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The F.I.T.T.

Principle is one of the

foundations of exercise, a set of
guidelines that help you set up a
workout routine to fit your goals and
fitness level while helping you get the
most out of your exercise program.
F.I.T.T. stands for:

Frequency: How often you exercise

For Cardio Exercise: Exercise
Guidelines suggest moderate exercise
five or more days a week or intense
cardio three days a week to improve
your health. For weight loss, you may
need to do up to six or more days a
For Strength Training: The
recommended frequency here is 2-3
non-consecutive days a week (at
least 1-2 days between sessions.

strength workout intensity. In general,

you want to lift enough weight that
you can only complete the desired
number of reps (around 1-3 sets of 816 reps of each exercise).
Time: How long you exercise
For Cardio Exercise: The exercise
guidelines suggest 30-60 minutes of
cardio (or working your way up to
that). How long you exercise will not
just depend on your fitness level, but
also your intensity. The harder you
work, the shorter your workouts will
For Strength Training: How long you
lift weights depends on the type of
workout you're doing and your
schedule. For example, a total body
workout could take up to an hour,
whereas a split routine could take less
Type: The type of activity you're doing

Intensity: How hard you work during

For Cardio Exercise: The general rule
is to work in your target heart rate
zone and focus on a variety of
intensities to stimulate different
energy systems.
For Strength Training: The exercises
you do (at least 8-10 exercises), the
amount of weight you lift and your
reps and sets determine your

For Cardio Exercise: Any activity that

gets your heart rate up counts as
cardio - Running, walking, cycling,
dancing, sports, etc.
For Strength Training: This pretty
much includes any exercise where
you're using some type of resistance
(bands, dumbbells, machines, etc.) to
work your muscles. Bodyweight
exercises can also be considered a
form of strength training, as well,

although building strength will likely

require more resistance.

The F.I.T.T. Principle is important

because it outlines how to manipulate
your program to get in shape and get
better results. It also helps you figure
out how to change your workouts to
avoid boredom, overuse injuries and
weight loss plateaus.

For example, walking three times a

week for 30 minutes at a moderate
pace might be a great place for a
beginner to start. After a few weeks,
however, your body adapts to these
workouts and several things may

Your body becomes more efficient at

exercise - The more you workout, the
easier it is to do the exercises,
causing you to burn fewer calories
than you did when you started.
Weight loss - Your new workouts may
cause weight loss which, of course, is
a good thing. The downside? You
expend fewer calories moving that
new, smaller body around.
Boredom - Doing the same workout
for weeks or months on end can get

old, eating into your motivation to

It's at this point you want to
manipulate one or more of the F.I.T.T.
Principles such as adding another day
of walking (changing your exercise
Frequency), walking faster or add
some running (changing the
Intensity), walking for a longer period
of time (changing the Time) or trying
something different like swimming or
running (changing the Type).

Wellness is much more than merely

physical health, exercise or nutrition.
It is the full integration of states of
physical, mental, and spiritual wellbeing. The model used by our
campus includes social, emotional,
spiritual, environmental,
occupational, intellectual and
physical wellness. Each of these
seven dimensions act and interact in
a way that contributes to our own
quality of life.

Social Wellness is the

ability to relate to and connect

with other people in our world.

Our ability to establish and
maintain positive relationships
with family, friends and coworkers contributes to our
Social Wellness.

Emotional Wellness is
the ability to understand
ourselves and cope with the
challenges life can bring. The
ability to acknowledge and
share feelings of anger, fear,
sadness or stress; hope, love,
joy and happiness in a
productive manner contributes
to our Emotional Wellness.

Wellness is the ability to
recognize our own
responsibility for the quality of
the air, the water and the land
that surrounds us. The ability
to make a positive impact on
the quality of our
environment, be it our homes,
our communities or our planet
contributes to our
Environmental Wellness.

Wellness is the ability to get
personal fulfillment from our
jobs or our chosen career
fields while still maintaining
balance in our lives. Our desire
to contribute in our careers to
make a positive impact on the
organizations we work in and
to society as a whole leads to
Occupational Wellness.

Wellness is the ability to open
our minds to new ideas and
experiences that can be

Spiritual Wellness is
the ability to establish peace
and harmony in our lives. The
ability to develop congruency
between values and actions
and to realize a common
purpose that binds creation
together contributes to our
Spiritual Wellness.

applied to personal decisions,

group interaction and
community betterment. The
desire to learn new concepts,
improve skills and seek
challenges in pursuit of
lifelong learning contributes to
our Intellectual Wellness.

Physical Wellness is
the ability to maintain a
healthy quality of life that
allows us to get through our
daily activities without undue
fatigue or physical stress. The
ability to recognize that our
behaviors have a significant
impact on our wellness and
adopting healthful habits
(routine check ups, a balanced
diet, exercise, etc.) while
avoiding destructive habits
(tobacco, drugs, alcohol, etc.)
will lead to optimal Physical

The FITT Principle

Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type

and how they relate to Injury

The FITT Principle (or formula) is a

great way of monitoring your exercise
program. The acronym FITT outlines
the key components of an effective
exercise program, and the initials F, I,
T, T, stand for: Frequency, Intensity,
Time and Type.

Frequency refers to the

frequency of exercise undertaken or
how often you exercise.

Intensity refers to the

intensity of exercise undertaken or
how hard you exercise.

Time refers to the time you

spend exercising or how long you
exercise for.

Type refers to the type of

exercise undertaken or what kind of
exercise you do.


A. Characteristics 1.Based
on oral traditions 2.Crude on
ideology and phraseology
Literary Forms Oral Literature a.
Riddles (bugtong) battle of wits
among participants Tigmo Cebu
Paktakon Ilonggo Patotdon Bicol
b. Proverbs (salawikain) wise
sayings that contain a metaphor used
to teach as a food for thought etc. c.

Tanaga - a mono-riming heptasyllabic

quatrain expressing insights and
lessonson life is "more emotionally
charged than the terse proverb and
thus hasaffinities with the folk lyric."
2.Folk Songs It is a form of folk lyric
which expresses the hopes and
aspirations, the people'slifestyles as
well as their loves. These are often
repetitive and sonorous, didactic
Hele or
oyayi lullaby b. Ambahan
(Mangyan) 7-syllable per line poem
that are about humanrelationships
and social entertainment c. Kalusan
(Ivatan) - work songs that depict the
livelihood of the peopled. d. Tagay
(Cebuano and Waray) drinking song.
e. Kanogan (Cebuano) song of
lamentation for the dead
Tales Myths explain how the world
was created, how certain animals
possess certain characteristics, why
some places have waterfalls,
volcanoes, mountains, flora or fauna.
Legends explain the origin of things
Why the Pineapple Has EyesThe
Legend of Maria Makiling c. Fables
used animal characters and
allegoryd.Fantasti stories deal with
underworld characters such as
tiyanak,aswang, kapre and
Epics These are
narratives of sustained length based
on oral tradition revolving
aroundsupernatural events or heroic
deeds (Arsenio Manuel) Examples:

Lam-ang (Ilocano) Hinilawod (Panay)

Kudaman (Palawan) Darangen
(1565 1863) Characteristics 1. It
has two distinct classifications:
religious and secular
It introduced
Spanish as the medium of
B.Literary Forms
1. Religious Literature - Religious
lyrics written by ladino poets or those
versed in both Spanish and Tagalog
were included in early catechism and
were used toteach Filipinos the
Spanish language. a. Pasyon long
narrative poem about the passion and
death of Christ. The most popular was
Ang Mahal na Passion ni Jesu
Cristong Panignoon Natin byAguino
de Belen
dramatization of the pasyon, it shows
the passion and death of Christ
Secular (non-religious) Literature
a.Awit - colorful tales of chivalry
made for singing and chanting
Example: Ibong Adarna b.Korido
metrical tale written in octosyllabic
quatrainsExample: Florante at Laura
by Francisco Baltazar c. Prose
Narratives written to prescribe
proper decorum i. Dialogo
iii. Ejemplo ii.Manual de Urbanidad iv.
tratado Examples: Modesto de
Castro's "Pagsusulatan ng Dalawang
Binibini na siUrbana at si Feliza" and
Joaquin Tuason's "Ang Bagong
Robinson" (The New Robinson) in

PERIOD(1864 1896)
Planted seeds of
nationalism in Filipinos
shifted from Spanish to
Tagalog3.Addressed the masses
instead of the intelligentsia
B.Literary Forms 1. Propaganda
Literature - Reformatory in objective
a. Political Essays satires, editorials
and news articles were written to
attackand expose the evils of Spanish
rule i.Diariong Tagalog founded by
Marcelo del Pilar ii.La Solidaridad
whose editor-in-chief is Graciano
Political Novels i. Noli
Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo
Jose Rizals masterpiecesthat paved
the way to the revolution
2.Revolutionary Literature more
propagandistic than literary as it is
moreviolent in nature and demanded
complete independence for the
a.Political Essays
helped inflame the spirit of
revolutioni. Kalayaan newspaper of
the society, edited by Emilio Jacinto
b. Poetry True Decalogue
Apolinario Mabini Katapusang Hibik
ng Pilipinas Andres Bonifacio
Liwanag at Dilim Emilio Jacinto
(1910 1945)
Period of
Apprenticeship (1910-1930)
1.Filipino Writers imitated English and
American models
2.Poems --

written were amateurish and mushy,

which phrasing and diction is
awkward and artificial. a.Short
Stories i.Dead Stars Paz Marquez
Benitez ii.The Key Paz Latorena
iii.Footnote to Youth Jose Garcia Villa
b.Novels i. Childe of Sorrow first
novel in English, by Zoilo Galang
B. Period of Emergence (1920-1930)
Highly influenced by Western literary
trends like Romanticism and Realism.
a. Short Stories most prevalent
literary form i. Jose Garcia Villa
earned the international title Poet of
War Years (1942-1944) 1. Tagalog
poets broke away from the Balagtas
tradition and insteadwrote in simple
language and free verse
prevailed over poetry a.25
Pinakamabuting Maikling Kthang
Pilipino (1943) compilation of
theshort story contest by the military
government. Suyuan sa Tubigan
Macario Pineda Lupang Tinubuan
Narciso Reyes Uhaw ang Tigang na
Lupa Liwayway ArceoB.Period of
Maturity and Originality (1945-1960)
1.Bountiful harvest in poetry, fiction,
drama and essay 2.Filipino writers
mastered English and familiarized
themselves iwhtdiverse techniques
3.Literary giants appeared a.
Palanca Awards for Literature i.Jose
Garcia Villa ii.Nick Joaquin iii.NVM
Gonzales iv.Bienvenido Santos

v.Gregorio Brillantes vi.Gilda

CorderoFernando b.National Artist
Awards i.Jose Garcia Villa ii.Nick
Characteristics 1.Martial Law
repressed and curtailed human rights,
including freedom of thepress
2.Writers used symbolisms and
allegories to drive home their
message, at theface of heavy
Theater was used as a
vehicle for protest, such as the PETA
(Phil. Educational Theater
Association) and UP Theater.
the eighties onwards, writers
continue to show dynamism and

The Literary Forms in Philippine

by: Christine F. Godinez-Ortega

been impressed upon him: that his

country was "discovered" and, hence,
Philippine "history" started only in
So successful were the efforts of
colonialists to blot out the memory of
the country's largely oral past that
present-day Filipino writers, artists
and journalists are trying to correct
this inequity by recognizing the
country's wealth of ethnic traditions
and disseminating them in schools
and in the mass media.
The rousings of nationalistic pride
in the 1960s and 1970s also helped
bring about this change of attitude
among a new breed of Filipinos
concerned about the "Filipino

Pre-Colonial Times

The diversity and richness of

Philippine literature evolved side by
side with the country's history. This
can best be appreciated in the
context of the country's pre-colonial
cultural traditions and the sociopolitical histories of its colonial and
contemporary traditions.

Owing to the works of our own

archaeologists, ethnologists and
anthropologists, we are able to know
more and better judge information
about our pre-colonial times set
against a bulk of material about early
Filipinos as recorded by Spanish,
Chinese, Arabic and other chroniclers
of the past.

The average Filipino's

unfamiliarity with his indigenous
literature was largely due to what has

Pre-colonial inhabitants of our

islands showcase a rich past through
their folk speeches, folk songs, folk

narratives and indigenous rituals and

mimetic dances that affirm our ties
with our Southeast Asian neighbors.
The most seminal of these folk
speeches is the riddle which
is tigmo in Cebuano, bugtong in
Tagalog, paktakon in Ilongo
and patototdon in Bicol. Central to
the riddle is the talinghaga or
metaphor because it "reveals subtle
resemblances between two unlike
objects" and one's power of
observation and wit are put to the
test. While some riddles are
ingenious, others verge on the
obscene or are sex-related:
Gongonan nu usin y amam If
you pull your daddy's penis
Maggirawa pay sila y inam. Your
mommy's vagina, too,
(Campana) screams. (Bell)
The proverbs or aphorisms
express norms or codes of behavior,
community beliefs or they instill
values by offering nuggets of wisdom
in short, rhyming verse.
The extended form, tanaga, a
mono-riming heptasyllabic quatrain
expressing insights and lessons on
life is "more emotionally charged than
the terse proverb and thus has

affinities with the folk lyric." Some

examples are the basahanon or
extended didactic sayings from
Bukidnon and
the daraida and daragilon from Panay.
The folk song, a form of folk lyric
which expresses the hopes and
aspirations, the people's lifestyles as
well as their loves. These are often
repetitive and sonorous, didactic and
naive as in the children's songs
or Ida-ida (Maguindanao), tulang
pambata (Tagalog) or cansiones para
abbing (Ibanag).
A few examples are the lullabyes
or Ili-ili (Ilongo); love songs like
the panawagon and balitao (Ilongo);
harana or serenade (Cebuano);
the bayok (Maranao); the sevensyllable per line poem, ambahanof
the Mangyans that are about human
relationships, social entertainment
and also serve as a tool for teaching
the young; work songs that depict the
livelihood of the people often sung to
go with the movement of workers
such as
the kalusan (Ivatan), soliranin (Tagalo
g rowing song) or the mambayu, a
Kalinga rice-pounding song; the
verbal jousts/games like
the duplo popular during wakes.
Other folk songs are the drinking
songs sung during carousals like the
tagay (Cebuano and Waray); dirges

and lamentations extolling the deeds

of the dead like
the kanogon (Cebuano) or
the Annako(Bontoc).
A type of narrative song
or kissa among the Tausug of
Mindanao, the parang sabil, uses for
its subject matter the exploits of
historical and legendary heroes. It
tells of a Muslim hero who seeks
death at the hands of non-Muslims.
The folk narratives, i.e. epics and
folk tales are varied, exotic and
magical. They explain how the world
was created, how certain animals
possess certain characteristics, why
some places have waterfalls,
volcanoes, mountains, flora or fauna
and, in the case of legends, an
explanation of the origins of things.
Fables are about animals and these
teach moral lessons.
Our country's epics are
considered ethno-epics because
unlike, say, Germany's
Niebelunginlied, our epics are not
national for they are "histories" of
varied groups that consider
themselves "nations."
The epics come in various
names: Guman (Subanon); Darangen
(Maranao); Hudhud (Ifugao);
and Ulahingan (Manobo). These epics
revolve around supernatural events

or heroic deeds and they embody or

validate the beliefs and customs and
ideals of a community. These are
sung or chanted to the
accompaniment of indigenous
musical instruments and dancing
performed during harvests, weddings
or funerals by chanters. The chanters
who were taught by their ancestors
are considered "treasures" and/or
repositories of wisdom in their
Examples of these epics are
the Lam-ang (Ilocano); Hinilawod (Sul
od); Kudaman (Palawan); Darangen (
Maranao); Ulahingan (LivunganenArumanen Manobo); Mangovayt
Buhong na Langit (The Maiden of the
Buhong Sky from Tuwaang-Manobo); Ag Tobig neg
Keboklagan (Subanon);
and Tudbulol (T'boli).

The Spanish Colonial Tradition

While it is true that Spain
subjugated the Philippines for more
mundane reasons, this former
European power contributed much in
the shaping and recording of our
literature. Religion and institutions
that represented European civilization
enriched the languages in the
lowlands, introduced theater which
we would come to know as komedya,

the sinakulo, the sarswela, the

playlets and the drama. Spain also
brought to the country, though at a
much later time, liberal ideas and an
internationalism that influenced our
own Filipino intellectuals and writers
for them to understand the meanings
of "liberty and freedom."
Literature in this period may be
classified as religious prose and
poetry and secular prose and poetry.
Religious lyrics written by ladino
poets or those versed in both Spanish
and Tagalog were included in early
catechism and were used to teach
Filipinos the Spanish language.
Fernando Bagonbanta's "Salamat
nang walang hanga/gracias de sin
sempiternas" (Unending thanks) is a
fine example that is found in
the Memorial de la vida cristiana en
lengua tagala (Guidelines for the
Christian life in the Tagalog language)
published in 1605.

octosyllabic quintillas that became

entrenched in the Filipino's
commemoration of Christ's agony and
resurrection at Calvary. Gaspar
Aquino de Belen's "Ang Mahal na
Passion ni Jesu Christong Panginoon
natin na tola" (Holy Passion of Our
Lord Jesus Christ in Verse) put out in
1704 is the country's earliest
known pasyon.
Other known pasyons chanted
during the Lenten season are in
Ilocano, Pangasinan, Ibanag,
Cebuano, Bicol, Ilongo and Waray.

Another form of religious lyrics

are the meditative verses like
the dalit appended to novenas and
catechisms. It has no fixed meter nor
rime scheme although a number are
written in octosyllabic quatrains and
have a solemn tone and spiritual
subject matter.

Aside from religious poetry, there

were various kinds of prose narratives
written to prescribe proper decorum.
Like the pasyon, these prose
narratives were also used for
proselitization. Some forms
are:dialogo (dialogue), Manual de
Urbanidad (conduct
book); ejemplo (exemplum)
and tratado (tratado). The most wellknown are Modesto de Castro's
"Pagsusulatan ng Dalawang Binibini
na si Urbana at si Feliza"
(Correspondence between the Two
Maidens Urbana and Feliza) in 1864
and Joaquin Tuason's "Ang Bagong
Robinson" (The New Robinson) in
1879, an adaptation of Daniel Defoe's

But among the religious poetry of

the day, it is the pasyon in

Secular works appeared

alongside historical and economic

changes, the emergence of an

opulent class and the middle class
who could avail of a European
education. This Filipino elite could
now read printed works that used to
be the exclusive domain of the
The most notable of the secular
lyrics followed the conventions of a
romantic tradition: the languishing
but loyal lover, the elusive, often
heartless beloved, the rival. The
leading poets were Jose Corazon de
Jesus (Huseng Sisiw) and Francisco
Balagtas. Some secular poets who
wrote in this same tradition were
Leona Florentino, Jacinto Kawili,
Isabelo de los Reyes and Rafael
Another popular secular poetry is
the metrical romance, the awit and
korido in Tagalog. The awit is set in
dodecasyllabic quatrains while
the korido is in octosyllabic quatrains.
These are colorful tales of chivalry
from European sources made for
singing and chanting such as Gonzalo
de Cordoba (Gonzalo of Cordoba)
and Ibong Adarna (Adarna Bird).
There are numerous metrical
romances in Tagalog, Bicol, Ilongo,
Pampango, Ilocano and in
Pangasinan. The awit as a popular
poetic genre reached new heights in
Balagtas' "Florante at Laura" (ca.

1838-1861), the most famous of the

country's metrical romances.
Again, the winds of change
began to blow in 19th century
Philippines. Filipino intellectuals
educated in Europe
called ilustrados began to write about
the downside of colonization. This,
coupled with the simmering calls for
reforms by the masses gathered a
formidable force of writers like Jose
Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano
Ponce, Emilio Jacinto and Andres
This led to the formation of the
Propaganda Movement where prose
works such as the political essays and
Rizal's two political novels, Noli Me
Tangere and the El
filibusterismo helped usher in the
Philippine revolution resulting in the
downfall of the Spanish regime, and,
at the same time planted the seeds of
a national consciousness among
But if Rizal's novels are political,
the novel Ninay (1885) by Pedro
Paterno is largely cultural and is
considered the first Filipino novel.
Although Paterno's Ninay gave
impetus to other novelists like Jesus
Balmori and Antonio M. Abad to
continue writing in Spanish, this did
not flourish.

Other Filipino writers published

the essay and short fiction in Spanish
in La Vanguardia, El
Debate, Renacimiento Filipino,
and Nueva Era. The more notable
essayists and fictionists were Claro M.
Recto, Teodoro M. Kalaw, Epifanio de
los Reyes, Vicente Sotto, Trinidad
Pardo de Tavera, Rafael Palma,
Enrique Laygo (Caretas or Masks,
1925) and Balmori who mastered
the prosa romantica or romantic
But the introduction of English as
medium of instruction in the
Philippines hastened the demise of
Spanish so that by the 1930s, English
writing had overtaken Spanish
writing. During the language's death
throes, however, writing in the
romantic tradition, from the awit and
korido, would continue in the novels
of Magdalena Jalandoni. But patriotic
writing continued under the new
colonialists. These appeared in the
vernacular poems and modern
adaptations of works during the
Spanish period and which further
maintained the Spanish tradition.

The American Colonial Period

A new set of colonizers brought
about new changes in Philippine
literature. New literary forms such as

free verse [in poetry], the modern

short story and the critical essay were
introduced. American influence was
deeply entrenched with the firm
establishment of English as the
medium of instruction in all schools
and with literary modernism that
highlighted the writer's individuality
and cultivated consciousness of craft,
sometimes at the expense of social
The poet, and later, National
Artist for Literature, Jose Garcia Villa
used free verse and espoused the
dictum, "Art for art's sake" to the
chagrin of other writers more
concerned with the utilitarian aspect
of literature. Another maverick in
poetry who used free verse and
talked about illicit love in her poetry
was Angela Manalang Gloria, a
woman poet described as ahead of
her time. Despite the threat of
censorship by the new dispensation,
more writers turned up "seditious
works" and popular writing in the
native languages bloomed through
the weekly outlets like Liwayway and
The Balagtas tradition persisted
until the poet Alejandro G. Abadilla
advocated modernism in poetry.
Abadilla later influenced young poets
who wrote modern verses in the
1960s such as Virgilio S. Almario,
Pedro I. Ricarte and Rolando S. Tinio.

While the early Filipino poets

grappled with the verities of the new
language, Filipinos seemed to have
taken easily to the modern short
story as published in the Philippines
Free Press, the College
Folioand Philippines Herald. Paz
Marquez Benitez's "Dead Stars"
published in 1925 was the first
successful short story in English
written by a Filipino. Later on, Arturo
B. Rotor and Manuel E. Arguilla
showed exceptional skills with the
short story.
Alongside this development,
writers in the vernaculars continued
to write in the provinces. Others like
Lope K. Santos, Valeriano Hernandez
Pea and Patricio Mariano were
writing minimal narratives similar to
the early Tagalog short fiction
called dali or pasingaw (sketch).
The romantic tradition was fused
with American pop culture or
European influences in the
adaptations of Edgar Rice
Burroughs' Tarzan by F. P. Boquecosa
who also penned Ang Palad ni
Pepe after Charles Dicken's David
Copperfield even as the realist
tradition was kept alive in the novels
by Lope K. Santos and Faustino
Aguilar, among others.
It should be noted that if there
was a dearth of the Filipino novel in

English, the novel in the vernaculars

continued to be written and serialized
in weekly magazines like Liwayway,
Bisaya, Hiligaynon and Bannawag.
The essay in English became a
potent medium from the 1920's to
the present. Some leading essayists
were journalists like Carlos P. Romulo,
Jorge Bocobo, Pura Santillan
Castrence, etc. who wrote formal to
humorous to informal essays for the
delectation by Filipinos.
Among those who wrote criticism
developed during the American
period were Ignacio Manlapaz,
Leopoldo Yabes and I.V. Mallari. But it
was Salvador P. Lopez's criticism that
grabbed attention when he won the
Commonwealth Literay Award for the
essay in 1940 with his "Literature and
Society." This essay posited that art
must have substance and that Villa's
adherence to "Art for Art's Sake" is
The last throes of American
colonialism saw the flourishing of
Philippine literature in English at the
same time, with the introduction of
the New Critical aesthetics, made
writers pay close attention to craft
and "indirectly engendered a
disparaging attitude" towards
vernacular writings -- a tension that
would recur in the contemporary

The Contemporary Period

The flowering of Philippine
literature in the various languages
continue especially with the
appearance of new publications after
the Martial Law years and the
resurgence of committed literature in
the 1960s and the 1970s.
Filipino writers continue to write
poetry, short stories, novellas, novels
and essays whether these are socially
committed, gender/ethnic related or
are personal in intention or not.
Of course the Filipino writer has
become more conscious of his art
with the proliferation of writers
workshops here and abroad and the
bulk of literature available to him via
the mass media including the
internet. The various literary awards
such as the Don Carlos Palanca
Memorial Awards for Literature, the
Philippines Free Press, Philippine
Graphic, Home Life and Panorama
literary awards encourage him to
compete with his peers and hope that
his creative efforts will be rewarded in
the long run.
With the new requirement by the
Commission on Higher Education of
teaching of Philippine Literature in all
tertiary schools in the country
emphasizing the teaching of the

vernacular literature or literatures of

the regions, the audience for Filipino
writers is virtually assured. And,
perhaps, a national literature finding
its niche among the literatures of the
world will not be far behind.

Filipino Drama

4. Julian Cruz Balmaceda wrote SINO


The drama experienced a lull during

the Japanese period because movie
houses showing American films were
closed. The big movie houses were
just made to show stage shows.

Poetry and metrical romances[edit]

Tanaga - Short poems consisting of
four lines with seven syllables each
that rhyme at the end of each line.
Ladino Poems Were natives of first
Tagalog versifiers who saw print:
highly literate in both Spanish and
the vernacular.
Corridos Were widely read during
the Spanish period that filled the
populace's need for entertainment as
well as edifying reading matter in
their leisure moments.
Awit like corridos, these were also
widely read during the Spanish period
as entertaining, edifying, reading
manner in their leisure time. It is also
a fabrication of the writers
imagination although the characters
and the setting may be European.
The structure is rendered
dodecasyllabic quatrains.

Many of the plays were reproductions

of English plays to Tagalog. The
translators were Francisco Soc
Rodrigo, Alberto Concio, and Narciso
Pimentel. They also founded the
organization of Filipino players named
Dramatic Philippines. A few of
playwriters were:

1. Jose Ma. Hernandez wrote PANDAY


2. Francisco Soc Rodrigo wrote sa


3. Clodualdo del Mundo wrote

BULAGA (an expression in the game
Hide and Seek).

Nebula Solar System

Nebular Hypothesis, an explanation of

how the solar system was formed,
proposed by Pierre Simon de Laplace
in 1796. Laplace said that the
material from which the solar system
was formed was once a slowly
rotating cloud, or nebula, of
extremely hot gas. The gas cooled
and the nebula began to shrink. As
the nebula became smaller, it rotated
more rapidly, becoming somewhat
flattened at the poles.

A combination of centrifugal force,

produced by the nebula's rotation,
and gravitational force, from the
mass of the nebula, caused rings of
gas to be left behind as the nebula
shrank. These rings condensed into
planets and their satellites, while the
remaining part of the nebula formed
the sun.
The nebular hypothesis, widely
accepted for about a hundred years,
has several serious flaws. The most
serious concerns the speed of
rotation of the sun. When the nebular
hypothesis is worked out
mathematically on the basis of the
known orbital momentum of the
planets, it predicts that the sun must
rotate about 50 times more rapidly
than it actually does. There is also
some doubt that the rings pictured by
Laplace would ever condense into

Origin of Earth - Theories and

Interior of the Earth
There are various scientific theories
of origin and evolution of the earth

Nebular Hypothesis


Planetesimal Hypothesis


Gaseous Tidal Hypothesis


Binary Star Hypothesis


Gas Dust Cloud Hypothesis

Nabular Hypothesis
German philosopher, Kant and
French mathematician, Laplace
Earth, planets and sun
originated from Nebula.
Nebula was large cloud of gas
and dust. It rotates slowly.

In the early 20th century, the nebular

hypothesis was rejected and the
planetesimal hypothesis, that the
planets were formed from material
drawn out of the sun, became
popular. This theory, too, proved
unsatisfactory. Later theories have
revived the concept of a nebular
origin for the planets, but not in the
same form in which it was proposed
by Laplace.

Gradually it cooled and
contracted and its speed increased.
A gaseous ring was separated
from nebula

The central region, nebula
became sun.

Sun should have the greatest

angular momentum because of its
mass and situated in the center,
however, it has only two percent of
momentum of the solar system

How the hot gaseous material

condensed in to rings
Planetesimal Hypothesis
Chamberlin and Moulton
proposed the theory in 1904
The sun existed before the
formation of planets

A star came close to the sun.

Because of the gravitation pull
of the star, small gaseous bodies
were separated from the sun
These bodies on cooing
became small planet's
During rotation the small
planets collided and form planets

Later the ring cooled and took
form of a planet

The angular momentum could

not be produced by the passing star.

On repetition of the process all
other planets came into being

The theory failed to explain

how the planetesimals had become
one planet

Gaseous Tidal Theory

Jeans and Jeffrey proposed the
theory in 1925
Large star came near the sun.
Due to gravitational pull a gaseous
tide was raised on the surface of the
As the star came nearer, the
tide increased in size.
Gaseous tide detached when
star move away.
The shape of the tide was like
It broke into pieces-forming
nine planets of the solar system

Protoplanets Theory

Protoplanet, in astronomical theory, a

hypothetical eddy in a whirling cloud
of gas or dust that becomes a planet
by condensation during formation of
a solar system. As the central body,
or protostar, of the system contracts
and heats up, the increasing pressure
of its radiation is believed to drive off
much of the thinner material of the
protoplanets, particularly those closer
to the nascent star.
The various planets are thought to
have formed from the solar nebula,
the disc-shaped cloud of gas and dust
left over from the Sun's formation.
The currently accepted method by
which the planets formed is accretion,
in which the planetsbegan as dust

grains in orbit around the central

Protoplanets are small celestial
objects that are the size of a moon or
a bit bigger. They are small planets,
like an even smaller version of a
dwarf planet. Astronomers believe
that these objects form during the
creation of a solar system.
A giant impact between the protoEarth and a Mars-sized impactor
named Theia is the best current
theory for the formation of the Moon.
Scientists believe that Theia collided
with the early Earth and that the
Moon was created from the rubble left
over from the collision.