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DesignCalculationsofLightningProtectionSystemsPartseventeen~ElectricalKnowhow

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DesignCalculationsofLightningProtectionSystemsPartseventeen
In Article "Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Two", I indicated the lightning
protection design process involves a number of design steps as inbelow Fig.

ELECTRICALLIBRARY

ElectricalDesignCriteria

ElectricalWorksMethodStatements

ManufacturersListsforElectrical
Products

Electrical

ElectricalDrawingDetails

(3)Online
PDFCOURSES

ElectricalLoadEstimationCourse
AnIntroductiontoHeating,
VentilationandAirConditioning
(HVAC)Systems
AnIntroductiontoLightingDesign

The Lightning Protection Design Process

AnIntroductiontoElectricalMotor
Basics

ELECTRICALBOOKS

Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected


Explained in Article "Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part
Two"

LorescoO

ElectricalBooks&DesignGuides

CodeofPracticeforEnergy
EfficiencyofElectricalInstallations

Step#2: Risk Assessment Study

Guideforelectricaldesignengineers

MaintenanceManager'sGuideto
PowerQuality

PowerQuality&UtilizationGuide
EngineApplicationandInstallation
Guide

Also, In above Article, I indicated that the risk assessment study can be done by (4) different methods as
follows:
Methods Of Calculations For
Risk Assessment Study

Articles

Dwelling

Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part

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DesignCalculationsofLightningProtectionSystemsPartseventeen~ElectricalKnowhow
Guide

LiquidCooledGensetApplication
Manual

First: Manual Method


(Equations And Tables
Method) as per IEC 623052

MVDesign&TechnicalGuide

MVApplicationcatalogue

ElectricalandTrafficEngineering
Manual

First: Manual Method


(Equations And Tables
Method) as per NFPA 780

ELECTRICALSOFTWARE

ElectricalSoftwarePrograms

RiesgoSoftwareForPerformingThe
RiskAssessmentStudy
StrikeRiskV5.0forperformingthe
RiskAssessmentStudy
RAPALSoftwareforperformingthe
RiskAssessmentStudy
EricoGEMSoftwareProgramfor
EarthingCalculations
VisualProfessionalEditionSoftware
(6)PrinttheResultsbyUsingthe
PrintEditor
VisualProfessionalEditionSoftware
(5)InsertingCalculationPlanes

Second: Software Method For


Performing TheRisk
Assessment Study
Third: Excel Sheets Method
For Performing The Risk
Assessment Study
Fourth: Online Calculators
Method Used for Need for
Lightning Protection
calculations

Two
Design Calculations
Three
Design Calculations
Four
Design Calculations
Five
Design Calculations
Six
Design Calculations
Seven
Design Calculations
Eight
Design Calculations
Nine
Design Calculations
Ten
Design Calculations
Eleven
Design Calculations
Twelve

of Lightning Protection Systems Part

DwellingU

of Lightning Protection Systems Part


of Lightning Protection Systems Part
of Lightning Protection Systems Part
of Lightning Protection Systems Part

GELightin

of Lightning Protection Systems Part


of Lightning Protection Systems Part
of Lightning Protection Systems Part
of Lightning Protection Systems Part

Selective

of Lightning Protection Systems Part

Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part


thirteen

Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part


Fourteen

Step#3: Selection Of External LPS Type and Material


Explained in Article "Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part
Fifteen"

VisualProfessionalEditionSoftware
(4)InsertingLuminaires
VisualProfessionalEditionSoftware
(3)StartingSteps

Step#4: Sizing of Air Termination System Components

VisualProfessionalEditionSoftware
(2)CheckingtheDefaultSettings
VisualProfessionalEditionSoftware
(1)UnderstandingtheProgram
Interface
CalcuLuxSoftware(1)MainWindow
andBarMenus

In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Sixteen ", I explained the following
points:
Types and forms of Strike Termination Subsystem,

CalcuLuxSoftware(2)CheckingThe
DefaultSettings
CalcuLuxSoftware(3)Examplefor
LigthingdesignofanOffice

CalcuLuxSoftwarePartFour

CalcuLuxSoftwarePartFive

Sizing of Air Terminals Based on IEC 623053 and Based on BS EN 623053,


Sizing of Natural Air Terminals,
Positioning / Placement of Air Termination System Components.
The Class of LPS/LPL influences on the (3) Positioning Methods.
Today, I will explain in detail the (3) Positioning Methods for Air Termination system which were:

1. The Rolling Sphere Method (RSM),


2. The Protective Angle Method (PAM),
3. The Mesh Method.

CalcuLuxSoftwarePartSix

CalcuLuxSoftwarePartSeven

For more information, please review the following Articles:


IDSpecSoftware

Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems


Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part One

DIALuxLightingSoftwareProgram
BlueVersion

(8)differen
DIALuxLightingSoftwareProgram
RedVersion

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DIALuxIndoorLightingCalculations
MenuOptions

Step#4: Sizing and Positioning of Air Termination System Components Continued

HOWTO

1 The Rolling Sphere Method (RSM)

Conducto

Conducto

WriteTechnicalSpecificationsfor
LightningProtectionSystems
DetermineTheNumberOfDown
ConductorsofLPS
PerformNeedforLightningProtection
Calculationsby(4)DifferentMethods

:
1.1 The striking distance approach

SizingOve
PerformGroundingCalculationsby
(6)DifferentMethods
SizeEarthingConductorsUsingNEC
Tables
SizeEarthingConductorsUsingBS
7671

SelecttheBestEarthingSystem

For lightning flashes to earth, a downward leader grows stepbystep in a series of jerks
from the cloud towards the earth. When the leader has got close to the earth within a
few tens, to a few hundreds of metres, the electrical insulating strength of the air near
the ground is exceeded.

Calculatio

A further leader discharge similar to the downward leader begins to grow towards the
head of the downward leader: the upward leader.

Electrical

Upward leader will be launched at points of greatest electric field intensity (see Fig.1)
and can move in any direction towards the approaching downward leader. It is for this
reason that lightning can strike the side of tall structures rather than at their highest
point.

Electrical

Electrical

CalculateVoltageDropasperU.S.
andEuropeanMethods
UseNECAnnexBTablesin
ConductorAmpacityCalculations
PerformConductorAmpacity
CalculationsUsingNECunder
EngineeringSupervisionMethod
PerformConductorAmpacity
CalculationsUsingNECSection
310.15Tables
SizeOvercurrentProtectionDevices

CalculatetheTotalDemandElectrical
LoadforNonDwellingBuildings
CalculateElectricalDemandLoadfor
DwellingBuildingsasperNEC
OptionalMethod
CalculateElectricalDemandLoadfor
DwellingBuildingsasperNEC
StandardMethod
Calculategeneralusereceptacles
loadinadwellingunit
CalculateMaximumPermissible
NumberOfLightingFixturesOnA
GeneralLightingBranchCircuit
CalculateTrackLightingLoad
CalculateTheMinimumNumberOf
GeneralLightingBranchCircuitsFor
AnyBuilding

Fig.1:Development of downward leader striking distance


The distance of the last step of a downward leader is termed the striking distance and
is determined by the amplitude of the lightning current. This striking distance can be
represented by a sphere with a radius equal to the striking distance (see Fig.2). The
striking distance r is given by:

r = 10 I 0.65
Where I is the peak current of the resulting stroke.

CalculateGeneralLightingBranch
CircuitLoadForAnyBuilding
CalculateSignAndOutlineBranch
CircuitsLoad
CalculateShowWindowLighting
Load
CalculateTheMinimumnumberof
receptaclebranchcircuitsforbankor
officebuildings
CalculatetheMaximumallowable
numberofreceptaclesonabranch
circuitinadwellingunit

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EstimatePreliminaryLoadByUsing
AreaMethod

Checklistf
EstimatePreliminaryLoadByUsing
TheBuildingAreaMethod

Checklists

EstimatePreliminaryLoadByUsing
SpaceBySpaceMethod(Functional
AreaMethod)

Checklist
Commissi

DesignOutdoorLightingByUsing
IsoluxDiagramMethod
DesignOutdoorLightingByUsing
TheBeamLumenMethodAsPerIES
DesignOutdoorLightingByUsing
TheBeamLumenMethodAsPerCIE
DesignOutdoorLightingByUsing
PointByPointMethod
DesignInteriorLightingByUsingBy
UsingQuickEstimateCharts

Fig.2:striking distance

DesignInteriorLightingByUsing
WattPerSquareFeetMethod
DesignInteriorLightingByUsing
PointByPointMethod

Lightning

Notes to the above formulas:

DesignInteriorLightingByUsingThe
ZonalCavity(Lumen)Method

The larger the amount of charge carried by the lightning leader, the larger the resulting
lightning current, the greater will be the distance at which this happens.

BuildPreliminarySingleLineDiagram
LikeProfessionals

The head of the downward leader approaches the objects on the ground, unaffected by
anything, until it reaches the final striking distance.

MakeAPreliminaryDesignLike
Professionals

It is more difficult for an airterminal to intercept a smaller lightning flash than a larger
flash, as the smaller flash must approach closer to the airterminal before the upward
leader is launched.

WriteElectricalDesignCriteriaLike
Professionals
SpecifyTheRequiredTypeOf
GeneralUseReceptaclesForEach
AreaInADwellingUnit

To protect the structure against smaller lightning flashes, airterminals must be spaced
closer together. For smaller lightning flashes there is a risk that an air terminal may not
be close enough to intercept the down leader, thus a closer structural point releases an
upward leader which intercepts the flash (i.e. the building is struck).

DistributeGeneralUseReceptacle
LoadsInADwellingUnit

CourseEE

CourseEE

CourseEE

CourseLig

SelectReceptacleRatingForA
BranchCircuitInADwellingUnit

1.2 Relation between Lightning Protection Levels and Rolling Sphere Radius
CONTACTFORM
Name

The below Table#1 indicates the following:


The Lightning Protection Levels LPL,
Minimum current level to be protected against,
Probability percentages that lightning may be greater than these levels,

Email*

The rolling sphere radius used in the rolling sphere design method.

CourseE
Message*

Send

Table#1
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Also, The above Table#1 explains the relation between Lightning protection levels and rolling
sphere radius as in the following examples:

Example#1:
Suppose that a lightning protection system to provide LPL I such that 99% of all lightning flashes are
intercepted (all those of 3 kA or greater). There is only a 1% probability that lightning may be
smaller than the 3 kA minimum, and may not be close enough to an airterminal to be intercepted.
It should be noted that flashes of less than 3 kA are rare, and typically would not be expected to
cause damage to the structure. Protection greater than LPL I (99%) would require significantly more
material, is not covered by the standard and generally is not required for commercial construction.
Result:
The lower lightning protection levels (LPL II, III & IV) each increase the airterminal spacing,
reducing their ability to capture smaller lightning flashes, thus reducing overall the percentage of
lightning events they can protect against.

Example#2:
Suppose that a lightning protection system to provide LPL IV, designed using the rolling sphere
method, would use airterminals placed using a rolling sphere radius of 60 m.
These airterminals would be positioned such that they would capture all lightning flashes of 16 kA
or greater, thus offering protection to at least 84% of the lightning (the term at least is used to
indicate that the percentage of lightning captured might be greater, since smaller lightning flashes
could be captured if they were closer to the airterminal).
Result:
To offer a greater lightning protection level (e.g. LPL I, II or III) a smaller rolling sphere radius would
be used. This would result in a reduced spacing between airterminals (more airterminals), thus
positioning the airterminals to capture smaller lightning flashes, and increasing the total
percentage of lightning flashes captured.

1.3 The Rolling Sphere Method Protection Applications

The rolling sphere methods can be used for the following applications:

1.Rolling sphere method with rod airterminations,


2.Rolling sphere method and mesh/catenary conductors,
3.Rolling sphere method and Tall structures.

1.3.1 Rolling Sphere Method With Rod AirTerminations


When rods are to be used as the airtermination for the protection of plane surfaces (see Fig.3),
the following formula can be used:

d = 2 (2rh h2)
Where:
d = distance between two rods (m)
r = radius of the rolling sphere (m)
h = height of the rods (m)

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Fig.3:Rolling Sphere Method With Rod AirTerminations

The following Table#2 shows some examples of rolling sphere protection distance (distance
between Air terminals) according to the Air terminals height and the Rolling Sphere Radius
according to lightning protection level LPL.

Table#2

When rods are to be used as the airtermination for protection of roof top items/structures (see
Fig.4) and The arrangement of the airtermination rods, over which no cable is normally spanned,
means that the sphere does not roll on rails but sits deeper instead, thus increasing the
penetration depth () of the sphere. In this case the following formula of sphere penetration distance
can be used:

p = r (r2 d2/4)
Where:
p = penetration distance (m)( part of the sphere below the horizontal lines between top of air
terminals)
r = radius of the rolling sphere (m)
d = Distance between two airtermination rods or two parallel airtermination conductors (m)

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Fig.4:Penetration distance of rolling sphere

The following Table#3 shows Rolling sphere penetration distance according to the distance
between Air rods and the Rolling Sphere Radius according to lightning protection level LPL.

Table#3

Note:
The height of the airtermination rods h should always be greater than the value of the penetration
depth p determined to ensure that the rolling sphere does not touch the structure to be protected.

1.3.2 Rolling Sphere Method And Mesh/Catenary Conductors


Where the rolling sphere method is to be used to evaluate the protection provided by
mesh conductors or network of catenary wires, the mesh must be mounted at some
distance above the roof (see Fig.5), to ensure the rolling sphere does not touch its
surface in a similar way to the catenary conductors.

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Fig.5:Rolling Sphere Method And Mesh Conductors

Also, As with a free standing mast, catenary conductors can be used to keep the rolling
sphere away from the structure to be protected (see Fig.6). One or more catenary
conductors may be utilised to ensure that the sphere does not come into contact with
any part of the structures roof.

Fig.6:Rolling Sphere Method And Catenary Conductors

If the system is required to be isolated from the structure then a conductor suspended
between two free standing masts may be employed. This arrangement is suitable for
small sensitive structures such as explosive stores.
In a non isolated system, a catenary conductor may be used to protect larger items of
roof mounted equipment from a direct strike (see Fig.7).

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Fig.7:catenary conductors used to protect larger


items of roof mounted equipment

The two formulas in the case of rod airterminations can be used also in case of using
mesh/catenary conductors. The distance/height of the mesh/catenary replaces the rod
distance/height. As in fig.4 Note that the distance for penetration or protection
distance is the diagonal of the grid (distance between points A & B).

1.3.3 Rolling Sphere Method And Tall Structures


Research shows that it is the upper 20% of the Tall structure that is most vulnerable
to side strikes and potential damage (see Fig.8).

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Fig.8:Rolling Sphere Method AndTall Structures

Case#1: Buildings Above 60 m High


In the IEC standards, for buildings above 60 m, protection is required to the sides of
the upper 20% of height. The same placement rules used for roofs should apply to the
sides of the building. While the mesh method is preferable, particularly if using natural
components, protection is permitted using horizontal rods and rolling sphere method.
However, horizontal rods on most structures are impractical due to window washing
access equipment, etc.

Case#2:Buildings Less Than 60 m High


Note that for structures less than 60 m high the risk of flashes to the sides of the
building is low, and therefore protection is not required for the vertical sides directly
below protected areas.

Case#3:Buildings Taller Than 120 m High


For structures taller than 120 m, the standard recommends that all parts above 120 m
be protected. It is expected that due to the height and nature of such a structure, it
would require a design to LPL I or II (99% or 97% protection level). For tall buildings,
the actual risk of flashes to the side are estimated by the industry to be less than 2%,
and typically these would be the smaller lightning flashes, e.g., from branches of the
downward leader. Therefore, this recommendation would only be appropriate for high
risk locations or structures.

Note For Buildings Taller Than 30 m:


For buildings taller than 30 m, additional equipotential bonding of internal conductive
parts should occur at a height of 20 m and every further 20 m of height. Live circuits
should be bonded via SPDs.

1.4 How To Apply The Rolling Sphere Method for


Lightning Protection Design?

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DesignCalculationsofLightningProtectionSystemsPartseventeen~ElectricalKnowhow
The basic concept of applying the rolling sphere to a structure is as follows:
Step#1: Scale The building / structure to be protected (e.g. on a scale of 1:100) (see Fig.9)
Depending on the location of the building under design, it is also necessary to include the
surrounding structures and objects with the same scale of the building, since these could act as
natural protective measures for the building under design.

Fig.9: Scaled Building and Scaled Rolling Sphere of LPL I

Step#2: calculate The radius of the sphere which must be equal to the striking distance associated
with the minimum current level for the chosen lightning protection level.

Step#3: Scale the radius r of the rolling sphere calculated from Step#2 with the same scale of the
building (see Fig.9). (For example, if the building with scale 1:100, from Table#1 for a lightning
protection levels I, the rolling sphere radius will be 20 cm and for LPL II will be 30 cm and for LPL III
will be 45 cm).

Step#4: Make a circular path around the building under design with distance apart equal to the
scaled rolling sphere radius (see Fig.10). This circular path will terminate on the corner of the
building.

Fig.10: Circular path around the building


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Step#5: Roll an imaginary sphere over the surface of the structure in all directions (see Fig.11).

Fig.11:imaginary sphere rolled over the surface


of the structurein all directions

Note: the rolling process of the imaginary sphere is controlled by the distance between Air
terminals as given in part#3 in this Article i.e. each roll is far from the previous one by the allowable
distance between air terminals calculated from part#3.

Step#6: Where the sphere touches the building, A lightning protection would be needed by placing
Air Terminal. Using the same logic, the areas where the sphere does not touch the Building (see
shaded area in Fig.11) would be deemed to be protected and would not require protection.

Note: Generally a lightning protection system is designed such that the rolling sphere only touches
the lightning protection system and not the structure i.e. The air termination system is placed such
that the sphere only touches the airterminations, and not the structure.

In the next Article, I will explain other Positioning Methods for Air Termination system: The Protective
Angle Method (PAM) and The Mesh Method. Please, keep following.

Back To
Course Lightning2: Lightning Protection System Design and
Calculations

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