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Bản trả lời câu hỏi của Project

Question 1: What are the minimum configuration requirements to guarantee for new system
run safe and quickly?
• Software requirement
The proposed system requirements at least the following software:
 For web server:
• Microsoft Windows XP Professional/ Windows 2003 Server
• MS.Net Framework 3.5
• IIS 6.0 or higher
• Mozilla, Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher
• Microsoft SQLServer 2005
 For web browser:
• Window XP/Vista(all version)/ Window 7
• Mozilla, Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher
• Hardware requirement
 For dedicated server side:
• Intel Pentium IV 1.7 GHz or higher
• 1 RAM or higher
 For client side:
• At least Intel Pentium IV 800 MHz
• 32 bits resolutions monitor
• 56 Kbps transfer rate

Question 2: Which methods have you used in investigating progress?

Interview method, observation methods and questionnaire method
A, Interview method:
Before the interview, you should contact the interviewee directly to set up an appointment and
agree with him/her on time, venue and interview objectives. During the interview, if you behave
professionally, you will receive the same attitude from your interviewee. Try to attentively listen
to the people you’re talking to and take notes of all the necessary information you are provided
during the interview. The interview paper and minute are always useful for you and your
successor because it helps you master the origin of the information you have. It’s important to
open and close the interview carefully because this may impact the way your questions are
answered. When opening the interview, try to do it in a trustful, respective way with our good
will. When closing the interview, you should recap the main points of the interview, make
arrangement for the following cooperation and leave the issues open for discussion between both
sides. Don’t make the conversation too lengthy nor prepare too many questions to ask. The best
way is you prepare a short list of the main topic you want ask about.
B, Observation methods:
B1, Official observation: It’s not a good method to observe every single element while collecting
information to develop the system. The future system you’re building up may be deemed to
change the current way of working. Moreover, those you’re looking at may feel uncomfortable
and may behave unusually, which will affect your survey’s quality.
B2, Unofficial observation: In order to get an overview of an organization, take a look at its pile
of paper and document, interruption of work, unreasonable timing and positive reflection of a
good working environment… It’s also important to know the quantity of data that need to be
processed and predict how they change over the time. Researching through documents is the
final good method to get important information.
C, Questionnaire method:
This method requires your clear instructions to the user. A questionnaire can be designed base on
the following points:
Title: describe the objectives and main contents;
Data classification: categories of data that will be used;
Data: contents of the data in each category.
In general, this method is complicated and ineffective for inexperienced analyzers.
It’s clear that each method has its own strong and weak points and is suitable for particular
contents. However, regardless what method you use, the general principle is: The more
information you get about the operation environment of an organization, the more you
understand its issues and be able to make realistic questions about the matters you’re interested
in. Information can be divided into 3 groups: General information of the organization’s vertical
structure, information about the organization and information about the units that directly relate
to the current issues.

Question 4: What is Unofficial Observation and what is Interview method?

B, Observation methods:
B1, Official observation: It’s not a good method to observe every single element while collecting
information to develop the system. The future system you’re building up may be deemed to
change the current way of working. Moreover, those you’re looking at may feel uncomfortable
and may behave unusually, which will affect your survey’s quality.
B2, Unofficial observation: In order to get an overview of an organization, take a look at its pile
of paper and document, interruption of work, unreasonable timing and positive reflection of a
good working environment… It’s also important to know the quantity of data that need to be
processed and predict how they change over the time. Researching through documents is the
final good method to get important information.

Question 6: Why do you choose Visual Basic/ C#/ Java/…

So what is Visual Basic? “Visual” refers to the method used to create what the user sees-the
graphical user interface, or GUI. :Basic” refers to the BASIC (Beginners All- Purpose Symbolic
Instruction Code) programming language, a language used by more programmers than any other
language in the history of computing. Visual Basic is a high level language. It is the fastest and
easiest way to create applications for Windows. Visual Basic provides you with a complete set of
tools to simplify rapid application development. It is used to create Graphical user Interface
(GUI). It contains several hundred statements, functions, and keywords, many of which relate
directly to the Windows Graphical User Interface rather than writing numerous lines of code to
describe the appearance and location of interface elements, you simply drag and drop rebuilt
objects into place on the screen.
Visual Basic 2005 introduces new language features, including loop continuation, guaranteed
resource disposal, mixed access properties, unsigned and nullable data types, operator
overloading, partial and generic types, custom events, and Common Language Specification
(CLS) compliance checking.
• Continue Statement: Visual Basic now supplies a Continues statement, which
immediately skips to the next iteration of a Do, For, or While loop
• Properties with Mixed Access Levels: Visual Basic now allows you to declare a
property with different access levels on its Get and Set procedures. Visual Basic now
supports unsigned integer data types (UShort, UInteger, and ULong) as well as the
signed type SByte.
• Nullable Types: Visual Basic now supports extensions of value types that can take
either their normal values or a null value. A null value is useful for indication that a
variable has no defined value because the information is not currently available
• Operator Overloading: Visual Basic now allows you to define a standard operator
(such as +, &, Not, or Mod) on a class or structure you have define.
• Code Separation using Partial Types: Visual Basic now provides a mechanism to
allow the integrated development environment (IDE) to separate generated code from
your authored code into separate source files. Most of the time, you only have to deal
with the code you wrote.
• Generic Types: Visual Basic now supports type parameters on generic classes,
structures, interfaces, procedures, and delegates. A corresponding type argument
specifies at compilation time the data type of one of the elements in the generic type.
• Custom Events: Visual Basic now allows you to have greater control over the detailed
behavior of events. You can declare custom events by using the Custom keyword as
a modifier for the Event statement. In a custom event, you specify exactly what
happens when code adds or removes an event handler to or from the event, or when
code raises the event
• Compiler Checking Options: Visual Basic 2005 introduces new compiler checking
options. The /nowarn and /warnaserror (Visual Basic) options provide more control
over how warnings are handles. Each one of these compiler options now takes a list
of warning Ids as an optional parameter, to specify to which warnings the option
o CLS Compliance checking: visual Basic now generates a warning for each line of
code that contains any specification or operation that the Common Language Specification
(CLS) does not support
o Uninitialized Variable Checking: Visual Basic now generates a warning for each
potentially uninitialized variable. A variable has this status if there is at least one possible
execution path that does not assign any value to the variable before using it

Question 7: Why do you choose SQL Server?

• ISQL Server 2005, released in November 2005, is the successor to SQL Server 2000.
It included native support for managing XML data, in addition to relational data. For this
purpose, it defined an XML data type that could be used either as a data type in database
columns or as literal in queries. XML columns can be associated with XSD schemas; XML data
being stored is verified against the schema. XML is converted to an internal binary data type
before being stored in the database. Specialized indexing methods were made available for XML
data. XML data is queried using XQuery queries in T- SQL. In addition, it also defines a new
extension to Xquery, called XML DML, that allows query-based modifications to XML data.
SQL Server 2005 also allows a database server to be exposed over Web services using TDS
packets encapsulated within SOAP requests. When the data is access over web services, results
are returned as XML.
• For relational data, T - SQL has been augmented with error handling features and
support for recursive queries. SQL Server 2005 has also been enhanced with new indexing
alogorithms and better error recovery systems. Data pages are check summed for better error
resiliency, and optimistic concurrency support has been added for better performance.
Permissions and access control have been made more granular and the query processor handles
concurrent execution of queries in a more efficient way. Partitions on tables and indexes are
supported natively, so scaling out a database onto a cluster in easier. SQL CLR was introduced
with SQL Server 2005 to let integrate with the .NET Frameworks. SQL Server 2005 is the Data
Platform leader
• For all these reasons above, we have chosen SQL Server 2005 for our projects.

Question 8: What is Database Management System?

A DBMS is a complex set of software programs that controls the organization, storage,
management, and retrieval of data in a database. DBMS are categorized according to their data
structures or types, some time DBMS is also known as Data base Manager. It is a set of
prewritten programs that are used to store, update and retrieve a Database Logical view and
physical view. A database management system provides the ability for many different users to
share data and process resources. But as there can be many different users, there are many
different database need

Question 9: Which stages should a system analysis process take place?

System analysis process in its most general form includes the following main steps:
 Identify the operation of the existing system.
 Understand what the existing system is doing.
 Understand the need of the users.
 Decide on what of the new system should be doing
 Decide on how the new system will function.

Question 10: What is data dictionary? What is data dictionary’s function? Which parts should
be in data directory’s contents? (7 items data flow external entity, process, data store, record,
data item, report)
The data dictionary is an organized listing of all the data elements pertinent to the system, with
precise, rigorous definitions so that both user and systems analyst will have a common
understanding of all inputs, outputs, components of stores and intermediate calculations.
The data dictionary includes 7 parts:
- data store
- process
- External entity
- Data flow
- Data item entity
- Record
- Report
Data store, process, external entity, data flow concern with symbol in Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
Question 11: What is data element?
Describing the meaning of the flows and stores shown in the data flow diagrams

Data Flow

Begin - End


Input - Output


Question 12: What is the purpose of FD?

Functional diagram (FD) or Function hierarchy diagram (FHD): is used to show system’s
functions that will be constructed and the implementation process of data gram. Moreover, FD
will also be used to determine the appearance frequency of smaller process in the data flow chart.
It only shows what to do not how to do. In the functional diagram, a function is divided into
many smaller functions and each smaller function contains even smaller ones.

Question 15: Why should the data dictionary be consistent with the data flow diagram?
Because data dictionary helps analysers, designers to understand more details about DFD

Question 16: What are the process tools (flowchart, decision table, decision tree, pseudo code,
- Process description is actually detailing the system’s requirements displayed function
diagram and data flow diagram. Some of the tool for process description are: block chart,
decision table, structured language..Of those tools, structured language (structured
English) considered one of the most useful and popular tools for process description
because it is simple for users and other members taking part in developing the system’s
life cycle.
- The process must be described by using one of the 3 main developed structures in the
structures programming: Oder, selective and repetitive.
- The process description is not any useful in the analysis process but is also used to
describe the designing process of the physical system and the programming process

Question 17: What is the purpose of diagram data flow (DFD)

It describes the information flow in the system. The next step of system analysis is to consider in
detail the information necessary for the implementation of functions discussed above and the one
necessary for the improvement of the function. Modeling tool frequently used for this purpose is
the data flow diagrams (DFD)

Question 19: Which Symbol are often used in Data Flow Diagram
+ The Process:
- The process is represented graphically as a circle or rectangle with rounded adges. The process
name describe what the process does.
+ Data Flow:
- A flow is represented graphically by an arrow into or out of process.
+ The Store:
- The store is represented graphically by two parallel lines.
External factors:
- External Factor tends to be represented by a rectangle, or shorter edge of which is omitted
while the other is drawn by a duplicated line.

Question 20: What is the context diagram?

• The first step constructing a set of data flow diagrams for an information system is to
draw DFD called context diagram
• A context diagram is a data flow diagram that shows the boundaries of the information
system. The context diagram is a top level view of the information system.

Question21: How do you know what extertal entities and data flows must be placed in the
context diagram ? (Investigate the environment of the system to the define entities which
supply data for the system or receive information from the system)
You review the information system’s requirement in detail to extract all external data sources
and destination. During this review and analysis be sure to record the name of the external
entities, the name and content of the data flows, and the direction of the data flows. If you do this
carefully, you should have no difficulty drawing the context diagram. Your task of review and
analysis is made easier if you clearly defined the boundaries and scope of the information system
when you undertook requirements determination in the system analysis phase.

Question22: What is diagram level 0? And what part shoule be used in Level 0?
 Diagram 0 is a data flow diagram that gives a more detailed view of an informationi
system than does the context diagram.
 On diagram 0, you show the major processes, data flows, and data sores for the
information system. In addition, you repeat the external entities and data flows that
appear in the context diagram.

Question22: What is diverging data flow?

A diverging data flow is a data flow in which the same data travels to two or more different
locations. Diverging data flows occur infrequently and typically represent multiples – part forms
that are sent to two or more recipients.
Question23:What is functional primitive? What is leveling? What is purpose of reference
numbering technique?
 A fuctional primitive is a process that consists of a single function and is not
exploded further.
 Leveling is the DFD technique of representing the graphical model of and
information system first as a single process and then in greater and greater detail
until the only processes are fuctional primitives.
 Purpose Reference numbering technique is to tie together all data flow diagrams
in an orderly fashion. (is part of the leveling)

Question25: Which conventions are used in Data Flow Diagram?

The following rules must be applied when constructing diagrams:
 Each context diagram must fit on one page
 The process name in each context diagram should be the name of the information
 Use unique names within each set of symbols.
 Avoid crossing lines, if at all possible
 Use abbreviated identifications when you are using a computerised data
The main components of Data Flow Diagram are following:


Data Flow

Data Store


Question26: What is the function of context diagram?

The context diagram is a data flow that shows the boundaries of the information system. The
context diagram is a top-level view of the information system.

Question27: What is the function of data flow diagrams in lower levels?

DFD describes the information flow in the system. In lower levels, this function is detail the
information necessary for implementation of functions (process) in high level than more.

Question28: What is the function of each data flow in your system?

Data flow is used to describe the movement of information from one part of the system to
another. A data flow is represented graphically by an arrow into or out of a process.
Question29: What is the function of each data store in your system?
Data store is used to model a collection of data packets at rest. A data store is represented
graphically by to parally by two paralel lines.

Question30:What is the relationship between data flow diagrams and your completed
DFD very importaint for completed program because: DFD will support 4 main activities:
 Analysis: DFD is used to determine requirements of users.
 Design: One of the strength of DFD is its simplicity and ease to understand to
analysts and users.
Documents: DFD is used to provide special description of requirements and system design.

Question 32: What is Normalization? Purpose of Normalization?

Normalization is the process by which you identify and correct inherent problems and
complexities in your record design. The normalization process involves three types of normal
forms: first normalization form (1NF), second normalization form (2NF), and third
normalization form (3NF).

The purpose of normalization is to reduce the chances for anomalies to occur in a database

Question 33: What are unnormalised records, 1NF, 2NF, 3NF?

● Un-normalized form (UNF): is a table that contains one or more repeating groups.
● First normalized form (1NF): A record is in first normal form if it does not contain a
repeating group. (To convert an UNF record which contains one or more repeating group to a
record in 1NF, you should remove the repeating group and expand the primary key to include the
key of the repeating group.)
● Second normalized form (2NF): A record design is in 2NF if it is in 1NF and if all fields
that are not part of the primary key are dependent on the entire primary key. A 1NF record with a
primary key that is a single field that is already in 2NF. To convert a record to 2NF: First, for
each field in the primary key you create a separate record. Then crate additional separate records
for all combination of the primary key fields taken two at a time, three at a time and so on, until
you finally crate a record with the entire original primary key.
● Third normalize form (3NF): A record design is in 3NF if it is in 2NF and if no non key
field is dependent on another non key field. To convert to 3NF, remove all fields from the 2NF
record that depend on another non key field and place them into a new record with the other field
as the primary key.

Question 34: What is an entity?

Entity is a subject, a duty, or an event that has a significant meaning to the future system and is
displayed by a rectangle with round corner. Each entity has its own name. Entity type of a
system is defined base on the outcome of system function analyses.
Entity can be a person, place, object, event, or concept about which we wish to store data.

Question 35: What is relationship?

A relationship is a link or association between entities. Relationships are usually denoted by
verb phrases.

Question 36: What are the Primary Key, foreign key, alternate key and candidate key?
1. Primary Key:
A primary key is used to uniquely identify each row in a table. It can either be part of the actual
record itself, or it can be an artificial field (one that has nothing to do with the actual record). A
primary key can consist of one or more fields on a table. When multiple fields are used as a
primary key, they are called a composite key.
Primary keys can be specified either when the table is created (using CREATE TABLE) or by
changing the existing table structure (using ALTER TABLE)
2. Foreign Key:
A foreign key is a field (or fields) that points to the primary key of another table. The purpose of
the foreign key is to ensure referential integrity of the data. In other words, only values that are
supposed to appear in the database are permitted.
3. Alternate key:
In the context of relational databases, an alternate key (or secondary key) is any candidate key
which is not selected to be the primary key (PK).
4. Candidate key:
A candidate key is a combination of attributes that can be uniquely used to identify a database
record without any extraneous data. Each table may have one or more candidate keys. One of
these candidate keys is selected as the table primary key.

Question 37: What are 1: M, M: N, 1:1 relationship?

1: M relationship: One-to-many
One-to-many (also known as "to-many") relationships are often used when managing databases.
A one-to-many relationship occurs when one entity is related to many occurrences in another
M: N relationship: Many-to-many
Many-to-many relationship, arrow in table A can have many matching rows in the table B, and
vice verse.
You can such as a relationship by defining a third table, called a junction table, whose primary
key consist of the foreign keys from both table A and table B.
1:1 relationship: One-to-one
In a one- to- one relationship, a row in the table A can have no more than one matching row in
table B, and vice verse.
A one to one relationship in created if both of the related columns are primary keys or have
unique constraints.
This type of relationship is not common because most information related in the way would be
all in one table.

Question 38: Which data models for database do you know?

+ Hierarchical database models
+The network database models
+ Client Server database
Question 41: What is a database? What is the purpose of database?
A collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select
desired pieces of data. Traditional databases are organized by fields, records, and files. Databases
are designed for three main purposes. These are to organize, store, and retrieve information as
efficiently and effectively as possible.
Question 42: What is the purpose of data integrity rules?
Database integrity ensures that data entered into the database is accurate, valid, and consistent.

Question 43: What is the entity integrity rule?

The entity integrity is an integrity rule which states that every table must have a primary key and
that the column or columns chosen to be the primary key should be unique and not null.

Question 44: What is the referential integrity rule?

Referential integrity is a property of data which, when satisfied, requires every value of one
attribute (column) of a relation (table) to exist as a value of another attribute in a different (or the
same) relation (table).