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Energy Efficiency: a tool for promoting energy stability in Nigeria

Akinmade Iseoluwa

2016

ENERGY EFFICIENCY: A tool


for promoting energy stability
in Nigeria
June 27, 2016

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
1

I remain profoundly grateful to the One Above, the Alpha and Omega, the only provider of
knowledge, for the wisdom and understanding coupled with favour and Grace with which he
endowed me at birth.
I acknowledge with gratitude to my supervisor Prof. (Mrs.) O.M. Agbogidi for her quick
response Im very grateful Prof.
I cannot but thank the Executive Director of CREDC Mr. Etiosa Uyigue for his cordiality and
my Program Director Mr. Godfrey Ogbemudia for his whole- hearted-support. Please accept my
vehement vote of thanks.
Equally worthy of my acknowledgement is my parents Mr. and Mrs. Akinmade for sending me
to school and my siblings, Master Seun, Aduragbemi and Olorunjedalo. God bless you more,
Amen.

Energy Efficiency: a tool for promoting energy stability in Nigeria

DEDICATION
I dedicate this work to Community Research and Development Centre and to those who lost their
life and property in environmental disaster that aroused from energy sector.

About the Editor


Akinmade Iseoluwa is a Student of Department of Botany (Environmental Science Technology), Delta
State University, Abraka, Nigeria. He holds the title of Comrade Emeritus in 2013 till present as the
Director of Finance, Student Union Government (S.U.G) of the dignified institution. He also served as the
Director of Social of National Association of Environmental Science Students N.A.E.S.S as well as the
Secretary General of Student Environmental Assembly of Nigeria (SEAN) and currently the Coordinator
of the esteem organization. In 2015, Comr. Akinmade Iseoluwa was opportune to lecture in National
Youth Service Corpss camp in Edo State as photovoltaic trainer (batch A, strm. I & II). He has put in
over four years in teaching and researching in the service of his school and different organizations whose
wealth of knowledge is widely acclaimed. The list of his research work is over twenty (20) and the list is
still on. Comr. Akinmade Iseoluwa research interest has been always focused on the fate of the
environment, energy and public health and his known for his excellence and unweaving commitment to
his duty. The grace of God and his multiple skills has resulted in his unstoppable breakthrough and
unending progress which has also catalyzes his marketability in the global market. He is mentored by Dr.
D.K Olukoya, Bishop David Oyedipo and Mr. Godfrey Ogbemudia. Finally, he is among the outstanding
volunteer of Community Research and Development Centre (CREDC) and can be contacted via the cell
phone number and email address written below.
+2348105735550, +2348138582577, akinmadeiseoluwa@gmail.com

Energy Efficiency: a tool for promoting energy stability in Nigeria

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

DEDICATION

ABOUT THE WRITER-

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT -

Introduction

Approach to Energy Efficiency

Technological approach to energy efficiency -

Behavioral approach -

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14

How Energy Efficiency can promote energy stability in Nigeria

16

Prospect of Energy Efficiency

19

Conclusion

Energy Efficiency

Energy savings through behavior-based strategies

20

Recommendations

21

References

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ABSTRACT
Energy efficiency is the ability to move most matter with least energy. Energy is imperative in
our daily life. Out with energy there is virtually nothing we can do. In energy development, there
are three fundamentals, they are: energy generation, distribution and utilization. In many
developing countries and Nigeria in particular, we have tuned focus so much on energy
generation, distribution with little or no efforts given to the ways energy is utilized. Energy
efficiency has two approaches which are; Technological and Behavioral approach. In Nigeria,
experts have asserted that Nigeria can save up to half (50%) of the energy currently consumed in
the country if energy is efficiently utilized both in Households and institutions through standard
and label, landscaping and retrofitting of homes and institutions, thereby leading to energy
stability. The important of energy efficiency to National development cannot be over emphasizes.
It reduces electricity bills, reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, catalyze energy conservation
and promote energy stability. In such, Policy should be made to make it mandatory for private
companies such as hotels, industries to train their staffs on energy management, ban of
importation of secondhand inefficient appliances and halt the manufacturing and use of
incandescent bulbs in Nigeria.
Key words:

1.0

Energy. Energy Efficiency. Nigeria. National Development.

INTRODUCTION

Energy Efficiency: a tool for promoting energy stability in Nigeria

Energy efficiency is the ability to move most matter with least energy. Without energy there is
virtually nothing we can do. All the things we need to do on daily basis require energy. The same
way, just as man cannot do without energy, no country can develop without energy. A country
will rise in proportion with the rise and stability of energy. We need energy for domestic,
agricultural, industrial, commercial and official activities. Access to energy is the dividing line
between developing and developed countries (Energy Commission of Nigeria, 2008). Energy
efficiency is the improvement in practices and products that reduces the energy necessary to
provide services like lighting, cooling, heating, manufacturing, cooking, transport, entertainment
etc. Energy efficiency products essentially help to do more work with less energy (Anderson,
2004).
Nigeria is located on the west coast of Africa. It is the continents most populated Country in
Africa, with over 178.5 million people. Nigeria is faced with myriad of developmental
challenges, one of them being that 60-70% of the Nigerians do not have access to electricity and
modern energy services (Energy Commission of Nigeria, 2008). It is estimated that the
population connected to the grid system is short of power supply over 60% of the time.
Additionally, less than 40% of the population is even connected to the grid. On a fundamental
level, there is simply not enough electricity generated to support the entire population. National
policies in many countries have underestimated the importance and gains of energy efficiency to
the environment and economic growth (Lurz et al., 2006). In energy development, there are three
fundamental areas we ought to consider. They are: energy generation, distribution and usage. In
many developing countries and Nigeria in particular, we have concentrated so much on
generation and distribution with little or no efforts given to the ways energy is utilized. These
three areas of energy development should be given equal attention, and as we will see later that
energy efficiency can play a pivotal role in energy stability, Socio-economic growth, mitigate
climate change and enhance environmental sustainability (CREDC, 2008).
According to the statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA), total Nigerian primary
energy supply was 118,325 Kiloton of Oil excluding electricity trade in 2013. Biomass and waste
dominated with 83%, fossil fuels (16%) Renewable energy sources is still at nascent stage, only
hydropower accounted for 1%.Wind and solar energy have only been deployed in minuscule
amount. For every kilowatt of electricity we consume, there is an equivalent emission of
greenhouse gases (UNDP 2005). Energy efficiency can help to reduce the emission of GHGs
(Fischer et al., 2008). It reduces the reliance on petroleum to drive our economy. The negative
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environmental impacts associated with the generation of energy will also be reduced if we use
energy efficiently (Community Research and Development Centre, 2009).
The good news thereof is, energy efficiency can be achieve in a variety of ways such as lighting,
transportation, industrial, housing, heating and cooling e.t.c. (Reiss, 2008). For instance, to light
a room with an incandescent light bulb of 60 W for one hour requires 60 W/h (that is 60 watts
per hour). A compact fluorescent light bulb of 11 W would provide the same or better light and
use only 11 W/h. This means that 49 W (82% of energy) is saved.
Furthermore, The importance of energy efficiency includes; Minimize the building of new power
stations and thus free up capital for other investments like health and welfare, Reduce electricity
bills, Lead to energy conservation which makes more energy available to other parts of the
population, Improve industries competitiveness internationally, reduces the emission of
greenhouse gases and finally promote energy stability (United Nation Development Program,
2005). One of the goals of energy efficiency is to exploit ways to reduce the amount of energy
used to produce a service or a unit of economic output and indirectly reduce emissions.
The objectives of this study are to help us understand what energy efficiency entails and the roles
it play in promoting energy stability in Nigeria, while ensuring the actualization of sustainable
development and economic growth. The study also help us understand the thematic areas where
energy efficiency can be actualized while revealing the best practice to efficient utilization of
energy in developing countries and Nigeria in particular.

Energy Efficiency: a tool for promoting energy stability in Nigeria

2.0

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Energy efficiency is the improvement in practices and of products that reduces the energy
necessary to provide services for home and industries. One of the goals of energy efficiency is to
exploit ways to reduce the amount of energy used to produce a service or a unit of economic
output and indirectly reduce emissions (United Nation Development Program, 2005).
Energy efficiency does not mean that we should not use energy, but we should use energy in a
manner that will minimize the amount of energy needed to provide services (Lebot, 2009). This
is possible if we improve in practices and products that we use. If we use energy efficient
appliances, it will help to reduce the energy necessary to provide services like lighting, cooling,
heating, manufacturing, cooking, transport, entertainment etc. Hence, energy efficiency products
essentially help to do more work with less energy (Howarth et al., 2000). For instance, to light a
room with an incandescent light bulb of 60 W for one hour requires 60 W/h (that is 60 watts per
hour). A compact fluorescent light bulb would provide the same or better light at 11 W and only
use 11 W/h. This means that 49 W (82% of energy) is saved for each hour the light is turned on
(CREDC, 2008).
In every watt of energy generated, there is an equivalent amount of CO 2 emitted. Therefore,
Energy efficiency reduces the negative environmental impacts associated with the generation of
energy. (CREDC, 2008).

3.0

APPROACHES TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY


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There are many ways to increase the energy efficiency of homes and organizations to reduce
energy bills and indirectly combat climate change while ensuring energy stability and
environmental sustainability. In Nigeria, experts have asserted that Nigeria can save up to half
(50%) of the energy currently consumed in the country if energy is efficiently utilized both in
Households and institutions (CREDC, 2008). In energy efficiency, there are two approaches:
3.1

Technological approach

This involves the use of energy efficient appliances or technologies to reduce the energy needed
to provide services in the homes or industries.
i

Lighting

We can save about over 50% of the energy we spend for lighting if we use energy efficient light
bulbs. Linear and compact fluorescent lamps are much more efficient that incandescent bulbs
and they last six to ten times longer. Although they are more expensive than incandescent bulbs,
fluorescent lamps pay for themselves by saving energy over their life time. If you replace
incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lights, you can save 60-80% energy and it will
produce more light and it will produce less heat and discomfort. In Nigeria, we have
incandescent bulbs that come in various capacities. The common ones found in the market are
60W, 100W and 200W. The common fluorescent bulbs in the market are those of 20W and 36W.
If a particular household using 20 incandescent bulbs of 60W and decides to replace them with
fluorescent bulbs of 20W. Instead of spending 20 x 60 = 1200W (that is they are spending
1200watts per hour). If the incandescent bulbs are replaced with fluorescent bulbs of 20W, the
same household will be spending 400 watts per hour (Metcalf 2008). Thus they will be saving
approximately 67% of energy for lighting alone. If we have a scenario in Nigeria where we fade
out one million incandescent bulbs of 60W and replace them with energy-saving bulbs of 20W,
the country will be saving 40 million watts, which is equivalent to 40 megawatts. This is enough
to provide electricity for many communities in Nigeria that do not yet have access to electricity.
Policy option for Nigeria will include fading out incandescent bulbs from the Nigerian systems
and putting a ban on the importation and production of incandescent bulbs. This policy shall
promote energy conservation and stability in Nigeria.
Plate 1
ii

Source: U.S. EPA department of energy 2013.


Heating and Cooling

Energy Efficiency: a tool for promoting energy stability in Nigeria

The use of energy for heating and cooling account for about 44% of a typical utility bill. Heating
and cooling uses more energy and drains more money than any other system in the home. This
has a negative effect on the environment. For example, in the United States, the heating and
cooling systems emit more than half billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each
year, thus adding to global warming and generating about 24% of the nations sulfur dioxide and
12% of nitrogen oxide. These gases are the chief ingredients of acid rain (Foundation for
Community Association, 2007). By combining proper equipment maintenance with appropriate
insulation, weathering and thermostat setting, energy bills and pollution can be cut by 50%
(Loughran et.al 2004). The energy recovered from this practice shall enhance energy
conservation which in turn shall promote energy stability in Nigeria.

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Housing

Landscaping is a natural and beautiful way to keep your home comfortable and reduce your
energy consumption by up to 25%. Apart from adding aesthetic value and environmental quality
to your home, trees, shrub or vine can help deliver effective shade and act as windbreak. A well
designed home can reject overhead heat to reduce the energy spent for cooling (Scott, 2013).
Low quality windows can cause your air conditioner to work two or three times harder. In warm
climates, itis advisable to use windows with special coating that will help to reduce heat gain.
Replacing single paned windows with double-paned windows can help to reduce heat gain and
reduce the energy spent on cooling (Loughran et.al., 2004).

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Plate 2

iv

Source: Scott Dimetrosky,green graphic

Transportation

Road transportation is the dominant mode of transportation in Nigeria. Many of the vehicles
imported are used vehicles. Potential energy savings are achieved by using road worthy vehicles.
In many cases, fuel efficiency is low because vehicles are old and poorly maintained. Other
causes of low efficiency of fuel are traffic congestion and bad driving habits (Van Dender et al.,
2007). Energy saving of up to 30% can be achieved by shifting from energy intensive transport
to a less energy-intensive transport and by adopting traffic management schemes. In Nigeria, the
demand for gasoline and diesel could be cut by 30% by emphasizing public transportation over
private transportation which will in turn reduce the emission of greenhouse gases (Environmental
Protection Agency, 2013).
EPA department of energy found out that out of 100% of gasoline in a vehicle, the vehicle only
use 15% to move the vehicle or other functions such as Air conditioning, the rest 85% are lost to
idle and mechanical inefficiencies. Also, some engines are very inefficient at converting the
fuels chemical energy into mechanical energy thereby losing the energy to engine friction,
smoke and heat. Therefore, re-design for commercial vehicles by improving fuel economy could

Energy Efficiency: a tool for promoting energy stability in Nigeria

reduce the need for energy source without compromising its function. It could also save both
consumers and producers money in fuel savings and serve as a tool for energy stability (Van
Dender et al., 2007).

Plate 3

Source: Tesla energy efficient car

Industrial: Another way to increase energy efficiency is to reduce, recycle and re-use

the waste heat that is produced from manufacturing process as it is globally accepted that waste
doesnt exist. For instance, the waste heat and chemical energy can be turn into electricity or
other usable forms of energy which could offset petroleum demand and provide cheaper, cleaner
electricity to industries (Loughran et.al 2004).. Also, the excess heat can be used to melt some
metals instead of going for cooling. In short, the energy realized from this practice shall boost the
energy conserved which could enhance energy stability in Nigeria.

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Plate 4
3.2

Source: Electropaedia
Behavioral approach

This articulates on the best custom of energy utilization to end-users thereby reducing energy
consumption. CoMed estimates that even if energy efficient residential lighting technology is in
place, there is still approximately eleven percent (11%) waste due to occupant behavior. The
occupant behavior is a key issue that needed to be addressed to leverage all energy that is
available.
i

Dominant Use of Incandescent Light Bulbs

The use of incandescent bulbs for lighting is energy intensive. Only about 5% of total energy
used by an incandescent bulb is converted to light energy, the remaining 95% is converted to heat
energy (Lebot, 2009). The energy rating of the incandescent bulbs found in the Nigerian market
range from 40W to 200W, thus we have the ones for 40W, 60W, 100W and 200W. Study

Energy Efficiency: a tool for promoting energy stability in Nigeria

revealed that in many places where people experience low voltage, people purchase the 100W
and 200W in order to get a brighter effect. Also, many people use the high rating incandescent
bulbs for outdoor lighting because they appear brighter.
ii

Putting on Light to Advertise Goods

Many people that sell certain goods such snack and electrical materials switch on light during the
day to draw the attention of people to by their goods. The same way, operators of fast food
centers do the similar thing; they use incandescent bulbs to heat their food and at the same time
draw the attention of people to their products. This practice is energy intensive and should be
discouraged (Levinson et al., 2004).
iii

Switching on Outdoor Lighting during the Day

Many Nigerians do not put off their outdoor lighting during the day. This is particularly very
common in commercial and residential areas in many major cities in Nigeria. Even in public
institutions such as universities, government ministries were also found to have their outdoor
lighting switched on during the day (Levinson et al., 2004).
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Leaving Appliance on when not in Use

Study unmask that many Nigerian do not put off their appliances when they are not in use. This
practice can lead to significant wastage of energy in residential, private and public buildings. The
reason for this could be that many Nigerians do not really pay for the electricity they consume. In
many houses, the meters installed by PHCN are no longer functioning.

3.3

Energy savings through behavior-based strategies.

Putting on light to advertise goods should be strictly bound.

Dominant use of incandescent light bulbs should be discouraged.

Simultaneous use of multiple appliances in public buildings should be belay

Turn off lights when not in use.

Energy audition should be done on regular bases

Turn Off your computer, TV, VCR, CD or DVD player, and other small appliances using
electrical energy, be sure to turn them off when you are finished using them.
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Place order on energy certified appliances.

It is envisage that if the behavioral approach strategies is adopted and imbibe in our daily culture,
50% of energy would be recovered from energy abuse stream which could supply electricity to
other population and enhance energy stability in Nigeria (Levinson et al., 2004).

Energy Efficiency: a tool for promoting energy stability in Nigeria

4.0

HOW ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROMOTE ENERGY STABILITY IN NIGERIA

In Nigeria, experts have asserted that Nigeria can save up to half (50%) of the energy currently
consumed in the country if energy is efficiently utilized both in Households and institutions
(Community Research Development Centre 2008). The following have been proved effective as
tools for recovery of energy from energy waste stream and thus free energy for conservation and
energy stability (Loughran et al., 2004).

Standard and Label (S&L)

Standard labels are labels that certified an appliance energy efficient (Harrington et al., 2004). In
many countries, energy labeling is now fully operational and the appliances that are commonly
labeled include refrigerators, freezers and air conditionals and a range of other appliances such as
rice-cookers, boilers, lighting products and washing machine (Harrington et al., 2004).
There are two types of labels - Endorsement Labels and Comparative Labels. Endorsement labels
point out to consumers that products belong to the most energy efficient class of products or
meet a predetermined standard or eligibility criteria (Harrington et al., 2004). The visual
designed energy labels are shown below:
Plate 5
ii

Source:Harrington et.al 2004


Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS)

Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) is also referred to as standards or


efficiency standards in some countries, MEPS are specified minimum energy efficiency levels
products must meet before they can be legally sold in any country (Harrington et al., 2004).
Here, specific energy standards are set before products are allowed into a country and sold. For
example a country may decide to set a standard that refrigerators consuming more than 400kwh
will not be allowed into the country. MEPS are mandatory standards and are done in a manner
that they balance technical possibility with economic viability and the competitive force within a
particular market.

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iii

Retrofitting Homes and Public Buildings

The practice of retrofitting homes and public buildings is now practiced in many parts of the
world to reduce energy consumption. Owning to the fact that many homes and public building
have been build long time ago and are equipped with all kinds of inefficient appliances, it is now
a common thing for owners of home and government to replace this old equipment with newer
and more efficient ones. In other parts of the world, these are ways individuals are improving the
energy efficiency in home (Reiss et al., 2008).

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Landscaping

There are natural ways we can keep our homes comfortable and reduce energy bill. A well placed
tree, shrub or vine in our homes can provide shade and act as windbreak. This can help to reduce
the energy we spend on cooling, since the shade from these trees can keep our home cool (Reiss
et al., 2008).

Energy Efficiency: a tool for promoting energy stability in Nigeria

Plate 6

5.0

Source: Dimetrosky, energy efficient landscape building.

PROSPECT OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY

In Nigeria, experts have asserted that Nigeria can save up to half (50%) of the energy currently
consumed in the country if energy is efficiently utilized both in Households and institutions
(CREDC, 2008). Retrofitting of homes and public buildings has been tested and trusted as a tool
to remove all kinds of inefficient appliances and replaced with energy efficient technologies
which lead to energy conservation (Lebot, 2009). Successful conservation and energy efficiency
programs decrease sales, and since electric utility rates typically are based on sales volume, also
decrease utility revenues. This potential for lower revenues gives utilities a disincentive to
promote energy efficiency programs.
Policy should be made to ban the importation, manufacturing and use of incandescent bulbs in
Nigeria. Such policy should encourage the gradual phase out of incandescent bulbs from the
system and encourage the phase in of energy saving bulbs. Most importantly is the Standard
Organization of Nigeria, with the mandate to preparing standards for products and processes and
for ensuring compliance with Federal Government policies on Standards Metrology and Quality
Assurance of both locally manufactured and imported products and services in Nigeria
(Gillingham et al, 2004). The influx of secondhand products into the Nigerian market is a big
threat to the efficient use of energy. In many instances, the secondhand products are preferred by
many Nigerians mainly because of the price. Some respondents also claimed that the secondhand
products are more durable than the new ones. This can contribute significantly to the inefficient
use of energy in homes and offices. In such, it should be belay (International Rivers, 2009). Lack
of trained personnel is a major factor hindering the development of energy efficiency in Nigeria.
Policy should be made to make it mandatory for private companies such as banks, hotels,
industries to train their staff on energy management (Gillingham et al., 2004).

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CONCLUSION
Energy Efficient technology is a tool for energy conservation and mitigates climate change
(CREDC, 2008). The key drivers of energy efficiency include technical improvement, new
technologies, cost competition and energy conservation programs. Structural changes in industry,
integration with global markets and investment in new processes, buildings and infrastructure are
expected to improve energy efficiency considerably over the next 20 years (UNDP, 2005). In
more developed countries, household appliances have become more energy efficient. Most of the
technology used by industry in developing countries is imported from industrialized countries
(Loughran et al., 2004). These industries should continue to benefit from technological
improvements that promote rational energy use. The transfer of energy efficient technology will
reduce energy imports, increased demand for skilled workers, reduce operation cost of facilities
and promote energy stability in Nigeria.

Energy Efficiency: a tool for promoting energy stability in Nigeria

RECOMMENDATIONS
Develop policies on energy efficiency and integrate them into current energy policies.

(CREDC 2008).
Promote energy efficiency products and practices at the side of end users and utilities.
Partnership with the media will go a long way to increase awareness on energy efficiency

and renewable energy (CREDC 2008).


Establish agency to promote the use of energy efficiency products and ensure energy

efficiency practices.
NGO and Federal Ministry of Energy should work together to formulate policy to ban the

use, importation and manufacturing of incandescent bulbs and promote CFLs and LEDs.
(CREDC 2008).
Higher institutions should create course on energy efficiency and integrate them into

school curriculum. (UNDP 2005).


Behavioral strategies listed above should be strictly adhering to in order to eradicate

energy poverty and promote energy stability in Nigeria.


Promoting research and development at all stages with wide collaborations with relevant

stakeholders including CSOs (CREDC 2008).

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