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STATISTICS

CONCEPT OF DATA

(A) Classifying data

1. Data is a collection of information in terms of facts and figures. For example, 5, 3, 4, 10, 6 and 9 is a set of data showing the number of staffs in each department. 2. Numerical data can be collected either by counting of measuring.

Classify the following data according to how they are collected. (a) The volume of water in a tank (b) The number of students in a bus (c) The temperature of a place in a day (d) Students' marks of a subject

(a) Measuring (c) Measuring

(b) Measuring (d) Counting

(B)

Collecting and recording data systematically

1. To collect data by counting, methods like observations, questionnaires or interviews can be used. For example : (i) Observe the number of days a student is absent from school. (ii) Set a questionnaire to know how many times people use telehone in a day. (iii) Interview a group of students to find out how much money they spend a day. 2. To collect data by measuring, use a ruler, stopwatch, weighing machine and other scientific instruments. For example : (i) A stopwatch is used to determine the time taken by students to read a page of a book. (ii) A thermometer is used to determine the room temperature in a day. (iii) A ruler is used to measure the lengths of strings. 3. To record data systematically, arrange the data in the form of a table so that it can be easily referred to.

An observation has been done to determine the number of medals collected by three districts in a sports championship. The following data was obtained.

Record the data systematically.

(a) By arranging the data horizontally

(b) By arranging the data vertically

FREQUENCY

(A)

Determining the Frequency of Data

Frequency of information is the number of times that information appears in a group of data. Frequency of a figure or other information in the data that has been obtained can be determined by counting or by using a tally chart.

The data shows the pocket money, in RM, received by 28 students on a schooling day. Determine (a) the frequency of RM5 by counting. (b) the frequency of RM6 by counting. (c) the frequency of each amount of pocket money by tallying.

(a) The number of students receiving RM5 as pocket money is 6. So, the frequency of RM5 (b) The number of students receiving RM6 as pocket money is 5. So, the frequency of RM6 (c)

is 6. is 5.

(B)

Determining the Data with the Highest or Lowest Frequency or the Frequency of a Specific Value

A frequency table is a table that shows frequencies of certain categories or items of data. A frequency table consists of two columns or two rows, where one column or one row is for the category or item while the other is for frequency.

The grades achieved by 40 students in a Mathematics test are given as follows.

(a) Construct a tally chart by stating the frequencies of each grade. (b) Determine the grade with (i) the lowest frequency. (ii) the highest frequency. (iii) a frequency of 7.

(a)

(b) (i) The lowest frequency is 2. The grade with the lowest frequency is 6. (ii) The highest frequency is 14. The grade with the highest frequency is 3. (iii)The grade with a fraquency of 7 is 5.

(C)

Organising Data

The above data shows the distance, in km, from a school to the house of each student in class 3A.

(a) a two-row frequency table. (b) a two-column frequency table.

First, construct a tally chart as follows.

(a)

(b)

(D)

Obtaining Information from Frequency Tables

The birthdays of a group of children are given int the frequency table below.

(a) Determine the number of children in the group. (b) State the four months which have the four largest number of birthdays. (c) Compare the number of birthdays in the first six months to the number of birthdays in the second six months.

(a) Number of children in the group = 4 + 8 + 5 + 12 + 10 + 8 + 5 + 14 + 7 + 15 + 11 + 6 = 105 (b) The four highest frequencies are 15, 14, 12 and 11. The four months which have the four largest number of birthdays are October, August, April and November respectively. (c) The number of birthdays in the first six months = 4 + 8 + 5 + 12 + 10 + 8 = 47 The number of birthdays in the second six months. = 105 - 47 = 58 Therefore, the number of birthdays in the first six months are less than the number of birthdays in the second six months.

**REPRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
**

Pictograms, bar charts and line graphs can be used to represent data.

Pictograms

A pictogram is a presentation of data by using a simple picture or symbol to represent the frequency of a certain item. A pictogram is also known as a pictograph.

**(A) Constructing pictograms to represent data
**

1. The title and key are important in a pictogram. The title tells what the pictogram is about and the key shows the meaning of the symbol used in the pictograms. 2. To construct a pictogram: (i) decide on a symbol that is easy to understand and simple. (ii) Use a suitable key. (iii) Determine the number of symbols needed for each frequency. (iv) Draw the correct number of symbols to represent each frequency. (v) Write the title. 3. A pictogram can be constructed horizontally or vertically.

The table above shows the number of toys sold by 3 shops. Construct a horizontal and vertical pictogram to represent the data.

Horizontal Pictogram Number of toys sold by three shops

Vertical Pictogram Number of toy sold by three shops

(B) Obtaining information from pictograms

The pictogram above shows the number of fruits bought by Raju, Ah Chong and Ahmad. The price of a fruit is RM0.70. Based on the pictogram, calculate (a) the price Raju paid. (b) the difference between the price paid by Ahmad and Ah Chong in the second six months.

(a) The price Raju paid

= 20 x RM0.70 = RM7

(b) The difference between the price paid by Ahmad dan Raju = (40 - 20) x RM0.70 = 30 x RM0.70 = RM21

Bar Charts

1. A bar chart is a representation of data using vertical or horizontal bars. 2. The height or length of each bar is dependent on the frequency of information concerned. The width of each of the bars is the same.

**(C) Constructing bar charts to represent data
**

1. A bar chart can be constructed horizontally or vertically. 2. The scale of the axes in a bar chart is chosen according to the quantity of the data reprented. It may be 1 : 1 (1 unit represents 1 item) or 1 :n, where n is a whole number. 3. To construct a bar chart: (i) Draw two axes which are perpendicular to each other. Label one axis as the frequency and the other with the items to be represented. (ii) Work out the scales for the axes. (iii) Draw the bars. Make sure the lengths of the bars are precisely drawn and the widths of all the bars are equal. The space between the bars should be equal too. (iv) Write a title to the bar chart.

The table above shows the number of absentees in a class in January 2007. Construct a vertical and a horizontal bar chart to represent the data.

The two axes will represent the week and frequency. Scale 1 : 1 is suitable to represent the data as the highest number is 8. Vertical bar chart

Horizontal bar chart

4. A dual bar chart can be used to compare two sets of data.

The table above shows the number of televisions and radios sold by three shops. Construct a vertical and a horizontal dual bar chart to represent the two sets of data.

Use a scale of 1 : 10 for the axis of the number of items.

Vertical bar chart

Horizontal bar chart

5. A stack-up bar chart also can be used to compare two sets of data. Using the data from Example 10, combined both the number of computers and laptops in one bar for each shop. Horizontal stack-up bar chart

Vertical stack-up bar chart

(E) Obtaining information from bar charts

The vertical bar chart above shows the number of students who proceeded to boarding - schools from school A between 2001 to 2004. (a) How many students proceeded to boarding-schools in 2002? (b) What is the percentage of increase in the number of students who proceeded to boarding - shools in 2003 compared to 2002? (c) What is the difference between the number of students who proceeded to boarding schools in 2004 and 2001.

Line Graphs

1. A line graph is a representation of data using lines which joined the coordinates of the given data. 2. A line graph is very suitable for representing the data which changes over a period of time.

**(F) Representing data using line graphs
**

1. Not all data is suitable to be represented in the form of a line graph. Usually the data related to time is the most suitable to be displayed using line graphs. For example : (a) Data that shows the number of different types of vehicles used by the workers of a company is not suitable to be represented by a line graph. (b) Data that shows the changes in temperature of a location in various days can be represented by a line graph. 2. A suitable scale has to be chosen for the axes of the line graph so that a group of data can be clearly shown. 3. The horizontal axis of a line graph shows the time or period while the vertical axis shows the amount of change.

The table shows the number visitors to a zoo for 4 days. State a scale which is suitable to

represent the data in the line graph.

1 Unit represents 50 visitors on the vertical axis and 1 unit represents one day on the horizontal axis. 4. To construct a line graph : (i) Labelled the vertical and horizontal axis. (ii) Mark the suitable scale on both axes. (iii) Plot the data as points using coordinates and join the points with straight lines. (iv) Write a title for the graph.

(i) Draw the horizontal axis at 90° to the vertical axis on a grid of equal squares. (ii) Mark the vertical axis at intervals of 1. The suitable scale is 1 : 10. (iii) Plot the points as coordinates. For example: (Week 1, 80) (iv) Join the points plotted with straight lines.

(H) Obtaining information from line graphs

The line graph above shows the number of patients who received treatments from a medical centre for 3 months. Based on the graph, answer the following questions. (a) State the month with the lowest number of patients. (b) Calculate the total number of patients who received treatments in the three months.

(c) Calculate the percentage of decrease of patients in August compared to July.

(a) June (b) The total number of patients = 4 000 + 8 000 + 6 000 = 18 0000 patients (c) The decrease in the number of patients in August compare to July = 8 000 - 6 000 = 2 000 The percentage of decrease of patients

(I) Solving problems involving line graphs

The line graph shows the number of letters received by a company in 4 days. (a) What was the decrease in the number of letters received from Wednesday to Thursday? (b) Find the average number of letters received in one day. (c) If there was 100% increase in the number of letters received on Friday compared to Thursday, calculate the number of letters received on Friday.

(a) The decrease = 7 - 3 = 4 letters (b) The total number of letters received in the 4 days = 10 + 8 + 7 + 3 = 28

The table below shows the number of diskettes sold in three computer shops.

The information for Shop Smart is shown fully in the pictograf below. complete the pictograph to represent all the information in the table.

The dual bar chart show the amount of savings that Azlina kept in four banks. (a) In which bank is Azlina's savings in the fixed deposit account lowest? (b) Calculate the percentage of Azlina total savings in the four banks under the fixed deposit account. (c) What is the ratio of Azlina's savings in the savings account to that of the fixed deposit account in bank Q.

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