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SUPERVISION,

MENTORING, COACHING
& COUNSELING

INFORMATION SHEET
SUPERVISION, MENTORING, COACHING AND
COUNSELING
I-031-3 (01)

Information Sheet

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SUPERVISION,
MENTORING, COACHING
& COUNSELING

I-031-3(01) IS 1

SUPERVISION AND MENTORING

1.1 Supervision Of Trainee


i. The meaning of trainee supervision
a.The process whereby a person (administrator) assists another person (class
teacher) for the purpose of improving the teachers teaching and trainees
learning in class.
b. Supervision in the context of teacher education, is the supervision of the
trainee teacher while he is undergoing teacher training in institution. The
supervisor in the form of an instructor, will observe, evaluate the trainees
performance and give feedback to improve his teaching.
c.Experienced instructors are selected to observe and evaluate the performance
of the trainee, placed in their institution. Following that, the instructor will
give feedback and suggestions to improve the trainees performance. This is
a collaborative effort between the institution and the instructor.
d. Supervision focuses on improving the quality of work. It assists instructors
and other professionals in carrying out their tasks as well as possible,
through observation and interview sessions for feedback.

ii. Methods of conducting supervision


a.Before supervision is carried out, both instructor and trainee agree to the
supervision at an agreed time.
b. Supervision begins with a pre-conference session. At this session, the trainee
has the opportunity to state his needs, trainee problems and aspirations.
During the meeting, the supervisor and the trainee discuss new techniques to
be applied by the trainee in class.
c.After observing the trainees performance, the supervisor has to analyze it.
d. In the last phase of supervision, trainee and supervisor discuss the
performance that has been observed. Weaknesses noticed during the
observation are analyzed and suggestions for improvement are discussed.

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1.2.

Techniques Of Trainee Motivation


(a)

Trainees involvement (Reward method)


Be active.
Give prepared task.
Offer encouragement.
Instill a culture of industry, desire for knowledge and inquiring
mind.

(b)

Feeling of curiosity
Emphasize on intrinsic motives such as interest, feeling of
curiosity, involvement and mind exploration.
Arouse the feeling of curiosity before introducing the topic.
Create of the element of surprise.
Provide concrete and clear ideas.

(c)

Training room environment


Comfortable, orderly, and clean.
Avoid pressure, confusion, embarrassment, fear, personal criticism,
disappointment in the room.

(d)

Consolidation and feedback


Encourage the development of positive motive.
Assist to attain realistic goal.
Ensure reward offer encouragement: good, very good
excellent
Positive consolidation encouragement, praise, appreciation and
adulation
Offer inspiring compliment, give advise and constructive
comments.
Sometimes warning can be given in diverse situations.

(e)

Collaborative and cooperative learning


Encouragement of cooperation
Exchange of ideas
Discussion
Competition among groups, to be encouraged to increase
performance.

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(f)

Level of aspiration
Level of aspiration corresponds with trainees capability.
Trainee is high achiever. Level of aspiration must be high
compared to trainees who are low achievers
Give compliment and encouragement and not just give grades.

1.3 Mentoring Activities

Create mentor protg relationship based on voluntary interaction, not force.

This mentor protg relationship covers a cycle made up of:


o
Identification
o
Mutual trust-building
o
Teaching of risk-taking
o
Communication
o
Professional skills
o
Transfer of professional standards
o
Dissolution

Mentor encourages protg to develop and arrive at short term and long term
goals.
Mentor provides professional guidance. He teaches protg day-to-day
survival skills and how to increase career scopes.
Mentor protects protg from committing major errors by not burdening him
with to much responsibility.
Mentor provides opportunity for protg to observe and participate in a
particular activity.
The institution provides information on rules but the mentor teaches the
necessary skills on how to handle and observe the rules concerned.
Mentor provides protg the opportunity for development of his professional
skills, through the activities of observation, assessment and practice. This
cycle enables communication and feedback to be acquired continuously.

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SUPERVISION,
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& COUNSELING

I-031-3(01) IS 2

2.1

COUNSELING COACHING AND FACILITATING


TRAINEE

Counseling Skills
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
3.
a.
b.
c.
d.
4.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Establishing counselor-client rapport


Must be presentable and credible.
Invites trust of client through body language and facial expressions.
Be prepared to listen.
Encourage client to reveal personal matters.
Be involved.
Exploration of client
Explore current situation (experience).
Explore current meaning (ideas).
Explore current feeling (feeling).
Explore reason for such feeling (behavior).
Clients self realization
Leading client to self-realization.
Understanding client personal problem.
Understanding personal feeling.
Understanding personal goal.
Alternative to solutions
Interpretation of goal.
Choosing method.
Taking steps.
Construct action.
Take action.

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FRAMEWORK OF THE COUNSELING PROCESS, ADAPTED FROM EGAN


THE COUNSELING PROCESS (BETWEEN THE COUNSELOR AND CLIENT)
(EGAN MODEL, 1990)
COUNSELOR:
CLIENT:

_____________________________
_____________________________

PRE
-STAGE

BUILDING
RELATIONSHIP

1. EARLY INVOLVMENT
2. PROVIDE ATTENTION
3. LISTEN

STAGE 1

IDENTIFY PROBLEM PROBLEM SITUATION


LEVEL 1
At this early stage, the client is asked to
state the issue that he is facing or the
environment which prevents him from
functioning .Counselor invites client to
voluntarily relate his problem while
counselor leads him on. (At this stage
client needs the support and direction of
the counselor). Client has the tendency to
tell a story.
The counselors role is to listen to all
issues and important events which will be
the theme of the clients story. Avoid
listening to or exploring the theme of
clients story. The counselor needs only
to listen to main and significant events.
LEVEL 2

FOCUSSING ON PROBLEM.
At this stage, counselor guides client to
focus on individual event, story or issue
explained earlier.
There might be several issues or a
significant
event
discussed.
The
counselor will use his skill and capability
to direct the client to the issue to be
explored. Choose whichever issue client
regards as most important which needs to
be resolved immediately

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LEVEL 3

ANALYZE PROBLEM
Apart from the shared story or issue to be
explored, the client is invited by the
counselor to search for new perspectives
related to the issue mentioned by the
client. The counselor takes the client to
look at the perspective from a different
angle. Application of various counseling
theories will help the counselor to bring a
new perspective to the client

STAGE 2

EXPLORE
ALTERNATIVE
LEVEL 1

NEW SCENARIOS

LEVEL 2

SELF CRITIQUE

At this stage, the counselor leads client to


understand the whole issue that needs to
be shared. The counselor brings the client
to various new scenarios which the client
might think of. The counselor helps the
client to create the new vision and insight
that he wishes for.

The counselor leads the client to criticize


or analyze every aspect of the ideas or
scenario that he has presented.
LEVEL 3
.

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CHOICE AND COMMITMENT


Counselor guides client to search for and
choose a suitable and realistic objective.
Counselor guides client to give
commitment to his choice.

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STAGE 3

SUMING UP
LEVEL 1

BRAINSTORMING STRATEGY

LEVEL 2

FORMULATING A PLAN

This action stage is carried out by


counselor to invite the client to
brainstorm strategies that a client can
adopt realistically.

Counselor invites client to think of tactic


or specific steps that he can take to make
his action plan a success
Action and method of implementation
will be discussed in detail with client.
LEVEL 3

FOLLOW UP
Counselor invites client to take realistic
action. Counselor will provide support
and if necessary, carry out monitoring
activity. If it is successful, counseling
will be terminated. Otherwise, counselor
can invite client to revert to the stage of
exploring other issues involving the
client.

2.2 Coaching Strategies


i.

At pre-coaching stage, before coaching begins, the instructor must think of


the role that he is going to play. Is the instructor going to be a friend,
leader, teacher, counselor, manager, disciplinarian or a role model?
a. List out the goals of coaching.
b. Plan coaching strategies to be applied and expressions/words that you
want to use.

ii.

Develop a close relationship with trainee


a. Use the skill of listening to trainees views and problem
b. Have a face-to-face meeting to develop a relationship and an
understanding over a certain issue.
c. Do not compare the performance of another person with that of the
trainee.
d. Start coaching after relationship with trainee or client is established.

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e. During coaching, instructor relates his own experiences


f. State clearly your high expectation of the trainee and your confidence
in his capability.
iii.

Conversation during coaching


a. Avoid sitting on opposite sides of the table as this will portray a
confrontational atmosphere. A suitable position is beside him, without
a table in between.
b. On receiving the topic or problem, the instructor must ask for the
trainees view. Pay attention and listen to his views carefully. Give
your opinion after he has expressed his.
c. Value and respect the trainees views.
d. Avoid giving advice. Provide information that the trainee can apply for
future action.

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2.3

iv.

At the end of coaching activity


a. What is important at the end of the coaching is not who is right, or that
the project is completed, but the desire of the trainee to come for
further coaching from the instructor.
b. Conclude the coaching session by asking the trainee to list out 2 or 3
important things that he has learnt.
c. After a particular coaching session has ended, the instructor has to
cooperate with the trainee to construct an action plan for his
professional development.

v.

Handling the problem of rejection, non-cooperation or defensiveness.


a. Do not suppose that the trainees statement is a sign of rejection, noncooperation or defensiveness, on the basis of difference of opinion.

vi.

Show yourself as a role model for any behavior. Demonstrate to the trainee
too, how a certain knowledge or information to arrive at a certain
achievement can be learnt.

vii.

Give feedback to trainee. If the trainee is found to do something


ineffectively, the instructor must inform him and ask him to analyze the
situation and find a solution.

Identifying Aspects Of Facilitate Trainee


i.

Principle of learning
Having knowledge of basic learning principles will help a teacher or
instructor to enhance teaching and learning. Here are some principles
proven to be effective in teaching and learning.
a. Begin with what the trainee knows.
Learning will more faster when it builds on what the trainee already
knows.
b. More from simple to complex
The trainee will find more rewarding if he has the opportunity to
master simple concepts first, and then apply these concepts to more
complex ones.
c. Make material meaningful
Another way to facilitate learning is to relate material to the trainees
lifestyle. The more meaningful material is to a trainee, the quicker and
easier it will be learned.
d. Allow immediate application of knowledge
Giving the trainee the opportunity to apply his knowledge and skills
reinforces learning and builds confidence.

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e. Reward desired learning with praise


Praise will improve the chances that the trainees will retain the
material or repeat the behavior. Praising your trainees success
associates the desired learning goal with a sense of growing and
accepted competence. Reassuring them that they have learned the
desired material or technique can help them retain and refine it.
f. Use of teaching aids such as photograph, graph, charts and etc.
ii.

Senses and how people learn.


We learn about the world through our five senses, see, hear, feel, taste and
smell. The sense of sight help us to recognise each other and learn about
colour, motion and distance. The sense of hearing helps us learn from each
other through communication. Various sounds can be identified from our
surrounding with the help of sense of hearing.
The sense of touch helps us learn about our world by feeling it and
learning the size, texture and shape of things. The sense of smell helps us
to enjoy life and helps us learn about unsafe conditions such as smell of
dangerous chemicals. Lastly, the sense of taste which helps us among other
things to select and enjoy food. The sense of taste helps us to differentiate
sweet or sour from salty or bitter.
How people learn
In terms of learning, usually we use three primary senses visual,
auditory and kinesthetic-tactile-our eyes, ears and large and small muscles.
By the time an individual has reached adulthood, we can say that the
typical adult has learned:
1% through his/her sense of taste
1 % through his/her sense of touch
3 % through his/her sense of smell
11% through his/her sense of hearing
83% through his/her sense of sight
In 1983, Howard Gardner (Gage, 1991) discovered Multiple
intelligence amongst peoples. His scholarship led him to theorize that there
are at least seven distinct kinds of intelligence and that these are only
slightly correlated, or interdependent.
a. Linguistic intelligence.
This kind of intelligence is seen in its extreme forms in the nuance of
the poet or the writer, or in the inability of an aphasic to use language.
It is refer to as verbal intelligence. It includes the abilities to use
vocabulary, do verbal analysis, comprehend complex verbal material,
and understand metaphors.
b. Musical intelligence

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c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

iii.

This intelligence shows up in people like Mozart or in Lennon. Every


individual has a capacity and potential to appreciate music.
Logical mathematical intelligence
This appears in its extremes in mathematical genius, and in the long
chains of reasoning seen in theorizing in high-energy physics or
molecular biology. Arithmethic and algebra also demand this form of
intelligence.
Spatial intelligence
This is seen clearly in the work of architects and engineers, who
demonstrate unique spatial ability.
Bodily kinesthetic intelligence.
This kind of intelligence is shown by athletes, dancers, and jugglers. It
is an almost perfect awareness of and control of their bodies.
Intrapersonal intelligence
This is the form of self-knowledge often seen in religious people, or in
people with special knowledge of their feelings and control of their
bodily functions.
Interpersonal intelligence
This is called social intelligence, which is has to do with the ability to
make use of subtile cues in our complex social environment-our
families, frienships, schools, clubs and neighbourhoods.
Individual Differences

What Is Individual Differences?


Individual Differences is a branch of psychology that studies how and
why individuals differ. Its main sub-branches are the study of cognitive
abilities, motivation, personality, and temperament (including both mood
and emotion).
The focus of investigation in individual differences research is on the
variables that form the basis for manifest differences in behavior and
performance among individuals and between groups. For example, it is
commonly observed that individuals differ in personality, motivation, and
intellectual ability.
In sum, people differ in the ways they perceive, think, feel, and
behave. Researchers have identified many specific examples of these
differences, as summarized in the chart which follows. Equally important,
the personal and professional experiences of educators provide constant
evidence that style differences exist and that they affect many aspects of
learning and teaching each day.
To provide an equal opportunity for all trainees to be successful in
school, educators must first develop a deep understanding of individual
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differences in learning. The research and theories on culture and learning


style adequately document learning differences among individuals. While
these theories are familiar to many educators, and generally accepted, their
application is relatively shallow. For example, many teachers know that it
is important to provide a visual learner with visual information. But if
the visual is words on an overhead projector mimicking the words spoken
orally, this is a superficial accommodation of the learners style. Far more
significant would be an image, symbol, or visual representation of the
information so that the visual learner could learn through his or her
strengths.
Many teachers know that the active, kinesthetic learner needs hands-on
experiences. A deeper understanding of these learners tells us that the
experiences should come early in the process while the initial
understanding of the concepts and skills are being developed, not just
during practice time. Yet many times these learners are asked to
understand first, the do later. The kinesthetic learner needs to
manipulate the science equipment to understand the concepts, and she will
learn abstract math concepts while doing the measurement project or even
after its completed. The kinesthetic learners impatience to get started
sometimes causes teachers to demand that they explain what they will do
before they start. This is difficult for these students, since the doing leads
to the understanding and then explaining.

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