills and team work.
viii. The broadening of HRD constituency Concerns non-employee development (othe
r stake holders)
ix. The extension into team learning Facilitating self managed teams, outdoor tr
aining to entire management team, quality circles for problem solving
x. The incorporation of organizational development
Undertaking large scale chang
e efforts by utilizing the services of external consultants
xi. The incorporation of career development
Individuals taking responsibility fo
r own learning resulting in careers being self managed
xii. Emphasis on internal consultancy The usage of internal consultants for prov
iding performance and facilitation support by connecting it with learning issues
xiii. Focus on organizational learning Emphasis on processes contributing to lea
rning by creating organizational learning climate contributing to people s willing
ness to learn and transfer learning to the workplace.
xiv. The link to knowledge management Deals with the organization s intellectual c
apital. Distinction between explicit and tacit knowledge. It also facilitates kn
owledge and skill acquisition, development and retention.

Unit 5
If we need to find a way to develop employees in order to become effective contr
ibutors to the goals of an organization, we need to have a clear view of what ane
ffective contribution would look like.
The use of personal capacities can be very helpful in describing the way in whic
h an effective employee should operate and behave, but there can be no general p
rescription of an effective employee.
> Meaning of HR + D + Climate
HR means employees in organization, whowork to increase the profit for organizati
Development, it is acquisition of capabilities that are needed to do the present
job, or the future expected job.
After analyzing Human Resource and Development we cansimply stated that, HRD isthe
process of helping people to acquire competencies.
Climate, this is an overall feeling that is conveyed by the physical layout, the
way employees interact and the waymembers of the organization conduct themselves
with outsiders. (It is provided by anorganization.)
Quality of hrd leader
Top to Bottom effort : - Organization is only a complete organization after including top authority to
bottom lineof workers and efforts should take by each workers.
- Top authority should not have thinking in their mind that their task is to onl
y take decisions but they should also emphasized on proper implementation of dec
- Bottom level workers should have loyal mind-set towards theirorganization and h
ave to work with dedication.
Motivator role of Manager andSupervisor : - To prepare HRD Climate, Manager and Supervisor s responsibilities are more or wec
an say that they arethe key players.
- Manager and Supervisors have to helpthe employees to develop the competencies i
n the employees.
- To help the employees at lower level they need to updated properly and they ne
ed toshare their expertise and experience with employees.
Faith upon employees : - Means whatever amount is invested that should be based on development of emplo
- Top management shouldtrust the employees that after making huge effort to devel
op employees, employees will work for the well being oforganization and for human
being also.
Free expression of Feelings : - Whatever Topmanagement feels about employees they have to express to employees
and whatever employees thinkabout top management itmust be expressed.
- In other words we can say thatthere should not be anything hiddenwhile communica
tion process. Clear communication process will help to establish the HRD Climate
Feedback : - Feedback should be takenregularly to know the drawbacks in system. This will he
lp to gain confidence in employees mind.
- Employee will trust on management and he can express his opinion freely which
is very good forHRD Climate.
Helpful nature of employees : - Whenever we talk about 100% effort then we have to talk about employees effort
- Nature of employees should be helping for management and for its colleagues. T
hey should be always readyto help to customers too.
Supportive personnel management: - Personnel policies of organization should motivate employees to contribute mor
e from their part.

- Topmanagement s philosophy should be clear towards Human Resource.

Discouraging stereotypes and favoritisms : - Management needto avoid those practices which lead to favoritisms. Management a
nd Managers need to give equal importance.
- Those people who are performing good they need to appreciated and those who ar
e not performing good they need to be guided. Any kind of partial behavior shoul
d be avoided.
Components of HRD System
Organizational Structure :- Thestructure enables the people s energy to befocused towards process achievement
and goal achievement.
- Employee must have a clear definition of not only the work structure but also
the role used toorganize the work.
- If the structure andthe role is not clear, people willnot know what the work pr
ocess is, who isresponsible for what, whom to go for help and decision, and who c
an assist in solving problems that may arise.
Organizational Culture- Organizational culture is the pattern ofbeliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and cust
oms that exists within an organization.
- Organizational culture can be supportive or unsupportive, positive ornegative.
It can affect the ability or willingness of employees to adapt or perform well w
ithin the organization.
- The most effective work culture is one thatsupports the organizations HR strate
gies by aligning behaviors, processes and methods with the desired results.
HR Processes- The HR system of anorganization should be comprehensive enough to take care ofem
ployees from the time they join till the time they leave HR.
- Their demands must not be ignored, but a feeling ofbelongingness be created. Pr
ocess should be very clear and impartial, so that employees faithin organization.
Measuring HRD climate
Economic condition :
- An organization s economic condition influences its culture in several ways.
- The more prosperous an organization, is the more itcan afford to spend onresearc
h and the more it can afford to risk andbe adventurous.
Leadership Style : - An organization leadership style plays aprofound role in determining several as
pects of its culture.
- An authoritarian style may makethe organization's culture characterized by high
position structure, low individual autonomy, low reward orientation, low warmth
and support and so on, or it may be opposite, like goal directed leadership.
Managerial assumption about human nature : - Every act on the part of the management that involves human beings is predicat
ed upon assumptions, generalizations and hypotheses relating to human behavior.
There aretwo theories of behavior (Theory X and Theory Y).
Managerial values and ethos : - The feeling of managers about norms and values what is good and what is poor a
s they adopt management practice.
- There are few dimensions on which itcan be checked. They are self-awareness, ris
k-taking, participation, bureaucracy, equity, employee s security and growth.
Organization size : - An small organizations there are fewlevels of management, these aregenerally mor
e amenable to democratic and participativefunctioning than big organizations.
- More open communication system in small organizations. Hence these organizatio
ns have adifferent type of climate than what are in big organizations.
* It is the process of acquiring knowledge and utilizing information to adapt su
ccessfully to changing circumstances- Osborn
* Systematic problem solving


Experimentation with new approaches

Learning from own experiences and past history
Learning from experiences and best practices of other organizations
Transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization
* Developing collective intelligence within organizations
* Understanding the importance of tactic knowledge
* Becoming more client centered by continuous improvement and innovation
* Support knowledge sharing
* Increase employee responsibility for learning
* Insufficient time for learning on the part of employees
* Insufficient time for performing HRD tasks on the part of managers
* Lack of role clarity
* Allowing the employee to learn by his own experience in the organization
* Will be helpful if basic operations are taught at the time induction/promotion
* Learning merely by experience may take a long time and create initial losses
It depends on
* Ability to take relevant information from the environment
* Willingness to introduce changes which are demanded by information
* Commitment to goals
* Internal flexibility and climate of support
* Work is managed against planned goals
* HR are organised according to task
* Decisions are made based on information
* Superiors are rewarded for profits, performance, growth and development of sub
* Little energy is spent on clash
* Maintenance of integrity and uniqueness
* Action research
* Kaizen
* Benchmarking
* Tqm
* Jit or lean production
* Supply chain management
* Core competence
* Flat organisation/delayering
* Downsizing
* Outsourcing
* Virtual organisations
* It is the power/capacity for effective action
* It is the processed information in actionable form
* Knowledge becomes wisdom when it is used for a good cause for a large number o
f people
Formal knowledge available in books, reports, tapes, CD s etc
* Explicit knowledge
* Tactic knowledge Potential of an individual which needs to be mined by means o
f face-to-face discussion, interviews, etc.
* Sharing tactic knowledge
* Creating concepts
* Justifying concepts
* Building an arche type

* Cross-levelling knowlege
* A systematic, explicit and deliberate building, renewal and application of kno
wledge to maximize an enterprise knowledge-related effectiveness and returns fro
m its knowledge assets
* Improves organizational effectiveness
* Improves the returns
* Build competencies
* Create greater value
* See opportunities and exploit them
* Identify competencies for organizational success
* Collect data on existing skills
* Compare existing skills with required skills
* Store selected skills in organizational knowledge bank
* Share knowledge by making it accessible
* Apply in organizational activities
* Get approval for the developments based on new knowledge
* Have provision for the development/creation of knowledge
* Companies discover opportunities provided by the environment
* Companies reduce threats created by environment
* Derive more value and competencies from the intellectual property
* Increased productivity, profits, etc.
* Ability to change
* Getting maximum from people
Much of the philosophy and methods of organization development (OD) were honed a
nd began to affect people and work environments during the years between 1940 an
d the 1960. Many parallel developments occurred, including (
1) a shift to the human resources school of thought,
(2) the growth of laboratory training,
(3) the use of survey research and feedback,
(4) an increased use of action Evolution of the Organization Development Compon
ent of HRD 47 research (problem solving) techniques,
(5) an acknowledgment of sociotechnical systems and quality of work life, a
nd (6) a new emphasis on strategic change.
In the 1950s, Eric Trist and his colleagues at Tavistock extended the idea of so
ciotechnical systems and undertook projects related to productivity and quality
of work life. Their approach increasingly examined both the technical and human
sides of organizations and how they interrelated (Cummings & Worley, 1993). The
trend to develop interventions that more effectively integrated technology and p
eople spread throughout Europe and to the United States during the 1960s, where
the approach tended to be more eclectic and became increasingly popular.