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using Adaptive filtering algorithm

N.GEETHA

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

JNTUK, University College of Engineering,

Vizianagaram, India

geetha.flawless@gmail.com

DR.B.T.KRISHNA

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

JNTUK, University College of Engineering,

Vizianagaram, India

tkbattula@gmail.com

the recording of the electrical activity of heart muscle. The

ECG signal gets contaminated by noise, which is caused by

Power line interference, Baseline wandering, External

Electromagnetic fields, Random body movements, Muscle

noise, Respiration, Poor contact of electrodes, equipment

etc.This causes an error in the results of the patients

condition. Hence suppression of noise in ECG is mandatory. In

this paper, the performance of Least Mean Square (LMS), Sign

Data Least Mean Square (SDLMS),Sign Error Least Mean

Square (SELMS),Sign Sign Least Mean Square (SSLMS),RLS

and NLMS adaptive filters, Wavelet, Savitzky-Golay filters are

analyzed to remove noise from ECG Signal. Signal to Noise

ratio (SNR), Percentage Root Mean square (PRD) and

Normalized Maximum error values are calculated and

compared among these filters and the relevant graphs are

plotted using Matlab.

known as Adaptive filters. Adaptive filters are non-linear filters

whose filter coefficients change continuously [4].

Wavelet,Savitzky-Golay, Normalized Maximum error.

between the desired signal and model filter output. The LMS

algorithm equation:

1.

algorithm,

INTRODUCTION

SDLMS, SELMS, SSLMS, RLSfrom [3],NLMS from [4],

Wavelets using Universal and Level-Dependent thresholding and

Savitzky-golay [1] filters are presented. These methods are applied

for ECG denoising and a comparison between their performancesis

made based on the difference between the original ECG (without

noise) and the denoised version after filtering the noise.

The paper is organized as follows. The algorithms used are

discussed in Section 2. The present work is discussed in Section 3.

Finally results and discussions are presented in Section 4.

2.

ALGORITHMS

W(i)=w(i)+2e(m)X(m-i)

heart muscle in a graphical sense. This signal is used to analyze the

condition of the patient. The ECG signal amplitude is in the order

of 1mv and its frequency range is 0 to 100 hertz[1-2]. The ECG

can be normal sinus rhythm, Tachycardia or Bradycardia. Normal

heart rate of a person is 72 beats per minute (BPM). Tachycardia is

a heart rate that exceeds the normal range of the heartbeat. A

resting heart rate over 100 BPM is accepted as tachycardia &

Bradycardia is the resting heart rate of under60 BPM. A heart rate

below 40BPM indicatesan exact Bradycardia. An ECG signal

should be presented as clean as possible for the accurate decisions

by the physicians. But the ECG signal gets contaminated by noise,

which is caused by: Power line interference, Baseline wandering,

External Electromagnetic fields, Random body movements,

Muscle noise, Respiration, Poor contact of electrodes, equipment

[2] and etc.This causes an error in the results of thepatients

condition. Hence the suppression of the interfered noise is an

important issue.

signal. But ECG is a non- stationary signal as the human behavior

is not exactly known depending on the time[3-4]. Hence, it is

difficult to apply filters with fixed coefficients to reduce biomedical signal noises. So, there is a need to design filters whose

algorithm:

This algorithm is obtained by replacing both the data vector X(m-i)

and error value e(m) from the LMS algorithm with their sign

values i.e. nothing but the combination of both SDLMS and

24

algorithm:

SDLMS algorithm is obtained by replacing the data vector X(m-i)

from the LMS algorithm with its sign value. Each filter coefficient

is updatedusing the following equation:

W(i)=w(i)+2e(m)sign(X(m-i))

for i=0,1,..N-1 (2)

SDLMS can also be called as Signed-Regressor LMS algorithm.

2.3 Sign Error Least Mean Square (SELMS) adaptive filtering

algorithm:

This algorithm is obtained by replacing e(m) from the LMS

algorithm with its sign value. The filter coefficient update is

achieved by:

W(i)=w(i)+2sign(e(m)) X(m-i)for i=0,1,..N-1 (3)

MRCET-UGC AUTONOMOUS

ISSN:2277-6699 Vol-4,Issue-2 (December-2015)

SELMS

This

leads

to

the

following

recursion:

W(i)=w(i)+2sign(e(m))sign(X(m-i))for i=0,1,..N-1 (4)

2.5Recursive Least Square (RLS) adaptive filtering algorithm:

The Recursive least squares (RLS) adaptive filter recursively finds

the filter coefficients which minimizes a weighted linear least

squares cost function relating to the input signals. In this algorithm

the filter tap weight vector is updated using Eq.

+1 = + (m) . (m) (5)

where e(m) is the difference between the desired response d(m)

and the output y(m).

2.6 Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) adaptive filtering

algorithm:

The NLMS algorithm is a modified version of the LMS algorithm.

The NLMS algorithm updates its coefficients by using the below

equation

W(m+1)=W(m)+.

( )

+( )2

.e(m)

W(m+1)=W(m)+(m).X(m).e(m) (6)

Where (m)=

+( )2

The Adaptive filter length is chosen as 32 tabs for LMS, RLS and

NLMS and the step-size for LMS and NLMS is chosen as 0.0276

whereas the size of the inverse correlation matrix is 32 and the

forgetting factor is 1.The combination of the mother wavelet

which is considered to be sym12 and denoising by both universal

and interval-dependent thresholds using level3 gives the best

performance. The frame-sizefor the Savitzky-Golayfilter is

considered to be 31 and the polynomial order is chosen to be 8.

4.

Noise added to ECG in Figure 2, Noisy ECG of SNR 25db is

shown in Figure 3 and the denoised versions of the Noisy ECG at a

single SNR value of 25db for LMS,RLS, NLMS, Universal

thresholding, Level-Dependent thresholding, Savitzky-Golay

filtering techniques,SDLMS, SELMS, SSLMS, are shown in

Figures4 to 12.Noisy ECG signals valued from 5db to 40db of

SNR versus Estimated Normalized PRD, Estimated SNR and

Normalized Max error from 5db to 40db of SNRcorrespondingly

are plotted in MATLAB and are as shown in Figures 13,14 and

15.In this paper, comparisons among the denoising algorithms are

made based on their Signal to Noise ratio (SNR), Percentage Root

Mean Square (PRD) and Normalized Max Error values.

= 10 log

[

except the time-varying step size parameter(m). 2.7 Wavelet

A Wavelet is an oscillation with its amplitude which begins at

zero, increases, and then decreases back to zero. In wavelet

analysis, the signal is broken into shifted and scaled versions of the

original (or mother) wavelet. The continuous wavelet transform

(CWT) gives detailed time-scale representation.Mallats

algorithm:

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

PRD= 100

2

=1 ()

2

[

()]

=1

(8)

2

=1 [ ()]

2

=1 ()

(9)

Where x(i) is the noisy ECG and e(i) is the denoised version of

noisy ECG and r(i) is the clean ECG.

Savitzky and Golay [8] proposed a data smoothing method based

on local least-squares polynomial approximation. The lowpass

filters resulted by this method are known as Savitzky-Golay (S-G)

filters. An appropriate vector a=[0 , 1 , . ] must be selected

which can approximate a group of 2M+1 noisy samples x[n] by the

polynomial p(n)=

=0 so that the error

=

= (

)2

(7)

point

which

can

be

understood

by

x=[ , +1 , . 1 , 0 , 1 , . ] . The output samples y[n]

for each input sets x are evaluated using the discrete convolution

[n]=

= [ ]where the finite impulse response h is

equivalent to the least-squares polynomial approximation.

3.

CURRENT WORK

ECG signals from [7] are normalized and are contaminated with

different levels of Adaptive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN).

Using the above mentioned techniques, the original signal ECG is

recovered from its contaminated version. Depending on their

respective operation parameters, each methods accuracy of

performance is measured and a comparison among the methods is

made.

25

MRCET-UGC AUTONOMOUS

ISSN:2277-6699 Vol-4,Issue-2 (December-2015)

Figure 8 Filtered ECG by Level-Dependent thresholding wavelet.

26

MRCET-UGC AUTONOMOUS

ISSN:2277-6699 Vol-4,Issue-2 (December-2015)

Figure 13: SNR versus Estimated Normalized PRD.

Figure 14: SNR versus Estimated SNR.

27

MRCET-UGC AUTONOMOUS

ISSN:2277-6699 Vol-4,Issue-2 (December-2015)

Table.1.Tabular form for Estimated SNR values:

Therefore the results obtained by the above filtering processes have

been plotted by considering their best results. The results show that

the SDLMS, SELMS and SSLMS perform better than the

conventional LMS algorithm. Interval-Dependent thresholding

wavelet shows somewhat better performance than Universal

thresholding wavelet and Savitzky-Golay filter. RLS shows better

performance than LMS and NLMS. Overall performance shown by

SELMS and SSLMS seems better than the remaining filters. The

corresponding tabular values are shown in Table.1,2 and 3.

5.

REFERENCES

[1]

Mohammed AlMahamdy

, H. Bryan Riley

PhD,

Performance Study of Different Denoising Methods for ECG

Signals , Science Direct, Procedia Computer Science 37,pp.325332,2014.

[2] N. V Thakor and Y. S. Zhu, Applications of adaptive filtering

to ECG analysis: noise cancellation and arrhythmia detection.,

IEEE Trans.

Biomed. Eng., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 78594, Aug. 1991.

[3] G. M. S. Sajjad, H. Rahman, A. K. Dey, A. M. Biswas, Z.

Islam, and A. K. M. J. Hoque, Performance Comparison of

Modified LMS and RLS Algorithms in Denoising of ECG

Signals, Int. J. Eng. Technol., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 466468, 2012.

[4] C. Chandrakar and M. K. Kowar, Denoising ECG Signals

Using Adaptive Filter Algorithm, Int. J. Soft Comput.Eng., vol.2,

no. 1, pp.

120123, 2012.

[5] S.G. Mallat, A theory for multiresolution signal

decomposition: the wavelet representation, IEEE Trans. Pattern

Anal. Mach. Intell., vol.11, no. 7, pp. 674693, Jul. 1989.

[6] D. L. Donoho and I. M. Johnstone, Adapting to Unknown

Smoothness via Wavelet Shrinkage, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., vol. 90,

no. 432, p.1200, Dec. 1995.

[7]

PhysioNet.

[Online].

Available:

http://www.physionet.org/cgi-bin/atm/ATM. [Accessed: 27-Mar2014].

[8] A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, Soothing and Differentiation

of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures, Analytical

Chemistry, vol. 36, pp.1627-1639, 1964.

28

0.5218

0.6066

57.0465

50.4474

3.6716

1.7993

14.7413

10.4555

SNR

for

10db

1.9899

3.1955

66.4896

53.6875

8.8346

4.7793

19.7300

15.0054

SNR

for

15db

6.5282

7.5064

76.2015

59.9665

12.5272

21.7802

24.5372

20.1853

SNR

for

20db

9.8315

11.3447

80.2482

60.0622

22.0533

26.4430

29.5552

24.2712

SNR

for

25db

17.1430

12.1420

86.0394

65.3518

29.8069

39.2936

34.6194

30.1345

SNR

for

30db

25.9793

18.3780

90.9153

70.4217

41.4000

46.2943

38.9217

34.9086

13.3688

17.4942

For

=0.03

SNR

for 5db

LMS

SDLMS

SELMS

SSLMS

NLMS

RLS

ID-WT

UT-WL

SGOLAY

For

=0.008

SNR

for 5db

LMS

SDLMS

SELMS

SSLMS

NLMS

1.4479

5.7588

63.6624

60.8378

9.6101

For

=0.01

SNR

for 5db

LMS

SDLMS

SELMS

SSLMS

NLMS

0.0655

2.8084

61.3831

54.1691

8.1865

For

=0.05

SNR

for 5db

LMS

SDLMS

SELMS

SSLMS

NLMS

14.5560

14.3771

47.7508

43.6698

1.3271

35.1769

26.2180

91.0740

79.6854

42.5355

50.3577

43.5582

39.7430

SNR

for

40db

42.4576

32.3423

92.9676

81.4093

53.6350

55.2501

48.3335

44.2887

SNR for

35db

22.2771

27.2016

32.1815

37.0215

42.2858

46.9634

SNR

for

10db

3.9464

8.3084

74.4719

70.1487

15.7217

SNR

for

15db

7.4914

11.0487

79.3416

73.6506

22.0544

SNR

for

20db

16.0305

14.6248

86.6976

75.2907

27.7391

SNR

for

25db

20.3105

17.7968

92.1688

82.2462

32.2852

SNR

for

30db

27.5144

26.7593

94.9097

89.1761

43.2468

SNR

for

35db

36.4731

30.8709

93.1341

90.1409

55.4947

SNR

for

40db

53.5575

38.6265

95.9254

92.9701

67.7423

SNR

for

10db

2.3301

7.7131

72.6039

61.2801

13.9281

SNR

for

15db

8.0572

9.0123

78.9969

68.6835

18.3241

SNR

for

20db

15.4858

15.2856

86.1471

71.5137

27.0447

SNR

for

25db

21.4018

16.9796

91.1389

76.4454

35.4907

SNR

for

30db

25.0089

19.9606

94.0999

85.6523

42.2770

SNR

for

35db

34.7601

29.8215

92.8469

86.8617

50.8021

SNR

for

40db

50.7360

37.0868

93.0265

89.3271

62.3710

SNR

for

10db

SNR

for

15db

SNR

for

20db

SNR

for

25db

SNR

for

30db

SNR

for

35db

SNR

for

40db

-1.9651

3.0731

9.4584

16.4866

22.6843

32.0494

39.7390

-3.4323

2.5995

7.5176

11.8133

14.0219

16.3840

22.0818

63.0874

48.5956

8.5520

72.9719

55.2026

12.0920

74.7310

60.0459

22.9047

85.7027

62.7697

29.8573

86.9264

63.0694

41.1920

88.7173

71.2127

42.4779

90.1188

72.1859

54.8769

SNR for

30db

SNR for

35db

SNR for

40db

1.7425

4.8876

2.8040e004

0.0102

0.7470

0.1075

1.6687

1.8501

0.7535

1.8060

5.2584e005

0.0084

0.2082

0.0547

0.9642

1.0742

SNR

SNR

SNR

For

SNR

for

for

for

=0.03

for 5db

10db

15db

20db

96.1915

79.5256

47.1607

32.2422

LMS

99.1004

69.2189

42.1387

27.0874

SDLMS

SNR

for

25db

13.8947

24.7117

SELMS

0.1426

0.0465

0.0141

0.0079

0.0040

SSLMS

NLMS

RLS

ID-WT

UT-WL

SGOLAY

0.3007

65.5252

40.2300

45.2819

51.7461

0.2618

36.1628

36.4081

28.0875

31.2602

0.1011

23.6401

33.1446

16.7440

17.6543

0.0985

7.8943

32.7613

9.3151

10.4789

0.0543

3.2330

4.0841

5.2266

5.6818

5.0236

12.0531

3.9459e004

0.0303

0.8512

0.4849

2.9564

3.3573

44.0825

27.4392

15.7061

8.9192

5.0148

2.8750

1.5840

0.9203

For

=0.008

SNR

for 5db

SNR

for

20db

15.7938

18.5683

SNR

for

25db

9.6492

12.8869

SNR for

35db

SNR for

40db

84.6465

51.5303

SNR

for

15db

42.2116

28.0264

SNR for

30db

LMS

SDLMS

SNR

for

10db

63.4873

38.4201

SELMS

0.0578

0.0126

0.0065

0.0020

0.0010

SSLMS

NLMS

0.0846

33.0725

0.0267

16.3651

0.0178

7.8929

0.0173

4.1017

0.0070

2.4304

4.2102

4.5924

2.1129e004

0.0034

0.6879

1.5010

2.8607

2.1072e005

0.0031

0.1679

0.2099

1.1713

1.2853e005

0.0010

0.0411

For

=0.01

SNR

for 5db

SNR

for

20db

16.8157

17.2080

SNR for

30db

SNR for

35db

SNR for

40db

99.2501

72.3733

SNR

for

15db

39.5492

35.4304

SNR for

25db

LMS

SDLMS

SNR

for

10db

76.4717

41.1467

SELMS

0.0407

0.0211

0.0070

0.0017

SSLMS

NLMS

0.1900

38.9639

0.0839

20.1200

0.0371

12.1270

0.0268

4.4433

8.5092

14.1585

9.4301e004

0.0152

1.6802

5.6174

10.0456

1.3388e004

0.0053

0.7696

1.8282

3.2280

9.7322e005

0.0043

0.2885

0.2906

1.3985

5.1615e005

0.0035

0.0762

For

=0.05

SNR for

5db

SNR for

10db

SNR for

35db

SNR for

40db

LMS

SDLMS

550.6379

429.0053

SELMS

SSLMS

NLMS

2.4977

15.1634

7.2887e004

0.0276

0.7519

1.0305

7.8688

1.4860e004

0.0245

0.1804

125.3874

148.4613

SNR

for

15db

70.2007

74.1348

SNR

for

20db

33.6574

42.0845

SNR

for

25db

14.9855

25.6645

SNR

for

30db

7.3415

19.9025

0.4057

0.0703

0.0217

0.0170

0.0050

0.0020

0.6573

98.2870

0.3732

37.3590

0.1747

24.8541

0.0993

7.1580

0.0723

3.2149

0.0704

0.8718

MRCET-UGC AUTONOMOUS

ISSN:2277-6699 Vol-4,Issue-2 (December-2015)

Table.3.Tabulated form for Normalized Maximum error values:

SNR

SNR

SNR

For

SNR

for

for

for

=0.03

for 5db

10db

15db

20db

1.6986

1.6098

1.4918

1.1005

LMS

1.6582

1.4203

1.2305

1.0568

SDLMS

0.6671

0.4586

0.3258

0.1500

SELMS

0.6482

0.5482

0.4192

0.3819

SSLMS

1.4831

1.3837

1.3500

0.7971

NLMS

1.3984

1.3414

1.1383

0.8073

RLS

1.3325

1.0739

0.5420

0.3619

ID-WT

1.4991

1.2057

0.7943

0.5294

UT-WL

S1.4129

1.1057

0.5784

0.3789

GOLAY

For

=0.008

LMS

SDLMS

SELMS

SSLMS

NLMS

SNR

for

5db

1.6396

1.5237

0.6015

0.6125

1.2586

SNR

for

10db

1.5487

1.4038

0.4205

0.5147

1.1578

SNR

for

15db

1.4351

1.1948

0.3148

0.3548

1.1089

SNR

for

20db

0.9075

0.8428

0.1289

0.2248

0.6418

SNR

for

25db

0.6363

0.5472

0.0192

0.2186

0.4002

0.5927

0.3021

0.3212

SNR

for

30db

0.3868

0.3589

0.0152

0.1462

0.2236

0.2295

0.1992

0.2910

SNR

for

35db

0.1595

0.1304

0.0049

0.0528

0.1071

0.1608

0.1339

0.1263

SNR

for

40db

0.1164

0.1000

0.0037

0.0211

0.0567

0.0295

0.0048

0.1012

0.3129

0.2910

0.1923

0.1012

SNR

for

25db

0.5720

0.4953

0.0100

0.1958

0.3856

SNR

for

30db

0.3810

0.2941

0.0086

0.1025

0.2048

SNR

for

35db

0.1352

0.1258

0.0024

0.0256

0.0864

SNR

for

40db

0.1023

0.0942

0.0014

0.0123

0.0419

29

For

=0.01

LMS

SDLMS

SELMS

SSLMS

NLMS

For

=0.05

LMS

SDLMS

SELMS

SSLMS

NLMS

SNR

for

5db

1.6429

1.5976

0.6523

0.6385

1.3645

SNR

for

10db

1.6001

1.4100

0.4419

0.5316

1.2359

SNR

for

15db

1.4826

1.2015

0.3209

0.3549

1.2469

SNR

for

20db

0.9847

1.0499

0.1359

0.2986

0.6579

SNR

for

25db

0.6015

0.5403

0.0159

0.2016

0.3985

SNR

for

30db

0.3826

0.2999

0.0016

0.1238

0.2136

SNR

for

35db

0.1397

0.1259

0.0039

0.0489

0.0899

SNR

for

40db

0.1103

0.1256

0.0985

0.0197

0.0501

SNR

for

5db

1.7286

1.6651

0.6961

0.6626

1.5201

SNR

for

10db

1.6942

1.5713

0.6482

0.7328

1.4620

SNR

for

15db

1.5781

1.3548

0.6842

0.7089

1.4123

SNR

for

20db

1.3580

1.2039

0.3642

0.4982

0.8111

SNR

for

25db

0.7958

0.6416

0.0985

0.2582

0.5239

SNR

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