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# Alessandra Bekhet

## Emily Roth, Olivia Szymkowski, Mohamed Sherif

Resistance in Series and Parallel
Experiment 10
June 8, 2016

1. Objective- The objective of this experiment was to use an ammeter, voltmeter, battery,
SPST, resistors and connecting wires to create circuits of resistor in series and parallel to
examine the relationships between currents and voltage in the respective setups. We used
the voltage drops of each of the resistor to determine V and we used that to determine the
current.

2. Data SheetsA.
Resistor values R1 10
R2 100

R3 500
R4 1000

Source voltage V
Equivalent resistance Rs
Current I
Voltage drops across resistors V1

5.42v
6.10
9x10^-3 amps
.09v
V2
V3

Experimental measurements
I 9.5x10^-3
I1 9.4x10^-3
V1
I2 9.3x10^-3
V2
I3 8.8x10^-3
V3
B.
Source voltage V
Equivalent resistance Rp
Current I
Current through resistors I1

.88v
4.50v

.094
.93
4.40
V1 + V2 + V3 5.42

Percent Error
5.6%
4.4%
5.7%
2.2%

5.42v
9.09
.61
.542
I2
I3

Experimental measurements
I .5
V1 4.6v
I1 .4
V2 4.3
I2 .043
V3 4.13
I3 .083
I1 + I 2 + I 3

.0542
.01084
Percent Error
18%
15.1%
20.7%
23.4%
.5113

## 3. Conclusiona. Analysis of Data and Results

i. A resistor is connected in series when they are connected in a line and
when connected to a voltage source and the switch is closed, the source
supplies a current to the circuit. Resistors that are connected in parallel are
arranged so that all the heads are connected together and all the tails are
connected together. The voltage drops across all the resistors are the same
and equal to the voltage of the source. Through this experiment we were
able to collect values of current and voltage and through the equation
V=IR we were able to calcite our experiment al compare it to the expected

value. We found out numbers to be very close yet differed slightly due to
varying errors. This experiment allowed us to examine the different ways
of measuring resistance through circuits connected in series and parallel.
ii.
Equation

## Reason for use

Paramaters

V=IR

Used in calculations
for a value when the
other two were given

V= voltage
I= current
R= resistance

Rs=R1+R2+..Rn

## Use this equation

to find resistance in a
series circuit.

Rs= Resistance in
series total
R= individual
resistance

1/Rp= 1/R1+1/R2+
1/Rn

## Use this equation to

find resistance in a
parallel circuit.

Rp= Resistance in
parallel total
R= individual
resistance

% Error= (EA)/A*100%

## This calculates the

percent error in the
result we got

E= experimental
value
A= accepted value

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## Experiment Performance Analysis

i. Regardless of our performance in this experiment, the resistors in and of
themselves are the largest source of our error. This is simply due to the
fact that they are not brand new and do not function perfectly which will
cause the readings to contribute to our error. Temperature is also another
major source of error because any kind of heat will cause our numbers to
be slightly imperfect.
c. Percent Error
i. After analyzing and evaluating our experimental results we found our
percent errors to be 18% for I, 13% for I1, 20.7% for I2, and 23.4 % for I3.
d. Related Questions
1) Pre lab
a) Consider resistors connected in series.
i) How are the voltage drops across the individual resistors related to the
voltage supplied by the battery?
(1) Voltage drop in each resistor will be R proportional to the ratio of
resistors resistance and sum of the resistances.
ii) How are the currents through the individual resistors related to the
current supplied by the battery?
(1) The current will remain constant.
b) Consider resistors connected in parallel.

i) How are the voltage drops across the individual resistors related to the
voltage supplied by the battery?
(1) Voltage drops are equal to the voltage supplied by the battery.
ii) How are the currents through the individual resistors related to the
current supplied by the battery?
(1) Sum of the currents through the resistors is equal to the current
supplied by the battery.
2) Post Lab
a) Suppose that the resistors in the various circuit diagrams represented the
resistances of the light bulbs. When a light bulb burs out, the circuit is
open through that particular component, that is R is infinite. Would the
remaining bulbs continue to burn for the following conditions? If so
would the bulbs burn more brightly if?
i) R2 burned out in the circuit in part A
(1) Due to it being a series circuit, if one of the bulbs burns out they
they will all go out.
ii) R1 burned out in the circuit in part B?
(1) Due to it being a parallel circuit if R1 burns out then R2 and R3
will stay lit at the same brightness.
iii) R3 burned out in the circuit in part B?
(1) While in a parallel circuit is R3 also burns out, R2 will not be
affected and it will stay lit.