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DesignCalculationsofLightningProtectionSystemsPartseventeen

In Article "Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Two", I indicated the lightning

protection design process involves a number of design steps as inbelow Fig.

ELECTRICALLIBRARY

ElectricalDesignCriteria

ElectricalWorksMethodStatements

ManufacturersListsforElectrical

Products

Electrical

ElectricalDrawingDetails

(3)Online

PDFCOURSES

ElectricalLoadEstimationCourse

AnIntroductiontoHeating,

VentilationandAirConditioning

(HVAC)Systems

AnIntroductiontoLightingDesign

AnIntroductiontoElectricalMotor

Basics

ELECTRICALBOOKS

Explained in Article "Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part

Two"

LorescoO

ElectricalBooks&DesignGuides

CodeofPracticeforEnergy

EfficiencyofElectricalInstallations

Guideforelectricaldesignengineers

MaintenanceManager'sGuideto

PowerQuality

PowerQuality&UtilizationGuide

EngineApplicationandInstallation

Guide

Also, In above Article, I indicated that the risk assessment study can be done by (4) different methods as

follows:

Methods Of Calculations For

Risk Assessment Study

Articles

Dwelling

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DesignCalculationsofLightningProtectionSystemsPartseventeen~ElectricalKnowhow

Guide

LiquidCooledGensetApplication

Manual

(Equations And Tables

Method) as per IEC 623052

MVDesign&TechnicalGuide

MVApplicationcatalogue

ElectricalandTrafficEngineering

Manual

(Equations And Tables

Method) as per NFPA 780

ELECTRICALSOFTWARE

ElectricalSoftwarePrograms

RiesgoSoftwareForPerformingThe

RiskAssessmentStudy

StrikeRiskV5.0forperformingthe

RiskAssessmentStudy

RAPALSoftwareforperformingthe

RiskAssessmentStudy

EricoGEMSoftwareProgramfor

EarthingCalculations

VisualProfessionalEditionSoftware

(6)PrinttheResultsbyUsingthe

PrintEditor

VisualProfessionalEditionSoftware

(5)InsertingCalculationPlanes

Performing TheRisk

Assessment Study

Third: Excel Sheets Method

For Performing The Risk

Assessment Study

Fourth: Online Calculators

Method Used for Need for

Lightning Protection

calculations

Two

Design Calculations

Three

Design Calculations

Four

Design Calculations

Five

Design Calculations

Six

Design Calculations

Seven

Design Calculations

Eight

Design Calculations

Nine

Design Calculations

Ten

Design Calculations

Eleven

Design Calculations

Twelve

DwellingU

of Lightning Protection Systems Part

of Lightning Protection Systems Part

of Lightning Protection Systems Part

GELightin

of Lightning Protection Systems Part

of Lightning Protection Systems Part

of Lightning Protection Systems Part

Selective

thirteen

Fourteen

Explained in Article "Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part

Fifteen"

VisualProfessionalEditionSoftware

(4)InsertingLuminaires

VisualProfessionalEditionSoftware

(3)StartingSteps

VisualProfessionalEditionSoftware

(2)CheckingtheDefaultSettings

VisualProfessionalEditionSoftware

(1)UnderstandingtheProgram

Interface

CalcuLuxSoftware(1)MainWindow

andBarMenus

In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part Sixteen ", I explained the following

points:

Types and forms of Strike Termination Subsystem,

CalcuLuxSoftware(2)CheckingThe

DefaultSettings

CalcuLuxSoftware(3)Examplefor

LigthingdesignofanOffice

CalcuLuxSoftwarePartFour

CalcuLuxSoftwarePartFive

Sizing of Natural Air Terminals,

Positioning / Placement of Air Termination System Components.

The Class of LPS/LPL influences on the (3) Positioning Methods.

Today, I will explain in detail the (3) Positioning Methods for Air Termination system which were:

2. The Protective Angle Method (PAM),

3. The Mesh Method.

CalcuLuxSoftwarePartSix

CalcuLuxSoftwarePartSeven

IDSpecSoftware

Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems Part One

DIALuxLightingSoftwareProgram

BlueVersion

(8)differen

DIALuxLightingSoftwareProgram

RedVersion

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DesignCalculationsofLightningProtectionSystemsPartseventeen~ElectricalKnowhow

DIALuxIndoorLightingCalculations

MenuOptions

HOWTO

Conducto

Conducto

WriteTechnicalSpecificationsfor

LightningProtectionSystems

DetermineTheNumberOfDown

ConductorsofLPS

PerformNeedforLightningProtection

Calculationsby(4)DifferentMethods

:

1.1 The striking distance approach

SizingOve

PerformGroundingCalculationsby

(6)DifferentMethods

SizeEarthingConductorsUsingNEC

Tables

SizeEarthingConductorsUsingBS

7671

SelecttheBestEarthingSystem

For lightning flashes to earth, a downward leader grows stepbystep in a series of jerks

from the cloud towards the earth. When the leader has got close to the earth within a

few tens, to a few hundreds of metres, the electrical insulating strength of the air near

the ground is exceeded.

Calculatio

A further leader discharge similar to the downward leader begins to grow towards the

head of the downward leader: the upward leader.

Electrical

Upward leader will be launched at points of greatest electric field intensity (see Fig.1)

and can move in any direction towards the approaching downward leader. It is for this

reason that lightning can strike the side of tall structures rather than at their highest

point.

Electrical

Electrical

CalculateVoltageDropasperU.S.

andEuropeanMethods

UseNECAnnexBTablesin

ConductorAmpacityCalculations

PerformConductorAmpacity

CalculationsUsingNECunder

EngineeringSupervisionMethod

PerformConductorAmpacity

CalculationsUsingNECSection

310.15Tables

SizeOvercurrentProtectionDevices

CalculatetheTotalDemandElectrical

LoadforNonDwellingBuildings

CalculateElectricalDemandLoadfor

DwellingBuildingsasperNEC

OptionalMethod

CalculateElectricalDemandLoadfor

DwellingBuildingsasperNEC

StandardMethod

Calculategeneralusereceptacles

loadinadwellingunit

CalculateMaximumPermissible

NumberOfLightingFixturesOnA

GeneralLightingBranchCircuit

CalculateTrackLightingLoad

CalculateTheMinimumNumberOf

GeneralLightingBranchCircuitsFor

AnyBuilding

The distance of the last step of a downward leader is termed the striking distance and

is determined by the amplitude of the lightning current. This striking distance can be

represented by a sphere with a radius equal to the striking distance (see Fig.2). The

striking distance r is given by:

r = 10 I 0.65

Where I is the peak current of the resulting stroke.

CalculateGeneralLightingBranch

CircuitLoadForAnyBuilding

CalculateSignAndOutlineBranch

CircuitsLoad

CalculateShowWindowLighting

Load

CalculateTheMinimumnumberof

receptaclebranchcircuitsforbankor

officebuildings

CalculatetheMaximumallowable

numberofreceptaclesonabranch

circuitinadwellingunit

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EstimatePreliminaryLoadByUsing

AreaMethod

Checklistf

EstimatePreliminaryLoadByUsing

TheBuildingAreaMethod

Checklists

EstimatePreliminaryLoadByUsing

SpaceBySpaceMethod(Functional

AreaMethod)

Checklist

Commissi

DesignOutdoorLightingByUsing

IsoluxDiagramMethod

DesignOutdoorLightingByUsing

TheBeamLumenMethodAsPerIES

DesignOutdoorLightingByUsing

TheBeamLumenMethodAsPerCIE

DesignOutdoorLightingByUsing

PointByPointMethod

DesignInteriorLightingByUsingBy

UsingQuickEstimateCharts

Fig.2:striking distance

DesignInteriorLightingByUsing

WattPerSquareFeetMethod

DesignInteriorLightingByUsing

PointByPointMethod

Lightning

DesignInteriorLightingByUsingThe

ZonalCavity(Lumen)Method

The larger the amount of charge carried by the lightning leader, the larger the resulting

lightning current, the greater will be the distance at which this happens.

BuildPreliminarySingleLineDiagram

LikeProfessionals

The head of the downward leader approaches the objects on the ground, unaffected by

anything, until it reaches the final striking distance.

MakeAPreliminaryDesignLike

Professionals

It is more difficult for an airterminal to intercept a smaller lightning flash than a larger

flash, as the smaller flash must approach closer to the airterminal before the upward

leader is launched.

WriteElectricalDesignCriteriaLike

Professionals

SpecifyTheRequiredTypeOf

GeneralUseReceptaclesForEach

AreaInADwellingUnit

To protect the structure against smaller lightning flashes, airterminals must be spaced

closer together. For smaller lightning flashes there is a risk that an air terminal may not

be close enough to intercept the down leader, thus a closer structural point releases an

upward leader which intercepts the flash (i.e. the building is struck).

DistributeGeneralUseReceptacle

LoadsInADwellingUnit

CourseEE

CourseEE

CourseEE

CourseLig

SelectReceptacleRatingForA

BranchCircuitInADwellingUnit

1.2 Relation between Lightning Protection Levels and Rolling Sphere Radius

CONTACTFORM

Name

The Lightning Protection Levels LPL,

Minimum current level to be protected against,

Probability percentages that lightning may be greater than these levels,

Email*

The rolling sphere radius used in the rolling sphere design method.

CourseE

Message*

Send

Table#1

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Also, The above Table#1 explains the relation between Lightning protection levels and rolling

sphere radius as in the following examples:

Example#1:

Suppose that a lightning protection system to provide LPL I such that 99% of all lightning flashes are

intercepted (all those of 3 kA or greater). There is only a 1% probability that lightning may be

smaller than the 3 kA minimum, and may not be close enough to an airterminal to be intercepted.

It should be noted that flashes of less than 3 kA are rare, and typically would not be expected to

cause damage to the structure. Protection greater than LPL I (99%) would require significantly more

material, is not covered by the standard and generally is not required for commercial construction.

Result:

The lower lightning protection levels (LPL II, III & IV) each increase the airterminal spacing,

reducing their ability to capture smaller lightning flashes, thus reducing overall the percentage of

lightning events they can protect against.

Example#2:

Suppose that a lightning protection system to provide LPL IV, designed using the rolling sphere

method, would use airterminals placed using a rolling sphere radius of 60 m.

These airterminals would be positioned such that they would capture all lightning flashes of 16 kA

or greater, thus offering protection to at least 84% of the lightning (the term at least is used to

indicate that the percentage of lightning captured might be greater, since smaller lightning flashes

could be captured if they were closer to the airterminal).

Result:

To offer a greater lightning protection level (e.g. LPL I, II or III) a smaller rolling sphere radius would

be used. This would result in a reduced spacing between airterminals (more airterminals), thus

positioning the airterminals to capture smaller lightning flashes, and increasing the total

percentage of lightning flashes captured.

The rolling sphere methods can be used for the following applications:

2.Rolling sphere method and mesh/catenary conductors,

3.Rolling sphere method and Tall structures.

When rods are to be used as the airtermination for the protection of plane surfaces (see Fig.3),

the following formula can be used:

d = 2 (2rh h2)

Where:

d = distance between two rods (m)

r = radius of the rolling sphere (m)

h = height of the rods (m)

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The following Table#2 shows some examples of rolling sphere protection distance (distance

between Air terminals) according to the Air terminals height and the Rolling Sphere Radius

according to lightning protection level LPL.

Table#2

When rods are to be used as the airtermination for protection of roof top items/structures (see

Fig.4) and The arrangement of the airtermination rods, over which no cable is normally spanned,

means that the sphere does not roll on rails but sits deeper instead, thus increasing the

penetration depth () of the sphere. In this case the following formula of sphere penetration distance

can be used:

p = r (r2 d2/4)

Where:

p = penetration distance (m)( part of the sphere below the horizontal lines between top of air

terminals)

r = radius of the rolling sphere (m)

d = Distance between two airtermination rods or two parallel airtermination conductors (m)

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The following Table#3 shows Rolling sphere penetration distance according to the distance

between Air rods and the Rolling Sphere Radius according to lightning protection level LPL.

Table#3

Note:

The height of the airtermination rods h should always be greater than the value of the penetration

depth p determined to ensure that the rolling sphere does not touch the structure to be protected.

Where the rolling sphere method is to be used to evaluate the protection provided by

mesh conductors or network of catenary wires, the mesh must be mounted at some

distance above the roof (see Fig.5), to ensure the rolling sphere does not touch its

surface in a similar way to the catenary conductors.

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Also, As with a free standing mast, catenary conductors can be used to keep the rolling

sphere away from the structure to be protected (see Fig.6). One or more catenary

conductors may be utilised to ensure that the sphere does not come into contact with

any part of the structures roof.

If the system is required to be isolated from the structure then a conductor suspended

between two free standing masts may be employed. This arrangement is suitable for

small sensitive structures such as explosive stores.

In a non isolated system, a catenary conductor may be used to protect larger items of

roof mounted equipment from a direct strike (see Fig.7).

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items of roof mounted equipment

The two formulas in the case of rod airterminations can be used also in case of using

mesh/catenary conductors. The distance/height of the mesh/catenary replaces the rod

distance/height. As in fig.4 Note that the distance for penetration or protection

distance is the diagonal of the grid (distance between points A & B).

Research shows that it is the upper 20% of the Tall structure that is most vulnerable

to side strikes and potential damage (see Fig.8).

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In the IEC standards, for buildings above 60 m, protection is required to the sides of

the upper 20% of height. The same placement rules used for roofs should apply to the

sides of the building. While the mesh method is preferable, particularly if using natural

components, protection is permitted using horizontal rods and rolling sphere method.

However, horizontal rods on most structures are impractical due to window washing

access equipment, etc.

Note that for structures less than 60 m high the risk of flashes to the sides of the

building is low, and therefore protection is not required for the vertical sides directly

below protected areas.

For structures taller than 120 m, the standard recommends that all parts above 120 m

be protected. It is expected that due to the height and nature of such a structure, it

would require a design to LPL I or II (99% or 97% protection level). For tall buildings,

the actual risk of flashes to the side are estimated by the industry to be less than 2%,

and typically these would be the smaller lightning flashes, e.g., from branches of the

downward leader. Therefore, this recommendation would only be appropriate for high

risk locations or structures.

For buildings taller than 30 m, additional equipotential bonding of internal conductive

parts should occur at a height of 20 m and every further 20 m of height. Live circuits

should be bonded via SPDs.

Lightning Protection Design?

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The basic concept of applying the rolling sphere to a structure is as follows:

Step#1: Scale The building / structure to be protected (e.g. on a scale of 1:100) (see Fig.9)

Depending on the location of the building under design, it is also necessary to include the

surrounding structures and objects with the same scale of the building, since these could act as

natural protective measures for the building under design.

Step#2: calculate The radius of the sphere which must be equal to the striking distance associated

with the minimum current level for the chosen lightning protection level.

Step#3: Scale the radius r of the rolling sphere calculated from Step#2 with the same scale of the

building (see Fig.9). (For example, if the building with scale 1:100, from Table#1 for a lightning

protection levels I, the rolling sphere radius will be 20 cm and for LPL II will be 30 cm and for LPL III

will be 45 cm).

Step#4: Make a circular path around the building under design with distance apart equal to the

scaled rolling sphere radius (see Fig.10). This circular path will terminate on the corner of the

building.

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Step#5: Roll an imaginary sphere over the surface of the structure in all directions (see Fig.11).

of the structurein all directions

Note: the rolling process of the imaginary sphere is controlled by the distance between Air

terminals as given in part#3 in this Article i.e. each roll is far from the previous one by the allowable

distance between air terminals calculated from part#3.

Step#6: Where the sphere touches the building, A lightning protection would be needed by placing

Air Terminal. Using the same logic, the areas where the sphere does not touch the Building (see

shaded area in Fig.11) would be deemed to be protected and would not require protection.

Note: Generally a lightning protection system is designed such that the rolling sphere only touches

the lightning protection system and not the structure i.e. The air termination system is placed such

that the sphere only touches the airterminations, and not the structure.

In the next Article, I will explain other Positioning Methods for Air Termination system: The Protective

Angle Method (PAM) and The Mesh Method. Please, keep following.

Back To

Course Lightning2: Lightning Protection System Design and

Calculations

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