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A Roman URAroK

FIRST

YEAR LATIN
BY

WILLI AxM

C.

COLLAR,

A.M.

Head-Master Roxblry Latin School

M.

GRANT DANIELL,

A.M.

Formerly Princu'al Chauncy-Hall School,

BOSTON,

Bostoi.

U.S.A.

GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS


Cbc

3[tbcn.Tnm prcfifi

1902

C7/"?
/

Copyright,

William

C.

1901,

by

Collar and M. Grant Daniell


all rights reserved

PREFACE
What

grasp of the Latin language

may be

reasonably

expected of an intelligent and industrious pupil of fourteen

who has had


thirty-eight
1.

He

five

recitations

week

for

a school year of

weeks?

know

and
and imitating
read Latin that he knows the meaning of with-

should

the

principles of pronunciation

should have had sufficient practice


his teacher to

in following

out gross errors in accent or in the quantity of final syllables,

and with some idea

of grouping

words and phrases so as to

indicate the sense.


2.

He

should have acquired such familiarity with inflected

forms as to recognize unerringly the place of a form.

Half a

hundred fundamental principles of syntax should have become


a permanent part of his mental furnishing, chiefly through
manifold illustrations in the exercises and reading lessons,
subordinately through practical application in turning English
into Latin.
3.

Ten

of his thirty-eight

to practice in

weeks may well have been devoted

metaphrasing and translating selections of easy

Latin into idiomatic English, and to acquiring as large and


varied a working vocabulary as the reading and re-reading of
twenty-five or thirty pages could be expected to give.

moderate appreciation of Latin order and of


words in
Latin and in English, and a very moderate degree of facility
in applying the principles of syntax in the translation of
4.

Einally, a

the difference in the arrangement of corresponding

English into Latin

may

fairly
iii

be demanded.

PRE FA CE

iv

So much may be
an intelligent pupil

set

down

as a reasonable achievement for

in a year's

time under good teaching.

This book has been written to exhibit

scheme

in detail, to the best

work roughly sketched


The first few lessons have purposely been made someabove.
what easier than is usual, and the progression in difficulty

of the authors' ability, the

of

gradual for the benefit of pupils unfamiliar with English

grammar.

Some

classes

may be

able

to

compass two

of

these easier lessons at a time.

To

insure approximate evenness in the

work demanded

amount

and
no lesson

of time

of learners for the several lessons,

has been permitted to exceed two pages in length.

The importance

of the verb in the Latin inflectional

system

and the great amount of practice required to master its forms


thoroughly have seemed a good reason for introducing it at
the outset.
The development of- the tenses of the indicative
has been continuous with only such interruptions as seemed
necessary to enable the learner to digest and assimilate what
he has acquired. It will be seen that the method of comparison

is

freely used in the treatment of the verb, as, for example,

tenses similarly formed in different conjugations are placed

by side to be learned together.


This plan has been adopted for two reasons, either

side

of which
would sufficiently justify it: to ease the dead pull upon the
memory, and to foster the habit of observation and comparison.
It is often easier to learn two things or several that have some

by itself,
and the discerning of likenesses and differences is itself largely
Only when the learner has
the process and sum of education.
studied and practised the verb in parts is he required, through
review lessons, to survey and master it as a whole.
Several features that need only be mentioned will, it is

relation of likeness or contrast, than to learn either

hoped,

commend

themselves to teachers:

PRE FA CE
The compression

(i)

that will certainly

make

it

possible

for high school classes to go through the seventy-five lessons

twice in from twenty-five to twenty-eight weeks.

The

(2)

relative shortening of the exercises for translation

into Latin.
tice

any class seems to need more of such prac-

If

may be supplemented by having

it

Latin exercises written out and after a

a translation of the

little

interval retrans-

lated into Latin during the recitation.

The

(3)

frequent interspersion of reviews and of reading

lessons that anticipate no following principle of syntax.

The summary

(4)

The
but

of rules

is

certainly convenient

The "Essentials

(5)

for

reference and

the

index.

omitted from most books of this kind,

latter is strangely

and

useful.

Grammar

of

" prefixed to the lessons,

which should help to adapt the book to learners who come


to the study of Latin with little or no knowledge of English
grammar.

The copious

(6)

selections for reading at the

end of the

book, which will be found upon examination to be carefully

graded

in

point of difficulty and altogether interesting in

character.

As an

aid to teachers

have prepared a

who may use this book, the authors


Manual containing eight pages of

2'caclier''s

general suggestions followed by notes on each lesson.

The authors wish


ments

Miss

to

to

express

Ada Townsend

their grateful

of Evanston,

111.,

acknowledgfor several

valuable suggestions, and particularly to Mr. George F. Fiske,


Principal of the Wadleigh School, Winchester, Mass.,

read

all

who has

the proof sheets with a scholar's conscientious care

and aided materially

in perfecting the

work.

William C. Collar
M. Grant Daniell
Boston, May

6,

1901

NOTE TO TEACHERS
It

recommended

is

that

the

of

Selections

for Reading

(pp. 171-202) the Anecdotes, the Stories of Herctdes^


Stories of Ulysses

These selections are easy and with a

through the Lessons.


little

and the

be read from time to time, as pupils advance

preliminary help from the teacher can be read by pupils

with interest and profit, without waiting

till

the Lessons are

finished.

Pupils are early referred

new words
done

in

to

the general

that occur in the reading lessons.

order that

they

may become

Vocabulary

for

This has been

familiar by degrees

with the use of a general vocabulary, before the continuous

reading of the selections at the end of the book


upon.

They should read

the Latin-English Vocabulary,

use of

it

is

entered

the explanatory notes that precede

become accustomed

and from the beginning

of their

to observe the formation

and

derivation of words, the synonyms, and the English deriva-

and cognates
As many pupils

tives

that are given.


will

pass from this book to the Gate

Caesar or to Caesar's Gallic War,

it

is

recommended

to

that in

conjunction with the selections from Caesar the Stories of


Ulysses be reviewed, since in these the vocabulary and construction of Caesar are

somewhat

closely imitated.

CONTENTS
Page
1-13

Lbsson

Grammar

.Essentials of

Introductory:

Alphabet,

Pronunciation,

Syllables,

Quantity, Accent, Cases, Gender

15-19

Nominative Case.
Dfxlension.
Subject,
Singular and Plural of Nouns and Verbs
Accusative Case
Direct Object
II. First Declension.
Active Indicative Present. AgreeIII. First Conjugation
Conversation
ment of Vei-bs.
Limiting Genitive.
Genitive Case
IV. First Declension.
I.

First

20, 21

22,23

V.
VI.

Conversation
Active
Second Conjugation
Conversatk)n
Review.
:

Present.

indirect Object Dative


Conversation

Declension
Words
Conversation
Review.

Second

VIII.

Indicative

First Declension.
Ablative -with in.

VII.

First and Second Declensions.

in

and

-us

Case.

-um.

Agreement of Adjec-

tives

IX.

The Verh sum:


and

Adjective.

Indicative

XII.

Predicate

Review

X. Second Declension:
XI.

Present.

Words

in -er, -eri.

XIV.

XVI.

28,29
30> 3^

32. 33

34, 35

36, 37

Conversation
38. 39
Apposition
Second Declension: Words in -er, -ri.
40,41
Uses of the Dative: Z>a//z'^ of Possessor, Dative with
Adjectives.
Review
42.43
First and Second Conjugations: Active Indicative
Imperfect.
Ablative of Means
44, 45
First and Second Conjugations: Active Indicative
Ablative of Manner
Future.
46,47
ReadFirst Conjugation Active Indicative Perfect.
... 48, 49
ing Lesson: The Romans and the Sabines
Second Conjugation Active Indicative Perfect ... 50, 51

XV.

26, 27

Noun

Review.
.

XIII.

24,25


CONTENTS

Page

Lesson

XVII. The Demonstrative is


Review
XVIII. The Interrogative quis.
Active Indicative Present,
XIX. Third Conjugation
Imperfect, Future, and Perfect
Reading Lesson: Icarus
XX. Review.
XXI. Third Declension: Mute Stems
XXII. Third Conjugation Verbs in -io; Active Indicative

5-. 53

54-55

56, 57
5S,

59

60,61

Place
Future, and Perfect.
Whence and Whither
Ablative of
XXIII. Third Declension: Liquid Stems.
Imperfect,

Present,

62,

63

Review
Cause.
64, 65
XXIV. Third Declension Stems in -i
66, 67
XXV. Third Declension: Gender
68,69
XXVI. Review. Reading Lesson: Horatius at the
:

Bridge. Conversation

XXVII. Adjectives of the Third Declension.


ing Lesson: Caesar in Gaul
XXVIII. Fourth Conjugation: Active

and Future

Active

72,73

76,77

Locative Case

Lesson

XXXII. Passive
Present.

XXXIII.

'Y-AY.

hie

and

ille.

Reading

Britain Invaded

Voice:

Active

and

fect,

Indicative

Ablative of Agent
c^. Agreemetit of Relative

82,83
.

Passive:
and Future of rego and capio
Indicative

Present,

Passive:

Indicative

86, 87

88,89

Present,

audio. Reading

and Future of
Coriolanus and his Mother

fect,

84,85

Imper-

XXXV. Personal and Reflexive PRONoqNS


XXXVI. Active and

78.79
80, 81

Passive

V.Y.\.K1\VY.

XXXIV. Active and

74, 75

Pluperfect

of domus and

XXX. Syntax of Names of Towns, and


rus

Time

Ablative of

Indicative

Perfect. Review

XXXI. The Demonstratives

70,71

Indicative Present,

Imperfect, Future, and Perfect.

XXIX. All Conjugations:

Read-

Imper-

Lesson:
90, 91

Ablative of Separation
XXXVII.
92,93
XXXVIII. Passive Voice All Conjugations: Indicative

Possessive Adjectives.
Perfect, Pluperfect,

and Future Perfect

XXXIX. Review. Reading


bal

XL. Fourth Declension

Lesson:

Scipio

94. 95

and Hanni96, 97
98.

99


CONTENTS

XI

Page

Lesson

XLI. Comparison

of

Ablative

Adjectives.

Com-

of

parison

lOO, lOI

Partitive Genitive
XLII. Comparison of Adjectives.
Ablative of Degree of
XLIII. Comparison of Adjectives.

Difference

104, 105

Conversation
Comparison of Adverbs.
XLV. Reading Lesson: A Letter from Pompeii.
Review
Conversation.
Accusative of Extent
XLVI. Fifth Declension.
XLVIL The Subjunctive Mood: Purpose Clauses with ut
and ne
XLVIIL The Subjunctive Mood: Purpose Clauses. Result
Clauses with xA and VLt non
XLLX. Indirect Question. Sequence of Tenses
Review
L. Reading Lesson Caesar WINS A Victory.
LL Numerals. Descriptive Ablative and Genitive
LIL Numerals
Reading Lesson:
Lin. Ten Irregular Adjectives.
Caesar and Vergil
LIV. The Infinitive used as in English
LV. Accusative and Infinitive Indirect Statement.
XI.I\'.

102,103

106, 107

108, 109

110,111

12,

113

114,115
116,117

118,119
120,121
122, 123

124, 125
126, 127

Tenses of the Infinitive

128, 129

LVI. The Demonstratives idem, ipse, iste


Reading Lesson: Africa.
LVII. Indefinite Pronouns.

Review

LVIII. Imperative
Appeals

132. i33

and

Subjunctive:

Conunands and

Reading

Lesson: Friend-

LIX. Compounds of sum.


ship

130, 131

134, 135

Dative with Compounds Dative of Service


Reading Lesson: Fabricius andthe
;

136, 137

LX. Participles.

Physician
Ablative Absolute
LXI. Participles.
LXII. Participles: The Gerundive
LXIII. The Gerund
LXIV. The Supine.
Reading
Ablative of Specif cation.
Review
Lesson: Roman Consuls.
LXV. Review of Verb-Forms: First and Second Conju-

gations.
Reading Lesson Romulus and Remus
LXVI. Review of Verb-Forms: Third and Fourth Conjugations.
Reading Lesson Romulus and Remus

138, 139
140,141

142,143
144, 145

146, 147

14S, 149

150,151

'

CONTENTS

XU
Lbsson

Page

LXVII. Deponent Verbs.


Ablative with Certain Deponents
LXVIII. The Irregular Verbs volo, nolo, mal5.
Dative

with Intransitive Verbs

LXIX. Cum Temporal, Causal, and Concessive.


ing Lesson: Quintus Fabius Maximus

LXX. Conditional Sentences


LXXI. Review.
Reading Lesson

Read.

154, 155

156, 157

158, 159
:

Rivalry of two Cen-

turions

160, 161

LXXIL The Irregular Verbs


after Verbs of Fearing.

OF

152,153

eo, fero,

fio.

Subjunctive

Reading Lesson

Rivalry

Two Centurions

162, 163

LXXIII. Impersonal Use of Verbs.


Relative of Purpose.
Reading Lesson Rivalry of Two Centurions

164, 165

166,167

LXXIV. Periphrastic Conjugations. Dative of Agent


LXXV. Expressions of Purpose. Review. Reading
Lesson
Victory

The Romans win their First Naval


168, 169

Selections for Reading:

Anecdotes

Stories of Hercules
Stories of Ulysses

173-180
180-186
186-190

Fables
Stories from

71-173

Roman History

Caesar: Gallic War


Appendix. Tables of Inflection, Conjugation, etc.
Rules of Syntax

Latin-English Vocabulary
English-Latin Vocabulary
Index

190-198
199-202
.

203-239
241-244
245-290
291-301
303-31

ILLUSTRATIONS
A Roman

Frontispiece

Orator (Statue of Cato)

Page

A Roman Lady

'4

and Sword

Javelin (pilum)

Trumpet

21

and Suppliant (supplex)

Priest, Altar (ara),

27

(gladius)

(tuba)

35

Spear (hasta)

43

Roman

IIe;iddresses

Writing

Materials,

and red

black

5'

an inkstand

representing

papyrus

ink);

letter

(atramentarium,

for

and addressed

sealed

(M LvcREiio Flam[ini] Martis Decvrioni Pompei[s])


Marcus Lucretius,

The

priest of Mars, decurion,

unseen and been washed ashore.

A nymph

body.

sits

Daedalus now discovers his


On the left is a Greek

near Icarus.

temple

A Roman

59

Coin.

Obverse

captives.

A Roman

Obverse

Coin.

Reverse

head of Venus.

ing Anchises and the Palladium.

A Roman

57

Icarus, following his father, in flight has fallen

Fall of Icarus.

lifeless

to

....

Pompeii

Aeneas

carry-

Caesar

head of Venus.

61

Reverse

trophy and

Caesar

Coin.

69

Horatius Codes

at the Bridge

71

Ancient Plough (aratrum)

87

Roman Helmets

89

(galeae)

Coriolanus

91

Restoration of the Temple of Vesta at

Temple (templum).
Scipio.

of

Naples

Museum

Reverse

97
108
:

trophy of Gallic

Caesar

Soldiers.

119

Showing

breast armor, sling,

Caesar.

in

Naples and Vesuvius


Obverse head of Venus.

arms.

Bust

in the

95
97

Ancient bust

A Roman Coin.
Roman

Ancient Statue

Hannibal.

View

Rome

shields, helmets, swords, javelins, sandals,

pack carried on a pole

Louvre, Paris

123
125

xiii

ILL US TRA TIONS

xi\^

Page
Bust at Caproni's, Boston

Vergil.

Roman Sandals
A Roman Coin.
s[vl]ter.
used

Roman

[43

Obverse: veiled head of Pietas.

and

axe.

A[vLVs] Hirtivs Pr[aefectvs]

discovered by Faustulus

Coins, representing militarj- s'.andards

Vinea

145

149
151

155

Shields (scuta)

Battering

Caesar Co[n]-

Reverse: lituus (augur's crooV), praefericulum (dish

in sacrifices),

The Twins

125

Ram

163
(aries)

202

FIRST YEAR LATIN


ESSENTIALS OF GRAMMAR

These

Note.

essentials apply in the

main

to

both English and

Latin grammar.

THE PARTS OF SPEECH

NOUNS
1.

A Noun

or thing
a.

London,

boy,

Proper Noun

place, or thing
b.

word used

is

c.

of a person, place,

name

the

is

a particular person,

of

George, Boston, September,

Common Noun

name

is

any one of a class of objects

may be

name

as the

ship, book, star.

Noun

Collective

is

that

Monday.

may be

applied to

boy, city, 7nonth, day.

name

that in the singular form

applied to a group of objects

croivd, family, herd,

committee.
d.

Verbal

Noun

is

the

name

of an action

seeing, read-

ing, writing, to see, to read, to write.


e.

An Abstract

Noun

is

the

name

of a quality or condition

goodness, truth, weakness, poverty.

PRONOUNS
2.
/,

A Pronoun

yon, liim,

is

this,

word used

who.

to take the place of a

noun

YEAR LATIN

J^'.-l'iST

I^pvz. --

antecedent.

Xhe ncun for, which a pronoun stands is called its


Thus, in John goes to sc/iool, but he does not study,
:

noun John

the

a.

the antecedent of the

is

Personal Pronoun

form whether
is,

spoken

for the person

the Second Person

of, he, she,

Note.
b.

is,

Nouns

it,

he.

/,

spoken

c.

relative

An

they, etc., that

The

**

is,

zvho,

Who

is

is

ivJiicJi,

a pronoun that

is

What

there ?

Demonstrative Pronoun

an object definitely
e.

An

/ A

Reflexive Pronoun

the subject

He

ivJiat,

and

that.

is

used to

shall zve do ?

and

The

wJiat.

a pronoun that points out

a pronoun that points out an

is

some, one, any, othci,

stands, with

this, that, these, those.

Pronoun

Indefinite

object indefinitely

is

it

lives after theviy

pronoun that

interrogative pronouns are 7uho, zvhich,


d.

thou, yon,

the Third Person.

men do

evil that

pronouns are

its

that

are almost always in the third person.

Interrogative Pronoun

ask a question

etc.,

to,

connects a subordinate clause (20), in which

The

we,

or for the person or thing

Relative (or Conjunctive) Pronoun

the antecedent

by

a pronoun that shows

is

stands for the speaker,

it

the First Person

etc., tliat

pronoun

is

all, etc.

pronoun that refers back to

hurt himself.

ADJECTIVES
3.

An

meaning

word used to qualify or limit the


noun or pronoun good lesson, beautiful moon,

Adjective

of a

is

the boy, five girls.


a.

A, an, and

times called

the,

Articles.

Indefinite Article.

really limiting adjectives, are

The

is

the

Definite Article,

some-

a or an the

THE PARTS OF SPEECH


/;.

Numeral Adjectives are adjectives of number.

arc cither Cardinal, denoting

how many:

or Ordinal, denoting which

order

in

They

one, two, three, four

second, third,

first,

fourth.
c.

and

The demonstrative pronouns,


the

the indefinite pronouns,

pronouns

interrogative

Demonstrative
Adjectives

Uliich
d.

Adjectives

some

way

boys,

shall zue

this

book,

house

is

home of

Indefinite
:

that /

Adjectives are often used as nouns

the free a>id the

Interrogative Adjectives

What man

respectively

called

that

any pencil ; and

go

and zvhat may

zvJiich

be used as adjectives, and are then

"

The land of

the brave."

VERBS
4.

Verb

is

a word used to declare or assert something

about a person or thing: / ride; you laugh;

the leaf

falls.
a.

(28)

Transitive Verb is a

commonly

meaning

requires an

The boy

strikes

verb that

in

the

ball

the active voice


to

object (14)

complete
cat

the

catche'?

its

mouse.
b.

An

Intransitive Verb is a \-erb that

admit an object
Note.

Certain

another intransitive

wind blew
c.

A
t,

verbs

fly

may

The wind

does not commonly

I walk.
at

one time be transitive and

bk-iu the

snow

at

into ok r faces ; the

furiously.

Regular Verb

(past) tense (33)

of d,

Birds

is

a verb

and past

or ed to the present

past participle loved.

that

forms

participle (34, a)
:

present

its

imperfect

by the addition

loz'e,

past loved,

;:

FIRST YEAR LATIN

An

d.

Irregular Verb

a verb that does not form

is

imperfect (past) tense by the addition of d,


present
e.

its

or ed to the

t,

present give, past gave, past participle given.

An

Auxiliary Verb

a verb that

is

jugation of other verbs

is

used

/ am loved ; do yon

in

the con-

love ? he has

given.
f.

An

-Impersonal Verb

is

one that

is

used only

the

in

third person singular, having no personal subject: // rains


it snozvs.

In

Note.

Latin there are

many more impersonal

verbs and

impersonal uses of other verbs than in English.

ADVERBS
An

5.

Adverb

is

word used

to modify the

verb, an adjective, or another adverb:


the orange is very large

An

a.

Adverb

meaning

He walks

of a

swiftly;

he talks too fast.

Time answers the question when ?

of Place

answers the question where

he7'e, belozv, there, Jiejice.

An

b.

c.

Adverb

now,

theti,

An

Adverb

thus, well,

An

d.

little,
e.

of

often, seldom.
of

Manner answers the question

Jiozv ?

so,

ill.

Adverb

of

Degree answers the question hozu viuch ?

almost, much, very, enough.

Modal Adverb expresses affirmation or negation, or

the degree of confidence with which a statement

is

made

yes, no, certainly, perhaps.


f.

A Relative (or Conjunctive)

clause (20)

advanced when
thee!'

Adverb connects a subordinate

The army
it
depends
day daivned ; " Go where glory waits

with that on which


the

THE PARTS OF SPEECH

PREPOSITIONS
6.

A Preposition

show

to

its

is

word used before a noun or pronoun


word in the sentence: "/

relation to another

stood on the bridge at midnight.''

CONJUNCTIONS
7.

A Conjunction

is

was a man of
you may stay.
a.

word used

and sentences

(i6), clauses (20),

Jionor, but

to connect words, phrases


(9)

black

and white ; he
may go or

of a bad temper ; you

Coordinate Conjunction

is

a conjunction that connects

words, phrases, clauses, and sentences of equal order or

rank (20,

c).

The

conjunctions

in

the examples above are

Coordinate.
/;.

Subordinate Conjunction

is

one that connects a sub-

ordinate clause (20) with a principal clause (20,

go

to toivn if it is

pleasant

b)

I shall

he failed because he zuas not

industrious.

INTERJECTIONS
8.

and

An
is

a word used to express strong feeling,

Interjection is

not grammatically related to any other word in the

sentence: oh! ah! alas! hurrah!

Note.

The following couplets have often proved useful

persons in identifying the parts of speech


Three

Are

little

As

words we often see

Articles, a, an,

A Noun

's

the

name

and

the.

of anything

school or garden, hoop or swing.

Adjectives

As great,

tell

the kind of noun

small, pretty, white, or brown.

to

younj

!;

FIRST YEAR LATIN


Instead of nouns the Pronouns stand

His head, her


Verbs

As

hat,

something being done

tell of

your arm, my hand.


;

read, write, spell, sing, jump, or run.

How things
As

are done the Adverbs

slowly, quickly,

tell

or well.

ill,

They also tell us where and when


As here and there a.nd?iow and ihen.

A
A

Preposition stands before

noun

as in or through a door.

Conjunctions

As

and

rain

joi

the words together

Conjunctions sentences unite

As

kittens scratch a7td puppies bite.

An

Interjection

As Oh ! how

sunshine, wind or weather.

shows surprise

pretty

Ah

.'

how

wise

THE SENTENCE

9.

thought

Sentence
:

10.

is

group

Sta7-s sJiine
Declarative

of

sentence

asserts something as a fact

sentence

Interrogative

Who was

is

words expressing a complete

he zvalks.
is

a sentence that declares or


Watei' runs

down

hill.

the second president of the United States ?

Imperative sentence

is

An

a sentence that asks a question

An

a sentence that expresses a request, a

command, or an entreaty: " Drink, pretty creature, drink''


" Stand not upon the order of your going, but go at once."

An

Exclamatory sentence

is

a sentence, whether declarative,

interrogative, or imperative, that expresses strong feeling

or emotion

bank
11.

"

How

moonlight sleeps upon this

siveet the

"
!

Subject,

Sentence

is

made up

and the other the

of

two

Predicate.

parts,

one called the

THE SENTENCE
a.

represents that about which something

Tlie Subject

said or asserted

is

b.

The

Birds si)ig ; you read.

says or asserts something about that

Predicate

which the subject represents


Note.

Either

the

Birds sing ; you

subject or the

expressions called modifiers

read.

may be

predicate or both

and

addition of qualifying words

enlarged to any extent by the

in

My

sister's

small birds

sing sweetly

morning.

tlie

The

12.

Simple Subject

the noun or pronoun which

is

about which the assertion

that

signifies

Simple Predicate

is

is

made.

the verb that makes the assertion.

The
Birds

the simple subject, and sing the simple predicate in the

is

preceding note.

The

13.

Complete Subject

modifiers.

its

with

all

under

its

1 1

tical line,
14.

The

the simple subject with

is

Complete Predicate

modifiers.

Thus

in

the complete subject

is

the example of the note

is all

and the complete predicate

The

Object of a

receives the action

that precedes the verall

that follows

it.

word or expression that


the verb, and signifies that which

verb

completes the meaning of

all

the simple predicate

I fold

is

tJic

paper.

Note.
The Direct Object represents that which is immediately
affected by the action of the verb
the Indirect Object that to or for
which the action is performed. Thus in he gave nte the hook, book
;

is

the direct object, and tne the indirect.


15.

Predicate

Noun or a

Predicate Adjective is a

noun or

an adjective used after certain intransitive or passive verbs


to complete their

subject
the

George

workmen

is

meaning, and to describe or define the


a farmer; Lincoln

was

elected president

are busy; those nioi are reputed wise.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

a.

The

predicate noun or adjective

The verb

are called Copulative Verbs.

{am, tvas, lias been, etc.)


b.

The

is

called the Complement

be in

complement

various forms

its

often called the Copula.

predicate noun has the

hence the term


16.

is

Intransitive verbs that require a

of the verb.

same case

as the subject;

Predicate Nominative.

Phrase

a combination of words

is

of honor, of honor
the noun

man ;

Adverbial Phrase

17.

in

is,

verb

limits the

it

Simple Sentence

statement, that

modifies

sun shines by day, by day

tJie

because

it

is

man

in

an Adjective Phrase because

is

subject

(not

and predicate) used as a single part of speech

an

is

sJiines.

a sentence containing but

one subject and one predicate

one

The boy

bats the ball.

18.

Compound Sentence

is

a sentence containing two or

more independent statements

'*

rains a?id the

It

wind

is

never weary."

Note.
it

An

independent statement

one that can stand alone

is

does not depend upon (qualify or limit) another statement.

19.

Complex

Sentence

is

sentence

containing

one

independent (principal) and one or more dependent (subordinate) statements

began

Note.
fies

A dependent

or limits another in

when the clouds began


we hastened.
20.

The

home

when

may be

ordinate).

to

or subordinate statement

some way

the elonds

is

one that quali-

thus the dependent statement

gather limits the verb hastened,

separate statements in a

sentence are called

they

IVe hastened

to gatJier.

clauses,

compound

telling

when

or complex

and as has already been seen,

either independent (principal) or dependent (sub-

INFLECTION
a.

their

Dependent or subordinate clauses are named from


use

Adjective

Clauses

stantive Clauses

That

7nan

We go

respected; Adverbial Clauses:

my friend

has

in

ivho

is

when H

lost his

honorable

is

rains ; or Sub-

watch

is

certainly

true.
b.

The independent

clause of a complex

Any

called the Principal Clause.

dependent upon
c.

it

may be

clause that

sentence

is

has another

called a principal clause.

Connected clauses that are

of the

same rank, both

independent, or both dependent, are said to be Coordinate.

INFLECTION
Inflection is

21.

change

in its

a change in the form of a

meaning or use

dog, dogs

word
man,

to indicate
nieti ; love,

loves, loved.

DECLENSION
The

of a noun or pronoun is called its


Nouns and pronouns are declined to show
number and case, and a few nouns to show gender.
22.

inflection

Declension.

Note.
and case,

In Latin, adjectives
to agree with the

also are declined in gender,

number,

nouns which they modify.

Number

noun or pronoun

is in the Singular Number when it


means one Jiat, ox, I ; in the Plural Number when it means
more than one Jiats, oxen, we.

23.

Case
There are three cases

24.
I.

The

sentence

in

English

Nominative, primarily used as the subject of a

He throws

the ball.

;:

FIRST YEAR LATIN

lO
2.

The

Possessive (Genitive),

or ownership:

John throws

used to denote possession


ball;

his

see the queen's

crown.
3.

The

used as the object of a transitive verb

Objective,

or of a preposition

JoJui throws the ball to him.

Only personal pronouns and the relative pronoun tvho


Nouns have the nominative and objective alike, with a separate form for the posa.

have, in English, three case-forms.

sessive (genitive).
\n Latin there are seven cases

b.

not

all

bui':

the forms of the cases are

different.

Gender

The gender

25.

Gender,

of English

nouns

and hence has very

little

Thus, a noun denoting a male

is

is

what

to
in

is

called Natural

do with grammar.

the Masculine Gender

noun denoting a female is in the


Feminine Gender ivoman, girl, moiJicr ; one denoting either
male or female is in the Common Gender cat, dog, parent
man,

father ;

boy,

one denoting a sexless object


river,

is

in

the

Neuter Gender

wind, mountain.

a. In Latin only nouns that denote persons and some animals


have natural gender: nauta, sailor (masc), mater, mother (fem.).
All others have an arbitrary gender, called Grammatical Gender, deter-

mined

chiefly

by the

endint^.

COMPARISON
26.

The

inflection of

degree (higher or lower)

adjectives
is

to show
There are

and adverbs

called Comparison.

three degrees of comparison, the Positive, the Comparative,

and

the

Superlative

positive

wise,

comparative

wiser,

INFLECTION
superlative wisest
lali\e best

positive ^^^^/, comparative better, super-

comparative oftener, superlative

i^ositive often,

oftenest.
a.

Adjectives and adverbs are also compared in English

by prefixing the adverbs more and 7nost, less and least:


beaut ifnl, more beaittiftil, most beautiful ; wisely, less
ivisely, least wisely.

Note.

Comparison

in Latin is indicated

by change of form, and

sometimes by the use of adverbs.

CONJUGATION
The

27.

inflection of a verb

show

are conjugated to

is

called Conjugation.

Verbs

mood, and tense, and the

voice,

number and person of the subject.


a. The English ^erb has but few changes of form.
Thus the verb love has in common use only the forms
and loved ; the verb

love, loves, loving,

rising,

verb

rose,

and

made up
/ tun

is

auxiliaries

Most

risen.

of

has

rise, rises,

verb phrases formed by the use of

loved,

rise

of the conjugation of the

I shall

love,

I shall have been

loved, etc.

Note.

The statement

in

27, however,

which has many changes of form, as

will

is

true of the Latin verb,

be seen.

Voice
28.

verb

is

subject as acting (or being)


Passive Voice

John was
a.

when

it

struck by

when it represents the


James struck John ; in the

the Active Voice

in

represents the subject as acted upon

James.

Intransitive verbs are used only in the active voice.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

12

Mood

29.

fact or

verb

used

is

the Indicative Mood

in

is

a question

in

when

states

it

Roses bloom ; why do yotc

smile ?

30.

verb

ordinate clauses, and

and the
he slay

like

yet

vie,

If he

is

It

is

it

asserts

used

in sub-

usually introduced by

I should

-were here,

ivill

when

the Subjunctive Mood

in

is

something doubtfully or conditionally.

be

though,

if,

glad ; " Though

trust in him.''

Note.
The subjunctive mood as a separate form is very little
used in modern English, its place being taken by the indicative.
In
Latin,

on the other hand, the subjunctive has a great variety of

31.

verb

command

in

the Imperative Mood

The

birch

when

it

uses.

expresses a

Draw your swords ; "Give me

or an entreaty:

of tJiy bark,
a.

is

tree.''

subject of the imperative {thou or you)

is

seldom

expressed.

The

The

32.

noun.
in

Infinitive

Infinitive {to love, to

have loved,

etc.) is

has neither person nor number, and

It

is

a verbal

not used

making assertions. Like a noun it may be the subject


complement of a verb To see is to believe. Like a

or the

verb

it

may have an

like to begin
a.

The

our work

infinitive

object and adverbial modifiers

We

early.

may

also be used in other

noun

relations,

and sometimes as an adjective or adverb.


b.

The

noun in -ing, corresponding to the Latin


by some regarded as an infinitive Seeing is

verbal

gerund,

is

believing

to see is to believe.

INFLECTION
Tense

33.

verb

is

Tense according as
in

the Present, Imperfect

in
it

(Past),

or Future

represents an action as taking place

present, past, or future time

love,

I loved, I shall

love.

The

a.

Perfect (Present Perfect) Tense represents

as completed in the present


(Past Perfect), as

the Future

completed

Perfect, as

the past

in

completed

an action

Jiave loved ; the Pluperfect

in

/ had loved ; and


I shall have

the future

loved.

The Participle

it

34.

may

qualify a

a verb

Participle is a

a.

voice

a living death, a driven well.

in

and three

in

the passive voice

having been

7iot

hesitate to

in

the active

Note.

present {being) loved, past

loved.

The participle in -ing


make the Progressive Form
was loving.

35.

shall

English three participles

b.

he

we

present loving, past loved, perfect having loved

loved, perfect

to

Like

and adverbial modifiers

object

the candidate intimately,

for Jiivi.
There are

Like an adjective

verbal adjective.

may have an

it

Knoiving
vote

noun

is

used with the

of the verb

The Latin has no special tenses

Finite Verb is a

or imperative

mood.

verb

in

au.xiliary be

Yott are loving,

for the progressive form.

the indicative, subjunctive,

A Roman Lady

P RON UNCIA riON

INTRODUCTORY
The

may

sections on pronunciation

be most profitably used for

Pupils catch pronunciation quickly from the lips of the

reference.

teacher, and,

if

to rules.

is

It

poem on page
successively,

make

they

mistakes, are interested in being referred

therefore advised that the teacher begin with the


i8,

pronouncing slowly each

line,

the pupils following

and then together.

ALPHABET
36.

The Latin

noy

alphabet has

or

Otherwise

zv.

it

is

same as the Enghsh.


37. /does service both as a vowel and as a consonant.
Before a vowel in the same syllable it has the force of a

the

consonant, and
38.

is

called i-consonant

Of the consonants
The mutes are
The liquids are
The sibilant is
The double consonants

p, b,

t,

d, c, k, g, q.

ni, n, r.

1,

s.

are

s.

cs ox gs^ z

ds.

SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS, ROMAN METHOD


Vowels

39.

like the last

e as
i

In qu,

gji,
is

fl

and sometimes

pronounced

a in

aJia'.

as in pin.
in obey.

like oo \r\foot.

in sn, before a vowel,

like w,

so likewise in cui

8ue'-tus, accustomed.

like the first

6 as

in note.

like oo in boot.

consonant,
letter

6 as in met.

as in machine.

6 as

a in aha'.

in they.

and joined

and huic

in

is

a semivowel or

utterance with the preceding

quis, qui,

who, an'-guis, snake, con-

FIRST YEAR LATIN

Diphthongs

40.

ae

ai in aisle.

like

ei (rare) like ei in eight.

eu

(rare) like

au

like oti in our.

oe

like 0/ in boil.

xnfeicd.

eti

Consonants

41.

Consonants generally have the same sounds as


observe the following
c as

come.

in

i-consonant

g as
like

\nyet.

like

But

English.

in get.

s as in

sicii.

v like w in wine.
ph like /"in /";-.

t as in ii/ne.

ch

in

in kite.

SYLLABLES
42.

syllable consists of a vowel or

more consonants.

or without one or

many

syllables as

diphthong with

Hence a word has

has vowels and diphthongs

it

as

ae-gri-tu'-do,

sickness.
2.

When

sonant

is

a word

is

divided into syllables, a single con-

with

joined

the

vowel

following

a-ma'-bi-lis,

amiable.
3.

If

there are two or

vowels, as

many

be pronounced
im'-pro-bus,

bad ;

more consonants between two

are joined with the second vowel as can


at

the beginning of a word or syllable

ho'-spes,

guest.

compound words the division must show


the component parts: ab'-est (ab, away; est, /le is), lie is
But

4.

in

away.
5

The

last syllable of

one next to the


the antepenult.

last,

a word

is

called the ultima

the

iht pejiult ; the one before the penult,

7;
:

PRONUNCIATION

QUANTITY
Vowels are long (-) o\ short (").
long vowels are marked, except in some
vowels must be regarded as short.
43.

A vowel

2.

short before a vowel or

is

tJianks

gra'-ti-ae,

titles

//

book the

unmarked

pb-e'-ma,

poem

nothing.

ni'-hil,

Vowels are long before

3.

In this

I.

;//, 7is,

and gn

in-fans,

infant

i-gnis, fire.

Diphthongs,

4.

vowels

vowels

from

resulting

representing

contraction

heedless; in-i'-quus (inaequus),

5:

syllable

diphthong:

6.

is

voices;

vo'-ces,

syllable

is

long

it

long

and

in-cau'-tus,

contains a long vow^el or a

ae'-des,

if it

diphthongs,

co'-go {(M%q), collect.

?/;/r^//rt/,-

when

long

are

temple.

has a short vowel followed

b)-

two or more consonants (except a mute followed by / or r),


or by ^ or c'
but the short vowel is still pronounced short
;

sunt, they

are

tem'-plam, temple; dux, leader.

ACCENT
44.
first

2.

I.

Words

tu'-ba,

two

of

syllables

have the accent on the

trumpet.

Words of more than two syllables have the accent on


when it is long, otherwise on the antepenult

the penult
prae-di'-co,

pa-ter'-nus,
3.

foretell;

prae'-di-c6,

il-le'-ce-brae,

snares

paternal.

Several words,

monest are

appended

declare;

-ne,

called

enclitics,

of

to other words,

and gifts.

-que,

and, are

and such words are then accented

on the syllable preceding the enclitic


love? dona'-que,

which the com-

the sign of a question, and

amat'-ne,

does he

FIRST YEAR LATIN

45.

The

following Latin version of " Twinkle, twinkle, Little Star,"

from Arundines Cami, may be used for practice


and for illustration of the preceding statements.

in pronunciation,

See introductory

note, p. 15.

MICA, MICA

Mica/ mica, parva


Miror quaenam sis,
Splendens eminus

stella

tarn bella

in illo.

Alba velut gemma,

caelo.

Quando fervens S5l discessit.


Nee calore prata pascit,

Mox

ostendis lumen purum,

Micans, micans per obscurum.


Tibi, noctu qui vagatur,

Ob

scintillulam gratatur

Ni micares

Quas per

Meum

tij,

non

iret.

saepe thalamum

Specularis curiosa

Neque
Donee

sciret

vias errans

liace

carpseris soporem

venit Sol per auram.

CASES
46.

The names

genitive,

dative,

of the cases in Latin are

accusative,

ablative,

nominative,

vocative,

locative.

Their characteristics of form, meaning, and use are

illus-

trated in the paradigms and exercises which follow.


1

The rhythm

of these lines

depends on accent, as

not on quantity, as in classic Latin poetry.

in

English poetry,

CASES AND GENDER


The Vocative

a.

except

in

is

19

always the same as the Nominative,

the singular of nouns and adjectives in -us of the

second declension.
'

In neuters the Nominative and Accusative are always

b.

and

alike,
c.

in the plural

The Accusative

ends
d.

in

end

in

a.

singular of

all

the Accusative plural

The Dative and Ablative

masculines and feminines


in

s.

jjlural

are always alike.

(LENDER
The gender

47.

of

Latin nouns

English, by the meaning, but

as in

is

determined partly,

much

oftener by the

termination.

General Rules of Gender

Nouns -denoting males and names of rivers, winds,


Cicero, Cicero :
: aghcolsi, /un/nr ;
Padus, Po ; aquilo, nortJi xvind ; l&xvixlxiViS, January
denoting females and names of countries,
2. Nouns
1.

and months are masculine

towns,
Tullia,
pirns,

islands,

Tullia

pear

tree.

and trees are feminine


Africa,

Africa; Roma,

Rome ;

regina,
Sicilia,

queen

Sicily;

FIRST YEAR LATIN

20

LESSON

FIRST DECLENSION

The Subject

Nominative

Case

Singular and Plural of Nouns and Verbs

Models

48.

Noun
hasta, speai'.

Sing,

volat, Jlies.^

Plur.

hastae, spears.

Plur.

volant, fly.

Form

a.

Verb

Sing,

the plural of the nouns in the vocabulary, then the plural

of the verbs, according to the models.

VOCABULARY

49.

Nouns
columba,
hasta,

Verbs

spear

f.

ambulat, walks.

dove.

f.

cantat, sings.

(p. 43).

swims.

nauta, m. sailor.

natat,

puella, f girl.

saltat, dances.

arrow.

sonat, soitnds, resounds.

sagitta,

f.

tuba,

trtimpet (p. 35).

f.

volat, ^/Vj, speeds on.

Interrogative Pronoun

Conjunction
et,

and.

quis,

Model

50.

who ?

Sentences

Puella cantat, the girl sings.

2.

Puellae cantant, the girls sing.

3.

Cantatne puella, does the girl sing f

4.

Cantantne puellae, do the girls sing?

Also

is

flying, does fly.

So of other

verbs.

quid,

what ?

F/RSr DECLENSION
In Latin there

a.

^i^irl,

b.
is

or the girl ;

What

is

article:

puella

translated

^^'/r/,

model sentences, and what

Observe that the verbs agree with

d.

may be

puellae, girls or the girls.

the subject in each of the

the predicate
c.

no

is

and

21

Observe that -ne

is

their subjects in

the sign of a question, but

is

number.

not separately

translated (44, 3).

Rule.

51.

Tlic subject of a verb is in the nominative.


EXERCISES

52.

2. Hastae volant.
I.
Hasta volat.
3. Nauta natat.
Nautae natant. 5. Ambulatne puella ? 6. Puellae ambu8. Sagitta volat.
lant.
9. Sonatne
7. Columbaene volant }
Puella natat. 12. Quis ambulat ?
tuba? 10. Quis natat
14. Nautae cantant et saltant.
13. Nauta ambulat.
2. Do the sailors dance ?
II.
I. The sailor dances.
3. Who
I.

4.

is

singing

spear

is

arrows

4.

flying.

fly.

9.

Girls are singing.


7.

5.

What

is

Are trumpets resounding

The dove walks and

flies.

Priest, Altar, .\nd Suppliant

flying
8.

6.

The

Spears and

FIRST YEAR LATIN

22

LESSON

II

FIRST D-ECLENSl^m
The Stem^ ends

The Direct Object

Continued

in

Accusative

Case

Paradigm

53.

Singular

Terminations

Nom.

hasta, a spear (as subject).

Gen.

\\?i's,\.a.e,

Ace.

of a spear, -or spear's.


hastae, to or for a spear.
hastam, a spear (as object).

Abl.

hasta, with,

No7n.

hastae, spears (as subject).

Gen.

hastarum, of spears, or spears\

Dat.

ha.stis, to

Ace.

liastas,

Ad/.

hastis, with,

Dai.

-a

-ae

-ae

-am

from, by a spear.

-a

Plural

a.

The

b.

-is^

spears (as object).

-as

from, by spears.

For the locative

-is

same form

but sometimes the

and sometimes the case-ending.

unchanged

in inflection,

called the base

Form

and

as the

case, see 195-197.

Terminations consist of case-endings joined with the

of the stem

c.

-arum

or for spears.

vocative, the case of address, has the

nominative.

-ae

to

final letter of the

final letter

stem disappears,

That part of the word which remains


which the terminations are added

is

hast-.

the nominative plural and the accusative singular and

plural of each

The stem

oun

in 55.

Form

the plural of the verbs.

body of the word to which endings are added to


express the relation of the word to other words.
2 Filia, daughter, and dea, goddess, have the termination -abus in the
dative and ablative plural.
1

is

the

FIRST DECLENSION

2$

54.
Rule of Gender.
.Youns of the first declension
are feminine unless they denote males.

VOCABULARY

55.

Nouns
aqua,

Verbs

m. farmer.

agricola,

amat, loves, likes.

water.

arat,

Galba, m. Galba.
Stella,

terra,

star.

f.

laudat, praises.

land, country.

f.

ploughs.

habet, has.

videt, sees.

Interrogative Pronoun

Nom.

quis,

Ace.

quern,

who ?

quid,

whom ?
Model

56.

what ?

quii,wAaif
Sentences

1.

Agricola terram arat, the farmer ploughs the land.

2.

Nautae agricolas laudant, the sailors praise the farmers.

a.

Observe that terram

is

the object of arat,

and agricolas of

Point out the objects in the sentences of 58.


Imitate the order of the Latin in writing Latin sentences.

laudant.
/;.

57.

Rule.

The

direct object of

a transitive verb

is

in the accusative.

EXERCISES

58.

Galba tubam laudat.

2. Tubasne laudat Galba?


Nauta stellam videt. 5. Nautae
Stellas vident.
6. Quis Galbam videt ?
7. Quern videt Galba ?
8. Galba, quis terram arat ?
Agricola terram arat. 9. Arantne
agricolae terram ?
10. Quid volat ?
Sagitta volat.
I.

3.

I.

Puellae tubas laudant.

II.

I.

Who

The sailor is walking. 2. The


What has the farmer ? The farmer
Does Galba praise the farmers ? 5. The girl
is

walking?

sailors are walking.

has land.

4.

sees the water

4.

3.

and the

land.

6.

Do

the girls love the doves

FIRST YEAR LATIN

24

LESSON

III

FIRST CONJUGATION A-VERBS


Am5, amare (stem ama-), love
59.

Latin verbs are divided into four classes or conjuga-

from one another by the stem vowel

tions, distinguished

before the ending

-re

amare,

I.

of the active infinitive present.

io love,

vaonexe, io advise,

II.

distinguishing vowel a.
"
"
e.

III.

xe^^xe, to rule,

"

"

IV.

audire, to hear,

"

"

e.
i.

Paradigm

60.

Active Indicative Present

Singular

am

Personal Endings

1st Person,

amo, /

2d Person,

amas, yoti love, are loving, do love.

-s,

thou or you.

jd

amat, he loves,

-t,

he, she,

Person,

love,

-5 (or -m),

loving, do love.

is loving,

does love.

/.

it.

Plural

2d

Person,

amatis,

amamus, we love, are loving, do love


yon love, are loving, do love.

-tis,

jd

Person,

am ant,

-nt, they.

1st Person,

Observe that

a.

amo
b.

they love, are loving, do love.

in

instead of amao.

-mus, we.

am5

you.

the final a of the stem disappears, giving

In what forms

is

the a not

marked long?

In the preceding lessons verbs have been used only in the third

person, in the singular ending in

The above paradigm shows

-t,

and

that verbs

in the plural

change

their

ending in

-nt.

ending to denote

person as well as number.


61.

and

Rule.

person.

A verb agrees with its subject hi

number

FIRST CONJUGATION
a.

When

commonly
d.

the subject

When

no subject

is

Latin verb, translate with

second person,

in the first or the

is

Why

expressed.

is it

2$

not necessary to express

it is

not

it ?

expressed with the third person of the

/le,

she, it in the singular,

and they

in

the

plural.
c.

amo

Like

inflect

the following verbs in the active indicative

present.

62.

Indic.vtive Present

Infinitive Present

3mbul5, / walk.

ambulare, to walk.

I plough.
canto, / sing.
\a.u^o, I praise.
nato, / swim.
salto, / dance.
sono, / sound.

arare, to

aro,

void,

lauAare, to praise.
natare, to

swim.

saltare, to dance.

sonare, to sound.

I fly.

volare, to fly.

EXERCISES

63.

plough.

cantare, to sing.

Ambulat,

I.

laudantne

ambulamus.
natat.

7.

3.
5.

arat,

cantat.

2.

Arantne?

Natas, saltas, sonas.

cantantne

Amamus, volamus,

4.

Aratis, cantatis, amatis.

6.

Cantare, ambulatis, laudamus.

Ambulare, amant,
8.

Amat,

volare,

sonant.
2. Do we
n.
I.
I do swim, he swims, I am swimming.
They are flying, he
dance? we sing, does he praise?
3.
loves, you walk.
4. You are praising, they swim, he does
dance.
5. He ploughs, to swim, do they love ?

CONVERSATION

64.
1.

Quis columbam amat

2.

Quem

laudas

Puella

columbam amat,

Galbam laud3.
Columba volat.

4.

Quid volat ?
Arantne agricolae terram

5.

Nautae, quem laudatis

Agricolas laudamus.

3.

Terram

arant.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

26

LESSON

IV

FIRST DECLENSION

Continued

The Genitive Case


65. a. Observe in the paradigm (53) that the genitive singular
has the same form as the dative singular and the nominative plural.

Observe carefully

b.

in the

paradigm the English equivalents of


'

the genitive.

Form

c.

the genitive singular and plural of the nouns in the follow-

ing vocabulary.

Like

d.

amo

inflect the

verbs

in the

vocabulary.

VOCABULARY

66.

Nouns
femina, -ae,i
filia,- -ae, f.

f.

regina, -ae,

delecto, delectare, delight.

dajighter.

fortiina, -ae, f

poeta, -ae,

Verbs ^

woman.

fugo, fugare, ptit to flight, rout.

fortune.

libero, liberare, set free, free.

m. poet.
f.

orno. ornare, adorn, deck.

queen.

portp, portare, carry, bring.

Interrogative Pronoun
Gen.

cuius,

of whom

Model

67.

whose ? of what ?

Sentences

Filiae nautae cantant,

the
daughters of the sailor
'^'' daug
J
{ or,

Columbaepuellarum volant,

2.

i^^e
i
.

sing,

the sailor'' s daughters sing.

or,

doves of the girls are flying, ^


the girls' doves are flying.

In the vocabularies the genitive ending

is

added

to

show

the declen-

sion.
2

For peculiarity

Hereafter the general meaning of the verb

in declension of

ing of any particular form.

filia,

see p. 22, foot-note


will

2.

be given, not the mean-

'


FIRST DECLENSION
Observe that nautae

a.

limits flliae

those of the sailor are meant.

not

In the

2/

all

dau^^hters, but only

same way puellarum

limits

columbae.

A noun uned to limit another, and not


same pcrsoii or filing, is in the genitive.

Rule.

68.

(/rnotiui> the

EXERCISES

69.
I.

I.

libero,

fugamus,

Delectat,

delectas.

3.

liberas.

Ornamus, portant,

2.

Delectamus, fugatis, liberant.

portamus.

5.

Liberatne

4.

Delectare, ornare, portare.

Columbas agricolarum liberant. 7. Fortima poetae regi8. Laudamus filias feminae.


9. Filiane Galbae
10. Stellae filias nautarum delectant.
reginam ornat
6.

nam

delectat.

II.

land.

I.

3.

plough the farmer's land.

The

to flight the girl's dove.


6.

They adorn

2.

3.

4.

plough the farmers'

5.

Do

4.

CONVERSATION
Filia reginae poetam laudat.
?
Amatisne Galbam ? Galbam amamus.
Galbae hastam porto.
Puella, cuius hastam portas ?
Feminae rosae
Cuius rosae (roses) puellam ornant ?

Quis poetam laudat

puellam ornant,
5.

They put

they bring Galba's spears

the queens' daughters.

70.
1.

2.

poets' daughters love the land.

Quid

portatis

Sagittas et

tubam portamus.

Roman, is the pilum,


Roman, the sword is thine."

'Thine,

YEAR LATIN

F/RS7^

28

LESSON V
SECOND CONJUGATION E- VERBS
moneo, monere (stem mone-), advise

Paradigm

71.

Active Indicative Present

Singular

2d Person,

moneo, / advise, a/n advising, do advise.


mones, _y<? advise, are advising, do advise.

3d

monet, he advises,

1st Person,

Person,

is

advising, does advise.

Plural

1st Person,

monemus, we

2d Person,

monetis, yoii advise, are advising, do advise,

jd

monent, they advise, are advising, do advise.

Person,

Review the

a.

advise, are advising, do advise.

table of personal endings (60).

to the stem mone- the same endings are added to


moneo that were added to the stem ama- to inflect amo.
c. Observe the three forms where moneo has not the e of the stem
marked long. Compare forms of amo (60).
b.

Observe that

inflect

d.

To

the stems doce-, habe-,

terre-, vide-

add the personal endings

(60) omitting the long mark in the proper places.

VOCABULARY

72.

advena,

m. and

-ae,

Cornelia, -ae,
incola, -ae,

f.

f.

f.

inhabitant.

money.

pirata, -ae, m. pirate.


ciir,

adv.

stranger.

Cornelia.

m. and

pecunia, -ae,

f.

why ?

doce5, docere, teach.

habe5, habere, have.

moneo, monere, advise, warn.


terreo, terrere, scare,

frighten.

vide5, videre, see.

quia, conj. because.

SECOND CONJUGATION

29

EXERCISES

73.

Habes,

I.

I.

inonentne
habetis,

terret.

video, terretis.

mones.

Terrentne

2.

videntne

Monemus, docemus, habemus.

3.

doces,

videmus, habet.

Videtis,

5.

Habere,

7.

terrere, videre.

8.

Moneo,

4.

Terremus,

6.

Monetis, terreo,

decent.

Advena

9.

incolas

monet

II.
2.

frighten,

Do

3.

11.

They

I.

You

poetae docet.

filias

larum habent.

5.

12.

Quis

Galba incolas monet.


are

we

they

advising,
see,

have,

does he teach

they teach the girls

inhabitants.

Piratae pecuniam inco-

10.

Fortuna filiarum feminam delectat.

They have

The

4.

the

am

warning.

pirates frighten the

queen's

money.

6.

The

trumpets sound, and scare the doves.

REVIEW

74.
I.

What

is

the gender of stella, terra, tuba

of agricola, poeta, Galba?

of the

first

predicate

declension.
5.

What

3.

2.

What

is

the gender

Give the rule for the gender of nouns

4.

In the sentence puella ambulat, what

is

the

predicate

in

agricola

terrain

is

the

arat

6.

Point out the subject, the predicates, and the object in 73,

II. 6.

7.

What

8.

salto a

English case corresponds to the Latin* accusative

sentence

9.

2.

3.
4.

dances a sentence

Is

CONVERSATION

75.
1.

Is

Quid videtis
Piratas videmus.
Quern doces et mones ? Advenam doceo et moneo.
Cur Stellas amatis et laudatis ? Quia micant {twitikle).
Cuius pecuniam habet Cornelia ?
Poetae pecuniam

habet Cornelia.

.'

FIRST YEAR LATIN

30

LESSON

VI

FIRST DECLENSION

The Indirect Object


76.
b.

Form

in

liina.

dative and the ablative singular

tl'.e

and plural of the

VOCABULARY

77.
-ae,

f.

fabula, -ae,

f.

insula, -ae,

f.

d6n5, donare, give.

7nistrcss, lady.

story., tale.

habito, habitare, dwell, live.

island.

Iuce5, lucere, shine.

liina, -ae,

f.

moon.

rosa, -ae,

f.

rose.

via, -ae, f

maneo, manere, remain.


mdnstro, monstrare, show, point out.

way, road,

narro, narrate, tell, relate.

street.

Interrogative Pronoun

Preposition

Dat. zm,

in, W\i]\3.h\., in, on.

Which

whom?

to ox for

moneo

How

what?

to ox for

of the above are a-verbs and inflected like amo.''

are e-verbs and inflected like


all in

Ablative with

the following vocabulary.

in

domina,

a.

Continued

Case.

Like hasta decline fabula, domina,

a.

nouns

Dative

do you know

Which

Inflect

the active indicative present.

Model Sentence

78.

f (the poet to the queen a rose gives^^


Poeta reginae rosam donat, -{^
^, ^ ,
,
Eng., the poet gives the queen a rose.
.

[^

a.

Observe that what the poet gives

object; the persoti to

whom

he gives

it

is

a rose (rosam), the direct

is

the qtieen (reginae), the

indirect object.

Rule.

79.
1

The

Note.

words
second

is

The indirect object is


first

a metaphrase, that

is

a translation.

exercises should

first

in the dative.

rendering of the Latin sentence in 78 into English


is,

a word by word, or

literal,

rendering

metaphrase of every Latin sentence

be given, and then be followed by a translation.

the

in the

FIRST DECLENSION
Model

80.

Sentence

Columbas video

( (doves
1 .,
.

in via,

Observe

a.

is

usiiaUy

i)i

the road)
,

doves in the road.

with the ablative answers the question

in.

Point out the direct and the indirect objects in 82,

a.

where?

Place where, not including names of


expressed by the ablative with a preposition,

Rule.

81.

towns,

tliat in

see

JLng., / see

82.

and

I.

II.

EXERCISES

Luna dominae viam monstrat. 2. Cornelia puellis


fabulam narrat.
3. Luna et stellae lucentne ?
4. Agricola
poetis insulam monstrat.
6.
Et
5. Insula poetam delectat.
I.

I.

insula habitat.

in

Piratae in aqua manent.

7.

feminae insulas monstrartt.

Incolae

9.

Piratae feminas terrent et fugant.

10.

8.

Nautae

habitant.

in

terra

11.

Poetae filiabus

fabulas narrant.
II.

Fox the farmer.

I.

habitants.

ways.
9.

4.

In the moon.

7.

He shows

roses.

II.

pirates live

the

They bring
on an island

the islands.

To the inOn the

3.

For the doves.

6.

For the daughters.

8.

woman

On
5.

a rose.

10.

They

give the daughters

roses for the strangers.

12.

Do

the

CONVERSATION

83.
1.

2.

In the road.

Cui viam monstrat Galba

Ad venae viam

monstrat

Galba.
2.

Cur

3.

Cui pecuniam donas

4.

Cuius columbas liberas

5.

Quid poetam ornat

in insulis habitatis

Quia insulas amamus.


Nautae pecuniam dono.

?
Puellae columbas libero.
Rosae poetam ornant.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

32

LESSON

VII

SECOND DECLENSION
The Stem ends

in

Paradigms

84.
hortus,

donum, n .gift.

gardett.

Singular
Terminations

Terminations

Nom.

hortus

-us

donum

-um

Gen.

horti

-i

do 111

-i

Dai.

hort5

-6

dono

-6

Ace.

hortum

-um

donum

-um

Abl.

horto

-6

dono

-6

Plural

Nom.

horti

-I

dona

-a

Gen.

hortorum

-orum

ddnorum

-orum

Dat.

hortis

-is

donis

-is

Ace.

hortos

-OS

dona

-a

Abl.

hortis

-is

donis

-is

The

a.

vocative singular of nouns in -us of the second declen-

sion has a special form in e

horte,

(O) garden.

For the locative

case, see 195-197.

-ii

b.

For

c.

Nouns

to

-i

rules for case-endings, see 46, a,


in -ius

consilium, gen. consil'i, advice., plan.

on the same syllable as


d.

Filius, son,

vocative to

The

i:

in the

and proper names in -ius


{O) son; Mercurius, voc.
is

Rule of Gender.

ending in -tun are

The accent remains

nominative.

fill,

rule for the accent

85.

b, e, d.

and -ium generally contract the genitive ending

the s'ame as in

also contract ie in the


Mercu'ri, (6>)

Mercury.

e.

Xomis of the second declension

nciitcj^

niost others are masculine.

SECOND DECLENSION
VOCABULARY

86.

amicus,

m. friend.

-i,

m. master, owner.

dominus,

-i,

equus,

m. horse.

-i,

hortus,

servus,

-i, x\.

donum,

-i,

oppidum,

m. Marcus.

-i,
-i,

aurum,

n.

frumentum,

m. garden.

-i,

Marcus,

poculum,

vinum,

m. servant, slave.

-i,
-I,

-i,

gold.
gift, present.
-i,

n.

n.

grain.

town.

n.

cup.

n. xuine.

REVIEW

87.
I.

33

What

is

the case of the subject?

the case of the direct object.''


of the indirect object?

possessive

5.

Give the

Give the

rule.

Give the

rule.

2.

What

rule.

What

is

the case

4.

3.

What

is

case answers to our

Give the rule for the genitive.

EXERCISES

88.

pjcula lucent.
2. Oppidum video
Uominusne servum monet ? Domine, servos moncs.
4. Equus donum frumenti amat.
5. Equi dominorum servos delectant. 6. Marcus amico fabulam narrat.
8.
In oppidis amicos
7. Domini amicis dona auri donant.
habemus. 9. Servi equis frumentum et aquam portant.
2. The gifts of gold
II.
I. The grain delights the horse.
I.

I.

Poculum

oppida videmus.

liicet

3.

delight the masters.

3.

Marcus, have you friends

in

the

The servant brings wine in cups for the friends.


6. We see the town
5. Do (his) friends show Marcus a gift?
and the gardens of the town. 7. The lady teaches.

garden

4.

CONVERSATION

89.

poculo ? Vinum in poculo habeo.


Amico vinum in poculo porto.

2.

Quid habes, serve,


Cui vinum portas ?

3.

Quem

4.

Cuius equus Corneliam terret

1.

liam terret

equus terret

in

Corneliam equus
?

terret.

Marcine equus Corne-

FIRST YEAR LATIN

34

LESSON

VIII

FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS

Agreement of Adjectives
90.

Adjectives of the

first

and second declensions are

declined like nouns of those declensions, according as they

modify masculine, feminine, or neuter nouns.

Paradigm

91.

Masculine
A^om.

hortus

bonus

Gen.

horti

boni

Dat.

horto

Neuter

Femi.nine

bona
hastae bonae
hastae bonae
hasta

bono

etc.

donuni

bonuni

doni

boni

dono

a.

Complete the declension of the above paradigm.

b.

For the

full

bono
etc.

etc.

See 84,

a.

declension of bonus, see 483.

92. Rule.
Adjectives agree with their nouns in
gender, niunher, and case.

Note.

The

rule does not

endings as their nouns.

If,

masculine noun of the

first

mean

must have the same


an adjective is joined with a
declension, the endings of the noun and
that adjectives

for example,

adjective are not the same, as

is

shown

in the following

Paradigm

93.

Plural

Singular

Nom.

nauta

bonus

nautae

Gen.

nautae

boni

nautarum bonorum

Dat.

nautae

bon5

nautis

etc.

boni
bonis
etc.

AND SECOND DECLENSIONS

FIRST
Complete

a.

declension of nauta bonus.

tlie

iJccline

35
together,

adding the vocative case, amicus cams, dear friend; columba alba,

white dove ; poculum magnum, large cup; agricola validus, strong


poeta gratus, pleasing poet.

farmer J

VOCABULARY

94.

Nouns
carrus,
cibus,

carus, cara, carum, dear.

m.food.

-i,

oppidanus,

-i,

pilum,

-i, xi.

remus,

-i,

ventus,

Adjectives
bonus, bona, bonum, good, kind.

m. wagon, cart.

-i,

m. townsman,

javelin

(p. 27).

m. wind.

n5n, adv.

validus, valida, validum, strong, robust.

ubi, adv.

tiot.

famous.

magnus, magna, magnum, great, large.

m. oar.

-I,

clarus, clara, clarum, clear,

gratus, grata, gxdX\xm., pleasing, welcome.

where,

est, Jie, she, it is:

sunt, they are.

EXERCISES

95.

Equ5s magnos laudamus. 2. Poetae clari cantant.


4. Donum Galbae boni
3. Galba amico caro aurum donat.
amicum delectat. 5. Nauta validus remos validos habet.
6. Claros poetas videt puella.
7. VentI magni nautas non
S. Care Marce, ubi est frumentum agricolarum ?
terrent.
I.

Estne

I.

in

magno

carro

9.

OppidanI

plla piratarum vident.

wagon; strong oars; the robust pirates.


2. Good inhabitants; of good water; strong townsmen.
4. He gives the
3. The good master has a good slave.
good slave a welcome gift.
Is the slave's food in the
5.
garden? 6. Dear Cornelia, where do (your) daughters live?
They live in the great town. 7. They love the town and the
ir.

I.

great

kind townsmen.

8.

To

the famous poet they give white roses.

Trumpet

FIRST YEAR LATIN'

36

LESSON IX
The Verb Sum
Predicate

Indicative

Present

Noun and Predicate Adjective

Paradigm

96.

Plural

Singular

sumus, we

1st Pe?'son.

sum, / am.

2d Person.

ts,

3d

est, he, she, or // is.

Person.

you

are.

es\As,

you

are.

are.

sunt, they are.

VOCABULARY

97.
bellum,

-i,

war.

n.

Britannia, -ae,

caelum,

-i,

dea, -ae,

f.

n.

latus, lata, latum, wide, broad.

longus, longa, longum, long.

Britain.

f.

sky,

meus, mea, meum, my, mine (229).

heavens

novus, nova, novum, new.

goddess.

-ae,

f.

Europe.

parvus, parva, parvum, small,

Graecia, -ae,

f.

Greece.

tuus, tua, tuum,

Eur5pa,

inimicus,

m. enemy.

-i,

-ae,

f.

Rome.

erat, he, she, or //

Vesta, -ae,

f.

Vesta.

erant, they were.

Roma,

Model

98.

a.

the

was.

Sentences

Victoria est regina, Victoria is a qiieen.

2.

Incolae sunt agricolae, the inhabitants are farmers.

3.

Estis oppidani, jti;^ are

townsmen.

Observe that regina denotes the same person as

same persons

pressed subject of
Cd.\\td

little.

your, yours.

as incolae,
estis.

Victoria, agricolae

and oppidan! the same as the unex-

Nouns thus used

with forms of

sum

are

predicate nouns (15).

99. Rule.
A predicate
the subject of the verb.

noun agrees in

case with

PREDICATE NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES


Model

100.

Sentences

Hortus est magnus, the garden

1.

37

is large.

gardens are

2.

Horti sunt magni, the

3.

Poeta est gratus, the poet

large.

welcome.

is

Adjectives used as magnus, magni, and gratus are above, with

a.

forms of sum, are called predicate adjectives (15). They must of


course agree with their nouns, like adjectives otherwise used, in
gender, number, and case.
Point out

b.

102,

I.

and

tlie

predicate nouns and the predicate adjectives in

II.

REVIEW

101.
!.

Give the

rule of

gender of nouns of the

What

second declension.

2.

have occurred?

Is the

as that of the

correct

3.

declension
first

of the

declension

ending of the adjective always the same

noun with which

it

agrees?

4.

Why

is

nauta bona not

EXERCISES

102.
I.

first

masculine nouns of the

I.

Galba

est parva.

4.

est validus.

insula Europae.

6.

Galba

2.

Tuum poculum

estne

est agricola.

magnum

Vesta erat dea Romae.

sunt boni et validi.

8.

Non gratum

est

5.
7.

3.

Mea

filia

Britannia est
Carri Galbae

bellum.

9.

Bella

11. Graecia
non sunt grata. 10. In caelj erant stellae.
12, Stellas parvas in caelo video.
est Europae terra parva.
14. Oppidani
13. Claro^ in caelo Stellas parvas videmus.

Galbam
II.

et
I.

equos validos vident.

The

Rome were
and long.

streets of the

not broad.
4.

The new

bringing long javelins.

3.

town are

long.

The roads

gifts are pleasing.


6.

You

are

my

2.

The

5.

The enemies are


7. The

dear friend.

cup was yours.


1

Adjective, preposition,

noun

is

streets of

of Britain are broad

common

order.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

38

LESSON X
SECOND DECLENSION

Continued

Paradi^tns

103.
puer, m. boy.

liber, libera,

Singular
Masc.

Neut.

liberum

puer

iTber

Gen.

pueri

llberl

Dai.

puero

iTbero

liberae

libero

Ace.

puerum

liberum

iTberam

liberum

AM.

puero

libero

libera

libero

Norn.

pueri

iTberi

liberae

libera

Gen.

puerorum

liberorum

llberarum

liberorum

liberae

liberi

pueris

liberls

llberis

llberis

Ace.

pueros

Ilberos

llberas

libera

AM.

pueris

liberis

llberis

llberis

a.

Observe that puer and

liber

liber,

bellum asperum, yf^^rt'

What

is

free

war;

man;

femina tenera, tender

poeta miser, wretched poet.

the ending of the vocative .singular of nouns in -us of

the second declension

What

tive singular?

and

d,

2.

cases in is?
4.

What cases of the second


3. What is the ending

What two

Decline dominus,

84, c

nomi-

REVIEW

104.

0?

in the

libera are the same as those


and of liberum the same as those of donum (84).

Decline together vir

woman;

I.

have no termination -us

elsewhere they have the same terminations as hortus

Observe that the terminations of

(84).

of hasta (53),
b.

Plural

Dat.

native singular

5.

Fem.
libera

Norn.

Plural

in

liberum free.

Singular

;d:j/^r.

declension end
of the accusa-

cases in the neuter plural end in a?


6.

Decline bellum,

7r'r.

7.

Read again

and write out the declension of nuntius, messenger.

SECOND DECLENSION
VOCABULARY

105.

Duilius, Duili, m.
filius, fill,
liberi,

11

Hi its.

asper, aspera, asperum, 7-ough, fierce.

m. son (47S).

liber, libera,

nQntius. nunti, m. messenger,

m.

puer. pueri,
vir, viri,

voc5, vocare, call.

EXERCISES
Filii

6.

4.

care

fili

10.

II.

wars.

Remus nautae

Vocatne

7.

5.
?

superantne

Liberi multi sunt latis in

9.

miseram narrat. 11. Sunt


Quid habent puellae tenerae ?
poor slaves. 2. For the wretched
12.

The owners of
For your small sons.
(my) poor friend!
I.

3.

In the messengers' gardens.

4.

6. The son of Duilius is free.


7. We see
They frighten small boys and tender women.

ants overcome the enemies.


live in the

asperi.

Cibus puerorum

NCintius miser fabulam

multi in oppido libero.

viri

2.

Misero in carro.

Pueros bonos vocamus.

viis.

8.

virorum liberorum.

Ventis asperis.

miserorum.

5.

supero. superare, surpass, o7'erconie.

m. vian (478).

I.

8.

y>w.

tener, tenera, tenerum, tender.

boy.

106.

3.

liberum,

miser, misera. miserum, wretched, poor.

-orum, m. plur. children,

I.

39

land of the

We
We

10.
12.

free.^

fierce

pirates.

The

inhabit-

9,

are free men.

We

11,

are sons of free men.

CONVERSATION

107.
1.

Quis viro viam monstrat

2.

Quid

clard in caelo lucet

3.

Viri

validi,

quern

Dea bona viam monstrat.


Luna nova lucet.

superatis

Inimicds asperos

supe-

ramus.
4.

Habentne

5.

Cui nuntius fabulam narrat

pueri pila

Duili pila longa habent.


"i

Viris liberis fabulam narrat.

Adjectives are frequently used in the plural in Latin, as in English,

without a noun, both in the masculine and neuter.

See

3, d.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

40

LESSON XI
SECOND DECLENSION

Continued

Apposition
Paradigjns

LOS.
ager,

m. field.

piger, pigra, pigrum, sloiv, lazy.

Singular

S INGULAR

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

ager

piger

pigra

pigrum

Gen.

agri

pigri

pigrae

pigri

Dat.

agrS

pigro

pigrae

pigro

Ace.

agrum

pigrum

pigram

pigrum

Abl.

agro

pigro

pigra

pigro

Plural

Plural

Nom

agri

pigri

pigrae

pigra

Gen.

agrorum

pigrorum

pigrarum

pigrorum

Dai.

agrls

pigris

pigris

pigris

Ace.

agros

pigros

pigras

pigra

Abl.

agris

pigris

pigris

pigris

a.

Observe that ager and piger are declined

except that e before

tlie

lilce

puer and

liber,

nominative.

VOCABULARY

109.
agar, agri, m.. field.
liber, libri,

m. book.

magister, magistri, m.
jnaster, teacher.

Sextus,

occurs only in

-i,

m. Sextus.

multus, multa, multum, jnuch.


multi (plur.). multae, multa, >nany.
niger, nigra, nigrum, black.

piger, pigra, pigrum, slow, lazy.

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum,(^d'rt///'//>^/,/;-^//>'.

dominus, tnas/er of a household or of slaves.


magister, master of a school.

SECOND DECLENSION
book.

[ liber, librl,

If

liber, libera, liber

liliberi,
Model

110.

libeidrum, children.

SenteJices

1.

Galba agricola agrum habet, Galba,

2.

Marcum amicum amo, /

loi'e

flie

Marcus,

farmer,

(^uiy)

Observe that agricola denotes the same person as Galba and

a.

joined to Galba as a descriptive or explanatory noun


in the

same way

HI.

Rule.

Marcum.

to

An

noun, ivJiich
a.

it

Read again

et nigri.

You

98.

will

see

that the

appositive closely

Wiiereia do they differ?

Viri, oppidi incolae.

8.

2.

magistrorum.

pulchri

6.

In agris pulchris agricolae.


4.

Ventorum

Nautae, amico meo.

asperorum.
7.

In agro Marci amici equ5s vide5.

strum delectat.

bonus non piger

11.

Liber,

12.
est.

Pulchrumne
14.

10.

d5num pulchrum
est

Servus Sextum

Corneliae, magi-

caelum?

Puellae pulchrae sunt dominae

Many

13.

Servus

Agricolae multl equ5s nigros habent.


filiae.

16.

Tui

donum gratum.
II.
I. To Galba, my friend,
I give a book.
children of Sextus we give many gifts.
3. To
sons they give pretty books.
4. The men dwell
town.
5. They dwell in Greece, a rough country
6.

Equi albi

Pueris miseris Duili.

amicum amat.

15.

with the

ajypositive agrees in case

Pigrorum servorum.

g.

is

related

EXERCISES
I.

Libri

5.

is

limits.

112.

3.

amicum

Such nouns are called appositives.

resembles the predicate noun.

I.

lias afield.

friend.

libri

2.

To

sunt

the

the men's
in

a poor

of Europe.

are the inhabitants in the towns of Britain.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

42

LESSON

XII

Additional Uses of the Dative


113. Review the present of sum (96) and learn the indicati\
imperfect and future, and the infinitive present (502).

Model

114.

Puero est sagitta,

Observe that the above sentence

The

puer sagittam habet.

an arrow')
an arrow.

En;g., the boy has

a.

Sejitence

{to
^" the boy is

equivalent in meaning to

is

dative thus used

is

The

the possessor, or the possessive dative.

called the dative

of

thing possessed, here

sagitta, is the subject.

115. Rule.
The dative is used with est, sunt, etc., to
denote the possessor, the thing possessed being the

subject.

Model Sentence

116.
.^.

Donum

(the p-ift to
j^^-^

puero est carum,

a.

Observe that puero

limits the

verb donat

Rule.

117.

limits

the boy
is dear)
-^
^

Eng., the gift is dear to the boy.

carum

just as the indirect object reginae

in 78.

Adjectives

friendly, pleasing, like,

meaning near, also


and their opposites, take

fit,

the

dative.

EXERCISES

118.
I.

I.

Est, erat, erit.

eramus, erimus.
6.

4.

2.

Suntne

Sum, eram,

Estis, eratis, eritis.

7.

Esse.

erant, erunt.

ero.

5.

Esne

3.
?

Sumus,

eras, eris.

OSES OF THE DATIVE


Magistro

8.

est liber.

sunt pueri multi.

1 1.

shall be.

4.

Is

liabet.

Duilius pueros multOs habet.

viae longae at asperae

nigrum nautis non


I.
II.
I am, we

Magister libruin

9.

43

13. Niintii

erunt miseri.

10. I)uili(j
12.

Erantne

14.

Caelum

gratum.

est
are.

Were we?

2.

he? they

are.

He

5.

was.

3.

shall be,

was, they were.

6.

we

He will

8. You will be, to be.


7. Vou are, you were.
You will be a free man. 10. Galba has a black horse.
12. The gifts will
II. A man had lazy and wretched sons.
be welcome to Marcus, my friend. 13. The good children sur-

be, tliey will be.


9.

pass the lazy (children).

REVIEW

119.
I

Decline servus.

vir.

magister.

niger, tener in the three genders.

donum pulchrum, poeta

asper.

Decline the adjectives carus,

2.

3.

clarus.

Decline oppidanus

What

4.

occurred that keep the e in declension

5.

liber,

nauta

adjectives in -er have

After reading the following

Conversation point out a direct object, an indirect object, a predicate


adjective, an appositive, a dative of the possessor, a genitive,

and a

dative with an adjective, and give the rule for each.

CONVERSATION

120.

Quem

1.

docet Sextus, amicus tuus

3.

Puerone erat tuba grata


Cui sunt rosae tenerae ?

4.

Cur magistro monstratis

2.

Filium Duili docet.

Puero tuba erat cara

et grata.

Puellis sunt rosae tenerae.


libros pulchros

Quia

libros

amat.
5.

Videsne,

video.

nuntie.

lunam novam

Lunam

nigro

in

caelo

FIRST YEAR LATIN

44

LESSON

XIII

FIRST AND SECOND CONJUGATIONS

Ct^w/w/^-r^/

Ablative of Means
Paradigtns

121.

Active Indicative Imperfect

Plural

Singular

3.

amabam, I was loving.'^


amahas, you were loving.
amabat, /le was loving.

1.

monebam, I was advising.

2.

monebas, j'^;/ were advising.

monebamus, we were advising.


monebatis, you were advising.

3.

monebat,

was

monebant, they were advising.

1.

2.

amabamus, we were loving.


amabatis, you were loving.
aniabant, they were loinng.

Singular

a.

lie

Plural

advising.

Observe that the imperfect of amo

stem ama- the tense-sign

ama + ba + m,
b.

-ba-,

How

and

is

formed by adding

to the

to that the personal endings (60)

moneo formed ?
Review the verbs of 66 and 72 and form the imperfect
etc.

person singular of each.

aratrum,

the imperfect of

first

Write out the imperfect of the verbs below.

VOCABULARY

122.

Note.

is

Words are sometimes purposely repeated


-1,

n.

plough

in the vocabularies.

noster, nostra, nostrum,

(p. ^y).

aureus, aurea, aureum, golden.

5rno, ornare,

defessus, defessa, defessum,

piigno, pugvikrQ,Jfghl.

deus, del, m. a
gladius, gladi,

god (482).
m. sword (p.

ti?-ed.

27).

scutum,

-i,

n. shield.

somnus,

-i,

m.

terreo, terrere, scare,

Mercurius, Mercuri, m. Mercury.

voc5, vocare, call,

Also did

loz'c,

loved.

ours.

sleep, droiusiness.

impleo, implere.yf//.

ottr.,

adorn, deck.

frighten.

summon.

AND SECOND CONJUGATIONS

FIRST

McyJcI Sentences

123.
1.

3.

men routed

Viri inimlcos hastis et sagittis fugabant,

with s/>ears
2.

45

the enemies

and arrows.

Servi pocula aqua implebant, servants wercji/lina^atfis with water.


Equis frumentum portant, they bring grain by means 0/ horses.
a.

Observe that the ablatives hastis, sagittis, aqua, and equis answer
by what? with what? by means of what? The

the questions

ablative thus used

124.

Rule.

is

called the ablative

The ablative

or instrianent of

an

Terrebasne

ornabatis.
7.

3.

Monebat,
2.
delectabam.
Fugabamus, fugabant, liberabamus.
5.

Vir agrum nostrum aratro arabat.


g.

13.
I.

Videbatis, terrebatis,

8.

Liberi columbas

Deus somno puerum superabat.

nostra

ornabant.

rosis

mento carros implebant.

3.

means

Pilgnabamus, vocabamus, implebant.

pulchrae pocula

II.

denote the

amabat,

habebat, habebant.

6.

tubis terrebant.

rum.

to

EXERCISES

Amabantne

I.

monebant, docebam.
4.

used

action.

125.
I.

is

of means or instrianent.

12.

11.

10.

Puellae

Agricolae

fru-

Mercurius nuntius erat deo-

Viris sunt sagittae et hastae.

By means

2. With horses and ploughs.


With golden trumpets. 5. They

of shields.

With our swords.

4.

were seeing, w^as he dancing

We

were teaching by means of books.


7. With your
sword you were liberating friends. 8. I ploughed the field
6.

with a new plough.

Mercurv.

10.

9.

Sleep was welcome to the tired god,

The men fought with

soears and long javelins.

FIRST i'EAR LATIN

46

LESSON XIV
FIRST AND SECOND CONJUGATIONS
Ablative of

Co//^^

Manner

Paradigms

126.

Active Indicative Future

Plural

Singular
I

amabo, /

amabimus, we shall

sJiall love.

yon

VLvaahis,

3.

amabit, he will love.

iL'!!/

amabitis,

love.

2.

you will

love.

love.

amabunt, they will

love.

Plural

Singular
1

monebo, / shall advise.

monebimus, we shall advise.

2.

monebi?,, yoii will advise.

monebitis, j^; will advise.

3.

monebit, he will advise.

monebunt, thev will advise.

a.

Observe that the future of amo

ama- the
the

is

tense-sign

dropped

person plural.
b.

-bi-,

and

in the first

How

is

is

formed by adding

person singular of each.

person and changed to u

66, 72,

but

in the third

moneo formed?
and 77, and form the future

first

Write out the future of the verbs below.

VOCABULARY

127.

prep, with ace. into, upon.

aedifico, aedificare, build.

in,

aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick.

laboro, lab5rare,

agito, agitare, drive,


f.

f.

chase away.

altar (p. 21).

cum, prep, with


cura, -ae,

stem

the future of

Review the verbs of

ara, -ae,

to the

to that the personal endings (60);

abl. with.

quo, adv.

n.

Joy, gladness.

suffer.

whither?

studium, studi, zeal, eagerness.

templum,

care.

gaudium, gaudi,

work,

proper5, properare, hasten.

-I,

n.

temple

(p. 95).

teneo, tenere, hold, keep.

FIRST A.YD SECOND CONJUGATIONS


Model

128.
1

Vir

2.

Vir

3.

Vir

Sentences

cum studio laborat, /he man works 'with zeal {zealously^.


magno cum studio laborat, the man works with great zeal.
magno studio laborat, the man works with great zeal.

Observe how manner

a.

47

is

expressed

above Latin sentences:

in the

magnS studio. Observe


The ablative thus
that (2) and (3) are translated in the same way.
used answers the question how ? in what way ?

cum

(I)

studio

(2)

magno cum

studi5

(3)

The ablative with cum

is used to denote
of an action ; hut cum may he omitted if
an adjective is used with the ahlative.

Rule.

129.

the

manner

a.

Observe that cum and. the ablative may often be translated by

an adverb: cum studio,

^-^-a/t^^i/)'/

cum

care/ul/yy

cura.,

cum

gaudio,

joyfully, gladly.

EXERCISES

130.

2. Amabitne ?
Amabunt, monebunt, properabunt.
monebit, tenebimus. 3. Manebuntnej? monstrabimus, terrebo.
I.

4.

I.

Laborabisne
5.

docebitis, properabo.

Agricolae sunt equi

validus

7.

validi.

6.

Quo

properabit agricola

In^ agros properabunt agricola et pueri.

8.

In

magno cum studio. 9. Cum gaudio frumentum in oppidum portabunt. 10. Magna ciira equos agitabunt.
II. Non in oppido manebunt.
2. He will hasten.
II.
I. You will build.
3. Who will drive
6. For sick children.
4. We shall drive.
5. You will hold.
8. You will
7. You will build a temple with great care.
agris

laborabunt

adorn the temple with an

altar.

children carefully into the temple.

9.

We
10.

Whose

shall carry the sick

Tliey will joyfully see

the altar

and the goddess.

They

see the altar of Vesta, the kind goddess.

will
1

Observe

tlie

11.

altar will

use and meaning of in here and in S and

they see?

1.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

48

LESSON XV
FIRST CONJUGATION

Continued

Reading Lesson
Principal Paris of Verbs

131.

Pres. Ind.

Pres. Inf.

Perf. Ind.

amo

amare

amavi

a.

TY^^ principal parts of a verb, illustrated by the model, are so

calLd because
b.

Perf. Part.

The

all

forms of the verb can be made from them.

principal parts .of almost

all

are formed after the model of amo.

amav-

is

formed by adding v

verbs of the

first

conjugation

Observe that the perfect stem

to the verb-stem

the principal parts of the verbs of the

first

ama-, amav-.

Give

conjugation in 77, 105,

122, 127.

Paradigm

132.

Active Indicative Perfect


Singular

I /lave

1.

2ima.\\,

2.

amavisti,

3.

amavit,

/<??/

lie

Personal Endings^

loved,

have

loved,

I did

love,

loved, etc.

has loved,

-i

-isti
-it

etc.

Plural
1

amavimus,

2.

amavistis, yoji have loved,

3.

amaverunt,

a.

The

ive

have

-imus

loved, etc.

-ere, they

have

-istis

etc.

loved, etc.

-erunt, -ere

personal endings of the perfect tense are the same in

the conjugations, as

we

all

shall see.

Observe that the second translation of the perfect is the same as


i
But there is this difference in the use of the two tenses the perfect denotes a completed
b.

the last of the imperfect, p. 44, foot-note

With connecting vowel.

FIRST CO.XJUGATION
act,

imperfect an act going on, continued, or repeated.

tlie

Reading Lesson

illustrations in the

Vocabularies 66, 105.

EXERCISES

133.

Vocavitne

I.

I.

See

(134).

Inflect in the perfect the verbs of

c.

49

amavit, superavit.

taverunt, laboraverunt.

vimus.

Amavine

4.

3.

vocavisti,

Pugnaverunt,

2.

agi-

Properavimus, aedificavimus, amaproperavistis.

5.

Portavit,

delectavit, fugavit.
II.
2.

You have

I.

have adorned,

praised,

brought,

have sung, they swam.

4.

We

you
gave,

you

ploughed,

related.

They danced, they


we dwelt, we showed.

set free.

3.

THE ROMANS AND THE SABINES

134.

Romulus Romam, pulchrum Italiae oppidum, aedificavit.


Incolas oppidi vocavit Romanos.
Valid! viri erant Roman!
et maxime amabant patriam.
Saepe cum Sabinis, vicinis,
pro patria pugnabant et saepe armis in bello superabant.
Olim erat victoria diu dubia. Nam Sabini arma habebant
bona et pilis longis magna cum audacia pugnaverunt. Sed
Roman! Sabinos fugaverunt et multos sagittis volneraverunt.
Cara Romanis erat ilia {that) victoria.

VOCABULARY

135.

arma, -orum,
audacia, -ae,
diu,

n. plur.
f.

arms.

boldness, daring.

with abl. before, for,

pro, prep,

in defence of.

m. a Roman.

adv.ybr a long time, long.

R5inanus,

-i,

-um, doubtful.

Romulus,

-1,

m. and

Sabini. -orum, m. plur. Sabines.

dubius,

-a,

incola, -ae,
Italia, -ae,

f.

f.

inhabitant.

Italy.

maxime, adv. very, greatly.


nam, conj./<?r.
olim, adv. once,
patria, -ae,

f.

saepe, adv. ofteti.


sed, conj. but.

vicinus,

formerly.

native country.

m. Romulus.

-i,

m. neighbor.

victoria, -ae,

volnero, -are,

f.

victory.

wound.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

50

LESSON XVI
SECOND CONJUGATION
Principal Parts

Continued

mone5, monere, monui, monitus

Paradigm

136.

Active Indicative Perfect

Singular
1.

monui, I have advised,

2.

monuisti,

3.

monuit, he has advised,

I advised, I did advise.

you have advised,

etc.

etc.

Plural
1

2.

3.

a.

ously

-are

Verbs of the second conjugation form the perfect stem varimoneo forms it by dropping final e of the verb-stem {']i,b) and
;

so do doceo, teach; habeo, liave ; terreo, frighten; teneo,

and most others of

very irregular.
b.

them

etc.

adding u
hold,

monuimus, we have advised, etc.


monuistis, j^ have advised, etc.
monuerunt, -ere, they have advised,

this conjugation.

The

perfect participles

For personal endings, see 132 and

a.

Learn the principal parts of the following verbs and


in the perfect tense

inflect

Pres. Inf.

Perf. Ind.

Perf. Part.

doceo

docere

docul

doctus, teach.

habeo

habere

habul

habitus, have.

terreo

terrere

terrul

territus,

teneo

tenere

tenul

luceo

lucere

luxl

maneo

manere

mansi

mansus, remain.

impleo

implere

implevi

impletus,yf//.

video

videre

vidl

visus, see.

RES. IND.

frighten

hold

luctus, shitie.

SECOND CONJUGA TION.


EXERCISES.

137.

Monuit, monuerunt, docuit.

I.

I.

habuerunt.

runtne

10.

mansimus.

5.

Puero

7.

implevit.

cura puellam

4.

Vidine

vide-

Tenuit, tenuerunt, terruerunt.

luxerunt.

Aqua pOcula

Cum

Docuerunt, habuit,

2.

TerruistI, terruistis, tenuisti.

3.

Stellae

6.

8.

51

erat

poculum pulchrum.

Pueri pocula aqua impleverunt.

9.

11. Scuta et
aegram portaverunt.
12. Olim Romulus Sabinos

gladios inimicorum vidi pro portis.

superavit et fugavit.
II.

I.

The moon shone

into a

frightened the
fight w^ith the

remained.

6.

little

town.

2.

Often

it

The swords and trumpets


children.
4. But the townsmen hastened to
enemies.
5. The women and children gladly
The men fought boldly. 7. The women taught

shone upon the arms of men.

3.

the boys and girls carefully.

Roman Headdresses

FIRST YEAR LATIN

52

LESSON XVII
The Demonstrative

Is

Is,

adjective, this, thai; plur., these, those.

Is,

pronoun,

this, that, he, she, it ; plur., these, those, they.

Paradigm

138

Plural

Singular
Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

is

ea

id

ii,

Gen.

eius

eius

eius

eorum

ei

el

ei

iis,

Ace.

cum

earn

id

eos

ea

eo

the

declension of

AM.
a.

eo

Compare

same as those
Note.

ea

eorum

earum

eis

iis,

eis

iis,

eas
eis

iis,

eis

ea
eis

iis,

eis

column by column, with the

The endings (stem i or e) in the plural are


Where are they different in the singular?

declension of bonus (483).


the

iis,

is,

eae

ei

Dat.

Neut.

Fem.

Masc.

of bonus.

Be careful not to confound

ei,

dative,

and

eo, ablative.

Table of Meanings for Reference

139.

Is

AS A

Pronoun

Singular

Nom.

this,

Gen.

of this, of that ; of him, his; of her, hers ; of it,


to or for this or that; to or for hitn, her or it.

Dat.

Ace.

tJiis,

Abl.

by,

that j he, she,

it.

that; him, her,

with,

etc.,

its.

it.

this or that; by, with, etc., hitn, her or

Plural

Nom.

tliese,

Gen.
Dat.

of these, of those; of them, their.


to or for these or those; to or for them.

Ace.

these, those ;

Abl.

by, with, etc., these or those; by, with, etc.,

those ; they.

them.
them.

it.

THE DEMOXSTRATIVE
Modd

140.
1

Is vir

cum

Eum

3.

Patientiam eius laudamus,

laudamus, tiv praise him,

a. Is in tlie first

tive adject i7'e.

It

sentence

is

designates

53

Sentences

patientia laborat, that

2.

IS

man works patiently.

i.e.

that (man).

we praise
used
its

his {of him) patience.

witli a

noun

in

noun and

phatically, as

previously mentioned or understood

See also 201,

c,

h.

Is in

pronoun.
c.

d.

and

and 212,
3

a demonstra-

the aforesaid.

b.

used witiiout a noun and

is

The meanings

is

connected speech unem-

of

is

as a

a demonstrative

is

pronoun are shown

in 139.

Learn the indicative perfect of sum (502).


Decline together id donum, that i;ift ; is nuntius, that messenger

ea patria, this country.

EXERCISES

141.
I.

I.

Id scutum,

gladio, eo bello.

3.

is

.Eo

gladius, ea fabula.

2.

Eo

gladi5, ei

cibo, ea pecunia, in ea terra.

4.

In

eo somno, eorum hortorum, eius auri.


5.

Ea arma fuerunt mea, sed ea pecunia

asperi fuerunt vicini nostri.

7.

Eosne

fuit tua.

vidistis

Non

6.

li viri

eos, sed

edrum filios vidimus. 8. Dominus eius equi fuit vir piger.


10. Sed puer parvus ei aquam
9. Equus eius fuit defessus.
donavit et domino et dominae pocula vino implevit.
2. For these goddesses,
I. For this goddess, Vesta.
II,
by these arms. 3. On that black horse, for him, for them.
4. Of the aforesaid townsman, of their fortune, those men.^
6. Their sons I have taught,
5. I have had kind friends.
7. You have seen and praised them.
but not their daughters.
9. They have kept them
8. You gave them many presents.
carefully.
1

As

subject

and as

object.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

54

LESSON

XVIII

The Interrogative

Quis

Paradigffi

142.

who ? which ? what ?

Quis?

Plural

Singular

Norn.

Neut.

Fem.

Masc.

Fem.

Masc.

quis (qui)

quae

quid (quod)

Neut.

quae

quae

qui

Gen.

cuius

ciiius

cuius

quorum quarum

quorum

Dai.

cui

cui

cui

quibus

quibus

quibus

Ace.

quern

quam

quid (quod)

quos

quas

quae

Abl.

quo

qua

quo

quibus

quibus

quibus

Table of Meanings for Reference

143.

Note. - The meanings are not tabulated with reference

Nom.
Gen.

of whom

Dat.

to or for

whom ?

Ace.

whom ?

Abl.

by, etc.,

whose ? of which ? of what ?


to or for which ? to or for what?
which ? what ?
whom? by, etc., which? by, etc., what?

Model Sentences

144.
1

to gender.

who? which? what?

Quis (qui) vir patriam non amat

What man

does not love

his country ?

amat

IVho does

2.

Quis patriam non

3.

Quod donum amat puella

4.

Quid amat puella

a.

Observe that quis has two distinct uses

.?

.''

What

interrogative adjective; in 2

As an
ber,

interrogative adjective

and

case.

As

.?

a pronoun

it

love his country ?

does the girl like ?

does the girl like?

and 4
it

ttot

What gift

it

is

in

and

it

is

an

an interrogative pronoun.

agrees with

its

noun

has no feminine.

in gender,

num-

THE INTERROGATIVE QUIS


The form quod

b.

is

is

place of quid as an interroga-

in

so used in place of quis.

EXERCISES

145.

Note.

always used

and often qui

tive adjective,

55

The learner should accustom himself,

in

making out the mean-

ing of the Latin, to pronounce any Latin word, the sense of which

is

not

For example, taking sentence


12 below, if the meaning of cuius is not clear, say: "Cuius arms has that
"
boy " Probably this would suggest " Whose arms has that boy
evident, as a part of his English sentence.

.'

.'

2. Qui viri id ternI.


I. Qui id templum aedificaverunt ?
plum aedificaverunt ? 3. Quid est in eo templo
4. Quae
femina non amat liberos ? 5. Cuidonat Marcus id poculum ?
6. Quibus viris non est patria cara ?
7. Quos agros arat is
agricola ? 8. Quern laudatis ? 9. Quid in poculo habet servus ?
.''

Quam

10.

puellam laudat magister

aravit agricola

12.

Ciiius

Quo

11.

arma habet

is

aratro eos agros

puer

Who

was a messenger of the gods ? 2. Whose messenger was Mercury ? 3. Whose shield did that boy have ?
5. Whom have you
4. To whom did he give the shield ?
overcome ? 6. With what arms have you overcome those
II.

men

I.

.'

REVIEW

146.
I.

.the

What

are the two personal endings of the third person plural of

perfect?

make up
5. From

In 134 explain the difference in the use of the tenses

2.

of vocavit, line

2,

and amabant,

the principal parts


141,

and four of

\.

is

line 3.
4.

3.

What

is

What forms

5-10, select five examples of

used as an adjective.

6.

.''

is

sum 1

used as a pronoun

What form of quis is used


What forms in the

interrogatively in the neuter as an adjective

masculine

of the verb

the perfect stem of

.''

FIRST YEAR LATIN

56

LESSON XIX
THIRD CONJUGATION E-VERBS
Note.
in

short

Observe

that verbs of this

conjugation have stems ending

those of the second conjugation in long

e,

rego (stem

Principal Parts

rege-),

See

e.

reg5, regere, rexi, rectus

Learn the active indicative present, imperfect,

147.

59.

rule

and

future,

perfect of rego (499).

Observe that the personal endings are the same as those already

a.

learned, one set (60) applying to the

first

three tenses, the other (132)

to the perfect.

Compare

b.

c.

moneo

the present of rego with the present of

in respect

vowel that precedes the personal ending.

to the

Compare

the future of rego with the present of moneo.

Com-

pare the two imperfects.


d.

Like rego

send.

inflect in the

For the principal

same tenses

parts, see

duco, lead; emo,

Vocabulary.

The

buy ; mitto,

perfect and per-

fect participles of verbs of the third conjugation are very irregular.

No

rule

can be given.

VOCABULARY

148.

aurum,

olim, adv. once, fortnerly.

n. gold.

-i,

plenus, plena, plenum,

bene, adv. well.


hodie, adv. to-day,
incola, -ae,

m. and

now.
f.

terra, -ae,

f.

turn, adv. then,

inhabitant.

/"//.

land, country.

at that time.

duco, ducere, diixi, ductus, lead.

emo, emere, emi, emptus,

biiy.

mitt5, mittere, misi, missus, send, throw, hurl.


rego, regere, rexl, rectus, rule, mafiage.
reporto, reportare, reportavl, reportatus, brifig back, gain.

THIRD COXJUGA TION


EXERCISES

149.
I.

I.

3.

S7

rcget.

regcbat,

Regit,

Uucunt, ducent, ducebat.

runt, emisti, emistis.

6.

4.

2.

Emo, emebam, emam,

Rexit, rexerunt, duxit.

Misi, misimus, misit.

7.

5.

Duxe-

Mittimus,

mittunt, mittent.

Agricolae

8.

sunt agri pleni frumenti.

9.

Id frumentum

oppidum magnum mittet. 10. Id in carris plenis equis


11. Qui eos equ5s longa in via agitabunt ?
validis mittit.
2. Filii eius, Marcus et Brutus, eos duxerunt et hodie ducent.
13. Incolae eius oppidi frumentum agricolae, non carros,
emerunt.
14. Pueri aurum et dona amicis reportaverunt.
in

15.

Cara erant* amicis ea pulchra dona.


I. They rule, they were ruling, they

II.

he was leading, he

leads,

will

lead.

3.

will rule.

2.

Pie

have bought, we
will send, I have

4. I am sending, I
You (sing.) send, you will send, you (plur.) have
6. To send, to buy, to lead.
sent.
8. Often
7.^ The Romans once had (perf.) many lands.
they did not rule (impf.) them well. 9. Then the inhabitants
10.'- What arms had
they?
of those lands fought boldly.

bought, they bought.


sent.

5.

12. These they hurled;


II. Their arms were long spears.
with these they wounded the Romans.
1

Dative of possessor.

Writing

Translate in two ways.

M.a.terials

FIRST YEAR LATIN

58

LESSON XX
REVIEW: READING LESSON

150.
I

Give the

infinitives of

am5, moneo, and

rego.

the infinitive needs to be especially noticed?

the perfect stems of amo, moneS, emo, mitto

sonal endings of the perfect

5.

personal endings of the perfect.


gular in three ways.
present, imperfect,

imperfect?

9.

second conjugations?

To

the perfect stem of

6.

Translate the third person sin-

amo add

the

Give the table of personal endings of the

7.

and

What

4.

What letter of
3. What are
What are the per2.

Why?

future.

8.

What

is

the tense-sign of the

11.

and
Review

Cum

studio.

the tense-sign of the future in the

is

10.

Write the future of emo.

first

Vocabularies 72, yj, 122, 127, 135.

EXERCISES

151.

Ad vena

I.

I.

defessus.

4.

Cum

6.

Quod deorum templum

8.

Ea
9.

Plena, in iQna.

2.

gaudio eius pueri

aegri.
7.

5.

3.

Cuius aureus gladius

Earum fabularum gratarum.

victoria nostra (of ours).

Quis agrum aratro diu aravit

bone?

II.

Cur

in

fuerunt equi nigri.

10. Cur es dubius, puer


?
manebis ? 12. Marco et Bruto
Marcus et Brutus equos nigros habu-

insulis
13.

erunt.
II.

I.

You have managed

the strangers well.

sending sick men into the temples

3.

We

2.

4. He will buy arms with great


With whose gold does he buy arms ?

friends into the towns.


5.

Who

are

shall lead our


care.

ICARUS

152.

See 179, note.


Frater et Sororcula {brother

and

little sister)

S.

Fabulam bonam amicus hodie narravit.


De quo tibi {to you) narravit amicus ?

F.

De

F.

Icaro, Daedali

filio,

puero miserrimo

{tnost unlucky).

READING LESSON

59

Ubi (rchere) habitabat Icarus ? In Britannia ?


Minime; in Creta, insula magna et pulchra. Daedalus
Tcaro alas finxit et ei cera aptavit.
Alae Icaro erant maxime
gratae. Turn Daedalus puerum volare docuit, sed altius {toohigli)
S.

F.

volavit Icarus.

Sol

{suti)

ceram

solvit et alae deciderunt.

S.

Sed quid de Icaro

F.

Icarus quoque decidit in mare

S.

Eheu, miserrimum Icarum

wing.

cera, -ae, f
de, prep,

{sed).

VOCABULARY

153.
ala, -ae, f

eheu, interj. alas !

wax.

with

-s^A.

minime, adv.

from,

7iot

apt5. aptare, aptavl, aptatus,y?A


decido, decidere, decidi,
fingo, fingere. finxl, tlctus,

at

all.

quoque, adv. also, too.

aboift.

fall off ox: down.

fashion, devise.

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus, melt.

The Fall of Icarus

FIRST YEAR LATIN

6o

LESSON XXI
THIRD DECLENSION
The stem ends

in a consonant or in /

Consonant Stems: Mutes (38)


154

Paradigms

:.

rex,

miles, m.

m.

king

Stems :reg-

virtus,

f.

caput, n.

soldier

virtue

head

milit-

virtiit-

capit-

Terminations
M. &

N.

F.

SlNGULAR

or-

A-07H.

rex

miles

virtus

caput

-s

Gen.

regis

militis

virtutis

capitis

-is

Dat.

regi

militi

virtu ti

capiti

-i

Ace.

regem

militem

virtutem

caput

-em

Abl.

rege

milite

virtute

capita

-e

-e

-a

-is
-i

Plural

Nom.

reges

mllites

virtutes

capita

-es

Gen.

regum

mllitum

virtu turn

capitum

-um

-um

Dat.

regibus

mllitibus

virtutibus

capitibus

-ibus

-ibus

Ace.

reges

mllites

virtutes

capita

-es

-a

Abl.

regibus

mllitibus

virtQtibus

capitibus

-ibus

-ibus

Review

a.
b.

sary

46, a,

b, c,

Repeat the stem for

all

the accusative singular,


c.

which
d.
e.

in

d.

For the locative

To decline a noun with stem ending in


to know the gender, the nominative, the

always given

genitive,

it is

neces-

and the stem.

cases except the nominative, and in neuters

and add the proper terminations.

The stem can be found by dropping


is

case, see 195-197.

a consonant

-is

of the genitive singular,

in the vocabularies.

Observe that masculines and feminines are declined alike.


Observe that the last vowel of the stem is sometimes changed

forming the nominative.

No

rule can

be given.

THIRD DECLENSION

Following the directions of

^,

6i

decline eques, lapis, and pedes (155).

Decline together miles bonus, good soldier j

i,^

virtue;

VOCABULARY

155.
caput, capitis, n. head.

lapis, lapidis,

m. stone.

dux. ducis, m. leader., general.

miles, militis,

m. soldier.

eques, equitis,
et

et,

fortiter,

m. horseman.

conj. both

ducem

rex, regis,

adv. bravely.

vi\.

foot-soldier.

m. king.

virtus, virtiitis,

f.

courage, virtue.

EXERCISES
Et reges

I.

I.

pedes, peditis,

and.

156.

4.

that

ea virtus,

head.

id caput, tliis

vidi

duces milites duxerunt.

et

hodie.

Capita multorum

3.

Equites pro rege

duce pugnabant.

et

reportaverunt victoriam.
neraverunt.

Virtiis

7.

reportabant.

8.

6.

Lapidibus

equitum

et

5.

2.

Regem

et

peditum vidimus.
Virtute et studio

et sagittis

multos vol-

studium peditum victoriam

Quis scuta emet equitibus


10. Nostros milites

militem lapide aspero volnerabam.

Eum
lapi-

dibus volnerabunt.
II.
3.

On

I.

the head of a king.

By the courage

spears.
6.

5.

of soldiers.

For the general

In a town

saw

a king.

4.

2. On the heads of kings.


To wound with stones and

of the foot-soldiers.
7.

The king was

a good general

and ruled well. 8. He bought food for the inhabitants. 9. He


10. He led the soldiers bravely, and
sent arms into the town.
they loved him.

A Roman Coin

FIRST YEAR LATIN

62

LESSON XXII
THIRD CONJUGATION VERBS IN

-10

Place Whence and Whither


capio (stem cape-(i-)), take

Principal Parts

capio, capere, cepi, captus

Learn the active indicative present,

157.

and

future, imperfect,

perfect of capio (500).


a.

Wlierein does the inflection of capid differ from that of rego


In the imperfect?

the present?

vowel of capio varies between


b.

The

In the future?

and

-e (capere)

-i

in

stem

final

(capio).

All verbs in -io with the infinitive in -ere are conjugated like capio.

Like capio

inflect in the

same tenses

Model

158.

ivLgib,

Jlee ; iacio,

hnrl (161).

Sentefices

Magister liberos a schola dimisit, the teacher dismissed the children

2.

Oppidani de muro lapides iaciunt, townsmen throw stones

from

from

school.

hastenedforth fro7n the gate.

3.

Milites ex porta properaverunt, soldiers

4.

Legates ad oppidum miserunt, they sent deputies to the town.

a.

Observe that a

motion

is

directed.

schola, de muro, ex porta

On

\.\\&

place

Rule.

159.

towns,

to

which motion

is

in terram,

directed.

the

land)

rules.

ivhence, not inchtding names of


by the ablative with a {ah), de, e {ex).

Before words beginning with a vowel or

instead of a and

up07i

Hence two

Place

is eX'pressed

Note.

denote place from which

the other hand, ad oppidum (as also expres-

sions like in insulam, into the island,

denotes

down

the wall.

e.

h,

ab and ex are used

THIRD COAJUGATION

Place jchithcr, not including names of


expressed hy the accusative with ad or in.

Rule.

160.

towns,

is

63

VOCABULARY

161.
a (ab), prep, with abl.

away from, froi/i,

mums,

by.

ad, prep, with ace. to, towards.


de, prep,

down from, froi.

with abl.

prep, with abl. out

e (ex),

legatus,

m. wall.
m.foot.

quia, conj. because.

quo, adv. whither.

of from.

schola, -ae,

m. deputy, lieutenant.

-i,

-1,

pes, pedis,

f.

school.

capio, capere, cepi, captus, take, receive.

dimitto, dimittere, dimisi, dimissus, dismiss,


fugio, fugere, fugi,

iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus,

flee,

send off.

run away.

throw, hurl,

cast.

EXERCISES

162.
I.

De

I.

ducibus ad

capite ad pedem.
milites.

fugient, fugit.

iecimus.

8.

4.

2.

A schola

Iacio, iaciam, iaciebam.

6.

in

oppidum.

Capiat, capit, capiunt.


7.

3.

Fugiunt,

5.

Ceperunt,

iecit,

Fijgimus, fugimus, dimisimus.

Qui legates ad regem miserunt ? Incolae eos de multis


10. CQr dimittent agricolae carros et
miserunt.

9.

oppidis

equos

Quia

quo fugerunt
fuerunt (115)
II.

I.

hurl,

hurl,

In

(ivithin)

13.

From

from heaven.
will

milites eos capient.

11.

muros.

12.

Quo

eos dimiserunt et

Quae arma

the feet of the horsemen.

3.

militibus

Eis militibus fuerunt scuta et gladii.

Both

in

2.

With stones

school and from school.

they will hurl, they hurl.

5.

You

hurl,

4.

He

you

will

you hurled.

Women and

children were fleeing from the fields.


8. They were
Boys were throwing stones from the wall,
hastening from school to the water.
9. The master will send
10. The lieutenant
the children away from school to-day.
6.

7.

led the soldiers within the walls.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

64

LESSON XXIII
THIRD DECLENSION
Consonant Stems

Continued

Liquids (38)

Ablative of Cause
Paradigms

163.

homo, m.

volnus, n.

father

man

wound

body

patr-

homin-

volner-

corpor-

pater,

Stems

m.

corpus, n.

SlNGULAR

Nom.

pater

liomd

volnus

corpus

Gen.

patris

hominis

volneris

corporis

Dat.

patrl

homini

volneri

corpori

Ace.

patrem

hominem

volnus

corpus

AM.

patre

homine

volnere

corpore

Plural
Ndfn.

patres

homines

volnera

corpora

Gen.

patrum

hominum

volnerum

corporum

Dat.

patribus

vohieribus

corporibus

Ace.

patres

Abl.

patribus

hominibus
homines
hominibus

a.

Review the

b.

Decline

is

id corpus, pater

Model

Homo puerum

corpora

volneribus

corporibus

table of terminations (154)

homo,

164.
1

volnera

also 154, b

and

c.

cams.

Sentences

virtiite laudat, the

man praises the boy for (on account

of) his bravery.


2.

Equus aquae inopia

3.

Tuo

4.

Pedes longa

volnere

march.

sum
y.-.a

laborat, the horse suffers from

miser,

I am

ivj'etched because

est defessus, the foot-soldier is

want of water.

ofyour wound.
tired with the long

THIRD DECLENSION
Observe that the ablatives

a.

virtute, inopia, volnere, via all

Notice the various prepositions used

cause or reason.
these ablatives

is

used

praise, glory.

corpus, corporis, n. bocfy.

laus, laudis,

homo, hominis, m. tnan.

pater, patris,

inopia, -ae,

volnus, volneris, n.

f.

7i.'ant,

lack.

doleo, dolere, dolui,

Homines eos

I.

verunt.

m. father.

wound.

grieve.

2.

milites

lapidibus

neribus

vestris

magnam

a rege.

Cum

et

Volnera

3.

Hodie patres volSed laudem capietis


{your) dolebunt.
5.
6. Nam turn non in muros oppidi fugiebatis.

audacia pugnabatis

magnam

volnera-

hastis

Milites miseri, multa volnera habetis

sunt et in pedibus et in corporibus.

riam

i.

EXERCISES

167.

7.

express cause.

to

VOCABULARY

166.

I.

4.

et pedites et equites.

8.

Victo-

virtlate reportavistis.

Point out five different uses of the ablative above, and

a.

denote

in translating

for, on account of, from, because of with.

Rule. The ablative

165.

65

tell

how

you can distinguish them.


II.
2.

I.

The

teachers

dismiss

the

children

Children hurl stones from the walls.

3.

from school.

What king

will flee

on account of wounds ? 4. We shall lead the deputies away


from the town to the water. 5. The soldiers suffered from
lack of food and water.

REVIEW

168.
I.

Give the rule for the place of an action.

whence.
5.

3.

For the place whither.

For manner.

answer?

7.

What

6.

What

question

the ablative of

4.

2.

For the place

For means or instrument.

does

the

manner?

8.

ablative

What

of place

the ablative

means or instrument ? 9. What the ablative of cause ? 10. What


two cases of a noun with consonant stem must be known to enable

of

you

to decline it?

What

else

must you know?

FIRST YEAR LATIN

66

LESSON XXIV
THIRD DECLENSION
Stems

in i

Paradigms

169
hostis,

Stems

Continued

m.

nubes,

urbs,

f.

animal,

f.

n.

enemy

cloud

city

animal

hosti-

niibi-

urbi-

animali-

Terminations
M. & F.

N.

SlNGULAR

Nom.

hostis

nubes

urbs

animal

-s

Gen.

hostis

nubis

urbis

animalis

-is

-is

Dat.

host!

nubi

urbi

animal!

-i

-i

Ace.

hostem

nubem

urbem

animal

-em

Abl.

hoste

nube

urbe

animali

-e

-i

Plural

Nom.

hostes

nubes

urbes

animalia

-es

-ia

Gen.

hostium

nubium

urbium

animalium

-ium

-ium

Dat.

hostibus

nubibus

urbibus

animalibus

-ibus

-ibus

Ace.

hostis, -es

nobis, -es

urbis, -es

animalia

-is,

Abl.

hostibus

nubibus

urbibus

animalibus

-ibus

a.

154.
b.

Compare

What

the

first

table of endings above with the

differences do

Compare

-es -ia

-ibus

under

first

you find?

the terminations of the neuter with those of

54 and

point out the differences.


e.

The

following sometimes have the ablative singular in

e: avis, civis, finis, ignis, navis (171).

accusative in -im
d.

As a guide

turris, turrim,

and

few sometimes have the

tower.

to the learner, all

nouns having i-stems

will

be

followed by the stem in the succeeding vocabularies.


e.

To

decline a

noun with stem ending

minations to the stem with

in

i,

dropped, except

add the proper


in

ter-

the nominative.

Decline avis pulchra, pretty bird, and mare magnum, great sea.

THIRD DECLENSION
Nouns with I-Stcms

170.
I.

67

Nouns

in -is

in -e, -al, -ar.

and

-es not increasing

Nouns

3.

and

in -ns

-rs.

in the genitive.

Neuters

2.

Monosyllables

4.

in -s or -x

following a consonant.

VOCABULARY

171.

animal, animalis (animali-),


avis, -is (avi-),

m. and

civis, -is (civi-),

ferrum,

n.

animal.

f.

citizen.

n. iron, siuord.

-i,

f.

ship.

niibes, -is (niibi-),

f.

cloud,

flock.

plur. boundaries, territory.


hostis, -is (hosti-),

hostis,

(44, 3).

f.

city.

a public enemy.

personal enemy ; opposite of amicus.

EXERCISES
Qui

I.

I.

finibus

pila

de muris urbium iaciunt

nubem equitum
;

1.

in

laudem

fine

Piratae e

animali

Magna navium

virtute

capiet.

fill

terrae viderunt.

fuit

inopia

8.

Ei

7.

Gives

hostes pila

cives ex urbe fugerunt.

The

deputies are tired from head to foot.

see great fires in the city.

hasten from school.

4.

3.

the sea to the land.

those

men
On account of
wounds of those men.
?

That

is,

They take

Whither

From

4.

2.

Ei

3.

Hostes terra marique vastant ferro ignique.

5.

Pater eius equitis

II.

insulas.

corpus, sed caput parvum.

laboramus.

iecerunt

ad

fugiebant

Italiae

magnum

at the

and

urbs, urbis (urbi-),

general word for enemy

172.

6.

-que, conj.

m. enemy, foe.

inimicus, a private or

fire.

(mari-), n. sea.

-is

navis, -is (navi-),

m. end, border,

finis, -is (fini-),

m.

ignis, -is (igni-),

mare,

bird.

f.

5.

will that

Why

(their)

2.

Boys

books and

cloud of birds

fly

.-"

did the citizens praise

their courage.

having no more syllables than

in

6.

We

grieved

the nominative.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

68

LESSON XXV

Continued

THIRD DECLENSION

Gender
Masculine
Rule.

173.

creasing

J^oinis

in

-o,

-or, -os, -er,

and

-es

in-

in the genitive, are masculine.

Feminine

Rule I.
JVouns in -do, -go, together with
abstract and collective nouns in -io, are feminine.
Rule 2.
J^ouns in -as, -es not increasing in the
genitive, -is, -us, -x, and -s following a consonant are
feminine.
174.

Neuter
Rule.

175.

J\"ouns

in

-a, -e,

-i,

-y, -c,

-I,

-n,

-t,

-ar,

-ur, -us are neuter.

The above

Note.
I and

(47,

rules are subordinate to the general rules of

gender

2).

Table for Revieiu of Noiais of Third Declension

176.

Masculine
m.

*civis, civis (civi-),

citizen.

* dux, ducis, m. leader.


eques, equitis, m.

horseman.

* finis, finis (fini-), m. end, border,


plur. territories.

homo, hominis, m. /nan.


* hostis, hostis (hosti-), m. enemy.
^

That

is,

* ignis, ignis (igni-), m.fre.


* lapis, lapidis, m. stone.
miles, militis,
pater, patris,

m. soldier.
m. father.

pedes, peditis, m. foot-soldier.


pes, pedis, m.foot.

* rex, regis, m. king.

having more syllables than

in the

nominative.

THIRD DECLENSION

69

Feminine
avis, avis (avi-).
laus. laudis,

f.

f.

niibes,

bird.

navis, navis (navi-),

nubis (nubi-),

urbs, urbis (urbi-),

praise.

virtQs, virtiitis,

sliip.

f.

f.

f.

f.

cloud.

city.

courage.

Neuter
animalis

animal

(animali-).

corpus, corporis, n. body.

n.

mare, maris (mari-), n. sea.

ani)>tal.

volnus, volneris, n.

caput, capitis, n. head.

wound.

See
Exceptions to the rules of gender (i 73-175) ^fe starred.
of these exceptions come under the general rules of gender

a.

how many
(47,
b.
c.

and 2). In future note exceptions as they occur.


Apply the appropriate rule of gender to each noun not
Distinguish carefully nouns ending in -iis and -us

example,
d.

starred.

virtiis

Make

and

as,

for

corpus.

a hst of

all

the above nouns having consonant stems

(38) and another of i-stem nouns.

177.

Read again

85.

Apply

th

learn the meanings of the following


fortitiido, fortitiidinis,

f.

endurance.

rules of gender, decline,

saliis, salutis, f.

safety.

socius, soci,

m. comrade,

imperator, imperatoris, m. general.

telum,

weapon.

pons, pontis (ponti-), m. bridge.

terror, terroris.

fragor, fragoris,

m. crash.

and

A Roman Coin

-i.

n.

m. terror.

ally.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

70

LESSON XXVI
Review: Reading Lesson

REVIEW

178,

Remember that to decline a noun


must know (i) its gender (2) whether
I

noun; (3)

of the third declension


it is

you

a consonant or an i-stem

nominative and genitive singular; (4) the appropriate


2. How do you know that eques, equitis, is not

its

table of terminations.

an i-stem noun and that nubes, nubis is ? 3. How can you tell, without
knowing the genitive, that cliens, client, mare, sea, and arx, citadel, are
i-stem nouns ?
4. Write down the table of terminations of masculine
and feminine nouns with consonant stems (154) then, by the side
of it, the table of masculine and feminine nouns with i-stems (169).
Is there any difference in the singu5. Compare the two tables.
lar?
6. What are the differences in the plural.?
7. In the same
;

way
8.

write side

What

plural.?

safety

novum

side the tables of terminations of neuter nouns.

Decline

ID.

by

difference do you note in the singular.?

fragor magnus,

lotid

What

9.

crash; tua

in the

saliis,

youi-

pulchra nubes, beautiful cloud; mare asperum, rough

volnus,

sea

new wound.

HORATIUS AT THE BRIDGE

179.

Note. Some proper names and

less

common words

that are not to be

used again soon are given only in the general vocabulary.

Porsena,

Romam
parva

Romanorum

obsidebat.

eis erat

defendit.

erat

spes {^hope) salutis.

Nam

Romanorum

Olim urbem
terror,

Sed virtus valid!

viri

quia
eos

cum sociis pro ponte Sublicio Horadum Romani a tergo (behind hifji) pontem

paucis

tius hostis sustinet,

rescindunt.

hostis, fuit rex clarus.

Magnus

Mox socios dimittit at solus se (Jiimself) pontemque


Tandem conruit pons magno fragore.

contra hostis defendit.

Turn inter hostium

tela

Horatius armatus

(junips down) et ad socios tranat.

in

Tiberim

desilit

READING LESSON
VOCABULARY

180.

armatus,

-a,

mox, adv. soon, presently.

-um, armed.

pauci, -ae, -a, plur.

contra, prep, with ace. against.

dum,

71

solus, -a,

conj. while.

inter, prep,

tandem, adv. at

with ace. between, amoni.

few.

-um, alone (312).


last.

defends, defendere, defendi, defensus, defend.


obsideo, obsidere, obsedi, obsessus, besiege.
sustineo, sustinere, sustinui, sustentus, hear,
trano. tranare. tranavi.

Quis

swim

hold in check.

across.

CONVERSATION

181.
I.

fuit

Porsena

multi ei fuerunt

Rex Etruscorum

Non paucos

fuit.

habuit milites.

2.
3.

Militesne

Cur urbem

Romam non cepit ? Virtute viri validi. 4. Cuius virtutem


Virtutem Horati, viri Romani.
non superavit Porsena
Horatius ? Non diu, nam hostes
5. Diune hostis sustinebat
Tandem in
tandem Horatius ?
6. Fugitne
erant multi.
Tiberim desiluit {jumped down) at ad socios tranavit.
?

A Ro.MAN Coin

FIRST YEAR LATIN

72

LESSON XXVII
ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION
The Stem ends

in /

Reading Lesson
Paradigms

182.

audax, bold j stem audaci-

M. &

Norn.

Singular
M. &

N.

F.

stem brevi-

brevis, breve, short ;

Singular

N.

F.

audax

audax

brevis

breve

Gen.

audacis

audacis

brevis

brevis

Dat.

audaci

audaci

brevi

brevi

Ace.

audacem

audax

brevem

breve

Abl.

audaci, -e

audaci, -e

brevi

brevi

Plural

Plural

JVo/n.

audaces

audacia

breves

Gen,

audacium

audacium

brevium

brevium

Dat.

audacibus

audacibus

brevibus

brevibus

Ace.

audacis, -es

audacia

brevis, -es

brevia

Abl.

audacibus

audacibus

brevibus

brevibus

acer, acris, acre,

keen

',

eager J stem

brevia

acri-

Plural

SiNGULAE
MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

MASC.

FEM.

Norn.

acer

acris

acre

acres

acres

acria

NEUT.

Gen.

acris

acris

acris

acrium

acrium

acrium

Dat.

acri

acri

acri

acribus

acribus

acribus

Ace.

acrem

acrem

acre

acris, -es

acris, -es

acria

Abl.

acri

acri

acri

acribus

acribus

acribus

a.

Adjectives having one form in the nom. sing, for

like audax,

are called adjectives of one ending

all

genders,

those having two

ADJECTIVES OE THIRD DECLENSION


forms, like brevis, breve, adjectives of two endings

73

those having

three forms, like acer, acris, acre, adjectives of three endings.

Observe that adjectives of two and three endings have only

b.

in

the ablative singular.

Compare

What

with those of i-stem nouns (169).

Note.
laries

c.

-i

the endings of i-stem adjectives

differences are there?

Adjectives of one ending have the genitive given

in the

vocabu-

those of two or three endings have only the nominative given.

Decline acre animal, keen animal ; breve corpus, s/iori body

hostis audax, bold

enemy ;

avis acris, keen bird.

CAESA.R IN

183.

GAUL

(B.C.

58-51)

.See 179, note.

Gaius lulius Caesar, audax dux Romanorum, Gallos supeMilites Caesarem maxime amabant, nam exemplum
omnibus praebebat constantiae et fortitudinis. Militum salutem imperator diligenter curabat, omnisque tolerabat labores
Multae et fortes erant in
aeque ac {equally wit/i) milites.
Gallia gentes, sed commiine periculum eas non coniunxit.
Itaque Caesar bellum cum eis gessit et tandem omnem Galliam
ravit.

in

{under) potestatem populi

Roman!

VOCABULARY

184.

Caesar. Caesaris, m. Caesar.

communis,

common.

-e,

constantia, -ae,

exemplum,
fortis, -e,

redegit.

f.

n.

-i,

steadfastness.

example.

brave.

Gallia, -ae,

Gaul.

ciiro,

gens, gentis (genti-),


labor, laboris,

omnis,

-e, all,

periculum,
populus,

f.

race, tribe.

hardship.

toil,

the whole, every.


n.

-i,

danger.

m. people.

-i,

potestas, potestatis,

curare, curavi, curatus, care for,

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus,

m.

power.

take care.

manage, carry on (war),

praebeo, praebere, praebui, praebitus, cause, furnish, show.


redig5. redigere, redegi. redactus, reduce.
tolero, tolerare, toleravi, toleratus, bear,

endure.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

74

LESSON XXVIII
FOURTH CONJUGATION I-VERBS
Ablative of Time
audio (stem audi-), hear

Principal Parts

audio, audire, audivi, auditus, hear

Learn the active indicative present, imperfect,

185.

and

future,

perfect of audio (501).


a.

Compare the

Observe

inflection of audio with that of capio (500).

that three syllables of audi5 in the present differ in quantity from the

corresponding ones of capio

the verb-stem

veni

audis, audimus, auditis.

c.

formed by adding v

reperio doubles the

Like audi5

to

the fourth conjugation form the perfect irregu-

for example, venio simply lengthens the e of the verb-stem

is

For the personal endings, see 132.

audi-, audiv-.

A few verbs of

Note.
larly

Observe that the perfect stem audiv-

b.

p of the verb-stem

inflect in the

venio,

reperio, repperi.

same tenses

reperio, Jind,

and

venio,

co/ne (189).

EXERCISES

186.

Audio, audiebam, audiam.

I.

I.

audiet.

vimus,
venit,

3.

audietis.
venisti.

5.
7.

I.

He

Audivi,

9.

audis,

venimus,

Venit,

repperistis, reperitis.
II.

shall

4.

5.

4.

You

audiverunt.
veninius.

Venis,

6.
8.

Reperis

3.

We

2.

You

have heard, we

are coming, they were finding,

shall hear,

he has come, they hear.

audiebat,

Audimus, audi-

has found, they have found, they came.

we came.

come.

Auditne.''

Repperi, reperit, repperit.

are hearing, you did come, he heard.

found,

2.

Audiunt, audiebant, audient.

we

hear, they heard.

6.

He

we

came,

FOURTH CONJUGATION
.\roikl Sentences

187.

Homines aestate

2.

75

et

hieme lab5rant, vten

summer and

toil in

luintcr.

Decern annis Caesar multa bella gessit, 'within ten years Caesar

many

carried on

luars.

a. Observe tliat the ablatives above are expressions of time.


answer the questions w/ien ? in or within what time ?

Rule.

188.
1)1/

Time when or within which

is

They

expressed

the ablative.

VOCABULARY

189.
aestas, aestatis,

annus,

-i,

f.

summer.

Vox, IQcis,

primus,

decem, num. adj. indecl. ten.


hiems, hiemis,
hora, -ae,

f.

f.

f.

light.

nox, noctis (nocti-),

m. year.

secundus,

winter.

-a,

night.

-um, second.

tempus, temporis,

hour.

f.

-a, -Mva..Jirst.

reperio, reperire. repperi, repertus,

n. ti?ne.

//;/(^/.

venio. venire, veni. venturus,' come.

EXERCISES

190.

Hieme ventus mare nubisque

I.

I.

agitat.

2.

Aestale

hominibus defessis gratus. 3. Pueri nubem avium


prima lijce in mari viderunt. 4. Secunda noctis hora magna
5. Caesar bellum
avium nubes venit ex mari in terram.

somnus

est

fortibus

cum gentibus gessit easque paucis annis superavit.


commune labores Romanis sociisque praebuit.
I.
Welcome summer will come in a short time.

6.

Periculum
II.

2.

Who

of the

the city
a full
1

(in with ace.) the power


At what time did they come to

reduced the Gauls under

Roman
?

4.

moon.

people

3.

At the second hour


5.

We

of the night (there) will

be

have found an example of constancy.

Future active participle.

This

is

given in the principal parts,

occurs, where the perfect passive participle

is

not in use.

if

it

FIRST YEAR LATIN

76

LESSON XXIX

All

Pluperfect and Future Perfect

Conjugations

Read again 59 and 131, ^ and review the principal parts


verbs that have occurred in the vocabularies, beginning with

191.
of

all

Lesson XVI.

Paradigms

192,

Pluperfect

/ had
1.

2.

3.

/ had advised,

loved, etc.

etc.

amaveram

amaveramus

monueram

monueramus

amaveras
amaverat

amaveratis

monueras
monuerat

monueratis

amaverant

monuerant

Future Perfect
/ shall have 1

/ shall have ^ advised,

loved, etc.

etc.

amaverimus

monuero

monuerimus

1.

amavero

2.

amaveris

amaveritis

monueris

monueritis

3.

amaverit

amaverint

monuerit

monuerint

a.

Observe that the pluperfect

formed on the perfect stems

is

amav-, monu-, by adding the imperfect of sum (502), and the future
There is an exception in one
perfect by adding the future of sum.
form.
b.

Which ?
Form in the same way

of the pluperfect

as those

perfect stems rex-, cep-, audiv-,


to

above the

and future perfect of


fu-.

first

person singular

rego, capio, audio,

Inflect

sum on

the

and verify by reference

499-502.
on the perfect
c. All verbs form the pluperfect and future perfect

stem
d.

in the

same way.

Inflect the pluperfect

and future perfect of

tolero,

bear; obsideo,

besiege J gero, tnanage j venio, come.


e.

Review Vocabularies
1

180, 184, 189.

Translate the second and third persons will have,

etc.

PLUPERFECT AND FUTL/RE PERFECT


EXERCISES

193.
I.

I.

Amaverat, monuerat, rexerat.

audiverant.

obsederas.

veneras,

5.

Dux

7.

Gesseram,

filium

laudaverat.

Gallia decern annis gesserat.

Inopia

cibi

14.

populo

Amaverant,
Gesseras,

6.

obsederam.

Fuerimus, fueramus, fuero.

9.

virtute

virtute defenderant.

4.

toleraveram,

fuerint multi et acres amici (115).

15.

Ceperat, audiverat,

Cepero, rexero, audivero.

Fuerat, fuerant, fueris.


10.

2.

Audiverit, audiverint, ceperit.

3.

monuerant, rexerant.

8.

77

11.

Galli

13.

Forti

in

oppida magna cum

Quo tempore

noctis arma
magnos praebuerit

forti

homini

Caesar multa bella

12.

ceperis

labores.

Inter tela acrium hostium venerant ad muros.

16.

II.

will

I.

We

have held

come.

6.

have come.

shall

in check.

They

will

4.

2.

You had

They had

have defended.

found.

caused.
7.

5.

Whom

3.

He

They had

had he cared

for?

Horatius had long held the enemy in check.

8.

(desiluit) into the Tiber.

comrades.

12.

11.

9.

Soon

Then he jumped down


Alone he swam across to (his)

he had dismissed (his) comrades.

10.

The common danger had not

frightened the

Gauls.

REVIEW

194.
I.

What word must

Ans. had.

2.

always be used

in translating the pluperfect?

Recall the three ways of translating the perfect, as

3. Compare the pluperfect of sum with the imperfect of the


same verb. 4. Compare the future of sum with the future perfect of
the same verb.
5. How can you tell whether an -15 verb is of the

amavit.

third or the fourth conjugation?


'

the

Roman

people "

6.

What

is

the Latin

way

of saying

FIRST YEAR LATIN

78

LESSON XXX
Syntax of Names of Towns

Names

195.

form
at,

towns and a few other words have a

of

called the locative case,

The

names

locative has the following endings for

of

Declension

of towns

Plur.

Sing.
1st

which expresses the idea

on.

ift,

a.

Locative Case

JRomae,

-ae

-Is

Rome ;

at or in

LAthenis, at or in Athens.
r

2d Declension
r^

3d
^

b.

Corinthi, at or

-i(e)^

/;/

Corinth ;

1 Delphis, at

Declension

-Is

-i

Delphi.

/;/

Carthagini, at or z Carthap-ey

.,

-ibus

or

r
<^
Tralhbus,
,,.,

,,

"^

at or tn Tral/es.

Other locative forms are domi, at home; humi, on the ground

militiae, in the field (of

war)

ruri,

in the country.

Models

196.

r
f

in oppido, in the

in Italia,

ift

town.

Capuae, at or in Capua.
Delphis, at or in Delphi.

domi, at ho7ne.

Italy.
I

[ riiri, /;/

{ad

fl&men, to the river.

ab, de,

ab, de,

ex
ex

agris,/rtfw the fields.


Italia,

fro7n Italy.

to

Athens.

R5mam, to Rome.
domum, home.

in urbem, into the city.


in Italiam, to or into Italy.

the country.

(Athenas,

or into the country.

rus, to

Athenis, />7?w

Athens
Roma, from Rome.

1 diOva.0,
(^

riire,

frof>i ho?ne.

frofn the country.

rOlVXS: LOCATIVE CASE

NAMES OF

79

a. For the syntax of expressions of place where, place whither,


and place whence other than names of towns, illustrated in the first

to 8i, i6o, 159.

column of models, refer

Observe that the foregoing expressions of place denoted by


names of towns, together with domus, rus, etc., have no preposition.
b.

Rules for names

197.
1.

Place

2.

Place

where is
whither

of

towns and domus and rus

expressed by the locative.

expressed by the accusative without a

is

preposition.
3.

whence

Place

is

expressed by the ablative without a prepo-

sition.

VOCABULARY

198
Athenae, -arum,

Capua,

-ae,

Carthago,

f.

-inis,

Corinthus,

-i,

f.

plur.

Athens.

Capua.

f.

f.

f.

f rater, fratris,

m. brother.

Hannibal,

Carthage.

Corinth (47,

Poenus.

2).

iaceo, iacere, iacui, iacitunis, lie

Prima

I.

luce,

hieme, aestate.

decern horis, anno secundo.


4.

Meus

frater

domi

militiaeque erant clari.

videbamus.
8.

Tandem

ravit.

-i,

-alls,

plur.

m. Hannibal.

m. a Carthaginian.

down,

lie.

EXERCISES

199_
I.

Delphi.

Delphi, -orum,

9.

7.

3.

rijri

6.

2.

Riire

Secunda noctis hora,

Romam

manebat.

5.

venire.

Romani

domi

Corinthi et Delphis templa pulchra

Hannibal equites peditesque Capuam

ex Italia Carthaginem

communi

COr, pigri pueri, hum! iacetis

periculo

misit.

prope-

From Delphi you came to Athens. 2. From Athens


you hastened to Corinth. 3. From Corinth you came home to
Rome. 4. From home we will send you (te) into the country.
tired,
5. The boys were lying on the ground because they were
II.

I.

See 165.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

8o

LESSON XXXI
The Demonstratives

and

Hic

lUe:

Reading Lesson

Paradigms

200.
hic,

this; plur. these

ille,

that; plur. those

Singular

Nom.

hic

haec

hoc

ille

ilia

Gen.

huius

huius

huius

illius

illius

illius

Dat.

huic

huic

huic

illi

illi

illi

Ace.

hunc

hanc

hoc

ilium

illam

illud

AM.

hoc

hac

hoc

illo

ilia

illo

Nofn.

hi

hae

haec

illi

illae

ilia

Gen.

horum harum

horum

illorum

illarum

illorum

Dat.

his

his

his

illis

illis

illis

Ace.

hos

has

haec

illos

illas

ilia

Abl.

his

his

his

illis

illis

illis

illud

Plural

a.

Compare

the declension of

Model

20L

with that of

ille

is

(138).

Sentences

Hic puer est laetus, ilia puella est tristis, this boy is
is

Brutus et Marcus sunt amici

2.

a}id Marcus arefriends;

H5c donum deae

3.

merry, that girl

sad.
est impiger, hic est piger,

ille
t lie

Brutns

former is active, the latter is lazy.

est gratum, illud de5, this gift is

pleasing

to the

goddess, that {one) to the god.


a.
ille

Observe
in

in the

and the

model sentences two

first

different uses of hic

and

part of 3 they are used as demonstrative

adjectives in agreement with nouns

in 2

and the

are used alone as demonstrative pronouns.

last part of 3

they

THE DEMONSTRATIVES HIC AND


Hie and

b.

but

ille

ILLE

are sometimes used as personal pronouns, like

meaning

less frequently,

//<?,

she, it ; often in contrast hie

is,

means

ille the former, as in the second model sentence.


Observe that is has been used in the exercises indifferently for
while Mc
this or that without emphasis, in agreement with a noun
means this and ille that with a certain emphasis. Hie is applied to

the latter,
c.

what is near the speaker in place, time, or thought. Ille is applied


to what is remote from the speaker in place, time, or thought.
d. Ille agreeing with a noun and commonly placed after it sometimes m.eans that well-known, that fatnous.

BRITAIN INVADED

202.

In insula

ilia

(B.C.

terram Roman! bis invaserunt.

pugnabant

tute pro patria

Caesar ducebat.

cum eo

oppidaque

Hanc
magna cum vir-

Roman! imperium aurumque capere

111!

(dat.) erant milites mult! et fortes, sed h!c

feliciter gerebat.

Tandem

cepit.

ex Britannia

Romam

Caesar

illius

agros vastavit

Britannus legatos ad

Hos

Caesarem

obsides

tristis

duxit.

VOCABULARY

203.
bis,

Britanni

111!

Hie obsides imperavit {demanded).

misit.

54)

lUos Cassivelaunus, dux impiger et audax, hos

tentabant.

bellum

AND

55

Britannia olim habitabant Britanni.

impiger, -gra, -grum, active.

adv. twice.

Britannus,
feliciter,

m. a Briton.

-i,

laetus, -a,

adv. successfully.

imperium, imperi,

n.

-um, merry, joyful.

obses, obsidis,

power,

rule.

tristis, -e,

m. hostage.

sad, gloomy.

invado, invadere, invasi. invasus, invade.

EXERCISES

204.

Caesar gave his soldiers that (well-known) example of


steadfastness.
2. Caesar had found a brave people in Britain.
I.

3.

They

carried on

those tribes.
led

them from

5.

war with him.

4.

Great was the power of

The hostages were not

(their)

home.

joyful, for

Caesar had

FIRST YEAR LATIN

82

LESSON XXXII
Passive Voice

Ablative of Agent

Active and Passive Indicative Present

Paradigms

205.

Active

I.

amo, /

love.

2.

a.msis,

3-

amat, he loves.

I.

amamus, we

2.

amatis,

_>/(??/

love.

3-

amant, they

love.

-o

amor, /

am

-s

amaris,

-re,

-t

amatur, he

loved.

-ris, -re

-tur

is loved.

-mur

-tis

-nt

amantur, they are loved.

-ntur

Observe that the passive forms above

first

b.

you are

-r

amamur, we are loved.


amamini, yon are loved.

-mua

love.

only in the personal endings.


the

End.

loved.

Plural

Plural

a.

Pers.

Singular

End.

love.

you

Passive

Pers.

Singular

To

the stem

differ

ama-

-mini

from the active

(final

a dropped in

person) the passive endings are added, instead of the active.

Compare

same way

in the

The

passive (497).

the imperfect and future active and

passive endings are added to the tense-stems

amaba- and amabi-, except in the second person singular of the future,
where -bi- is changed to -be-. What is true of amo in the present,
imperfect, and future holds true of moneo.
c.

the

active and learn the present, imperfect, and future


and moneo (498) in the passive. Like amo inflect in

Review the

amo

of

(497)

same tenses

laudo,

praise; and

like

moneo

inflect doceo, teach.

EXERCISES

206.

Amat, amatur. 2. Amabat, amabatur. 3. Amabit,


amabitur.
amantur.
amabantur.
4. Amant,
5. Amabant,
6. Amabuntne ? amabunturne ? 7. Amabo, amabor. 8. Amamus,
I.

I.

PASSIVE VOICE
amamur.
Moned,
9.
II. Monebo, monebor.
nionebimini.
II.

teach,

teach,

shall

taught.

8.

am

You

3.

taught.

we
You

teach,
7.

will

Ager ab agricola

is,

Tiiey were praising,

you

will

be praised.

we are taught. 6.
They teach, they

We
are

be taught.

ploughs the field.

aratur, the field is

Observe the changes

monebar.
Monebitis,

13.

Sente?ices

arat, the farmer

1.

2.

(2) the subject, that

ploughed by the farmer.

turning the active into the passive

in

becomes the subject

in

the doer or agent, in the active

the passive;

expressed

is

the passive by the ablative with a or ab.

Rule.
The personal agent with a passive verb
expressed by the ablative with a or ah.

208.
is

you

Model
agrum

Agricola

(i) the object in the active

in

We

5.

will teach,

2.

will praise,

be taught.

shall

207.

a.

12.

you are praised.

praise,

they were praised.


4.

Monebam,

10.

Mones, moneris.
Monetis, monemini.

14.

Vou

I.

moneor.

83

When the doer

Note.

is

not a person, the preposition

is

omitted.

EXERCISES

209.

Meus

hunc puerum impigrum laudabat. 2. Hie


Illi homines hos
omnis
3.
sustinebunt Britannos.
4. A quo non amatur imperium ?
I.

I.

frater

puer a meo fratre laudabatur.

5.

Haec

tur.
7.

6.

puella laeta docet

Hi obsides

vastabitur.
II.

will

I.

8.

Who

be held

in

Romam

ilia tristis

a nostro magistro doce-

feliciter

invaserunt Romani.

a Caesare portabuntur

Marcus domi

does not love power?

4.

eorum

patria

iacet aeger.

check by those men.

taught by the master.


boy.

Insulam Britanniam bis

My

2.

3.

All these Britons

This merry

girl

was

brothers were praised by this

FIRST YEAR LATIN

84

LESSON XXXIII
The Relative

Qui

Paradigm

210.

which, what,

qui, ivho,

tliat

Plural

Singular
Norn. qui

quae

quod

qui

quae

quae

Gen.

cuius

cuius

cuius

quorum

quarum

quorum

Dat.

cui

cui

cui

quibus

quibus

quibus

Ace.

quem

quam

quos

quas

quae

Abl.

quo

qua

quod
quo

quibus

quibus

quibus

Table of Mcatiitigs for Reference

211.

Note.

The meanings are not tabulated with reference

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.

Ace.
Abl.
a.

whom, which, what, that.


whom, which, what.

by, etc.,

Compare

Model

212.
.

In what

the declension of qui with that of quis (142).

does the difference consist

to gender.

who, which, what, that.


of whom, of which, whose, of what.
to ox for whom, to or for which, to ox for what.

Sentences

Puellae quas laudavimus bonae erant, the girls

whom we

praised

were good.
2.

Consilium quod

gives
3.

Homo

is

homo

dat laudatur, the advice

cui sunt multi rem! est nauta, the

there are')
4.

ille

which that

man

praised.

many

oars

Is qui est f ortis laudatur,

is

he

man who

sailor.

who

is

brave

is

praised.

has

{to

whom

THE RELATIVE QUI


Observe that the

a.
its

relative has the

antecedent, but the case

may be

85

same gender and number

as

In the model sentences

different.

the antecedents are in the nominative, while the relatives are (i and 2)
in the accusative, (3) in the dative, (4) in the nominative.

Observe that

b.

is

particular person, but

in

the fourth sentence does not refer to any

means

otie,

man ;

this is a

common

use of

is

as the antecedent of qui.

213. Rule.
A relative pronoun agrees with its anteeedent in gender and Jiumber, but its case depends
upon its relation to some word in its own clause.

VOCABULARY

214.
captivus.

-i,

gaudium, gaudi,

m. prisoner, captive.

consilium, consili, n. advice, plan.


friistra,

n.

Joy.

ingens, ingentis, Jiuge, great.

mater, matris,

adv. in vain.

f.

mother.

servo, servare. servavi, servatus, save.

EXERCISES

215.
I.

I.

Hostes impigri a quibus patria nostra vastatur sunt

Romani.
Romani.
servabatur

2.

3.

Hostes qui patriam nostram invaserunt sunt

homines quorum

li

domum

doles volnere quod

gaudium quarum
est

ille

e bello venient.
filius

tuus habet.

virtute urbs tenebatur et


4.

Frustra, mater misera,

5.

viri {Jiusbands) e bellis

Ingens

fuit

venerunt.

obses qui non tenetur sed liberatur.

7.

feminarum
6.

Laetus

Consilia quae

homines dabant urbem servaverunt ingentem.


I. That poor mother whose son is lying on the ground
2. This (man) was a soldier at
is grieving bitterly (maxime).
by the sword that you see.
Zama.
3. He was wounded

illi

II.

4.
is

The man

to

a prisoner at

was wounded

whom
Capua,

will

the sword belonged (fuit) at that time


5.

The

prisoner by

be led (ducetur) to Rome.

whom

this soldier

FIRST YEAR LATIN

86

LESSON XXXIV
Active and Passive of Reg5 and Capio
216.

a.

Review the active voice of rego and

capio, present, imper-

and future, and learn the passive of the same tenses (499, 500).
Observe that to form the passive you have only to substitute

fect,
b.

the passive personal endings (205) for the active except in one form.

Which one

is

and what

that,

Regit, regitur.

I.

tur.

2.

regeris.

7.

regimur.

Regitis,

10.

capietur.

15.

Capis, caperis.

17.

capimur.

13.

Capient,
18.

3.

Reget, rege-

Regent, regentur.

5.

Regebas, regebaris.

Capiunt, capiuntur.

12.

Regebat, regebatur.

Regunt, reguntur.

4.

mus,

the change

EXERCISES

217.
I.

is

8.

regimini.

11.

16.

regar.

14. Capiet,

Capies,

Capiebas, capiebaris.

Regi-

9.

Regam,

Capiebat, capiebatur.

capientur.

Regis,

6.

Reges, regeris.

19.

capieris.

Capimus,

Capitis, capimini.

20.

Like rego inflect in both voices the same tenses of duco, lead;

a.

mitto,

send;

scribo, write.

Like capio

b.

inflect in

both voices the same tenses of

iacio,

throw j

recipi5, receive.

II.

led.
5.

I.

We

He

he

leads,

They

3.

is led.

2.

lead, they are led.

shall lead,

we

shall

be

led.

They will lead, they will be


4. You lead, you are led.
6. We send, we are sent.

Are they sent ? 8. He will send, he will be


10. They were
sent.
are sent, you will be sent.
9. You
12. We
11. We write, we shall write.
writing, I was writing.
throw, we are thrown.
13. We threw, we were thrown.
7.

14.

Is

he sent

He

Who

will throw,

they will be thrown.

was received?

received.

17.

We

16.

Who

shall receive,

will

you

15.

receive?
will

Who

receives?

They

will

be received.

be

REGO AND CAPIO

87

VOCABULARY

218.
castra, -orum, n. plur.

c5nsul, consulis,
exsul, exsulis,

camp.

iam, adv. already, fiow.

m. consul.

m.

ira, -ae, f.

anger, wrath.

pax, pacts,

exile.

abduco, abducere, abduxi, abductus, lead

peace.

away.

recipio, recipere, recepi, receptus, receive.

scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptus, write.

vinc5, vincere, vici, victus, defeat, conquer.

EXERCISES

219.
I.

Militem gladio volneratum {wounded) videbamus.

matrem ingenti cum gaudio


quae cum captivis capientur.
sul

tur legati.
6.

8.

3.

Iam ad consulem

4.

2.

Ex-

Tristes erunt matres

mitten-

Legati de pace in castra consulis venerunt.

Bene a consule recipiebantur.

irae plenus.
9.

5.

vidit.

7.

Non iam

'

fuit

imperator

Ira consulis vincitur, hostes ab eo abducuntur.

Frustra epistulas quas repperi scripsisti.


1

Non

iam, no longer.

Ancient Plough
Nudus

ara, sere nudus.

V^ergil

FIRST YEAR LATIN

88

LESSON XXXV
Personal and Reflexive Pronouns
220.

a.

meanings

The personal pronoun

b.
is

Learn the personal and reflexive pronouns with

2.

3.

of the third person,

supplied by the demonstrative

when not

and sometimes by

is,

Model

221.
1.

their

(492).

hie or

reflexive,
ille.

Sentences

Ego te laudo tu me culpas, I praise you ; you blame me.


Omnes homines se (pr sese) amant, all men love themselves.
Tu te amas omnes nos amamus, you love yourself; we all love
;

ourselves.
4. Filius

mecum domi

manet,

my

son stays at

home with me.

Observe that verbs have been used already many times in the
and second persons without the subjects ego, tu, nos, vos being
They are used only for emphasis or contrast.
expressed (61, a).
a.

first

The

b.

in

which

it

reflexive

pronoun refers back

stands, as in 2 above

The personal pronouns

to the subject of the clause

se refers to homines.

and second persons are often


te and nos.
d. The preposition cum with the ablative of personal and reflexive
pronouns is appended to them mecum, instead of cum me vobiscum,
instead of cum vobis, etc. So also usually with relative and interrogac.

used with reflexive sense, as

of the

in 3

first

above

pronouns

tive

quibuscum, with

Model

222.
1

2.

Ego qui

Tu

scribo

sum

qui scribis es

whom.
Sentcfices

tuus amicus,

/ who

write

am your friend.
my friend.

meus amicus, you who write are

a. Observe that the relative does not change to conform to the


person of the antecedent, but that the verb of the relative clause is

in the

same person

as the antecedent.

PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS


VOCABULARY

223.
culpa, -ae,

f.

epistula, -ae,

galea, -ae,

f.

blame, fault.
f.

letter.

helmet.

numquam,

adv. never.

sine, prep,

with abl. without.

vita, -ae,

f.

life.

culpo, culpare, culpavi, culpatus, blame.

EXERCISES

224.
I.

et

Ad

I.

vicit

3.

castra

consulis veniam.

Frustra de culpa tua scribitur.

abducuntur.

5.

Puella se culpat.

2.

Quis exsulis iram

4.

Captivi recipiuntur
6.

Liberos nostros

amamus nos omnes. 7. Nos sumus miseri, laeti estis vos.


8. Tua vita tibi, mea mihi est cara.
9. Sine vobis et vobiscum
sumus miseri. 10. Omnia vestra consilia n5bls sunt grata.
1

1.

Vos

qui estis laeti ad nos epistulas scribitis.

We who

blame them. 2. I shall walk in


Never shall I be miserable with you.
4. I who write this letter to you am at Carthage.
5. We
you blame yourselves. 6. What helmets do
praise ourselves
you see ? Roman helmets.
II.

I.

praise you

the garden with you.

3.

Helmets

FIRST YEAR LATIN

90

LESSON XXXVI
Active and Passive of Audio
225.

a.

Review the active voice

Reading Lesson

of audio, present, imperfect,

and learn the passive of the same tenses (501).


Observe that to form the passive you have only

and

future,
b.

add

to

to

the stem the passive personal endings (205) in place of the active.

Compare

216,

b.

EXERCISES

226.
I.

I.

Audit, auditur.

audietur.
6.

Audiam, audiar.

mini.

unt, audiuntur.
a.

audimur.

12.

Like audio

10.

8.

Audiet,

3.

Audiemus,

5.

Auditis, audimini.

7.

Audis, audiris.

g.

Audiebat, audiebatur.

2.

Audimus,

4.

audiemur.

Audietis, audie-

Audiebam, audiebar.

11.

Audi-

Audiebant, audiebantur.

inflect in the

same tenses

punio,

punish;

reperio,

Jind.
II.

I.

punished.

punish,

3.

am

shall

punish, are punished.


6.

He

be found.

9.

7.

He

You

2.

shall

They

5.

finds, is found.

find, will

punished.

punish,

was punishing, was

be punished.

will punish, will

found, was found.

will find, will

4.

They

be punished.
8.

be found.

He

will

10.

You

find, are found.


a.

Review Vocabularies

218, 223.

CORIOLANUS AND HIS MOTHER

227.

Olim ingens terror urbi Romae a Volscis, qui erant populi

Romani
lano,

hostes audaces, praebebatur.

exsule

Romano, concitabantur

Nam
et

Volsci a Corio-

ducebantur.

lam

multa in agris ab hostibus delentur. Gives a consule


armantur, urbs cibo completur.
Friastra.
Turn terrore

aedificia

ACTIVE AXD PASSIVE OE AUDIO

91

Romani matrem Coriolani ad eum miserunt de pace,


Veturia, mater, in castra
a filio maxime amabatur.
Earn videns {seeing), "O mea patria,"
ad filium venit.

ingenti

quia

ilia

clamavit Coriolanus, "


abduxit.

Sic

Roma

vicisti

meam

" et statim hostis

VOCABULARY

228.

statim, adv. at once.

building.

aedlficium,

-i,

n.

Coriolanus,

-i,

m. Coriolanus.

sic,

iram

servabatur.

Veturia, -ae,

f.

Volsci, -5rum,

adv. thus.

Veturia.

m. plur. Volscians.

armo, armare, armavi, armatus, arm.


clamo, clamare, clamavi. clamatus, cry out, exclaim.

compleo, complere, complevi. completus, y?//.


concito, concitare, concitavi. concitatus, stir up, rouse.
deleo, delere, delevi, deletus, destroy,

Patriae,

fili,

wipe

bellum Infers

out.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

92

LESSON XXXVII
Possessive Adjectives

The

229.

possessive

Ablative of Separation

adjectives

are

formed from the

They are also


stems of the personal pronouns (492).
used without a noun as possessive pronouns.
meus,

-a,

-um

(voc. sing. masc.

(own),

mi), wy, mine.

its (own'),

tuus, -a, -um,

noster, -tra, -trum, our, ours.

(own), her

suus, sua, suum, his

(own)

your, yours.

is

used

when

Model

230.

Sentences

we praise Marcus for

Marcum

1.

Puer amico librum suum dat, the boy gives his book to a friend.

eius cura laudamus,

Observe that

in

the genitives of

is

is,

Suus is emphatic also


meaning is clear without

may

hence

Model

231.

man

Hic

homo

2.

II16

me

3.

German! Roman5s a finibus

cibo caret, this

liberat periculo,

Romans

is,

refers

back

This distinction

very often be translated like


often omitted in Latin where

and

its

use would give too


also 234, II.

much

5.

Sentences
lacks food.

he frees jne from that danger.

offfrom their
1

it is

and where

it

See, for example, 144,

emphasis.

refer to the subject puer,

reflexive, that

his, her, its, their.

b.

the

is

are not reflexive.

important, because forms of suus

the genitives of

1.

suum does

Suus

as suis to German! in 231, 3.


to the subject

his care.

eius does not refer to the subject of the sen-

tence, but to the object; while in 2

is

to

one, vester.

I.

a.

your, yours.

vester, -tra, -trum,

When your, yours refers to one person, tuus

Note.
more than

their

his, hers, its, theirs.

That

suis arcebant, the


^

lands.

is,

the Germans'.

Germans kept

the

ABLATIVE OF SEPARATION
Observe the use of the ablative

a.

there

93

denote that from which

to

freedom, removal, or separation, or that which

is

The

ablative so used answers the questions />(?;

and

is

Words

Rule.

232.

The

the ablative of separation.

called

whence, with or without a preposition

(i 58,

is

59)

is

lacking.

what? of what?
ablative of place

of the

same

nature.

signifying privation, removal,

or separation are followed hy the ablative, without a


preposition, or with the prepositions a (ab), de, e (ex).

VOCABULARY

233.

avaras,

Germanus,

-gram, sick.

aeger, -gra.

defensor, -oris,

-i,

pecunia, -ae,

-um, greedy.

-a,

vacuus,

m. defender.

arceo, arcere, arcui,

keep

-a,

m. a German.
f.

money.

-um, empty, destitute

of.

off.

careo, carere, carui, cariturus, be in

want of

lack.

demigro, demigrare, demigravi, demigratus, remove, go away.


privo, privare, privavi, privatus, deprive.
spolio, spoliare, spoliavi, spoliatus, rob,

KoTE.

A preposition

is

EXERCISES

234.
I.

Germani

I.

galeis, hastis scutisque arinabantur.

ficiorum defensores culpabantur.


suis

4.

terrore.

aras

plunder.

used with the ablative after arceo and demigrd.

Statim clamabant feminae.


6.

Statim

vir aeger

9.

2.

Aedi-

Quis non dolet culpis


5. Sic urbs complebatur

concitabantur.

7.

Avari milites

defens5ribus

vacuam

Vos, piratae, arcebit deus a sua ara.

10. Ille

spoliaverunt

reppererunt.

hostes

3.

donis.

8.

Urbem

aqua privabatur.

Our friends lacked money. 2. My boy, that horse


and water. 3. We shall remove from the city into
the country.
4. The goddess kept off the enemy from her
own temple. 5. Those women were robbed of (their) children.
II.

I.

lacks grain

6.

You

will free us

from

care.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

94

LESSON XXXVIII
PASSIVE VOICE ALL CONJUGATIONS
Indicative Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect
235.
tion

a.

Recall the principal parts of

am5 and examine

of the passive indicative perfect (497).

formed by adding the present tense of sum

the forma-

Observe that

it

is

to the perfect participle

amatus.

Note.
and plural

The participle

is

declined like bonus in the nominative singular

to agree with the subject of the verb in

b.

Now

c.

The

gender and number.

examine the pluperfect and future


these tenses formed }
perfect, pluperfect,

are formed in the


d.

and future perfect passive of

Recall the principal parts of

What do you

verbs

moneo, rego, capio,

discover?

in

the

Learn these three

and audio,

same way
tenses.

EXERCISES

236.
I.

all

are

same way.

and examine the formation of the three tenses


(498-501).

How

perfect.

I.

Vir amatus

est,

femina amata

est,

bellum amatum

est.

amata sunt.
3. Milites moniti erant, puer monitus erit, animal monitum
est.
4. Agricola rectus est, urbs recta est, oppidum rectum est.
2.

5.

Viri amati sunt, feminae amatae sunt, bella

Captus sum, captus eram, captus ero. 6. Audit! sumus,


7. Rectus es, rectus eras, rectus

audit! eramus, auditi erimus.

Templa spoliata sunt. 9. A^olsci Roma abducti sunt.


The greedy soldier was warned, had been warned,
will have been warned.
2. The buildings have been taken,
had been taken, will have been taken. 3. The territories had
been ruled. 4. The cities will have been defended. 5. You
had not been loved. 6. Thus we (fem.) shall have been heard.
7. Germans had been defenders of their country.
eris.

II.

8.

I.

PASSIVE VOICE ALL CONJUGATIONS


VOCABULARY

237.
antiquus,

-a,

f.

ingens, -ntis, great, huge.

-um, ancient, old.

arx, arcis (arci-),


copia, -ae,

f.

mora,

citadel.

plenty, plur. troops.

crudelis, -e, cruel.

2.

Multa

Omnes

in

Italia

oppida

delay.

verbum,

n.

4.

Eo tempore urbs

erant.

-i,

word.

3.

aedificata

Tua verba

Bellum quod a Caesare gestum est crudelefuit.

Aurum quod

habitum

sunt

friimento

me

6.

Copiae

caruerunt.

a Caesare ex Gallia portatum erat in tempio

est antiquo.

8.

Ad

te sine

mora scrlbam.

quae ab hominibus antiquis aedilicata erat ignis


10.

sunt.

cibo militibusque fuit vacua.

quae ab .eo in Galliam missae


7.

f.

with abl. without.

Romanis

puellae rosis ornatae

audita erunt.
5.

-ae,

sine, prep,

EXERCISES

238.
I.

95

Omnia templa auro

spoliata erant.

9.

In arce

fuit ingens.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

96

LESSON XXXIX
REVIEW: READING LESSON

239.
I

Give four locative forms, not names of towns, with their mean-

ings.

the

town,

Give the table of locative endings, singular and

2.

first

three declensions.

How

3.

do you say

in Latin

town, from the town ? (2) in Rome,


Give the four rules that apply. 4. What

to the

Rome?

the former, the latter?

5.

to
is

plural, of

(i) in the

Rome, from
the Latin for

Write side by side the tables of active

and passive personal endings for the first three tenses. 6. Give the
7. Point
passive future second person singular of amo and moneo.
out five examples of the ablative of agent in 227. 8. In what respects
must the

relative agree with

its

antecedent?

out a relative in the accusative with


ID.

Express

in

Latin

its

9.

In 215,

I.

point

antecedent in the ablative.

/ who, you who, he who.

11.

foregoing examples show about the Latin relative as to

What do
\}(\t

the

person of

12. When do you express jt??/;- by tuus, and when


by vester? 13. Point out a sentence in 234, I. where suus is both
14. What two cases are used with spolio
reflexive and emphatic.
and privo? (See 234, I. 7.) 15. In we blame the mati for his fault

the antecedent?

should you translate his by suus or eius

SCIPIO

240.

AND HANNIBAL
See 179, note.

Ille erat
Hannibal erant clari imperatores.
magnas reportavit hie Poenus qui
Hannibal puer ^ ad aras a
multis pugnis vicit.

Scipio

et

Romanus
Romanos
patre

oppida

qui victorias

adductus
in

superavit*

odium

Hispania

in

iuravit

''

Romanos.

Adulescens

multa expugnavit, tum Alpis

Romanesque saepe

vicit

in

Italia.

montis

Scipio

ad

Ticinum flumen vitam patris virtute servavit posteaque ad

Cannas contra Hannibalem


1

when a

boy-

" led.

se fortem praebuit.

against.

passed over.

near.

h'I-:i7Eir:

Bellum

Africam est transportatuin Ibique Scipio HanniZaniam superavit. Magnificum triumphum Romae

et a

populo

Romano

appellatus est Africanus.

VOCABULARY

241.

adulescens, -ntis, m. a youth.

mons,

flumen, fluminis, n. ri7<er.

odium,

ibi,

-a,

(monti-), m. iiiountain.

-tis

odi, n.

hatred.

postea, adv. afterwards.

adv. there.

magnificus,

97

ill

haleni ad

habuit

READING LESSON

-um, splendid.

pugna,

-ae, i.Jight, battle.

adduce, adducere, adduxi, adductus, lead

to.

appello, appellare, appellavi. appellatus, call.

expugnS, expugnare, expugnavi, expugnatus, take by storm.


iur5, iurare, iuravi, iuratus,

swear, take

ati oath.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

LESSON XL
FOURTH DECLENSION
The Stem ends

in

Paradigms

242.
gradus,

rri.

step

Stemsi: gradu-

horn

cornu, n.

cornu-

Terminations

SlNGULAR
Norn.

gradus

Masc.

cornu

-us

Neut.
-a

Gen.

gradus

cornus

-us

-us

Dat.

gradui (-u)

cornu

-ui(-ii)

-u

Ace.

gradum

cornu

-um

-u

Abl.

gradu

cornu

-u

-ii

Norn.

gradus

cornua

-us

-ua

Gen.

graduum

cornuum

-uum

-uum

Plural

Dat.

gradibus

cornibus

-ibus (-ubus) -ibus (-ubus)

Ace.

gradus

cornua

-us

Abl.

gradibus

cornibus

-ibus (-ubus) -ibus (-ubus)

a.

-ua

Dissyllables in-cus, a.rtus,joi/i/, portus, harbor, and a few other

nouns have the dative and ablative plural

in -ubus.

243.
Rule of Gender.
Mouns of the fourth declension in -us are masculine ; those in -u are neuter.

Note.
a.

For general rules of gender, see 47,

Domus, house,

Idiis,

2.

the Ides, manus, hand, and a few others

are feminine.
b.

For the declension of domus, see 482.

locative (195, b).

Domi

is

used only as a

FOURTH DECLENSION
Decline exercitus magnus, large

c.

99

army ; mea manus, my hand

cornu longum, long liorn.

VOCABULARY

244.
adventus, -us. m. coming.
altus, -a,

-um,

frons, frondis,

cantus. -us, m. song, singing.


civitas, civitatis,

f.

lacus, -us,

manus,

the state.

an army),

cornu, -us, n. horn, -wing (oi

domus,

-us,

f.

exercitus, -us,

f.

leaf, foliage.

gradus, -us, m. step, degree.

Jiigh, tall, deep.

m. lake.

-us,

hand.

f.

ornamentum,

-i,

ornament.

n.

house, home.

palus, paludis,

f.

m. army.

quercus, -us,

oak

f.

marsh.
tree.

congrego, congregare, congregavi, congregatus, gather, assemble.


facio, facere, feci, factus, do,

EXERCISES

245.

scholam et domum multos facimus gradus.


avium nos delectat.
cantus cum
3. Earum

Inter

I.

I.

2.

make.

Adventus

audimus.
cantus non iam' audiuntur.
4. Hieme
Aves in lacubus paliidibusque se congregant.
6. Pueri
avium domos altis in quercubus reperiunt. 7. Quercus frons
antiquis temporibus erat victoris ornamentum.
8. Salus
civitatis in manibus consulum erat.
9. Consules erant exer-

gaudio
5.

cituum imperatores.
II.

I.

Many

animals fight with their- horns.

2.

Many

among the mountains. 3. The songs of birds


were heard among the oaks. 4. We had been delighted by

lakes are seen

the

by

coming of the birds. 5. Their'' songs were gladly heard


by you, by all. 6. Our house lacks children. 7. The

us,

state will not lack brave citizens.


1

See foot-note,

2 Is this
8

Is this

word
word

p. 87.

to

be translated into Latin

.''

See 230,

to be omitted in translation or not

.'

i.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

LESSON XLI
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
Ablative of Comparison
246.

Latin adjectives have three degrees of comparison,

the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.

Models

247.

Comparative

Positive

Superlative

altus (alto-), high, deep

altior, altius

altissimus,

brevis (brevi-), short

brevior, brevius

brevissimus,

audax (audaci-), bold

audacior, audacius

aud acissimus,

a.

Observe that the comparative

is

-a,

-um
-um

-a,

formed from the stem of the

by dropping the stem vowel and adding -lor for the masculine
and feminine and -ius for the neuter
the superlative by adding

positive

-issimus, -issima, -issimum.

Decle7ision of a

248.

Comparative

Plural

Singular
M. &

Notn.

altior

M. &

N.

F.

altius

N.

F.

altiores

altiora

Gen.

altioris

altioris

altiorum

altiorum

Dat.

altiori

altiorl

altioribus

altioribus

Ace.

altiorem

altius

altiores, -Is

altiora

Abl.

altiore,

altiore,

altioribus

altioribus

a.

Compare

denti-),

-i

2.

-i

carus (caro-), dear ; levis (levi-), light; prudens

wise; and decline the comparative of each

Model

249.
.

'

Pinus

altior est

quam

quercus,

Pinus altior est quercu,

(prii-

like altior.

Sentefices
]

the pine is taller than the oak.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTVllS

IDI

Observe that you can say in Latin, withn-it ditftienc;


quam quercus and altior quercu.

a.

mean-

oi

ing, altior

Rule.

250.

The

ablatire jcheii

comparative

quam

(than)

-e,

leo, leonis,

nix, nivis,

short, brief.

m. and

canis, canis,

elephantus,

-i,

pinus,

dog.

f.

iter, itineris, n.

Quod

brevius est

iter

illo

congregaverunt.

3.
4.

brevius est

f.

life.

quam

illud

2.

Copiae ad {/war) paludem


Inter

vita.

exercitus

iacet

lacus.

Quod iter
magnam se
5.

Patria

6.

10.

Montes

altissimi

I.

My

hand

is

9.

Ciiius canis nostro est

aestate

broader than yours.

bolder than the horse.

than lions.
5.

tree.

nive

sunt

albi.

Gives sapientes sunt civitatis ornamentum pulcherrimum.


II.

is

pine

loa]. than.

vita, -ae,

amici adventus cantu avium.

fidclior
1.

i.

Mare est altius fluminibus altissimis.


Fortiorem exercitum quam tuum non vidi. 8. Mihi gratior

ndbis est carior

lion.

snow.

EXERCISES
I.

I.

m.
f.

(abl. pinu),

-i

quam,

way, march (4S2).

252.

7.

the

prudens, prudentis, wise, sagacious.

m. elephant.

faithful, trusty.

fidelis. -Q.

est

by

VOCABULARY

251.
albus, -a, -um, white.
brevis,

is followed
omitted.

is

4.

3.

2.

The elephant

Elephants are more sagacious

have seen a white oak

Lions are the boldest animals.

6.

taller

than your house.

Oaks are broader than

8. Why
7. That man took^ steps longer than mine.was I deprived of my money ? 9. The foliage of the oak is
most dear to me.

pines.

.-^IRST

YEAR LATIN

LESSON XLII
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

Continued

Partitive Genitive
Models

253.

Superlative

Comparative

Positive
miser (misero-), wretched

miserior, miserius

miserrimus,

acer (acri-), keen

acrior, acrius

acerrimus,

a.

Observe that the comparative of

regularly (247, a), but the superlative


-a,

-um

adjectives in -er
is

-a,

-a,

is

-um
-um

formed

formed by adding -rimus,

to the positive.

The

254.

following six adjectives in

regularly, but the superlative

is

of the stem and adding -limus,

-lis

form the comparative

formed by dropping the


-a,

Commit

-um.

final

these to

vowel

memory

with their meanings and comparison.

Positive
facilis, -e,

easy

difficilis, -e,

hard

Superlative

Comparative

difficillimus, -a,

difficilior, -ius

similis, -e, like

similior, -ius

dissimilis, -e, tinlike

dissimilior. -ius

humilis,

-e,

gracilis, -e,

low

humilior, -ius

slender

gracilior, -ius

Model

255.

-um
-um
simillimus, -a, -um
dissimillimus, -a, -um
humillimus, -a, -um
gracillimus, -a, -um
facillimus, -a,

facilior, -ius

Setitetices

Via est asperior, the road

2.

Via est asperrima, the road

is

rather (or

too')

rough.

very rough.

is

a. Sometimes the comparative and superlative are used without


making comparison between two objects then the comparative means
rather or too and the superlative very or exceedittgly
;

PARTITIVE GEMTIVE
Model

256.
1

amy

in

tliaii

2.

Multi militum volnerati sunt,


Nihil novi audivi,

many of the

wounded.

soldiers were

I have heard nothing {pf^ new.

Such a

depends denotes a part of that whole.

it

which a part

taken,

is

Sometimes

tive genitive
tibus,

inan has more {of)

iliat

Observe that each genitive denotes a whole, and the word on

which

b.

tu,

yon.

3.

a.

03

Sentences

quam

habet

vir plus pecuniae

Ille

is

called

2i

genitive, of

partitive genitive.

e (ex) with the ablative is

used instead of the parti-

regularly so with cardinal numerals

quinque ex mili-

five of the soldiers.

257. Rule.
The partitive genitive
a whole of ichich a part is taJcen.

(ace, aera), m. air.

angustus,

-a,

-a,

lingua, -ae,

denote

tongue, language.
shore.

pars, partis (parti-),

f.

part.

EXERCISES

Multum

luce partem

viarum

f.

litus, litoris, n.

-um, Latin.

259.
I.

to

lenis, -e, gentle, soft.

-um, narrow.

frigidus, -a, -um, cold.

I.

used

VOCABULARY

258.
aer. aeris

Latinus,

is

ilia

itineris est

angustum sed facillimum.

hostium vidimus
fuit brevissima.

in
4.

monte.

3.

2.

Prima

Omnium

urbis

Homines Africae hominibus

Europae sunt dissimillimi (117). 5. Aer hoc in litore est


non saepe est frigidissimus. 6. Linguam Latinam
repperi difficiliorem.
in
{against)
Romanos
7. Hannibal
Lenior

ingens odium iuravit.


II.

I.

Your

faithful

8.

Eius

dog

is

finis

vitae

non

very like mine.

white and very deep on these shores in winter.


is

fuit felix.
2.
3.

Snow

My

lies

sword

4. You have plenty of courage, but not much


Have you a friend more sagacious than you (are)

rather long.

money.

5.

.'

FIRST YEAR LATIN

I04

LESSON

XLIII

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

C<7^/^a'

Ablative of Degree of Difference

meanings and comparison

Commit
:

-a,

magnus,
malus,

-a,

-a,

multus,

-um,

good

-um, great

-um,

multi, -ae,

-a,

the following with their

bad

Superlative

-um
-um
pessimus, -a, -um
plurimus, -a, -um

melior, melius

optimus,

maior, maius

maximus,

peior, peius

-um, diucIi

-a,

memory

to

Comparative

Positive
bonus,

common

Both the comparative and the superlative of several

260.

adjectives are irregular.

plus

-a,

-a,

many

plures, plura

plurimi, -ae, -a

parvus,

-a,

-um, small

mmor, minus

minimus,

iuvenis,

-&,

young

iunior (minor natu)

-a,

-um

senex, senis, old (4S2)

senior (maior natia)

minimus natii
maximus natu

vetus, veteris, old

vetustior, -ius

veteirimus,

261.

Declension of plus, tnore

plural, fnore,

M. &. F.

N.

F.

-um

several.

Plural

S INGULAR
M. &

many,

-a,

N.

Nam.

plus

plures

plura

Gen.

pluris

pluiium

plurium

pluribus

pluribus

pluris, -es

plura

pluribus

pluribus

Dat.
Ace.

plus

Abl.

pliire

262. Certain adjectives form their comparative and superlative


from prepositions or adverbs, and certain others have two forms in
the superlative.

See 489.

in the vocabularies.

These should be learned as they occur

ABLATIVE OF DEGREE
Model

263.
1.

Luna

multo minor quam

est

105

Sentences

terra, the

moon

is

/nuch smaller than

the earth.
2.

Pater pede altior est


a.

the father Is a foot taller than his son.

Observe that the ablatives multo and pede answer the question

how much

{by)

filio,

They denote

the degree of difference between the

objects compared.

264.

Degree of difference

Rule.

is

expressed hy the

(thJatii-e.

VOCABULARY

265.

centum, num. adj. indecl. a hundred.

orator, -oris,

m. Cicero.

pigritia, -ae,

Cicero, -onis,

civis, -is (civi-),

m. citizen.

inferus, -a, -um, low,

pliis, pluris,

below (489).

Pompeius,

m. orator.
f.

laziness.

more.

-1.

m. Potnpey.

interdum, adv. sometimes.

sapiens, sapientis, wise.

mendacium,

-1,

sex,

natii (abl.),

m. by birth, in age.

opera, -ae,

n. lying,

falsehood.

work.

f.

adj. indecl. six.

-a,

-um, high, above

(489)-

EXERCISES

266.
I.

num.

superus,

I.

Aliquid

{sotnet/iing)

novi saepe audio.

2.

Caesar sex

quam Pompeius. 3. Aer urbis nostrae


est asperrimus.
4. Hieme centum gradibus frigidior est quam
aestate.
5. Rurl sunt viae pedibus multis angustiores quam
6. Optimos civis amamus, timemus pessimos.
in urbe.
7. Tua
8. Summum montem imamque
operae pars est maior mea.
annis minor natu erat

paliidem video.
II.
I.
Pompey was six years older than Caesar. 2. Cicero
was the most famous of Roman orators. 3. The greatest
orators are sometimes the worst citizens. 4. But Cicero saved

Rome by
6.

Lying

the wisest plans.


is

much worse than

5.

What

laziness.

is

worse than laziness

.'

FIRST YEAR LATIN

[o6

LESSON XLIV
COMPARISON OF ADVERBS
Models

267.

Comparative

Superlative

care (from carus), dearly

carius

carissime

misere (from miser), wretchedly

miserius

miserrime

acriter (from acer), eagerly

acrius

acerrime

facilius

facillime

bene (from bonus), well


male (from malus), badly

melius

optime

peius

pessime

multum (from

plus

plurimum

Positive

(from facilis), easily

facile

mixltus), 7nuch

Review the comparison

a.

of the adjectives from which the above

adverbs are derived and learn the comparison of the adverbs and
their meanings.
b.

Observe that the comparative of the adverb is the same as the


and that the superlative, with

neuter comparative of the adjective

one exception,

changing
c.

final -us to -e.

Compare

similis, like;

the adjectives brevis, short;

feliciter,

Commit

to

successfully ;

memory

libere,

meaning

the

liber,

freely;

freej

breviter,

similiter, similarly.

of these adverbs.

EXERCISES

268.
I.

Parentes liberos

dant optima.

3.

Pro

eis

maxime amant.
laborant

gramen arboresque virebunt.

quam

lucky j

felix,

then compare the adverbs formed from them

briefly J

I.

formed from the superlative of the adjective by

is

hinc videmus errabimus.

operae non das?

7.

maior natu tuus.

8.

urbes centumqae

vias.

5.

Turn
6.

2.

in illam silvam

consilia
4.

Mox

amplam

Cur linguae Latinae plus

Earn multo facilius disces

Ex hoc summo monte


9.

Eis

diligentissime.

quam

f rater

facile video sex

In imis terrae partibus sunt flumina

COMPAR/SOX OF ADVERBS
parva.
peius

10.

Sapientissime dixit pater meus: "

pigritia."

11.

Sed sine dubio

est

107

Mendacium

est

pessimum

pigritia

vitiuin.

very famous orator was six years older than


Sometimes Caesar's enemies fought more bravely
than his soldiers. 3. But his soldiers fought very bravely.
4. Often he suddenly changed his camp.
5. He carried on
many wars successfully. 6. He ruled Rome wisely and well.
7. He was killed there by his enemies.
11.

I.

Caesar.

2.

VOCABULARY

269.
amplus,

-a,

arbor, -oris,

-um, large, Jionorable.


f.

hinc, adv. /lence,

from

parens, parentis, m.

tree.

dnigenter, adv. diligently.

pro, prep,

diu(diutius.diutissime),adv. /^^.

sapienter, adv. wisely.

dubium, dubi,

n.

gramen.

r\..

-inis,

with abl./<7r,

doubt.

subito, adv. suddenly.

grass.

vitium,

vitT, w.

here.

and

f.

parent.

behalf of.

07i

fault.

disco, discere, didici, disciturus, learn.

do, dare, dedi, datus, give.

wander., err.

erro, errare, erravi, erratus,

muto, mutare, mutavi, mutatus, change.


neco, necare, necavi, necatus, kill.
vireo, virere, virui,

be green.

CONVERSATION

270,

Cur

manes
QfTia hic {Jierc) aera lenissimare est pulcherrimum.
2. Dii:me manebis hoc in loco angusto ?
Non diu mox in
urbem ambulabo, ibique diutissime manebo.
Pars viae est asperior,
3. Viane in urbem est asperrima
1.

mum

in

repperi

hoc

litore

.'

hic

.'

pars facillima.

Proximo (fast')
4. Quando (^vhen') in banc terram venisti ?
anno de Germania demigravi cum parentibus.
Capite altior.
5. Quanto (fiow miicK) altior es fratre }

io8

FIRST YEAR LATIN

View of Napl

LESSON XLV
Reading Lesson

bene

Si tu vales,

te laetus scribo.

hiemavi.

Review

A LETTER FROM POMPEII

271.

ad

ego quoque valeo.


Hanc epistulam
Medici consilio cum parentibus in Italia

est

Dum

apud vos nives omnia implent, nos hie nivem


ridet, ut (as) est apud
poetas, caelum.
Interdum in litore ambulo vel in hortis
amplis erro, nam gramen arboresque iam virent.
Hinc video
Vesuvium montem, hinc totam fere urbem, hinc pulchras
insulas in mari sitas.
Linguae Latinae cotidie multum do
operae.
Eam linguam facilius Graeca disco. Sed iam finem
faciam epistulae
mox coram omnia tibi narrabo. Vale,
mi amice.
raro videmus

aer est lenissimus

READING LESSON: REVIEW


CONVERSATION

272.

Nam

1.

IO9

Italia

Monies

hieme impletur nive?

altissim!

nive implentur.
2.

Nonne semper

3.

Ubi

quam

caelum

Fere semper caelum

ridet.

Pulchrior terra non est

Italia.

Num

4.

ridet

est terra pulchrior Italia

Italiae sunt flumina longissima

Tiberis et Padus

sunt longiores.

Suntne eius urbes pulcherrimae

5.

Pulcherrimae Europae

sunt urbes.

VOCABULARY

273.

num, interrog. adv.

apud, prep, with ace. at, -with.


coram,

the answer

7\.di'^.face to face.

quoque, adv. also, too.

cotidie, adv. daily.

raro, adv.

adv. almost.

fere,

adv. here.

hie,

medicus,

-i,

conj.

si,

m. doctor, physician.

nonne, interrog. adv.

Suggests

710.

7iot

-um, situated.

situs, -a,

Suggests

seldom.

if.

whole (312).

totus, -a, -um,

the answer jfj-.

vel, conj. or.

hiemo. hiemare, hiemavi. hiematurus, spend the winter.


impleo, implere, implevi, impletus.y?//, cover.
rideo, ridere, risi, risus. smile, laitgh.

valeo, valere, valui, valiturus, be

vale,

farewell.

REVIEW

274.
I

well ;

Give the endings of the comparative in the nominative.

the six adjectives that form the superlative in -limus.


adjectives in -er form the superlative
iuvenis

and senex.

4.

Compare

acer

3.

Give

2.

How

and asper

do

also

Give the genitive plural of melior and plus


5. How do you
most adverbs derived from

give the masculine and feminine accusative plural.

make

the comparative and superlative of

adjectives?
7.

Express

6.

Compare

in Latin six

pulchre, beautifully,

of the oak

trees j

and

acriter,

eagerly.

am a head taller than you.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

LESSON XLVI
FIFTH DECLENSION

The Stem ends

in e

Accusative of Extent
Paradigms

275.
dies,

m. day

res,

Stems :dieSing.

f.

ihvtg

re-

Plur.

Sing.

Terminations
Plur.

Sing.

Plur.

Nom.

dies

dies

res

res

-es

-es

Gen.

diel

dierum

rei

rerum

-li

-erum

Dat.

diei

diebus

rei

rebus

-ll

-ebus

Ace.

diem

dies

rem

res

-em

-es

Abl

die

diebus

re

rebus

-e

-ebus

a.

Only

dies

and

res

are complete in the plural.

nouns have the nominative and accusative

few other

plural.

276. Rule of Gender.


Mouns of the fifth declension
are feminine, except dies, which is commonly masculine in the singular and always in the plural.

Model

277.
1.

Decern annos Troia

Sentences

oppiignabatur,

Troy was besieged for ten

years.
2.

Turris alta est centum pedes,

a.

The

278.

tower

is

a hundredfeet high.

accusative annos denotes duration or extent of time; pedes,

extent of space.

how far?

tJie

Such accusatives answer the questions how long?


and may be called accusatives of extent.

in time or space,

Rule.

Extent

hy the accusative.

of time or space

is

expressed

FIFTH DECLENSION
VOCABULARY

279.
acies, -ei,

paces, mile (305,

m. day.

fides, -ei,

planities,

m. a Gaul.

-i,

plain.

quinque, indecl. yf?'^.

impetus, -us, m. attack.


mille,

-ei, f.

posterus, -a, -um, next (489).

trust, confidence.

f.

e).

passus, -us, m. pace, step.

decern, indecl. ten.


dies, -ei,

thousand (of)

passuum,

mille

of battle.

line

f.

castra, -5rum, n. plur. cainp.

Gallus,

III

res, -i, f. thi7tg,

thousand (304).

spes,

-ei, f.

discedo. discedere, discessi, discessurus,

go

event, fact.

hope.
off,

depart.

exspecto, exspectare, exspectavi, exspectatus, await, expect.


instruo, instruere, instriixi, instructus,

draw

up, tnarshall.

p6n5, p5nere, posui, positus, put, place, pitch {camp).

EXERCISES

280.
I.

I.

summo

Caesar castra

in

in

monte a Caesare posita

planitie visi sunt.

in

summo

monte

sunt.

Inter hunc

4.

3.

posuit.

2.

montem

et illam plani-

tiem erat flumen quod centum pedes erat latum.

5.

aciem instruxit impetumque hostium exspectabat.


equites maiorem diei partem in cornibus manebant.
hostes

impetum non

habuerunt.

Postero die

9.

loco discesserunt.
II.

I.

sengers.

not

many

fecerunt.

10.

Tum

Castra

Hinc hostes magna


Caesar
6.
7.

Eius

Sed

Nam

parvam victoriae spem


quinque milia ^ passuum ex illo
8.

friimento pluris dies caruerunt.

Caesar heard about this fact from several mes2.

His

miles

too,

soldiers,

away from

saw the camp of the enemy


own ^ camp. 3. Caesar

(ab) their

had the greatest confidence in his soldiers.^ 4. But the river


was much too deep. 5. This fact deprived the soldiers of all
deprived of all hope by this
hope.
6. His soldiers were
event.
1

See 305,

e.

See 229.

in his soldiers

expressed by the dative.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

112

LESSON XLVII
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
Purpose Clauses with ut and ne
Paradigms

281.

Act. Subjv. Pres.


1.

2.
3.

Pass. Subjv. Pres.

amem

am emus

1.

amer

amemur

ames
amet

ametis

2.

ameris, -re

ament

3.

ametur

amemini
amentur

Subjunctive Pi-esent

282.

Active
-as.

reg

-amus.

-at.

-ant

}-

capi

Passive
I

^"^i
J

a.

-ar,

-amini,

-antur

Sentences

Gives se armant ut pugnent, the citizens

may fight,

in order that they

for the purpose of fighting,


2.

-amur.

-atur,

Model

283.
1

-aris (-re),

Learn the present subjunctive of sum (502).

may

arm

themselves that they

fight, in order to fight,

to fight.

Pueri laborant ne culpentur, the boys ivork that they j/iay not be

blamed, so that they

blamed,
a.

lest they be

may

not be blamed, in order not to be

blamed.

Observe that the dependent clauses express

\\-\t.

purpose of the
and ne

action in the principal clauses, ut introducing affirmative

negative clauses.

Observe the various ways of translating ut {that, etc.) and ne


not, etc.) and the subjunctive.
Purpose clauses may be
translated by the English infinitive, but the Latin infinitive must not
b.

{that

be used

to express purpose.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD


Rule.

284.
lie

The

subjunctive

is

II3

used with ut and

to cxpi-css purpose.

VOCABULARY ^REVIEW)

285.

deleo, delere, delevi, deletus, destroy.

duc5, ducere, duxi, ductus, lead.


facid, facere, feci, f actus,

make,

do.

mitto. mittere, misi, missus, send.

moveo, movere, m5vi. motus, move.


punio, piinire, punivi, piinitus, punish.
recipio, recipere, recepi, receptus, receive.

reperio. reperire, repperi, repertus, yf ^.


scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptus, write.

video, videre, vidi, visus, see.

EXERCISES

286.

Mittitur ut

I.

-^

ornet,

moneat,

5rnetur,

moneatur, regatur, capiatur,


audiat, audiatur.

(jrnent,

Eos mittimus

ut-^

capiat,

regat,

moneant,

capiant,

regant,

ornentur, moneantur, regantur, capiantur,


audiant, audiantur.

3.

^
Te moneo

ut

moneas,

ames,

capias,
audias,
regas,
^
^.
,.
ameris, monearis, regaris, capiaris, audiaris.
!

Eum monemus

Eos monemus ne milites


sint.
6. Vos moneo ut prudentes sitis.
7. Nos monet ut
simus acres diem noctemque.
4.

II.

I.

do, find.

They

He is sent
He will

2.

do, find.
4.

ne miles

3.

You

sit,

in order that

led, taken,

found.

do, find.

7.

he

may fight,
may

send them that they

destroy, write,

destroy, write,

(sing.) are sent to destroy, write, do, find.

are sent that the city

taken, punished.

5.

5.
6.

He

may

not be destroyed, ruled,

advises us not to be called, moved,

We

advise them not to move, see, write,

advise him to be active.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

114

LESSON XLVIII
THE SUBJUNCTIVE ^OOH Continued
Purpose Clauses

Conthmed

Result Clauses

Paradigm

287.

Subjunctive Imperfect

am are

'Active

monere
-m,

regere

capere
audire
esse

-t

-s.

Passive

-mur, -mini, -ntur

-ris (-re), -tur


J

a. Observe that the subjunctive imperfect can alwaj^s be formed


by adding the personal endings (205) to the active infinitive present.
For the quantity of e before -mus, etc., see 497-502.

Alodel Sentences

288.
1

Gives se armabant ut pugnarent, citizens

might fight,
2.

armed thevisehies that they

to fight, etc. (283).

Gives piignabant ne oppidum deleretur, citizens


t02un
a.

might not

Compare

fought that the

be destroyed.

the above sentences with those of 2S3.

The

sub-

junctive present follows the indicative present, the subjunctive imperfect follows the indicative imperfect or perfect.

Model

289.
1.

Iter

tam longum

So

also in 289.

Sentences

est ut puer sit defessus, the Jo urn ty is so

long that

the boy is tired out.


2.

Puer tam malus

fuit ut a

bad that he was


a.

Jiot

magistro non laudaretur, the boy

Observe that the above dependent clauses express


and ut non negative clauses.

introducing- affirmative

was

so

praised by his master.


result, ut

SL'BJUXCriVE

77/ A"

The

Rule.

290.

n~>n

lit

II5

mibjitnctire is used with at

and

result.

c.v })!'(' ss

til

MOOD

VOCABULARY

291.
c5nsul. consulis, m. consul.

pauci, paucae, pauca (plur.)./t'.

epistula, -ae,

semper, adv. aliuays.

f.

letter.

adv. so. in such a way.

ita,

tam, adv.

accido, accidere, accidi,

so, so very.

happen.

Z'?^/ upon.,

ago, agere, egi, actus, act, do.

c5gn6sco. cognoscere, cogn5vi, cognitus, learn,


vivo, vivere, vixi,

EXERCISES

292.

Accidit (pres.) ut

I.

I.

tur.

vocem, ducatur, recipias, mittan-

Accidit (perf.) ut non

2.

reciperet.
ut

know.

lii'e.

ab omnibus amaretur.

caperetur.

Urbs

6.

non caperetur.

Urbs deleta

4.

Puer

ita egit

est ne ab hostibus

tarn fortiter defensa est ut decern

10.

,in

silvas fugerunt

Hostes

8.

non viderentur.

essent carissimi.

5.

Hoste

7.

militibus viderentur.
militibus

vocares, deleretur, mitterem,

Accidit ut luna plena esset.

3.

9.

in silvas

ne a

dies

nostris

fugerunt ut a nostris

lUi parentes ita vixerunt ut liberis

Caesar tantam

{so great)

fidem militibus^

habuit ut impetum postero die faceret.


II.

led,

It

r.

happened that
I seat, he was sent, they were
2.
It happens that he does not
punish,

they wrote.

call, receive, find.

3.

They were

so few that they

were so brave that they did not


a letter to

Rome.

things (omnia)

camp

in

that the

6.

7.

Who

The

flee.

of us

is

5.

4.

was sent

so wise as to

They

to carry

know

all

lieutenant led the soldiers out of the

order to draw up a line of battle.

enemy

fled.

8.

It

happened

did not draw up a line of battle for six hours.


1

Compare

2S0, II.

3,

and note.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

Il6

LESSON XLIX
Indirect Question

Paradigm

293.

amav
monu
rex

Sequence of Tenses

Active Subjunctive Perfect


I

-erim,

-erimus,

-erit

-eris,

-eritis,

-erint

Active Subjunctive Pluperfect

*^^P
j

-issemus, -issetis, -issent

-issem, -isses, -isset

fu
a.

Make

similar tables to illustrate the passive subjunctive perfect


in all conjugations

and pluperfect

(497-502).

Model

294.

Sentences

Indirect Question

Direct Question
I.

Ubisunt? where are they

2.

Audit ubi

sint,

he hears where

they are.
a.

Observe that the dependent clause

in

begins with an inter-

and contains the substance of the direct question


Such a dependent clause is called an indirect question.

rogative

295.

word

(ubi)

The

Rule.

an

verb of

i.

indirect question is in

the subjunctive.

Model of Sequence

296.

Principat Tenses
1

Audit, he hears

2.

Audiet, he will hear

3.

Audiverit, he will

1.

Audiebat, he

2.

Audivit, he

I.

A.}x^\yQX3ii,

ubi sint, ruhere they are,

V ubi fueriat,

have heard J

have

where they were

or

been.

Historical Tenses

was hearing

heard
he

had heard

^
)-

^^^.

^^^^^^^ ^^j^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^

^^. ^^.^^^^^^ ^j^^^^ ^,^^^

had been.

SEQUENCE OE TENSES

17

Observe what tenses of the subjunctive follow the present,

a.

future,

and future perfect {principal tenses), and what tenses follow


and pluperfect (Jiistorical tenses).

the imperfect, perfect,

297. Rule.
vi principal tense is followed by the
subjunctive present or perfect; an historical tense by
the subjunctive imperfect or pluperfect.
Occasionally the perfect (classed as an historical tense) mean-

a.

ing have, has

is

followed by the subjunctive present or perfect.

VOCABULARY

298.
cur,

adv.

why?

qu5, adv.

die (imperative), say, tell.

quot, adv.

num, adv. whether

ubi, adv.

how many?

where ?
unde, adv. whence?

(in indirect

See 273.

questions).

whither?

rog5, rogare. rogavi, rogatus, ask.


sold, scire, scivi, scitus,

EXERCISES

299.
I.

know.

I.

Scit quid agant, quid egerint.

quid egissent.

2.

Sciebat quid agerent,

Die mihi cur rideant, cur

riserint.

4.

verant unde milites venirent, unde milites venissent.

5.

3.

Audi-

Rogaverunt cur laudaretur, cur laudatus asset.


6. Rogat cur
laudentur, cur laudati sint.
7. Num in manibus ambulas ?
illi
pueri fecerunt ?
8. Quid
9. Die nobis quid illi pueri
10. Qu5 volant eae columbae ?
11. Bene scimus quo
fecerint.
volent domum volant. 12. Rogavi num saepe Romae fuisset.
;

2. Some
They are so lazy that
they do not work.
5. I
4. He asked me why I had come.
had heard where he had been. 6. The general asked whether
they had all come from home.
7. How many soldiers are
coming ? 8. Do you know how many soldiers are coming

II.

came

I.

to

Tell

see,

me where you

were, what you did.

others to be seen.

3.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

Il8

LESSON L
READING LESSON

'
:

REVIEW

CAESAR WINS A VICTORY

300.

Postero die Caesar ex castris exercitum eduxit et iter^ ad

flumen

fecit. ^

Quae

nostris

summo

in colle videbatur.

nota

res hostibus

est,

quorum peditatus

Turn Caesar equites in cornibus conlocavit ut peditatum


suorum animos ad pugnam ita concitavit.

iuvarent, et militum

" Milites, omnis rei publicae spes in nostra virtute posita est.
Audaces fortuna iuvat. Fortibus erit victoria." Hostes tarn
acriter in nostram aciem impetum fecerunt ut hi paululum
Brevi autem tempore hostes ita superati
{a little) cederent.

simt ut ex omnibus pugnae partibus trans flumen fugerent.

Eorum dux captus

Romam

et

est.

VOCABULARY

301.

peditatus, -us, m. infantry.

acriter, adv. spiritedly.

animus,

missus

-i,

m.

autem, 3 conj.

Jtiind.,

res publica, rei publicae,

bjit.

coUis, -is (colli-),

equitatus,

^vLgna.,-&e,i. battle, Jield

spirit.

-iis,

m.

commonwealth,

hill.

m. cavalry.

{of battle).
f.

republic,

state.

trans, prep, with ace. across.

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessurus,

give way,

retire.

conloco, conlocare, conlocavi, conlocatus, set, station, place.

educo, educere, eduxi, eductus, lead out,

draw

out,

draw.

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutus, aid, help.

EXERCISES

302.
I.

Caesar drew up his

line of battle

the soldiers remained a part of the day.


1

iter fecit, tnarched.

Supply

est.

Never

on a
3-

hill.

2.

'I'here

In order to rouse

first in

a sentence.

READING LESSON: REVIEW


the spirits of the soldiers, he said

and the victory

will

be yours."

4.

" Wo.

"The

(^este;

II9
bold, soldiers,

cavalry will aid the

enemy will not withstand (sustineo) your attack."


"They are brave men, but you are much braver." 6. Then
the Romans fought very spiritedly.
7. Soon the enemy fled.
8. We do not know whither thev Hed.
infantry; the
5.

REVIEW

303.
I.

2.

Wliat case

t/ijj's

4.

(live the rule for the


is

used

gender of nouns of the

he walked ten miles?

3.

so as to illustrate purpose.

5.

"The

tive.

Can you do

In English
so in

clause begin in Latin?

I.

In turning your sentence into Latin,


?

6.

What mood

we often express purpose by

Latin?

8.

How

the

infini-

does a negative purpose

In the sentence venit ut audiat, translate

9.

many ways

in 280,

farmer bought a plough,"

with what word would the purpose clause begin


7.

declension.

Find two similar examples

Complete the English sentence,

must you use?

fifth

Latin in sucli expressions as during three

in

10. If venit were changed to


you can.
what would audiat be changed to? 11. What tenses of the
indicative are classed as principal?
What tenses as historical?
12. Give an example in English of a direct question and change it

ut audiat in as

as

venit.

into an

indirect question.

13.

indirect question in Latin.

14.

289 and 294 how the subjunctive


question

is

Give the rule for the mood of an

Show from

the model sentences in

in a result

clause and in an indirect

translated.

.\

KoiMAN Coin

FIRST YEAR LATIN

I20

LESSON

LI

NUMERALS
Descriptive Ablative and Genitive

304

Piiradigms
MASC.

Nom.

NEUT.

FEM.

unus

una

M.

&

NEUT.

F.

unum

tres

tria

Gen.

unius

unius

unius

trium

trium

Dat.

uni

uni

uni

tribus

tribus

Ace.

unum

unam

unum

tris,

Abl.

uno

una

uno

tribus

Nom.

duo

Gen.

Dat.

MASC.

Ace.
Abl.

NEUT.

FEM.

tres

tria

tribus
PLUR.

SING.

duae

duo

mllle

duorum

duarum

duorum

mille

milium

duobus
duos, duo
duobus

duabus

duobus
duo
duobus

mlUe

milibus

mllle

mllia

mllle

milibus

duas

duabus

milia

Learn the cardinals as far as eighty (491) and the declension


and mille.

305.

of unus, duo, tres,


a.

Compare

b.

Observe that

e.

The

the declension of unus with that of

men;

d.

The hundreds, except centum, are declined


Mille in the singular

or as a neuter noun

is

indeclinable and

mille (adj.) homines,

(noun) hominum, a thousand {of) fnen.

numbers

a noun

it

is

quattuor hominum, offour men.

e.

As

(200).

cardinals from quattuor to centum inclusive are indeclinable

quattuor "hovamts, four

only.

ille

tres is declined like the plural of brevis (182).

like the plural of bonus.


is

used as an adjective

a thousand ?nen, or mQle


In the plural

it

is

a noun

followed by the partitive genitive in both

quattuor milia hominum, y(??^r thousand {of) meti.

f. In viginti iinus, viginti duo, centum Snus, and similar cases, the
centum trium pugnarum, of
declinable numeral retains its inflection
:

a hundred {and) three battles.

NUMERALS
Model

306.
1

Brutus fuit puer anim5 tardo,

2.

Brutus luit puer animi tardi,

...

,.,

Observe that

a.

Sentences

"]

,.^ Brutus was

-^

each sentence an adjective

in

and the descriptive genitive.

then, illustrate the descriptive ablative

he

The ablative or the genitive of a noun


used with an adjective to desci^ibe a person or

Rule.

307.

used with an

is

These sentences,

ablative or a genitive for the purpose of description.

may

a boy of slow mind.

thing.

EXERCISES

308.
-I.

I.

3.

Viri

summa

Pilum sex pedum.

ginta

epistulae.

Gives unius

7.

Omnis

Tria

6.

Urbs

2,

duobus

Viginti duae domus.

4.

flumina

portubus.

5.

Duodetri-

pedes

septuaginta

lata.

Cum

duabus manibus.
Decem milia passuum.

publicae.

rei

tribus agricolis.
II.

virtute.

10.

Gallia

8.

habuit.

partis

tris

hodie duodeviginti annos natus^

est.

13.

12.

Frater

9.

meus

In urbe nostra sunt

quinque oratores, novem poetae, quinquaginta milia civium.

Pilum

14.

Romanum

fratrum Marcus
est

fuit

minor natu quam

sint in

illis

castrls.

fuit

sex

maximus

pedes longum.

natu.

filius tuus.

18.

16.

17.

Mea

15.

filia

Die mihi quot milites

Caesar quinquaginta sex ann5s

animo prudentissimo.
II.
I. These are children

Trium

tribus annis

vixit

fuit

were

ten

years old.

thousand
4.

of

soldiers.

The oak

is

one mother.
3.

2.

In that camp

Your daughter

a tree of

is

eleven

very beautiful foliage.

The sailors see a thousand horsemen on the


Have you a son who is twenty-one years old ?
have come to aid you.
5.

shore.

6.

7.

'

natus, having been horn, hence old.

We

FIRST YEAR LATIN

122

LESSON
NUMERALS

Lli
Continued

Learn the cardinals from eighty and the

309.
ordinals

first

twenty-one

read the others.

VOCABULARY

310.

ann5 Domini, in the year of our

Lord = A.D.
ante Christum natum, before the
birth of Christ

B.C.

-i,

m. February.

gens, gentis (genti-),

ingenium,

n.

-i,

i.

f.

Martius,

m. March.

mensis,

-i,

-is

nobilis, -,

dexter, dextra, dextrum, right.

Februarius,

legio, -onis,

genius.

(mensi-), m. tnonth.

of high

October, -bris,

September,

family.

legion.

birth, noble.

m. October.

-bris,

m. September.

sinister, sinistra, sinistrum, left.


soror, -oris,

f.

sister.

decedo, decedere, decessi, decessQrus, depart, die.

EXERCISES

311.
I.

2.

I.

Quinta

Primus

consul,

diei hora,

secundus

impetus,

tertia

quarta noctis hora, noni passus.

legio.
3.

Ter-

tium decimum fiiimen, undevicesimus puer, vicesima puella.


4. Duodecimae legioni, in colle sexto, ad urbem octavam.
5.

Roman! anni

7.

fuit

September mensis septimus, October

Quo nomine nos appellamus mensem nonum


Legio Romana quinque milia peditum, trecentos equites

octavus.

6.

.?

habuit.
8. Caesar
in dextro cornu decimam, in sinistro
sextam legionem conlocavit. 9. Scisne quot annos Romani

Britanniam insulamtenuerint ? 10. Romani Britanniam Insulam


annos trecentos quinquaginta tenebant.
11. Augustus anno
Domini quarto decimo decessit. 12. Fuit gentis nobilis et
ingeni maximi.

13. Caesar quadragesimo quarto anno ante


Christum natum decessit.

NUMERAJ.S
II.

I.

On

123

the fifteenth day they removed without delay

from the country into the

city.

2.

Brutus

is

older than his

by five years. 3. The king has ruled so well that he is


loved by all.
4. The king ruled so well that he was loved
by all. 5. An hour is the twenty-fourth part of a day. 6. In
sister

February there are twenty-eight days.


7. How many days
8. It happened that we were not
?

has the month (of) March


at

I.

home

(for)

SUNGER

two days.

2, 2.

LiGHT-ArMKU SOLDIERS

3, 3.

LeGIONARY SoLDIERS

YEAR LATIN

FiJiST

124

LESSON

LIII

Ten Irregular Adjectives

Reading Lesson

The

312.

and

in

-i

following adjectives end in -ius in the genitive singular

in the dative singular of all

is

Commit them

regular.

alius, alia, aliud, other,

memory

to

another

solus, -a,

{of two).
neither

neuter, neutra, neutrum,

{of two).

-um,

plural

-um, whole,

iillus, -a,

-um, any.

utrum, which {of two)

no one.

alotie, sole, only.

totus, -a,

iinus, iina,

uter, utra,

The

with their meanings.

(486). nuUus, -a, -um, no, none,

altefum, the other

altera,

alter,

genders (except that the genitive

See the declension of unus (304).

of alter ends in -ius).

unum,

all.

one.

uterque, utraque, utrumque, each (of two), both.

Commit

313.
alter

alius

alii

alius

memory

to

the one

alius,

one

alii,

some

another.

others.
.

another another.

EXERCISES
In altera fluminis ripa {bank) urbs, in altera erat

I.

nions.

2.

Alii alia (ace.) dixerunt.

imperator, alter poeta

fuit.

totus exercitus servatus est.


fuit.

the other {of two only).

aliud (ace), one one thing

314.
I.

the following idioms

alter,

6.

3.

Duorum hominum

4.

Decimae

5.

Nomen

alter

legionis solius virtute

Caesaris toti urbi carum

Altera legio in dextro, altera in sinistro cornu a


est.
7. Uter puer est filius tuus?
Caesar praises the bravery of the whole legion.

Caesare conlocata
II.
2.

I.

Which

of the (two)

boys has (115) the greater courage.'

'

READING LESSON
3.

One does one

will

tenth legion alone.

5.

more

4.

.'

beautiful

.'

CAESAR AND VERGIL

315.

Roma

duos homines

summo

Ille

victor fuit

orbi terrarum

quam

Britanniae et totius Galliae

gaudium

Caesari,

nulli

ingenio habuit, alterum impera-

Alterius gens nobilis, alterius rustica

torem, alterum poetam.


fait.

Do you blame both


march without any delay with the
Which of the (two) sisters is the

thing, another another.

Caesar

(sing.)

125

dedit.

Nulli

poetae plus

hie toti

imperatori plus laudis

quam

Vergilio

datum

est.

Natus est {was born) Caesar centesimo anno ante Christum

natum

decessit.

Vergilius

anno undevicesimo ante Christum natum

Neutrius

sempiterna.

alius aliud dicit

sed utriusque erit laus

fuit vita longissima,

Utri fuit melior fortijna

.''

nos utrumque laudamus.

De

illis

hominibus

FIRST YEAR LATIN

126

LESSON LIV
Infinitive used as in English

The
316.

Infijiitive

Pass. Pres.

Act. Pres.

etc.

Pass. Perf.

Act. Perf.

to be

to love,
'

Paradigms

have

to

to

have been

loved, etc.

loved, etc.

loved, etc.

amare
monere

a marl

moneri

amavisse
monuisse

amatus esse

II.

III.

regere

regi

rexisse

rectus esse

III.

capere

capi

cepisse

captus esse

IV.

audire

audiri

audlvisse

audltus esse

I.

Irreg.

a.

monitus esse

fuisse

esse

Write out similarly

two columns the active and passive

in

intini

tives future (497-502).


b.

Commit

to

memory

all

Model

317.

a.

these infinitives with their meanings.

Sentences

I.

Laudari est gratum, to be praised

1.

Vincere potest, he can {is able to) conquer.

is

pleasant.

3.

Puer primus esse cupit, the boy wishes

4.

Urbs capta esse

5.

Nos esse bonos cupiunt, they wish us

Observe that

in

dicitur, the city is

the infinitive

is

said

to be first.
to

have been taken.

to be

good.

the subject

completes the meaning of the main verb and

is

in 2, 3,

and 4

it

called the comple-

mentary infinitive; in 5 it takes the accusative as its subject.


b. Observe that in 3 the predicate adjective after esse agrees with
so also in 4 the participle capta.
the subject of the main verb
;

318.

Rule

accivsative.

I.

The

subject of the infinitive is in the

THE
Rule

,/

2.

12/

a coniiAenienagrees irith the subject of the main

iu'ediciitc adjective a/'ler

iiijiiiitlre

ttivij

USED AS AV EAUIJSH

l.XFlXirn E

rrrh.

VOCABULARY

319.
dives, divitis, rich.

potest, is able, can.

pensum,

possunt, a/e able, can.

periculum,

task.

n.

-i,

n.

-i,

praemium,

danger.

-i,

n.

reward.

c5nserv6. c5nservare. conservavl, conservatus, save, preserve.


debe5, debere, debui. debitus, owe, ought.
iubeS. iubere, iussi, iussus, bid, order.
lego, legere, legi, lectus, read.

puto. putare. putavi. putatus, think.

EXERCISES

320.

Potest

I.

I.

iuvari, rogari.

3.

legere,

iubere,

iuvare.

tur cessisse, conlocavisse, rexisse.

punitum

Me

7.

6.

iri.

8.

putantur.

12.

13.

10. Alii alia

est?

16.

Dicun-

esse debuit.

15.

9.

impetum hostium

summo

ingenio fuisse

esse cupiunt.

liter

Qui pater

pensafacere debent.

fortis fuit ut

Vergilius et Caesar

Omnes homines divites

tuum scriptum

4.

Putatur scripturus esse,

Dicitur ornatus esse.

non cupit

Quis totius exercitus tarn

II.

sustineret

5.

Epistula scripta esse putatur.

ornari iussit.

filium fortem esse

Possunt iuberi,

2.

Puer discere, rogare, educi debet.

maior

14.

Pensum

natii fuisse dictus

Agricolae venerunt ut iuvarent.

We ought to be brave and good. 2. Who is said


have received a greater reward ? 3. Do you bid me to be
prudent ? 4. Your task is greater than mine, but my brother
can do both (sing.).
5. The safety of the commonwealth
ought to be preserved. 6. They were thought to have worked
II.

I.

to

diligently.
is

7.

The danger ought

to

have been seen.

said to have died in the year of our

Lord

14.

S.Augustus

FIRST YEAR LATIN

128

LESSON LV
ACCUSATIVE AND INFINITIVE
Indirect Statement

Tu

Indirect Statement

Statement

321. Direct

Dicunt te scribere,

scribis,

yoii write,

{they say you to write')

yott are writing.

they say that you are writing,


they say

Observe the changes made

a.

statement
scribis
b.

the nominative tu

becomes the

you are writing.

in Latin in turning direct into indirect

becomes the accusative, and the

indicative

infinitive.

Observe how the Latin and EngUsh idioms

differ in indirect

statement, the metaphrase exactly representing the Latin.

Indirect statements follow verbs and


322. Rule.
other expressions of saying, thinking, knowing, and
perceiving, and are expressed hy the infinitive with
subject accusative.
323.

Tenses of the Injitiitive in Indirect Statet?ient


Dicit se scribere, he says he is writing.

Dixit se scribere, he said he

324.

Rule.

was

time as that of the verb on which


Dicit se scripsisse, he says

Rule.

The

perfect

before that of the verb on

it

depends.

he has written.

Dixit se scripsisse, he said he

325.

writing.

'The present infinitive denotes the same


had

written.

denotes
depends.

infinitive

which

it

Dicit se scriptiirum esse, he says he will write.

Dixit se scripturum esse, he said he

would write.

time

ACCUSATIVE AND hXFINITIVE

The

Rule.

326.
(tftci'

future

it

29

time

denotes
depends.

infinitive

that of the verb on which

VOCABULARY

327.
arbor, arboris,
divitiae,

-arum,

non iam, no longer.

tree.

f.

f.

post, prep, with ace. after.

plur. riches, wealth.

frigus, -oris, n. cold, frost.

rQrsus, adv. again.

iam, adv. already, now, at last.

ver, veris, n. spring.

adsum, adesse, adfui, adfutQrus, be here, be present.

know.

scio, scire, scivi, scitus,

solvo, solvere, solvi. solQtus, loose,

break up.

sper5, sperare, speravi, speratus, hope.

tego, tegere, texi, tectus, cover.

EXERCISES

328.
I.

I.

Ver adest

adesse et vere frigus


4.

Omnes

vere frigus solvitur.


solvi.

3.

multae aves.

cantaturas esse multas avis.


8.

tegitur.
in arbo-

6.

tegi.

Scimus mox

Quis non videt agricolas agros arare

agricolis

mox aratum

futuras esse.

12.

iri

10.

arboribus

in

Quis non videt

9.

Quis non putat agros ab

Agricolae sperant divitias sibi

11.

.''

5.

Agricolae agros iam arant.

7.

agros ab agricolis aratos esse?

Videmus ver

Mox

vident terram nive non iam

ribus cantabunt

2.

Terra nive non iam

Nos quoque speramus deos

iis

benign5s

futijros esse.
II.

not

I.

know

At

last

cold winter

that cold winter

are covered with snow.

4.

trees are covered with snow.


6.

of
of

Who knows

is

is

here again.

here at last

You can
5.

be kind to them.

be singing.

will

that no birds will soon be singing

will

does

All the trees

(poles) see that all the

Soon no birds

them have been killed by winter's cold. 8.


them have been killed by winter's cold.

hope the gods

Who

2.

3.

We
9.

.''

7.

think

Many
many

The farmers

FIRST YEAR LATIN

30

LESSON LVI
The Demonstratives

Idem, Ipse, Iste

Paradigms

329.
idem,

""

same

ipse,

-selj

Singular

Nom
Gen.

Dat.
Ace.
Abl.

ipsum

Idem
eiusdem
eidem

e'adem

idem

ipse

ipsa

eiusdem

eiusdem

ipslus

ipsius

ipslus

eldem

eldem

ipsi

ipsI

ipsI

eundem
e5dem

eandem
eadem

idem

ipsum

ipsam

ipsum

eodem

ipso

ipsa

ipso

eaedem

e'adem

ipsI

ipsae

ipsa

Plural
'

Nom.

ildem

^eldem
ipsorum ipsarum ipsorum

eorundeir earundem eorundem

Gen.

iisdem

iisdem

iisdem

eisdem

eisdem

eisdem

eosdem

easdem

e'adem

iisdem

iisdem

iisdem

Dat.
Ace.
C

Abl.

1 eisdem
330.
b.

a.

ipsis

ipsIs

ipsos

ipsas

ipsa

ipsIs

ipsIs

ipsis

eisdem

eisdem

Review the declension

Observe that idem

ipsis

is

of

is

(138), hie and

declined like

is

with

that in the accusative singular and genitive plural


c.

d.

Learn the declension of


Decline together idem

3.
4..

(200).

is

changed

to n.

(493).

dies, res ipsa, istud

Model

331.

2.

iste, tJiat

ille

dem added, except

animal.

Sentences

/ saw my friend the same day.


read that letter {ofyours).
Amicus ipse ad me venit, j}iy friend himself came to me.
Homo se culpavit nimium, the man blamed himself too much.

Eodem

die

amicum

Istam epistulam

vidi,

legi,

/lave

THE DEMONSTRAril'ES
Observe

a.

in

and

2 that

IDIOM,

idem and

ISIK

I1\SK,

131

used as demonstra-

iste are

They may also be used without a noun that is, as


Compare the uses of is (140, a and b).
demonstrative pronouns.
b. Iste is used of that which has some relation to the second
tive adjectives.

person, and

may

ofyours or that ofyours.


it may sometimes be
the intensive pronoun, used to empha-

often be translated this

means

Ipse

c.

-self {himself itself etc.)

translated even or very.

It is

noun or pronoun expressed or understood, with which


It must be sharply distin,<::;uished from

size a

an adjective.

like

which

malus,

agrees
-self

se,

331, 3 and 4.

VOCABULARY

332.

oratio, -onis,

difficultas. -atis, i. difficulty.

idem

Compare

reflexive, not emi^hatic (221. b).

is

it

-a.

same
-um, bad (260).

numquam,

qui,

speech, plea.

f.

stadium, studi,

as.

n. desire,

study.

varius, -a, -um, rtarious.

adv. never.

voltus,

-iis,

m. face, looks.

praedico. praedicare, praedicavi, praedicatus, proclaim, boast.

EXERCISES

333,
I.

I.

In eodem periculo.

Ipsius hominis divitis.

3.

tiae

civium ipsorum.

Post

canis,

ille

Hie orator

ipso praedicat

mei.

9.

Quis

I.

my

est

non sapiens esse

putasne quae heri {yesterday)'!

II.

video.

14.

The very

5.

Divi-

dieitur.
13.

Hie

8.

est

cibus

semper eodem voltu

se suasque orationes laudat.

scribere iubet.

difficultatis.

eandem orationem.

Non iam eandem arborem

7.

istius
10.

6.

Pensum eiusdem

2.

Divitiae ipsae civium.

4.

De

11.

12.
istis

Is qui

de se

Hodie eadem

rebus

me ad

te

Sciunt ipsos vestros amieos eulpare vos.


trees are covered with snow.

2.

Do you

where those servants of yours are ? They


are never at home.
3. That song of yours does not delight
us it is the worst of all.
4. You have the same task as I.
6. I love
5. Various birds are singing in yonder (ille) trees.
know,

father,

and praise those studies

of yours.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

132

LESSON

LVII

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

READING LESSON: REVIEW

334.
a.

Review the

interrogative quis (142)

and the

and learn the declension of the following


fully distinguishing the

meanings.

335.

Indefinite

Masc.

relative qui (210)

indefinite pronouns, care-

Fem.

Pronouns

Neut.

aliquis

aliqua

quidam

quaedam

aliquid, aliquod, so7ne one, any one


(496).
quoddam, quiddam, a certain one (496).
quidquam (no plur.), any one {at all).

quivis

quaevis

quodvis, quidvis,

quisque

quaeque

quidque, quodque, each one, every one.

quisquam

Note.
a.

The meanings of the

Observe how

aliqua,

any one {you please').

neuters, something, etc., are easily inferred.

which

is

both the feminine nominative

singular and the neuter nominative plural of aliquis, differs from the
corresponding forms of quis.
b.

Observe that quidam (qui

+ dam)

is

declined like qui, except

and genitive plural m of qui becomes


n quendam, quandam, quorundam, quarundam also that the neuter
has quiddam and quoddam in the nominative and accusative singular.
c. Quisquam and quisque are declined like quis
quivis like qui.
that in the accusative singular
:

d.

In the neuter of

all

the indefinites quid-forms are used as pro-

nouns, quod-forms as adjectives.

AFRICA

336.

Note.
for

new

Hereafter

in the

reading lessons consult the general vocabulary

words.

In Africa, terra maxima, sunt multae gentes plurium linguarum, urbes autem sunt paucae. Scriptor quidam vetus

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

133

Africam insulae esse similem. Cuivis, qui Africae


hoc esse verum videbitur.^ lam re vera''

scripsit

figCiram spectabit,

nam isthmus angustissimus


nemo antiquis temporibus

Africa insula ingens,

est

De

transitur.^

Nili fontibus

fossa

quid-

quam certi ^ cognoverat ^ nunc eidem fontes cuique noti sunt,


nam a quibusdam viris audacibus sunt reperti.*^ Cotidie ali;

quid novl

"^

ex Africa audimus.

Alius aliud

scribit

quae sint

Crudelia olim bella in Africa gesta

vera iudicabit quisque.

Eheu

sunt et hodie fortes gentes de imperio dimicant.

Agri

vastantur, privata aedificia incenduntur, profunditur sanguis.


videbitur, will seem.

quam
from

certi,

anything at
'

reperio.

re vera, in fact.

aliquid novi,

something

He

certain

girl

Nobody

3.

See 313.

2.

anything

relates

have read a
at

new.

all

5.

part of

6. To-day a story was


At the same time certain (men)

7.

REVIEW

Give with

meanings the nine adjectives that have the geniand the dative in -i. 2. Give five pronouns that

their

tive singular in -ius

make

the genitive

and dative singular

in the

the neuter accusative always like

is

idem,

hie.

ipse.

iste,

What

ot

is,

6.

WHiat part of idem remains unchanged

tlie

quid-

to Caesar.

338.

case

new.

^ reperti,

learned.

live in the country.

read to us by somebody.

I.

(of)

had

has something in her right hand.

each summer we

come

transitur, is crossed.

does that which every one says.


writer.

That

4.

cognoverat,

EXERCISES

337.
I.

all (of) certain.

ille,

5.

accusative masculine singular written

nomi.ij.tive singular.

9.

What does

ipse

do

ablative.

by the

13.

Tell

what tune

infinitive in 328,

I.

12.
is

2, 9,

is

idem compounded of?

8.

in a sentence
ir.

7.

How

is

Pronounce the neuter


.''

Express

10.

Give

in Latin in

Give the rule for the descriptive

denoted

11.

What

3.

Give the meanings

4.

in declension

the oro.nals corresponding to 6, 9, 11, 17.

two ways a thousand vien.

same way.

in respect to the

main verb

FIRST YEAR LATIN

134

LESSON

LVIII

IMPERATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE

Commands and Appeals


Imperative Paradigms

339.

Pass. Imv. Pres. 2d Pers.

Act. Imv. Pres. 2d Pers.

Plur.

Sing.

Plur.

Sing.

am are,

mone, advise

monete

monere, be advised

amaminl
monemini

rege, rule

regite

regere, be ruled

regimini

cape, take

capite

capere, be taken

capimini

hear

audite

audire, be

heard

audimini

ama, love

am ate

audi,

be loved

este

es, be

the future imperatives (497-502) and form the present

Read

a.

Review

imperative of rogo, deleS, lego, recipi5, punio.

the subjunc-

tive present (281, 282).

and Imperative Paradigms

Subjunctive

340.

Affirmative

amem,
ama,

let

me

Negative

love.

ne

love.

amet,

let

amemus,

him
let

ne amet,

love.

us love.

a.

used

let

Observe
in

in

let

him not
let

them not

let

affirmative

commands and appeals

subjunctive with ne {not)


the

first

and

love.

the above paradigm (i) that the subjunctive


in

the

first

persons, the simple imperative in the second person

jn

love.

us not love.

amare, do not love.

ne ament,

love.

not love.

do not love.

ne amemus,
n51ite

them

me

let

noli amare,

amate, love.

ament,

amem,

third

is

and

is

third

(2) that the

used in negative commands and appeals

persons

(3) that ne

is

not used with the

IMPERATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE


imperative

the second person, but

in

instead

imperatives

tlie

35

noli,

nolite {be univilling) with the infinitive.


b.

Write out a paradigm

like 340, using tango, touch.

EXERCISES

341.
I.

Librum

I.

imperator.
6.

Ne

9.

Nolite delete.

regamus.

II.

7.

Ilium librum legant.

2.

Ne

friend.

milites.

audiantur.

Rogemus,

10.

Be merry,

I.

him come,
6.

lege.

Este fortes

4.

girls.

2.

Do
7.

eundem
11.

not laugh, boys.


5.

Do

librum.

Id sciatur.
3.

Bid

not destroy birds.

Rule your minds.

VOCABULARY

342.

memoria

Legite

recipiatur.

Be warned.

4.

Let not birds be destroyed.

memoria,

8.

Es bonus

3.

Noli castra movere.

5.

-ae,

f.

memory.

mors, mortis (morti-),

vinum,

tene5, reffiember.

-i,

f.

death.

wine.

n.

decipio, decipere, decepi, deceptus, deceive.

tangd, tangere, tetigi, tactus, touch.


timeo, timere, timui,

,fear.

EXERCISES

343.

I. Ne miles mortis periculum timeat.


I,
2, Nuntium ad
Eum moneamus ne domo discedat.
Caesarem mittamus.
3.
4. Nolite consilia malorum audire.
5. Scribite, puellae, cotidie
6. Scripserunt
quae facerent.
ad parentes quae facialis.
8. Quisque
7. Istos tuosvoltus, non orationes, memoria teneo.
suam domum fortiter defendat. 9. Ne te quisquam decipiat

de

istis

II.

rebus.

I.

certain

not wine, boys.

3.

told
let

us not touch

5.

same difficulty scare us.


any one you please. 6.
Africa are' brave.
1

me something

man
Men,

Do

7.

See 336, note

We

7.

will

new.^
4.

it.

2.

read that book of yours to

hear that even

the

women

you remember your task?


2

Touch

Let not the

gee 331, c

See 322.

in

FIRST YEAR LATIN

136

LESSON LIX
COMPOUNDS OF SUM: READING LESSON
Dative with Compounds
344.

a.

Learn the

b.

Possum, be

c.

Prosum,

and sum.

inflection of

Dative of Service

possum (503) and prosum (504).

compounded of potis, able, and sum, be.


compounded of prod (old form of pro, for)

able, can, is

benefit, is

In inflection the d of prod

retained before

is

e.

Compounds of sum

345.

absum, abesse,

away,

afui, afutiirus, be

be absent.

adsum, adesse, adfui, adfuturus, be present, aid.


desum, deesse, defui, defuturus, be lacking, fail.
insum, inesse,

infui,

be in, be ajnong.

intersum, interesse, interfui, interfutiirus, be avjong, be present.

obsum, obesse, obfui,

be agaiiist, hinder, injure.

possum, posse, potui,

be able, can.

praesum, praeesse, praeful,

be at the head,

command.

prosum, prodesse, prof ui, profutiirus, be of advantage to, benefit.


supersum, superesse, superfui,
be over, survive.
,

Model

346.

Sentences

1.

Verus amicus amico prodest, a true friend benefits a friend.

2.

Quis equitibus praefuit

a.

.?

ivho

commanded the horsemen

Observe that prosum and praesum are intransitive and govern

the dative, wliile the corresponding English verbs, benefit and com-

mand,
347.

are transitive.

Rule.

Many

verbs

compounded ivitJi ad,


and super

con, in, inter, oh, j^ost, 2>rae, ])rd, sub,

govern the dative.

ante,

often

COMPOUNDS
a.

Some of

these

compounds

Oi^

SUM

are transitive

137

and take both an accusa-

and a dative. Insum is often followed by in with the ablative,


and intersum by inter with the accusative; see 350, lines i and 5.

tive

Model

348.

Sentetices

were there as {for) a

defence.

Milites ibi erant praesidio. soldiers

2.

Auxilio eis mittuntur copiae. /roops are sent as (for) a help to them.
a.

Observe that the datives praesidio

in

and

auxilio in 2 are used

denote the end or purpose, that for which a thing serves ; hence
This dative may be accompanied by
called the dative of service.
to

another, as nobis, in

2,

the ordinary indirect object.

See 78 and 79.

The dative is used with sum and a few


349. Rule.
other verbs to show that for which a thing serves.
FRIENDSHIP

350.

In vera amicitia

magnum

inest praesidium.

adest amico neque deerit in difficultatibus.

Amicus verus
Amico prodesse

Amicus fidus non aberit


est, amico deesse turpe est.
Mores mali amicitiae obsunt.
ab amico in mala fortuna.
Cicero
Inter homines malos vera amicitia non interest.
Multae Ciceconsul rei publicae praefuit et amicis profuit.

dulce

ronis epistulae eiusque

puellaeque, amicis.

Infelix est

praesidio.

amicorum supersunt.

Amicis
is

Prodeste, pueri

(dat.) in periculo este auxilio et

qui amicis superfuit omnibus.

EXERCISES

351.

2. He
I. Caesar had (in Caesar ioas) a very good memory.
never lacked courage (courage was never lacking to him).
He commanded brave men, and was present at many
3.

battles.

4.

He

was a terror
last

benefited and injured his country.

(dat.) to his foes.

(proximus) wars

many

years.

6.

He

5.

He

did not survive his

FIRST YEAR LATIN

138

LESSON LX
Participles
352.

Learn the participles of the model verbs (497-501).

Participles in -ns are declined like

b.

like

a.

Participles agree with nouns

Model

353.
.

2.

3.

amans (485)

those in -us,

bonus (483).

c.

Reading Lesson

Te

urbe manentem
{you staying) in

in

vidi,

and pronouns

like adjectives.

Sentences

/ saw you while you were staying

the city.

Urbs diu oppugnata non capta

est, the city, though it was besieged


{having been besieged) for a long time, was not taken.
Caesar ea re commotus in Galliam properavit, Caesar, because he
7C'as

alarmed {having been alarmed) by

this circumstance,

hastened into Gaul.


4.

Dux

victus se recipiet, if the

general

is

defeated {the general

defeated), he will retreat.


5.

Dona missa

he received the gifts which

recepit,

had

been sent

{gifts sent).
6.

Romam misit, Caesar took a chieftain


Ro?ne {sent a taken chieftain).

Caesar prlncipem captum

and sent him


a.

ciple

Observe that
is

to

in

each of the

first

five

sentences the Latin parti-

equivalent to a clause in English.

In 6 the participle is best


rendered by a verb coordinate with the main verb.
The tenses of
the participle denote time relatively to the time of the main verb, like
the tenses of the infinitive (324-326).

VOCABULARY

354.

contra, prep, with ace. against.


historia, -ae,

f.

history.

venenum,

-i,

r\.

poison.

yicinus, -a, -um, neighboring.

PARTICIPLES

READIXC LESSOX

39

commoveo, commovere, commovi, commotus, viove, rouse.


reduco, reducere, reduxi, reductus,

inquit (defective, used after

lead back.

one or more quoted words), sauf.

put

interficio, interficere, interfeci, interfectus, kill,

to death.

munio, munire, munivi, mvLnit\xs, fortify.


vincio, vincire, vinxl, vinctus, hind.

FABRICIUS AND THE PHYSICIAN

355.

Fabricius consul factus contra Pyrrhum, regem quendam,

missus

De

Accidit ut consul ipse et Pyrrhus castra haberent

est.

Ne

vicina.

rex

nocte

faceret,

medicus

castra munivit Fabricius.

ad Fabricium

"Ego,"

venit.

dominum meuni veneno


inquit Fabricius ira commo-

mihi praemium dederis,

"si

inquit,

impetum

Pyrrhl

"Tu, pessime,"

interticiam."

"ad tuum dominum statim vinctus mitteris." Tum medicum vinctum ad Pyrrhum regem rediici iussit. Nonne ilium
pessimum hominem morte punivit Pyrrhus? Historia non
tus,

narrat

num medicus

a Pyrrho interfectus

EXERCISES

356.
I.

I.

sit.

anno disco
peiorem

fabulam

Aliquis

aliquid

homine.

illo

interfuit.

6.

novi.

quandam

Haec mihi

4.

narrabat.

2.

Quoque

Numquam quemquam

3.

Medicum Pyrrhi

in

ridens dixit.

5.

Fabric! castris

vidi

Pugnae

manentem

Verba pessima eius dicentis^ audiebamus.


II.
I.
Do not, Roman, put the doctor to death. 2. Order
him to be bound and led back to the king. 3. Let him punish him with death.
4. Let him be led back that he may be
punished.
5. Fabricius, though^ moved with anger, did this.
vidimus.

7.

"*

If" the physician

6.

is set free,

the physician was glad because


1

'

in.

353.

2-

"

miscreant.

353.

4-

'

353.

3-

he
''

will

be glad.

he was set

of him speaking

7.

They say

free.

as he spoke.

J53, 6.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

140

LESSON LXI
PARTICIPLES Cojitinued
Ablative Absolute

Model

357.

Sentences

camp having been fortified,


when the camp had been fortified,
'whe}t he had fortified the camp,

"1

the
Consul,

castris

V[ium\x&,'Roma.m.i

came to
Rome,

having fortified the camp,


after fortifying the camp,

venit,

this

2.

the constil
Y

having been done,

since this has been done,

Hoc facto

we

shall

vincemus,

if this

agreeing with

in
it

done,

that the

conquer.

by doing this,

Observe

a.

is

noun

castris

and the

participle miinitis

are in the ablative, and denote the time of the action

expressed by venit

and facto are

in 2 that hoc

denote the cause (since), or condition

(if),

or

stance of the action expressed by vincemus.

in the ablative and


some other circum-

An

ablative so used

is

called the ablative absolute.

Two

b.

nouns, or a noun and an adjective, without a participle are

sometimes used

in the

same way

leadership of Caesar, if Caesar


c.

The

Latin perfect participle

Caesare duce, vincemus, under the

is

our

is

leader,

we

shall conquer.

passive, not active.

Accordingly

such a sentence as " Caesar, having defeated the Gauls, returned to

Rome

" has to

be cast into the form " Caesar, the Gauls having been

defeated, returned to

358.

Rule.

Rome,"

Caesar, Gallis victis,

The ablative ahsohtte

the time, cause, conditioti, or

of the action of the

main

is

Romam
used

rediit.

to

express

some other circinnstance

verb.

a.^The ablative absolute should seldom be translated literally.


Various ways of translating it are shown in the model sentences.

ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE
The

way

best

in

I41

any particular case must be determined by conabsolute seems to convey with

what idea the ablative


reference to the main clause.

sidering

VOCABULARY

359.
Amulius,

m. Amulius.

-i,

auxilium, auxili,

geminus,

ripa, -ae,

f.

bank.

-um, twin-born, twin-,

super, prep, with ace. above., over.

m. robber.

Tiberis, -is (ace. -im), v^.the Tiber.

-a,

latro, -onis,

pecus, -oris, n. Jlock, cattle.

n. help., aid.

condo, condere. condidi, conditus, establish, build,


effundo, effundere. effudl, effusus,

pour

found.

spread abroad.

out,

360.
I.

Hostibus

victis.

expCignato.

4.

I.

quodam

Cicerone consule.

2.

H5c

viso.

5.

Romulus, urbe condita, rex vocatus

6.

rege Tiberis super ripas effusiis est.


a pecoribus

latrones

arcebant.

9.

8.

est.

equitibus

qui

imperatori

urbem, cives, ne ab

missi

Hi

captivi

Quis praefuit

sunt?

hostibus capiatur.

14.

II.

I.

moved.

When
2.

Mijnite

13.

Urbe munita,

he had heard these words, he was much

The physician was

Romulus, having

led back"^

freed'' his brother, killed

and put

to death.

Amulius.

4.

ing taken'' the city, the soldiers set free the prisoners.
us rouse the citizens.
girls
1

impera-

11.

12.

paucis

Tum

non iam terrebantur.

cives

3.

auxilio

sunt.

Amulio

fratres ipsi

Hoc oppidum,

"Milites," inquit, "reducite captivos."

tor,

7.

10.

Oppido

repertis.

Gemini

defendentibus, Caesar expiignare non potuit.

eidem fortissime pugnantes capti

3.

His rebus

were a help
Though,

etc.

6.

Boys, aid your friends.

Hav-

5.
7.

to their teacher.

"-Compare 353.

6,

See 357,

c.

"

Let

Those

See 348.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

14^

LESSON LXII
PARTICIPLES

Continued

The Gerundive
361.

The gerundive

with the noun

it

Model

362.
1.

adjective and agrees

a verbal

is

modifies.
Sentences

EI homini aurum servandum dedit, he gave the gold to that

man

to

keep {the gold to be kept).


2.

Caesar erat cupidus urbis delendae, Caesar

ing the city {of the city


3.

Ad pacem petendam

venerant, they

came

purpose of seeking peace {for peace


a.

Observe

was

desirous of destroy-

to be destroyed).

seek peace,

to

for the

sought).

to be

each of the above sentences that the gerundive

in

Notice also the way

agrees with a noun.

in

which the noun and

gerundive are translated.


b.

Observe that

in

servandum and

in 3

ad pacem petendam express

purpose, and are equivalent to ut servaret and ut pacem peterent (288,

coniunx, coniugis,
-a,

-i,

f.

wife.

-um, desirous, fond.

pastor, -oris,

signum,

).

VOCABULARY

363.

cupidus,

m. shepherd.

n. sign, signal.

summus,

-a,

-um, highest, greatest

(489).
vis, vis,

f.

force, strength, power,

might (482).

augeS, augere, auxi, auctus, increase, enlarge.


convenio, convenire, conveni, conventus, cotne together, assemble.
educo, educare, educavi, educatus, bring up, train.
induo, induere, indui, indutus,

put

paro, parare, paravi, paratus,

make

on.

ready, prepare.

peto, petere, petivi (petii), petitus, seek,

ask for, ask.

saluto, salutare, saliitavi, salutatus, greet, salute.

THE GERUNDIVE
EXERCISES

364.

Pontis

I.

I.

143

faciendi.

scribendas.

epistulas

4.

2.

Epistulis scribendis.

Epistula

scribenda.

6. In petenda pace.
Pastor geminos coniugi educandos dedit.

3.

Ad

Viribus

5.

augendis.
7.

pace facienda venerunt.

convenerunt

Multi

10.

9.

studio

videndae

reges bellorum gerendorum sunt cupidi.

12.

gerendum paratissima- erat. 13. Ad galeas


'
te salutamus.
15.
defuit. 14. Nos morituri
impetum in hostis summa vi fecerunt.
2. For (ad)
I. Of seeing the town.
II.
4. By
of battle.
3. By founding a city.
In (in) laying waste the

5.

6.

keeping
9.

We
1

^
^

killed* Amulius, the brothers

off

**

11.

curat.'

Multi

Legio ad bellum

induendas tenipus
Signodato milites

drawing up a line
carrying on war.

(ad) training the boys.

founded a

city.

8.

By

to help (iuvo)^ the shepherds.

has a bridge built {takes care a bridge to be built).


See
6566348.
to die.
357, f.

about

I.

urbis.

the robbers they are a help* to the shepherds.

are ready

Compare

Legati de

fields.

Everything was made ready for

Having

7.

8.

Caesar pontem faciendum

12.

Roman Sandals

2 2>ery

well prepared.

ready

prepared.

J^/RST

144

YEAR LATIN

LESSON

LXIII

THE GERUND
365.

The gerund

dative, accusative,

366.

Dux

Model
erat

cupidus

urbem

destroying the

was

desirous of

came for fighting, for

the ptirpose

3.

of fighting, to fight.
Mens discendS alitur, the mind
Observe

venerunt, they

c.

Observe

is

strengthened by leanmig.

each sentence that the gerund

in

noun, and that in


b.

the general

city.

Ad pugnandum

pare

the genitive,

Sentences

delendi,

2.

a.

in

singular.

Learn the gerunds of the model verbs (497-501).

367.
1.

noun used

a verbal

is

and ablative

it

is

used

like

any other

has an object (urbem) like a verb.

in 2 that the

gerund with ad denotes purpose, and com-

with ad pacem petendam (362, 3).


Compare urbem delendi (i) with urbis delendae (362, 2), and

it

note that the two phrases have the same meaning.

VOCABULARY

368.
amor,

-oris,

m. love.

ars, artis (arti-),

causa, -ae,

f.

-i,

m.

god

industria, -ae,

nomen,

art.

cause, reason

for the sake


deus,

f.

abl.

(after a genitive).

industry.

name.

propius, adv. nearer.

spatium, spati,

n.

room, space,

time, opportunity.

(482).

idoneus, -a, -um,_/f/, suitable.

f.

-inis, n.

iitilis, -e,

accedo, accedere, accessi, accessiirus,


conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus,

useful.

come near, approacJi.

throw, hurl.

contemno, contemnere, contempsi, contemptus, despise.


navig5, navigare, navigavi, navigatus, sail, cruise.
oro, orare, oravi, oratus,

speak, beg, plead.

THE GERUND

Ars Vivendi.

I.

agendo.

4.

navigandi.

2.

7.

Milites

13.

pugnandi.

Ars pueros educandi

causa.

Amor

pugnandum.
Causa mittendi.

Inter

Orator fineni orandi

9.

II.

erant

non sunt
nulla re

idonei.

quam

17.

saliitem

de conteninenda morte

Libri sunt utiles legendo.

cupidi

Adsumus

12.

difificilis.

oppidum

erant.

hostis coniciendi'-

Difficultas

6.

Mittendi causa.

8.

10.

fecit.

est

Industria in

3.

Uicendo.

5.

Naves ad navigandum paratae


non datum est.

14.

45

EXERCISES

369.
I.

16.

discendi

expugnandi.

Spatium

15.

lUi libri ad

pila in

legendum

Homines ad deos propius accedunt


hominibus dando.
scripsit.

19.

Cicero librum

18.

Nox finem oppOgnandi

fecit.
II.

ing.

I.

4.

killing.

By fortifying. 2. While writing.^ 3. In (in) sayFor the sake of assembling. 5. For the purpose of
6. For the sake of seeking peace.'*
7. The difficulty

of approaching.

The same physician was desirous of


Time was not given for (of) pleading.

8.
9.

teaches us (ace.) the art of living well.-

killing''
10.

11.

the king.

The master

Brothers, let us

rouse the citizens and set free the prisoners.

12.

Having

roused the citizens,^ we shall set free the prisoners.


1

during, while.

two ways.

^ for hurling.
See 357, ^.

Compare

#>:

A Roman Coin

I. 4.

Express

in

FIRST YEAR LATIN

146

LESSON LXIV
THE SUPINE: ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION
Reading Lesson

The

370.
tive

supine

is

a verbal

and ablative singular, and

Review

noun used only in the accusais wanting in most verbs.

Learn the supines of the model verbs (497-501).

371.

These

are given in the paradigms merely to illustrate the forms.

Model

372.
1.

Legati

Romam

Sentences

veniunt pacem petitum, ambassadors come to

Rome

to seek peace.

thai

easy to do, to be done

2.

Id facile est

3.

Gallos virtute superant, they surpass the

factii,

is

Gauls

{^in

the doing).

in courage.

a. Observe in i that the supine petitum expresses purpose, like ut


pacem petant and ad pacem petendam.
b. Observe in 2 and 3 that the ablatives factu and virtute answer
Such ablatives are called ablatives
the question z what respect?

of specification.

373. Rule.
The supine in -um is used after verbs
of motion to express purpose.
374. Rule.
The ablative is used to denote in tvhat

respect

a thing

is true.

EXERCISES

375.

ad Caesarem miserunt rogatum auxilium.


3. Veni te laudatum.
Eos tu ad me salutatum miseras. 5. Quid optimum est factu
Quidam sunt homines non re sed nomine. 7. Hannibal

1.

2.

4.
6.

I.

Galli legates

Dixerunt se auxilium petitum venisse.

.''

patri virtute similis erat.


9.

8.

Num

Oppid5 expugnato, Caesar copias

puer virum

vi

superat

in castra reduxit.

.'^

'

ABLATH'E OF SPECIFICATION
II.

The poor

I.

Are you

2.

like

say than to do.


girls

soldiers

are tired

in

your brother in daring?

3.

6.

design of killing Cicero the consul

Who

47

mind and body.


That is easier to

Deputies came to ask for

4.

are fond of reading books.

aid.

Many

5.

formed

(capio)

ROMAN CONSULS

376.

Romani, regibus expulsis/ duos consules quotannis habeConsulatus erat apud Romanos magistratus amplissiDictator magni periculi temporibus munera omnium
mus.
magistratuum praestabat. Consules togam praetextam gerebant.

Nisi in urbe

bant,^ et in sella curuli sedebant.

Roma

vitae

manibus consulum erat.


Duodecim
lictores ibant {went) ante consulem cum fascibus, insignibus
illis huius imperi, atque poenae instrumentis.^
Munus erat
consulum senatui * praesidere et rem ^ publicam administrare.
Consulibus quoque erat munus exercituum diicendorum in
hostis populi Romani.
necisque

From

potestas

expello.

in

wore.

rem publicam, the public

active

An

appositive with fascibus.

What two moods


form

3.

not send.

4.

out in 360,

I,

are used in

the

sible translations of rege interfecto.

absolute.
9.

8.

In 364,

Express

in

I. 7,

gerund with ad

some new examples

what idea

7.
is

Give the rule for the ablative

implied in the gerundive educan-

Latin of taking the town,

dive, then the gerund.

or

See 347.

commands and appeals.? 2. What


same as the passive imperative present, second
Translate into Latin do not send., let us send, let them
Give the rule for the dative with compounds. 5. Point
an instance of the dadve of service. 6. Give five pos-

is

singular.''

dos?

REVIEW

377.
I

business.

11.

first

using the gerun-

What idea is expressed by the gerundive


What is a verbal noun? 12. Give in English

10.

of a verbal

noun with an

object.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

148

LESSON LXV
REVIEW OF VERB-FORMS
Reading Lesson
Note.

For some classes

378.

Review

it

may

be well to divide this lesson into two.

complete inflection of amo (497) and moneo

the

(498).

VOCABULARY (REVIEW)

379.

do, dare, dedi, datus, gij'e.

imple5, implere, implevi, impletus, y?//, cover.


iubeo, iubere, iussi, iiissus, bid, order,
iuvo, iuvare,

iiivi,

co7nmand.

iQtus, lielp, aid.

maneo, raanere, mansi, mansus, stay, remain.


monstro, monstrare, monstravi, monstratus, sliow, point

ottt.

muto, miitare, mQtavi, mutatus, change.


oro, orare, oravi, oratus,

speak, beg, plead.

teneo, tenere, tenui,

hold, keep.

video, videre. vidi, visus, see; pass., be seen, seem.

EXERCISES

380.
I.

Dant,

I-

mutamus,
implete.
orabat,

iuvant,

iubemus,
4.

liivisti,

implebat,

9.

8.

lata

est,

3.

miitavisti,

iubebat.

iusserunt, tenuerunt.
bitur.

implent,

videmus.

7.

manent.
Orate,

2.

Monstramus,

monstrate,

mansisti, tenuisti.

Monstraverunt,

6.

5.

tenete,

Dabat,

mutaverunt,

Mutabitur, iuvabitur, videbitur, tene-

monstrata

est,

Orari, mutarl, tenerl, implerl.

impletum
10.

est,

visum

est.

Monstraturus, oratura,

11. MCitandi, monstrandum, iubendo,


Datum, oratum, visii. 13. Dedisse, oravisse,
implevisse, vidisse.
14. Ut iuvarera, ne mutaret, ut teneren-

impleturus, mansura.

videndum.
tur,

12.

ne iuberetur.

RE 17E IV OF VERB-FORMS
II.

I.

we

aid,

He

gives, she aids,

shall give,

to have

aided,

you

it

149

remains, he sees.

will order,

2.

they will hold.

changed, to have

filled,

me

to

3.

shall

To have

have remained.

let him show,


them fill. 6. I was (being) aided, you were
(being) changed, he was (being) commanded, they were (being)

4.

let

Give, show, stay, keep.

us stay,

held.

7.

Let

help,

let

To have been shown,

bidden, to seem.
while

5.

8.

filling:.

to be changed, to

Of showing, by praying,

have been

for

keeping,

ROMULUS AND REMUS

381.

Romulus et Remus erant gemini fratres, filii Martis del et


Rheae Silviae, Vestae sacerdotis. Hac re cognita, Amulius,
Parvulos
rex Albanurum, matrem ipsam in vincula coniecit.
alveo imposuit et abiecit in Tiberim, qui tunc forte super ripas
erat

eflfusus

sicco

sed flumine relabente

(siibsidi?tg),

eos aqua in

Lupa ad vagitum occurrit, infantis lingua


matremque se gessit. Hanc rem Faustulus, pastor

reliquit.

lambit,

regius, animadvertit,

et

eos

portavit

in

casam, et coniugi

dedit educandos.

The Twins discovered by Faustulus

FIRST YEAR LATIN

150

LESSON LXVI
REVIEW OF VERB-FORMS (::^//<?fl'
Reading Lesson
Note.

For some classes

382.

Review the complete

may be

it

well to divide this lesson into two.

inflection of rego (499), capio (500),

and audio (501).

VOCABULARY (REVIEW)

383.

emo, emere, emi, emptus,


iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus,

b2ty.

throw, hurl,

cast.

munio, munire, mOnivi, miinitus, /(?r///y.


pono, ponere, posui, positus, ptit, place, set.
recipio, recipere, recepi, receptus,
scio, scire, scivi, scitus,

take back, receive.

know.

tango, tangere, tetigi, tactus, touch.


teg5, tegere, texl, tectus, cover, co?iceal.

venio, venire, veni, ventiirus, couie.


vinco, vincere, vici, victus, conquer, defeat.

EXERCISES

384.
I.

Emit, munit, tangit, vincit.

I.

tetigerunt,

vincebatis.

venerunt.
4.

2.

Ponebatis,

lecerunt, posuerunt,

recipiebatis,

6.

Emisse, iactum esse, posuisse, miinitum esse.

recepta

est, tecti estis.

entes.

11.

Ement,

10.

9.

Emptum

lace,

Ponimur,

iacta sunt,

MCmiens, ponens, scientes, veni-

iacientur,

tegendo, emendo, vincendo.

8.

est,

recipient,

vincentur.

muniant, ut recipiantur, ne ponant. ne tegantur.

esse.

5.

Posuerant, texerant, vicerant, miiniverant.

tangimur, tegimini, vincuntur.

venturam

tegebatis,

Emerit, muniverit, sciverit, tetigerit.

recipe, tege, veni.


7.

3.

14.

Empturus

13.

12.

Ut

Ponendi,

esse, recipi, tangi,

REVIEW OF VERB-FORMS
II.

I.

buying;.

received.

They
2.

are throwing, they touch, they come, they are

He was

covering, he knew, he was

come, you

shall

3.

151

placing, he

conquer, he will put,

will

we

That he may know, let us throw, that you


may not touch, let them not place. 5. It has been covered,
she has been received, we have been defeated, they have been
shall fortify.

touched.

6.

4.

To have

fortified, to

hurled, to have been touched.

Of throwing,

8.

will

be bought,

will

be touched.

385.

'

have been bought, to have


Come, throw, buy, conquer.

for receiving, to place,


I

be received, they

shall

ROMULUS AND

Pueri adultl

7.

(ja/ien

U^yiX}^

grown up)

by covering.
will

9.

It

be covered, he

Continued

inter pastores

primo

ludicris

certaminibus viris^ auxerunt,'' deinde venando saltus peragrare


latrones a rapina

et

latronibus captus est


lus necessitate

pecorum arcere coeperunt.* Remus a


Romulus vi se defendit. Tunc Faustu-

compulsus^ indicavit Romulo quis

esset.

Hie

Albam properavit. Fratrem liberaPostea Romulus et Remus urbem in


educatique erant condiderunt. Hanc

statim, pastoribus armatis,"


vit,

Amiilium

interfecit.

iisdem locis ubi expositi

urbem Romulus

**

Romam

vocavit.

From adolesco. 2 ,^(-c. plur. from vis.


' See 358.
From compello. ^ See 295.
1

Roman Coins

^
*

From
From

augeo.
expono.

From

coepi.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

152

LESSON LXVII
DEPONENT VERBS
Ablative with Certain Deponents

Deponent verbs have passive forms with

386.

They occur

meanings.
tions,

active

each of the regular conjuga-

and are distinguished by the ending of the

present, as follows

a.

in

infinitive

First conj.

-ari

Third conj.

-i

Second

-eri

Fourth conj.

-iri

conj.

Learn the principal

parts, the meanings,

and the synopses of

the deponents in 509.


b.

c.

Observe that the following are active forms


Inf. future

hortatiirus esse

Act. supine

hortatum

hortandi,

hortando, etc.

Observe that there are participles of both voices

Pres.

hortans, urging.

Fut.

hortatiirus,

d.

Gerund

to urge.

the gerundive

is

having urged.

Auro utuntur, they use gold.

2.

Luce

sponding words

Rule.

in

soils frulmur,

active in

liice

we

enjoy the light of the sun.

are in the ablative, while the corre-

English are direct objects of their verbs.

The

potior, vescor,

is

Sentences

a. Observe that auro and

to be urged.

passive.

Model

387.

388.

\ioridus,

Gerundive hortandus,

that the perfect participle of deponents

Observe

meaning

Perf.

about

and

five deponents utor, fruor, fiingor,

their

compounds govern the

ablative.

'

DEPONENT VERBS

53

VOCABULARY

389.
llbertas, -atis,

nemo, dat.

liberty, freedom.

f.

-ini (nuliius for gen.,

for abl.), m.

nuUo

no one, nobody.

f.

m. writer.

sol, solis,

now.

nunc, adv.

ivisdom.

sapientia, -ae,
scriptor, -oris,

m.

sufi.

usus, -us, m. use,

advantage.

cre5, creare, creavi, creatus, create, choose, elect.

drive out, expel.

expello, expellere, expuli, expulsus,


fruor, frui, fructus

sum, enjoy.

imitor, imitarl, imitatus

sum, set out, tnarch.

reficio, reficere, refeci, refectus,

7nake over, repair.

utor, uti,

usus sum.

Ad

5.

VereminI deos.

employ.

of,

neminem

sciunt,

11.

vererl, usus esse.

quidam vetus

scripsit

**
:

Nunc

neminem."
Ipse cum omnibus

verentur, imitantur

die exercitus proficlscebatur.

sequebatur.

Veritus, potiendi, se-

Caesar hortatus est milites ut duces

Scriptor

8.

omnia

Potit! sunt, iitiminl,

2.

4.

utendum, hortatum,

7.

sequerentur.

eos

nse

Hortans, verentes, secutiirus.

3.

quendo, verendo.
6.

make

Hortatur, verebantur, sequetur.

I.

I.

tise,

EXERCISES

390.

uteris.

sum, imitate, copy.

proficlscor, proficlscl, profectus

10.

Tempore

litamur

cum

13.
14.

II.

T.

They

urge, he fears, they will follow.

you reverence, he has used.

Illo

copiis

sapientia.

Regibus- Roma^ expulsis, duo


consules creati
Omnia deerant quae ad reficiendas navis erant
Semper bona exempla imitari possumus.

12.

puerl

9.

2.

sunt.
usui.^

We

use,

Having got possession

3.

of,

imitating, for (ad) setting out.


4.

Caesar ordered the same two legions to set

us always imitate the good.

6.

Do

have enjoyed the love of our mother.


fight, let
1

out.

5.

not follow bad men.


8.

See 35S.

See 197,

3.

We

(Being) about to

us put on our helmets.

See 340.

Let
7.

See 349.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

154

LESSON LXVIII
THE IRREGULAR VERBS

V0L5, NOLO,

MALO

Dative with Intransitive Verbs


Learn the principal parts and the conjugation of
malo (505). Note the irregularities in the present of the
391.

indicative,

and subjunctive.

1.

Hic liber mihi placet, this book pleases me.

2.

Amico persuadet ut hoc

lish

infinitive,

For the imperfect subjunctive, see 287,

a.

Model Sentences

392.

a.

volo, nolo,

he persuades his friend

faciat,

Observe that mihi and amico are

do

to

this.

Eng-

in the dative, while the

equivalents are the direct objects of transitive verbs.

Most

Rule.

393.

mand,

and

meaning to believe, favor,


their opposites, also to com-

verbs

and

help, please, trust,

obey, pardon, persuade, resist, serve,

and

spare,

the like, govern the dative.

VOCABULARY

394.
enim,i conj./^^r.
mulier,

-eris,

f.

neque

woman.

occasus,

arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus

experior, experiri, expertus

neque, neither

-lis,

m. setting.

sum, think, suppose.

sum,

try, test.

faveo, favere, favi, fauturus,/7/^r.

malo, malle, malui,

be

more willing, prefer.


harm, injure.

noceo, nocere, nocui, nociturus,


nolo, n511e, nolui,

be unwilling, will not.

parco, parcere, peperci, parsus, spare.

persuades, persuadere, persuasi, persuasus, persuade.


placeo. placere, placul, placitus, please, be
volo, velle, volui,
'

Never

the

first

pleasing

be willing, wish, will.

word

in

a sentence.

to.

nor.

THE IRREGULAR VERBS \OLU, NuLO, MALO


EXERCISES

395.

Voltis, nolumus, mavis.

I.

r.

malit.

3.

quam

bonus.

9.

mur eum

6.

Nonne

tibi nocere.

matri tuae esse auxilio

vis

potientur.

13.

12.

7.

Tibi pro-

Malebat esse quam videri

8.

voluisse equitatui praeesse.

que, avibus nocere.

velimus, ut nolit, ut

Vobis persuadendi causa.

4.

Nolunt

nocere malumus.

Ut

2.

Noli, nolle, maluisse.

Volt mihi favere.

5.

desse

155

1 1.

10.

Solis occasu milites castris

Sua^ cuique placent.

Arbitra-

Nolite, pueri puellae-

14.

hostium

Dicere non possu-

mus cur puer esse scriptor velit. 15. Captivi, cognito Caesaris
eum rogabant ut sibi parceret.
II.
I. They were wishing, I shall be unwilling, she will
prefer.
2. That you may be willing, that he might prefer, lest

adventij,

he should be unwilling.

For the

3.

sake'' of

pleasing your

friends.
4.

The

neither
imitate

soldiers,

having got possession of the

women nor
good men

children.
6.

to ask (supine) that

(rather) than.

his

spared

Let us send a messenger to the leader

the

(things).

=*

{sing.) to try
-

city,

are you unwilling to

he spare the soldiers.

suaded (them) both


1

Why

5.

own

7.

He had

same fortune
See 368.

per-

of war.

See 284.

156

FIJ^ST

YEAR LA my

LESSON LXIX
CUM TEMPORAL, CAUSAL, AND CONCESSIVE
Reading Lesson
396.

Model

Libros,

2.

Caesar,

3.

Cum

this

4.

Sentences

cum mihi est otium, lego, / read books when I have leisure.
cum id nuntiatum asset, in Galliam contendit, Caesar, when

had

been reported, hastened into Gaiil.

non possent, legates ad Caesarem miserunt, since


they could not defend themselves, they sent deputies to Caesar.
Cum fortiter pugnarent, tamen non vicerunt, although they fought
se defendere

bravely, nevertheless they did not conquer.


a.

Cum meaning when

(i

and 2)

is

called

cum temporal; meaning

as or since (3), cum causal ; meaning although


(4), cum concessive.
b. Observe the moods and tenses that follow the
various meanings of cum.
397.

In a cmn-clause expressing time,


commonly in the subjunctive if the tense is

Rule.

verb is

the
tJie

imperfect or pluperfect; otherivise, in the indicative.


398.

Rule.

In

a cuin-clause expressing cause

or

concession, the verb is in the subjunctive.

VOCABULARY

399.

cum, conj. when, since, as, although.


Eabius,

-i,

multitude,

tacitus, -a,

m. Fabius.
-inis,

f.

multitude.

adpropinquo,

-are, -avi, -atus,

-um,

sileitt.

tamen, adv. yet, nevertheless.


tantus, -a, -um, so great, such.

approach, come tiear

c5nsist6, consistere, constiti,

to.

standfirm, take position.

descends, descendere, descend!, descensus, descend, dismount.


desilio, desilire, desilui, desultus,

jwnp down,

leap down.

praesto, praestare, praestiti, praestitus, surpass, excel.

CUM TEMPORAL, CAUSAL, CONCESSIVE

cum

oppidum ceperunt, omnis incolas


Milites, cum ^ oppidum cepissent, omnis

Milites,

cerunt.

2.

interfecerunt.

3.

in

cum-

virtute

interfe-

Cum

"

incolas

tanta multitude lapides et tela coni-

consistendi

miiro

ceret,

potestas

erat

nulli.

Belgae,

4.

omnibus praestarent, totius Galliae


potiri poterant.
5. Cum veneris, hoc cognosces.
naves refectae essent, tamen Caesar non navigavit.

imperio

Cum

6.

QUINTUS' FABIUB MAXIMUS

401.

Q. Fabius iam senex


in

5/

EXERCISES

400.
I.

suo, consuli, legatus fuit, et

filio

eius castra veniret, filius

ad patrem progressus

est,

cum
duo-

decim lictoribus* antecedentibus.


Equo vehebatur^ senex,
Iam ex lictoribus
nee adpropinquante consule * descendit.

undecim verecundia'^ paternae maiestatis

Quod ^ cum

taciti

praeterierant.**

'

consul animadvertisset, proximum lictorem iussit

Pater tum

inclamare Fabio patri ut ex equo descenderet.

"Non

ego,

fili,"

sed experiri volui

num

scires

senectutem

Fabius Maximus, dignus tanto cognomin?.

desiliens:

vixit

^'^

te esse

Ad summam

consulem."

EXERCISES

402.
I.

"tuum imperium contempsi,

inquit,

When Fabius was

he came to his son's camp.

old,

the consul approached, Fabius wished to test him.

consul approaches, a lieutenant dismounts.


consul, the father dismounted.

nevertheless he leaped

dismounted, the multitude was


his father to dismount,
1

Temporal.

on {was carried
'

b}^.

Causal.
^

See 165.

Object of animadvertisset.

his horse.

silent.

we know

When

6.

former" was

Abl. abs.

in silence (silent).

1^866295.

11

old,

he had

Since the son ordered

7.

that the

Concessive.
'^

As the son was

Although Fabius was

5.

down from

4.

When
When a

2.

3.

See 201,

^
^.

consul.

^ was riding
had passed by.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

158

LESSON LXX
Conditional Sentences

403.

condition

conditional sentence

also called protasis

The

called apodosis.

two

of

parts,

conclusion

condition {protasis)

also

generally an

is

and hence dependent the conclusion [apodosis)


the principal clause, upon which the condition depends.

{/"-clause,
is

consists

and a
;

Model

404.

Sentences

Simple Conditions
bene

if he does this,

Si hoc

2.

Si hoc faciebat, bene erat, if he

3.

Si hoc

4.

Si h5c facial, bene

facit,

faciei,

est,

bene

erit,

it is well.

was doing

this, it luas well.

if he does {shall do) this,

it

will be well.

Doubtful Conditions
time

is

sit,

if he should do this,

it

would

be well (the

future).

Conditions Contrary to Fact


5.

Si h5c faceret, bene esset, if he were doing this,


(the time

6.

is

Si hoc fecisset, bene fuisset, if he


been well (the time
a.

dition

would

it

be well

present).

is

had done

this,

it

wotild have

past).

in i, 2, and 3 that the indicative is used in both conand conclusion, implying nothing as to the truth of the sup-

Observe

position.

Such sentences may be

called simple conditions.

4 that the present subjunctive is used in both clauses,


and that doubt or possibility is implied. This doubt is generally
Such
would.
expressed in English by the auxiliaries should
b.

Observe

in

sentences

may be

called doubtful conditions.

c. Observe in 5 and 6 that the subjunctive is used in both clauses,


and that the contrary of both condition and conclusion is implied if
:


CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
he were doing this (but he
is

is

not),

it

Such sentences may be

not), etc.

would

159

be well (therefore

it

called conditions contrary to

fact.
d.

Observe further

in 5 that the

both clauses, and that present time

imperfect subjunctive
is

referred to

in

used

is

in

6 the pluperfect

subjunctive, with reference to past time.

405.

Rule.

In

simple conditions the indicative

Rule.

In

doubtful conditions the subjunctive

used.
406.

is

present (or perfect) is used.


In conditions contrary to fact the sub407. Rule.
junctive imperfect and pluperfect are used, the imperfect denoting present time,

and

the pluperfect denoting

past time.

VOCABULARY

408.
coena. -ae,

f.

nisi, conj.

dinner.

if not, unless.

senatus, -us, m. senate.

m. dictator.

dictator, -oris,

praesideo, praesidere, praesedi,

be in

charge

of,

preside over.

respondeo, respondere, respond!, responsus, answer, reply.

EXERCISES

409.
I.
2.

Si res publica in periculo erat, dictator creatus est.

I.

Si res publica in periculd sit, dictator creetur.

3.

Nisi res

publica in periculo nunc esset, dictator non crearetur.


consul esses, senatui praesideres.
placet.
II.
is first,

6.

Obsidibus

datis,

5.

Veni ad coenam,

pacem cum

4.

Si

si tibi

eis faciam.

you should ask me, I should answer. 2. If Scipio


who is second ? 3. If Hannibal had conquered Scipio,
I.

If

4.
he would have been the greatest of generals.
should approach, the lieutenant would dismount.

If

the consul

If Fabius
had not dismounted, would his son have ordered him to
dismount ?
5.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

l6o

LESSON LXXI
Review

Reading Lesson

REVIEW

410.

What

I.

is

a deponent verb?

with their meanings.


potitus.

How

5.

3.

Give the meanings

4.

Give the participles of sequor

2.

Give the meanings of


of

monitus,

not deponent?

is

Inflect

6.

present of volo, nolo, and malo.


indicative
sitives.

and subjunctive.

8.

tenses of the subjunctive

Translate cum

15.

What

sit in

English were

were?

time

is

in if

17.

pose clauses

indicative

in the

intran-

10.

With

What

Translate cum esset in three ways.

14.

13.

How many

forms of con-

each by a model sen-

Illustrate

16.

he were here,
is

to stay.

time

in

expressed by the

is

we shotild be glad ? What

is

the tense

used to translate that into Latin in pur-

18.

What words

What

What word

in result clauses

20.

Translate

translates that Jiot'in-^nx19.

Translate he conies

/ advise him not

Point out an indirect question in 401.

21.

and subjunctive

expressed by the imperfect subjunctive

What word

he came

for

the corresponding Latin

if

Give the rule for the dative with

7.

two ways.

pose and result clauses?


to stay J

the

and

auditus.

Give a synopsis of each

11.

conditions contrary to fact?

of

tenses of the indicative are used

are there?

ditional sentences

tence.

and

Point out an instance of this dative in 409.

9.

cum meaning when, what


12.

rectus,

can you translate the EngHsli perfect active participle

example, having conquered the enemy

verb

veritus, prof actus,

22. Translate

to write.

/ asked

him who he was.

RIVALRY OF TWO CENTURIONS

411.

Erant

in

quadam

primis ordinibus

Hi perpetuas

legione fortissimi

viri,

centuriones, qui iam

adpropinquabant, T. Pullo

inter se

controversias

et

L. Vorenus.

habebant uter

alter!

anteponeretur, omnibusque annis^ de loco summis simultatibus


^

each

the first rank,


other.

i.e.

the position of chief centurion.

omnibus annis, year after year.

inter se, with

REMFAV: RE A 1)1 XG LESSON

l6l

pugnaretur,'-

Ex his Pullo, cum acerrime ad munitiones


"Quid dubitas," inquit, "Vorene? aut quern

locum tuae

probandae

contendebant.

'

virtutis

munitiones

extra

sima visa

exspectas

Haec cum

nostris controversiis iudicabit."

Hie

eam partem hostium quae

et in

dies

de

dixisset,^ procedit

confertis-

est inrumpit.

EXERCISES

412.

For many years ^ Pullo and Vorenus contended for position.


2. Each of them wished to be preferred to the other.
to prove his cour3. Pullo asked Vorenus why he hesitated
I.

''

When

had advanced beyond the fortifications,


he rushed at the enemy.^ 5. There he had ^ a chance of proving his courage.
6. If Vorenus should hesitate, he would not
be preferred to Pullo.
which
7. I prefer Pullo to Vorenus
(of the two) do you prefer to the other ?
age.

4.

Pullo

VOCABULARY

413.

extra, prep, with ace. outside of,

munitio, -onis, {.fortification.

beyond.
locus,

-i,

Pullo, -onis,

m.

(plur. loci

and

Vorenus,-!,

loca),

m.

P21II0, a centurion,

m.Vofemts, a centurion.

place, position, chance.

antepono, anteponere, anteposui, antepositus, place before, prefer.


dubito, dubitare, dubitavi, dubitatus, hesitate, doubt.

inrumpo, inrumpere,

inriipT.

inruptus, break in, rush at.

probo. probare. probavi, probatus, prove, appro-ve.


procedo, procedere, processi,
1

(it
^

See 240, note

5.

acerrime

go forward, advance, proceed.

haec

278.

cum
^

dixisset

uterque.

may
''

>*

in hostis.

acriter.

be translated having said

See 295.

was fiercest
Compare 362, 2.

pugnaretur, the fighting

was fought most fiercely); acerrime from

this.

a place was

See 277 and


him.

to

FIRST YEAR LATIN

l62

LESSON LXXII
THE IRREGULAR VERBS

EO, FERO, FIO

Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing


Note.

For some classes

414.

a.

Learn the principal

tion of eo (507), fero (506),

Observe where

b.

The

gerund.

ierit

in

perfect, pluperfect,

meanings, and the conjuga-

changed

is

and future perfect of


:

ivit, iit

in

Model

many
iverit,

The

is

long except before

Sentences
is

not coming or will not come.

is

coming or will come.

Observe that a verb of fearing

is

followed by ut or ne with the

Vereor ne veniat,

After such verbs ut and ne seem to exchange mean-

subjunctive.
:

as in

Ifear that he
I fear that he

Vereor ut veniat,

a.

eo,

iverat, ierat

fit.

415.

2.

ivisse, iisse (isse).

and

to e in the indica-

the present participle, and in the

often drop v

-ivi,

well be divided into two.

(508).

Flo serves as the passive of facio.

c.

ings

fio

(the root of eo)

verbs with perfects in

may

parts, the

and

and subjunctive present,

tive

-er

this lesson

ut

that not ; ne

that (or lesf).

Observe that the subjunctive present may be translated by the

b.

indicative future.

EXERCISES

416.
I.

I.

4.

I,

esse.

It, fert, fit.

eunti, eundi.
7.

13.

5.

Imus, ferimus, fimus.

Ire, ferre, fieri.

Ibunt, ferent, fient.

batur ut irent.
ilia

2.

fierent.

10.
12.

His rebus

erant ut irent

ferrent.

fiant.

haec facta essent,

milites

3. Ite, ferte, fite.

Iisse, tulisse, factus

Veretur ne eant.

Verentur ne haec

Cum

factis,

8.

6.

processerunt.

11.

9.

Romam
14.

Vere-

Timuit ut
ierunt.

Eos hortati


THK IRREGULAR VERBS
II.

You

I.

go, bear,

not go

are going, are bearing, are becoming.

become.

you fear that


6.

EO, FER(X Flf)

He had

3.

happen

this will

2.

gone, borne, become.


5.

.''

Who

63

They
4.

Do

fears that they will

Did they fear that he would go

7.

was afraid

that thev would not go.

417.

RIVALRY OF TWO CENTURIONS

Ne- Vorenus quidem


veritus

sese turn vallo

existimationem

Pullo pilum

procurrentem

in

sequitur.

traicit

protegunt hostes

in

Mediocri

immittit atque

unum

quem pcrcussum *
Pullonem omnes

tela

hostls

Continued

omnium

continet,* sed

'

et

spatio

relicto,

ex multitudine

exanimatum

scutis

coniciunt neque

Transfigitur scutum Pulloni^


Hie casus avertit vaginam et^
gladium educere oonantis ^ dextram moratur manum impeditumque ^^ hostes circumsistunt. Succurrit iili inimicus Vorenus
et laboranti " subvenit.

dant progrediendi

facultitem.

hasta in balteo defigitur.

et

'

See 297.

ne

(\\x\A^ra.,

not even.

'^

within the rampart.

Observe the repeated use of the present in lively narration, as


^ From percutio.
in English.
See 365.
Translate as
*

"^

'

et,

etc.:

translate in this order

educere gladium.
(i.e.

^when he

Pullonem) understood.

et moratur

dextram

tried (of him trying).


11

him in

distress

i"

is

common

if

genitive.

manum

conaatis

Agrees with eum

{him laboring).

FIRST YEAR LATIN

164

LESSON LXXIII
IMPERSONAL USE OF VERBS
Relative of Purpose

Model

418.

Sentences

was fighting

1.

Pugnabatur, there

2.

Accidit ut luaa plena esset, //

3.

Ire tibi licet, j7

a.

was fought).

(Jt

happened that the moon was full.


may go {to go is pertnitted to you).

Observe that the verbs pugnabatur,

personal subjects.

In

there

pugno being used exceptionally


clause ut
b.

Reading Lesson

Verbs

in the third

esset

in 3 the

like licet, that

is

accidit, and licet have no


no subject, the intransitive verb

in the passive

subject

is

person singular, and are called impersonal verbs.

when employed

person singular, as pugnabatur and accidit are


7i.sed

in

and

Verbs

in the third
2,

are said to

itnpersonally.

419.
I.

ire.

never have a personal subject, are used only

that generally have a personal subject,

be

in 2 the subject is the

the infinitive

Model

Sentence

Legates qui auxilium peterent misit, he sent ambassadors to seek


help {who should seek help).
a.

Observe that the

lent to ut

ii

relative clause qui auxilium peterent

auxilium peterent, that

420. Rule.
Purpose
with the suhjimctive.

-ae, -6 (decl. like

cohors, cohortis,

f.

it

is

equiva-

expresses purpose.

often expressed by

relative

VOCABULARY

421.

ambo,

is

is,

duo), both,

cohort.

praesidium,

subsidium,

-i,
-i,

n.

support.

n. help, aid, relief.

IMPERSONAL USE OE VERBS

165

antefero, anteferre, antetuli, antelatus, prefer.


iudico, iudicare, iudicavi,
licet, licere, licuit

oportet, oportere, oportuit,

I.

I.

Acriter pugnatur.

ut Onus ex

// is

permitted,

behooves,

it is

it is

alloived.

necessary, ought.

creatus

Nonne

Accidit ut pugnetur.

2.

multitudine pilum coniceret.

dubitare oportet.

8.

it

EXERCISES

422.

tator

judge, decide.

'\\!iA\tdX\X2,,

(licitum est),

Dictatorem creatum esse

5.

esse

dicitur,^

Ei

7,

dicitur.'

alter! esset anteferendus.

6,

Dic-

amico subvenire.

licuit

Pullo verebatur ne Vorenus sequeretur

non potuit^ uter

Accidit

3.

Vorenum non

4.

9.

ludicari

Decern cohortes

10.

ad mare relictae erant quae praesidio navibus essent.

happened that there was fighting. 2. Certain


had been killed. 3. This ought to
be done.* 4. I fear that Pullo cannot draw his sword.
5. It
behooves the one^ to help the other.* 6. Soldiers, bring help
II.

I.

men came

It

to say that one

to both.

423.

RIVALRY OF TWO CENTURIONS

Ad hunc
vertit.

confestim a Pullone

omnis multitiido se con-

Gladio comminus pugnat Vorenus atque, uno

fectOj^reliquos
in

Cc7///^^d'

paulum

locum inferiorem

fert

fectls,"

ambo

summa cum

laude

vit ut alter

inimicus alter!

incolumes, compluribus inter-

sese

Itaque fortuna in contentione

inter-

instat, deiectus**

Huic rursus circumvento sub-

concidit.

Pullo, atque

sidium

dumcupidius^

propellit;

et

intra

munitiones recipiunt.

certamine

sic

utrumque versaneque "

auxilio salutique esset,

iudicari posset uter utri virtute anteferendus videretur.

it is

said {that), impersonal.

behooves this to be done.

stumbled into a hollow.


^^

neque

iudicari posset,

Personal.

^it

was not possible.

* it

See 358.
"See 255, .
^having
^'^
though an enemy.
depends on esset.

alter.

nor could

it

be decided

= nor

could one

tell.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

i66

LESSON LXXIV
PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATIONS: DATIVE OF AGENT

The

424.

future

first

active

amaturus

est,

or active periphrastic conjugation

combined with

participle

he

going

is

to {is

was going to {was about


The second or passive

he

about

to)

he was
a.

must be

the

sum

love; amaturus

conjugation

amandus

est,

is

the

he

is

to

have been loved.

Model

Scio quid facturus

sit,

Sentences

/ kno^v what he is going to do.


I knew what he was going

2.

Sciebam quid

3.

Delenda est Carthago, Carthage

4.

Caesari omnia erant agenda, all things were to be done by Caesar.

5.

Mihi scribendum
a.

Observe

factiirus esset,

in

writing

est,

and

must

tniist be

that the

to do.

be destroyed.

done by

first

me I fnust

periphrastic

write.

conjugation

expresses purpose or intention, or simple futurity.


b.

Observe

in 3, 4,

and

that the second periphrastic Conjuga-

tion expresses necessity, duty, or obligation.


c.

d.

Observe
Observe

in 5 that the
in

4 and

verb

(Caesari, mihi) is expressed


is

called the dative

426. Rule.

to

erat,

Learn the synopses of the periphrastic conjugations (510, 511).

425.
1

is

loved, onght to be loved ; amandus erat,

ought

to be loved,

of

to) love.

periphrastic

gerundive combined with forms of sum


to be loved,

forms

is

Compare 362, i.
Compare 418.

used impersonally.

that the person

who has

by the dative translated

of ac^etit.

Compare

to

by.

do a thing
This dative

the ablative of agent, 208.

The gerundive xvith sum takes the dative

denote the person

who has

to

do a thing.

PERfPHRASTIC CONJUGATIONS

67

VOCABULARY

427.
Catillna. -ae,

m. Catiline.

centuri5, -onis,

cupide, adv. eagerly.

m. centurion.

comminus, adv. Jiand

diligentia, -ae,

Jumd.

to

exsilium,

concido, concidere, concidi,

morior, mori (moriri), mortuus

f.

diligence, industry.

n. exile.

-i,

fall down, fall.


press on.

insto, instate, institi, instaturus,

sum

(fut. part, moriturus), die.

subvenio, subvenlre. subveni, subventurus,

come

to aid, assist.

EXERCISES

428.

Descensiirus

I.

I.

est,

moritura erat.

Inruptiiri sunt,

2.

Educendi sunt, educandi sunt. 4. Tibi


petendum est, nobis respondendum est.
6. Naves Caesari reficiendae sunt.
5. Navis refecturus est.
profecturae erant.

Duo

7.

3.

virtutem

centuriones

centurionum virtus probanda

probaturi
erat.

9.

erant.

8.

Duorum

comminus pii11. Omniest.

Gladiis

gnatum est. 10. Diligentia ^ nobis utendum


bus moriendum - est.
12, Fiebat ut Pullo inimico subsidium
'^

ferret.

Hostis

13.

Vorenus,

14.

cidit.

cum

oportebat

munitiones

in

se'^

uterque interfectus

Nisi alter alteri subvenisset,

15.

recipere.

cupidius instaret, in locum inferiorem con-

esset.
II.
2.

He was

I.

going to ask, she

They were going

to advance, she

is

going to

was going

prepare.

to prepare.

had to be spared.
must be done. 5. The state must be
defended by the citizens. 6. Cicero asked whether* Catiline
was going to go* into exile.
All things were done
7.
that had to be done.*^
think that we must do
8. Do not
3.

This must be done,

4.

He

feared that

it

it

"

this.^
1

See3SS.

^Compare
be

done

l)y

425,
us.

2(^Q^pare 425,
2.

'

5.

^Compare

425,

se recipere
"

4.

withdraw.

See 340.

num.

this

must

FIRST YEAR LATIN

68

LESSON LXXV
EXPRESSIONS OF PURPOSE
Review
Commit

429.

Reading Lesson

memory

to

which have occurred

the following expressions of purpose,

preceding lessons

in the

ut pacem peterent,

ad pacem petendam,

pacem petendi
Venerunt

they

causa,

pads petendae causa,


pacem petitum,
qui pacem peterent,

Inflect fero in the active indicative present

subjunctive imperfect.

form of

mascuHne.

9.

eat.

In 409,

meaning of
1.

5.

431.

is, itis, ibit.

What forms of

what

is

in

fio

4.

Of

before e

6.

What

iret

and verebatur ne
10.

What

is

the

concurritur (from concurro, rush)

an impersonal verb, and an intransitive verb


dicitur iisse and
the passive.
12. Translate

I.

iisse.

THE ROMANS WIN THEIR FIRST NAVAL VICTORY

videret

manus

factum

Translate vereor ut eat

Gaius Duilius Poenos navali proelio primus^

cum

in the passive

Decline the participle

have

7.

and

fiunt, fimus,

the subject of placet.^

itur (pass, of eo).?

used impersonally

eum

i,

Translate verebatur ut

8.

I. 5,

Point out in 428,

dicitur

Give the meanings of

has no personal ending.''

fero

and vereor ne
iret.

2.

Give the meanings of

3.

iens in the

to fight.

REVIEW

430.

est.

to

ad pugnandum,

I.

came

seek peace.
j

ferreas,

primus

navis

Romanas

quas corvos vocaverunt,

vicit,

was

Qui^

vicit.

Punicis velocitate superari,

the first to conquer.

instituit.
^

qui cum,

Ea machina
when

he.

READING LESSON

69

Romanis magno usui fuit nam iniectis illis corvis hostilem


navem adprehendebant, deinde, superiecto ponte/ in earn insiunde
liebant, et gladio velut in pugna terrestri dimicabant
^

Inter
Romanis, qui robore praestabant, facilis victoria fuit.
pugnandum triginta hostium naves captae sunt, tredecim
Duilius, victor Romam reversus,'' primus ^ navalem
mersae.''
''

triumphum

Nulla victoria Romanis gratior

egit.''

iam etiam mari pliirimum

invicti terra

quod

VOCABULARY

432.
corvus,

fuit,

poterant.

-i,

-um, Carthaginian.

m. raven.

Punicus,

-um, of iron, iron.

robur, -oris, n. strength, vigor.

ferreus, -a,
hostilis, -e,

of the enemy,

Poeni, -orum, m. plur.

-a,

velocitas, -atis,

hostile.

f.

swiftness.

m. victor; as

victor, -oris,

/^tf C^zr/Zzfl-

adj.,

victorious.

ginians.

adprehend5. adprehendere. adprehendi, adprehensus, seize hold of


instituo. instituere, institui, institiitus, set up, establish.

superiaci5, superiacere, superieci. superiectus,

EXERCISES

433.
I.

thrown

ships surpassed the Carthaginian in

hands were

ravens.

seizing

5.

Roman

Since the

swiftness, iron

called

throw over, cast upon.

3.

set up.

2.

and the

ravens^ for'

these

Then a bridge was


men " fought hand to hand with swords.

hold of the hostile ships.


over,

These iron hands were

The Romans used


4.

victorious because they excelled

The Romans were

the

Carthaginians in strength.
1

See 358.

Compare

powerful.

p. 168,
8

See 369,

note

See 388.

I. 4.

i.
^

From

From

ago.

"

mergo.

From

revertor.

plurimum poterant, were most

ad with gerundive.

i"

soldiers.

SELECTIONS FOR READING


ANECDOTES

THE BAD APPLES

434,

Carolus, agricolae impigri filius, bonus erat puer sed amicos


amabat malos. Agricola igitur puero calathum pomorum
plenum dat. Bona continebat calathus poma, pauca tamen
Gratum puero erat donum et cum diligentia
erant putrida.
mala autem poma maculant bona et mox mala sunt
curat
Carolus maestus adversam fortiinam plorat. Turn
cuncta.
" Poma mala maculant bona, certe
agricola filium ita monet
mail amici maculabunt puerum bonum."
^

THE BROKEN DIKE

435.

Cimbri terram habitant miram, nam oceanus tecta agrosque


Incolae fossis tumulisque magnis -

agricolarum saepe inundat.

undarum violentiam coercent

mox

via

magna

patebit et terram

At periculum videt puer parvus statim


dextra rimam implet coercetque aquam.
Did et constanter servabat puer praesidium. Iam rigebant
membra, at dextra parva aquam semper coercebat, Postridie
Puer frigidus et moribundus
agricolae loco adpropinquant.
Saxis celeriter tumulum confirdextra tamen aqilam coercet.
mant et limo rimam implent. Tum umeris'' puerum sublevant
superabunt undae.

With poma.

on their shoulders.

lo

claustra'''

Forte erat tumulus non validus;

deturbat et vastat terram.

iam apparet parva rima

aliquando tamen aqua

With

fossis

and tumulls.

Object of deturbat.

ic

2c

FIRST YEAR LATIN

172
recreantque cibo.

Tantam constantiam saepe commemorant

Cimbri, narrantque liberis pueri factum.

WALTER RALEIGH

SIR

436.

Elisabetha, regina Britannorum, vestis splendidas et pretiosas semper gerebat.


5

vicos

urbis

lutum.

Forte

ambulabat.

Regina

stat incerta

caterva comitum per

multum videt
quod viam lubricam timet. At
ante

pedes

umeris - novum pallium detrahit et


tum iterum ad socios recurrit. Laeta
regina super pallium ambulat nee pedem maculat.
Statim
grata' iuvenem in numerum amicorum adscribit.

ex turba exsilit iuvenis

locum
[o

magna ^ cum

Subito

tegit vestiment5

THE FAITHFUL HOUND

437.

Cambricus olim, acer venator, fidelem habebat canem,


n5mine Gelertum. Dum'' dominus in silvis abest,* canem saepe
relinquebat parvi

fili

custodem.

dominum reducem cum


[5

dominus pectus

Aliquando more suo Gelertus

laeto clamore saliitabat.

At subito

eius et dentis sanguine cruentos notat

territus ciinas parvi

fili

Eheu

petit.

puerum non

per-

videt sed

undique cruorem, foedi certaminis indicium. Statim caec5


furore canem, mali auct5rem, iaculo transfixit.
Gelertus cum
gemitu exspiravit. Simul dominus in recessu aedium infantem
20

vidit

salvum atque incolumem.

iacebat^ irigens lupus.

Fidelis

Sed baud procul ab eo loco


enim custos vitam infantis ita

servaverat.
438.

Ab
batur.

THE SIEGE OF CALAIS


Edvardo, rege Britannorum, urbs Gallica olim oppugnaDili incolae copiarum regis impetum magna cum

^ See p. 37, foot-note.


^ Agrees with regina
f7-om his shoulders.
* The present after
understood, the qtieen gratefully.
dum is generally to
'^

be translated by the imperfect.

i^as lying dead.

"
;

STORIES OF HERCULES
virtute sustinuerant.

rique civcs

Tandem,

muris et

pellis

173

ubi. nihil cibi supererat

edebant,

cum

mise-

rege de deditione

At a rege propter tantam hostium pertinaciam


pacis impositae sunt morsque duodecim principum est postulata. Sine mora duodecim virl se
Inde comites maesti funibus coUa
pro patria devovent.
agebant.

irato saevae condiciones

amicorum vinciunt eosque ad regem ducunt.


Rex inter nobilis in praetorio sedebat. lamque captivi a
maesta civium turba ad locum ducti sunt omnesque multis
cum precibus ad pedes victoris cadunt. At rex durus preces
eorum spernit avertitque voltum. Forte rcgina rem cognoscit
statim ad praetorium properat suasque lacrimas

Da ^

"

civium iungit.

cum

precibus

mihi, rex magne," inquit, "vitas

horum

nonne hi recte suam patriam defenderunt ?


Rex primo preces non audivit, tandem lacrimae uxoris iram
vincunt poenamque captivis remlsit.

fortium virorum

STORIES OF HERCULES

THE INFANT PRODIGY

439.

Hercules, Alcmenae

filius,

Hie

olim in Graecia habitabat.

omnium hominum validissimus fuisse. At liino, regina


deorum, Alcmenam oderat ^ et Herculem adhuc infantem

dicitur

necare voluit.

Misit igitur duo

media nocte

cubiculum Alcmenae venerunt, ubi Hercules

in

qui

serpentis saevissimos,

cum fratre suo dormiebat. (Non tamen in ciinis sed in scuto


magno cubabant.) Serpentes iam adpropinquaverant et scutum movebant itaque pueri e somno excitati sunt.
at
magna voce exclamavit
Iphicles, frater Herculis,
Hercules ipse, puer fortissimus, haudquaquam territus est.
;

Parvis manibus serpentis


1

\vitli

From supersum.

give

meaning of imperfect.

statim

prehendit et colla eorum

imperative of do.

From

odi,

pluperfect

;;

FIRST YEAR LATIN

174

magna

vi^ compressit.

Tali

modo

serpentes a puero interfecti

Alcmena autem, mater puerorum, clamorem audiverat


Ille lumen accendit
et maritum suum e somno excitaverat.
et gladium suum rapuit
tum ad pueros properabat, sed ubi
ad locum venit rem miram vidit
Hercules enim ridebat^
sunt.

mortuos monstrabat.

et serpentis

HERCULES CONSULTS THE ORACLE

440.

Hercules c5nstituit igitur^ ad oraculum Delphicum

enim oraculum

erat

Apollinis plurimis
10

omnium

celeberrimum.

ornatum

donis

femina quaedam, nomine Pythia,

hoc

Ibi
in

hoc
erat

templo sedebat

et consilium

Haec autem femina ab

ad oraculum veniebant.

ire;

templum
dabat

docebatur et voluntatem dei hominibus enuntiabat.


igitur, qui

Apollinem praecipue colebat, hue

iis

qui

ipso Apolline

Hercules

venit.

iussit eum ad urbem Tiryntha ire et Eurysthei


omnia imperata facere. Hercules, ubi haec audivit, ad
urbem illam contendit/ et Eurystheo regi se in servitutem
tradidit.
Duodecim annos^ in servitute Eurysthei tenebatur,
et duodecim labores, quos ille imperaverat, confecit hoc enim
uno modo tantum scelus expiari potuit. De his laboribus
plurima a poetis scripta sunt.
Multa tamen quae poetae

Pythia

15 regis

20

narrant vix credibilia sunt.

SLAYING THE HYDRA

441.

Post

haec

iussus

est

haec autem monstrum


cules

cum amico

igitur

See 4S2.

ab

Eurystheo

erat, cui

lolao

"

Hydram

novem erant
profectus*^

Not laughed, but was laughing.

necare

est

ad paludem
That

is,

he wanted to make expiation for a crime that he had, committed.


pare for meaning properabat,

1.

Compare, for meaning, interfecti,


from proficiscor see 386.
6

1.

because
*

Com-

for hvelve years ; see 277 and 27S.


"
^ set out
i.
See 1 14 and 115.
^

4.

Her-

capita.

S TORIES OF HERCULES

175

Lernaeam, quam Hydra incolcbat.^ Mox monstrum invenit


quainquam res erat magni periciili, colkiin cius laeva"

et,

dextra

Turn

prehendit.

novem abscidere

capita

coepit

Diu
tandem hoc conatu'' destitit^; constituit
Hoc celeriter
deinde arbores succidere et ignem accendere.
Ignem comprehenderunt, face
fecit et, postquam ligna
Non tamen
ardente colla adussit/ unde capita exoriebantur.
sine magno labore haec fecit; venit enim auxilio'^ Hydrae

quoties tamen hoc fecerat, nova capita exoriebantur.'*


frustra laborabat

cancer ingens,

qui,

dum ^

Hercules capita

Postquam monstrum

mordebat.

tali

abscidit,'-^

mod5

crura eius lo

interfecit, sagittas

suas sanguine eius imbuit itaque mortiferas reddidit.

CLEANSING THE AUGEAN STABLES

442.

laborem hunc graviorem


Eurystheus Herculi
Augeas quidam, qui illo tempore regnum in Elide
habebat. Hi in stabulo ingenobtinebat, tria milia " bourn
stabulum autem inluvie ac
tis magnitudinis includebantur
squalore obsitum ^" est neque enim ad hoc tempus umquam

Deinde

^"^

imposuit.

^'^

15

purgatum
diei

erat.

purgare.

Hoc
Ille,

iussus est Hercules intra spatium unius


erat

res

etsi

multae operae, negotium

Primum magno labore fossam duodevlginti pedum


fecit, per quam fluminis aquam de mpntibus ad murum stabuli
Tum, postquam murum perrupit,'* aquam in stabuperduxit.
lum immisit et tall modo contra opinionem omnium opus
suscepit.

confecit.
1

Notice the alternation of perfects and imperfects in this anecdote and


2 Supply manu
so with dextra, 1. 3.
b.

explain the difference; see 132,


3

See 3S6; the imperfect here denotes repeated action.

desists.

pluperfect.

The
'

perfect after postquam

From

cutting off; see p. 172,

and
1*

347.

"

See note 6 and

1.

aduro.
12,

See 305,
interfecit,

and note.
^-

e.
1.

1.

is

See 232.

From

generally best translated as a

^ while he was
See 348 and 349.
i' Depends on imposuit; see
346
^3 From obser5.
See 257 and 4S2.

20

FIRST YEAR LATIN

176

THE GOLDEN APPLES OF THE HESPERIDES

443.

Eurystheus laborem undecimum Herculi imposuit, gravio-

rem quam quos

Mandavit enim

supra narravimus.

ei,

ut

poma ex horto Hesperidum auferret.^ Hesperides


autem nymphae erant quaedam^ forma* praestantissima, quae
in terra longinqua habitabant et quibus aurea quaedam poma
aurea

Multi homines auri cupiditate

a lunone commissa erant.

poma

res
iam antea conati ^ erant
tamen difficillima ^ erat namque hortus, in quo poma erant,
praeterea draco
muro ingenti undique circumdatus est
quidam, cui " centum erant capita, portam horti diligenter
custodiebat.
Opus igitur, quod Eurystheus Herculi imperaverat, erat summae difficultatis, non modo ob causas quas
memoravimus, sed quod Hercules omnino ignorabat quo in

induct!

haec

auferre

10

loco hortus

ATLAS,

444.

tamen Eurystheo parere

stituit
pit,

quo

WHO UPHELD

proficisci maturavit.^
in

THE HEAVENS

quamquam quietem vehementer

Hercules,

15

situs esset.

ille

loco

Hesperides

cupiebat, con-

et simul ac iussa eius acce-

multis mercatoribus quaesivit

habitarent

tamen

nihil

^^

certum

Frustra per multas terras iter fecit et multa

reperire potuit.

Tandem, cum

20 pericula subiit.^^

in his itineribus

totum annum

consumpsisset, ad extremam partem orbis, quae proxima erat

Oceano, pervenit.
ingenti

magnitiidine

Hie stabat

vir

^^

qui

corporis,

quidam, nomine Atlas,

caelum

(ita

25

tantum laborem magnopere miratus " post paulo


^

{those)

which.

From

aufero

imperfect

See 335.
Limits nymphae; see 306 and 307.
* See
See 114 and 115.
254.
392 and 393.

''

contendit, p. 174,

compare note

4.

1.

16.

i3

^^

From

"

quaero.

See 123 and 124.

i'*

From

conor.

see 506.
"

See

Compare, for meaning,

See 414,

See 386,

conloquium

subjunctive;
''

in

tradunt)

Hercules

umeris^^ suis sustinebat, ne in terram decideret.

c.

b.

i'^

Limits vir;

STORIES OF HERCULES
cum Atlanta
lium ab eo

venit

cum causam

et,

Herculi

Atlas autem potuit

asset

ipse esset
^

auxi-

itineris docuisset,

petiit.

HERCULES TAKES ATLAS'S PLACE

445.

cum-

1/7

Postquam

hortus.

'

maxime prodesse

ille

enim,

pater Hesperidum, bene scivit quo in loco


igitur

quam ob causam

audivit

Hercules venisset,^ "Ipse," inquit, "ad hortum ibo/ et filiabus^ meis persuadebo, ut poma sua sponte tradant." Hercules,

cum haec

oblatum'^

dum

magnopere gavisus

audiret,

vim adhibere,

si

auxilium

ipse abesset,

aliter

res

fieri

posset

Atlas

accipere.

enim

est; noluit

constituit

tamen

igitur

postulavit

ut,

Hoc
quamquam

Hercules caelum umeris sustineret.

negotium Hercules libenter suscepit et,


summi laboris, totum pondus caeli continues com-

igitur

erat

res

pluris dies solus sustinebat.

RETURN OF ATLAS

446.

Atlas interea abierat


milia

passuum

cum

venisset,

et

aberat, se

ad hortum Hesperidum, qui pauca

quam

^^

menter hortatus

poma

est ut

Eo

celerrime contulerat."

causam veniendi exposuit

et filias

suas vehe-

Illae diu haerebant,

traderent.

nolebant enim hoc facere, quod ab ipsa lunone (de qua ante
dictum est) hoc munus acceperant. Atlas tamen post multa

verba

iis ^^

rettulit.^^

persuasit ut sibi parerent et

poma ad Herculem

Hercules interea, cum

dies exspectavisset,

pluris

neque ullam famam de reditu Atlantis accepisset, hac mora


1

See 346 and 347.

since

see 39S.

Observe how often the

subjunctive in an indirect question (294) should be rendered like an indica^ From gaudeo.
^ See
* See 507.
tive.
393 and p. 22, foot-note 2.
^ From abeo
compare
offero.
See 353, 5.
^^ quam celerrime, as quickly as possible.
See 279.
12 See
^^ From refero.
392 and 393.

"

From

subiit, p. 176,
^^

Fiom

1.

20.

confero.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

1/8

Tandem quinto die Atlantem


est.
mox magno cum gaudio poma accepit

commotus

graviter

redeuntem

et

postquam gratias pro tanto beneficio

rettulit

vidit
;

turn

ad Graeciam

proficisci maturavit.

NESSUS, THE CENTAUR

447.

Hercules multa

Post haec

nunc perscribere longumDeianiram, Oenei


tris

10 occidisset

Cum

eius

e finibus

ad fliimen

iunctum

erat, et

Hercules

iret,

cum uxore

sua

Dum'' tamen iter


quoddam pervenerunt, quod nuUo ponte

civitatis

faciunt,^

exsilium

in

casii,

quae

perfecit,

aetate provectus

matrimonium duxit post tamen


puerum quendam, nomine Eunomum,
autem mos esset ut, si quis hominem

filiam, in

annos accidit ut

casu occiderit.^

praeclara

alia

Tandem iam

est.

dum

exire maturavit.

modo flumen

quaerunt quonam

traici-

Centaurus quidam, nomine Nessus, qui auxilium


Hercules igitur uxorem suam in tergum
viatoribus obtulit.^
At Nessus
Nessi imposuit turn ipse flumen nando * traiecit.
ant, accurrit

15

paulum in aquam progressus ad ripam subito reversus est


Quod cum animadvertisset
et Deianiram auferre conabatur.
Hercules, ira graviter commotus, arcum intendit et pectus
20 Nessi sagitta transfixit.

THE POISONED ROBE

448.

^"
Nessus igitur sagitta Herculis transfixus moriens humi
at, ne occasionem sui " ulciscendi dimitteret, ita

iacebat

1 See
485.
matrimonium

necare, p. 174,

10.

22,

1.

abscidit, p. 175,
1.

longum

1.

From

commonly be
this.

^'

would

What

and interfecti,
and note.

10,

no

preceding sentence,

by

est, it

diixit, fuaryied.

by

p.
"

swimming ;

be tedious.

literally

174,

From

1.

3.

From

proveho.

in

Compare, for meaning,


^

i.

offero

see 367,

quod cum, when this

Compare dum

compare oblatum,
^

p. 177,

Refers to the whole

the relative after a period

must

translated by a personal or demonstrative pronoun, as here,

See

195,

b.

sui ulciscendi, /t^r avenging himself.

'

STORIES OF HERCULES

179

si vis
locutus est: "Tu, Deianira, verba morientis audi,
amorem mariti tui conservare, aliquid sanguinis hiiius, qui e

meo effunditur, sume ac repone; turn, si umquam


mentem tuam venerit,'' vestem mariti hoc sanguine
Haec locutus Nessus animam efflavit Deianira
inficies."
pectore

suspicio in

"

autem

nihil

mali suspicata;* imperata

fecit.

Post breve

tern-

pus Hercules bellum contra Eurytum, regem Oechaliae, susce-

cum regem ipsum cum filiis interfecisset, lolen, filiam


Antequam tamen domum venit,
navem ad Cenaeum promontorium adpulit ^ et in terram
pit et,

Euryti, captivam reduxit.

egressus aram constituit, ut


sacrificium parat,

Dum

lovi sacrificaret.

Licham comitem suum domum

misit qui

vestem albam referret; mos enim erat apud antiques, dum


At Deianira verita
sacrificia faciebant, vestem albam gerere.
ne Hercules amorem erga lolen haberet vestem, priusquam
Lichae dedit, sanguine Nessi

Hercules nihil mali " suspicatus


statim induit

vestem quam Lichas

attulit

post tamen breve tempus dolorem per omnia

sensit et quae causa esset ^ eius rei magnopere miraDolore paene exanimatus vestem detrahere conatus est
tamen in corpore haesit ^^ neque iillo modo divelli potuit.

membra

'^

batur.

Turn

demum

Oetam

Hercules quasi furore impulsus"

rogum, quem

se contulit^^et in

Hoc cum

se imposuit.

strijxit,

summa

fecisset, eos qui

in

montem

circumstabant

rogum quam ^^ celerrime accenderent. Omnes diu


recusabant tandem tamen pastor quidam ad misericordiam
;

See

386, d.

From

impello.

shall have

come;

but

it

is

better

to

translate

* See
no evil ; see 256 and 257.
The perfect participle of a deponent verb is sometimes present
3

nihil madi,

in sense.
8

"^

505.

From

sentio.
^-

From

nothing 0/ evil

adpello.

See

^ From adfero.
^ See 419 and 420.
11 From
From haereo.
and note.
quam celerrime see p. 177, 1. 16, and note 10.

p. 177,

confero.

^^

1.

i''

5,

20

celeritate ex-

oravit ut

comes.

15

infecit.

THE DEATH OF HERCULES

449.

ilia

lo

tamen

25

FIRST YEAR LATIN

l8o

dum omnia

Turn,

ignem subdidit.

inductus
abreptus

obscu-

funio

Olympum

Hercules densa nube velatus a love in

rantur,

est.

STORIES OF ULYSSES

POLYPHEMUS, THE ONE-EYED GIANT

450.

Ulixes comitesque, postquam totam noctem remis contende5

rant,

ad terram ignotam navem adpulerunt

ram

eius

sociis^ in terram egressus

a litore progress!

a(3

locum explorare

turn,

quod

natii-

cum duodecim

ignorabat, ipse Ulixes

regionis

Paulum

c5nstituit.

antrum ingens pervenerunt, quod habitari


et manibus munltum esse
Mox, etsi intellegebant se'^ non sine peri-

senserunt^ eius enim introitum arte^


,o

animadverterunt.

Quod' cum

culo id facturos, antrum intraverunt.

magnam copiam

Dum

lactis

tamen mirantur quis earn sedem

incoleret,

ribilem audiverunt et oculis ad portam versis


15 ribile

viderunt,

fecissent,

invenerunt in vasis ingentibus conditam.

humana quidem

sonitum

monstrum

ter-

hor-

specie^ et figura,^ sed ingenti

Cum

autem animadvertissent gigantem linum tantum oculum habere in media fronte positum,
intellexerunt hunc esse unum e Cyclopibus, de quibus famam
magnitiidine^ corporis.

iam

acceperant.''

THE GIANT'S SUPPER

451.

Cyclopes autem pastores erant quidam, qui insulam Siciliam

20
et

praecipue
1

From

sentio.

montem Aetnam

abripio.

See

p. 179,

arte et manibus, by skill

1.

incolebant
and note.

10,

and hands

accusative of facturos (esse), themselves

do; see 318,

and

note.

tives; see

i.
^

''

Translate as

if

to be

it

ibi

enim Volcanus,

See 256,

going

to

do

were cum quod.

b.

by skilful hands.

From

Subject

that they -would

See

p. 178,

1.

18,

Descriptive ablatives limiting monstrum, translated as geni-

306 and 307.

acceperant

audiverant.

STORIES OF ULYSSES

l8l

praeses fabrorum et ignis repertor, cuius servi Cyclopes erant,

suam habebat.

officinam

Graeci

simul ac monstrum viderunt, terrore paene

igitur,

exaniniati in interiorem partem speluncae refugerunt et se ibi

Polyphemus autem, ita enim gigas appelspeluncam egit^; turn cum saxo
ingenti portam obstruxisset," ignem in medio antro accendit.
Hoc facto, omnia oculo perlustrabat et cum sensisset homines^
celare conabantur.

latus

in interiore parte antri celarl,

magna voce

exclamavit:

"Qui

Tum Ulixes
Mercat5res an latrones ? "
homines?
respondit se"* neque mercatores esse neque praedandi* causa
venisse, sed e Troia redeuntis" vi tempestatum a recto cursu

estis

depulsos esse; oravit etiam ut sibi sine

Tum

pecora sua in

est,

Polyphemus

quaesivit

essent; Ulixes autem,

cum

'

^"

iniiiria

abire liceret.

qua vecti^
bene intellegeret sibi" maxime
ubi

10

navis

esset

15

praecavendum " esse, respondit navem suam in riipis c5niecPolyphemus autem nullo
tam^- et omnino perfractam esse.
dato response duo e sociis manu conripuit et membris eorum
divolsis^^

carnem^^ devorare coepit.

NO WAY OF ESCAPE

452.

geruntur, Graecorum animos tantus terror occuedere possent sed omni spe
vocem quidem
At Polysalutis deposita mortem praesentem exspectarent.
phemus, postquam fames hac tarn horribili cena depulsa est,

Dum^^ haec

pavit ut ne

From

ago.

^'''

^"^

Observe that the subjunctive after cum meaning when

translated as an indicative.

is

Subject accusative of

*that they, subject accusative of esse and venisse.

from the preceding

se
^

From
From

veho.

Strictly by

quaero.
^''

that

clause:

which (see
^^

See 39S.

1.

2,

and note.

^^

^^

From

not even

celari; see 318.

See 429.

*<

while retiirntjig ;

Repeat

see

507.

124), but translate in which.

by himself it must be especially guarded

against = he must take especial precaution


been cast; supply esse.

they,

divello.

see 425,
^^

5,

From

and 426.
caro.

^^
^^

See

always inclosing the emphatic word.

had

p. 172,

zq

FIRST YEAR LATIN

82

humi prostratus somno


tantam

vidisset Ulixes,

eo erat ut pectus monstri gladio transfigeret.

arbitratus, in

Cum tamen

nihil

temere agendum^ existimaret, constituit


antequam hoc faceret, qua ratione ex antro evadere
At cum saxum animadvertisset, quo ^ introitus

explorare,

possent.

obstructus erat, nihil

mum

Quod cum

se dedit.

occasionem rei^ bene gerendae^ non omittendam

sibi

profuturum

Tanta enim

interfecisset/

intellexit,

si

ne^ a decem quidem^ hominibus amoveri posset.

cum

qui,

salutis

intellexissent

oblata,

tamen, ne

^^

demonstravit
15 evasisse,

quo

de fortunis

in

Quae'^

cum

conatu et ad socios rediit

essent,^ Ulixes hoc^" destitit

lo ita

Polyphe-

erat eius saxi magnitude, ut

loco

suis

^^

res essent, nulla

desperare

coeperunt.

spe
Ille

animos demitterent, vehementer hortatus est


se^* iam antea e multis et magnis periculis

neque dubium esse quin in tantS discrimine

dii

auxilium adlaturl^* essent.

A PLAN FOR VENGEANCE

453.

^
e somno excitatus idem
Orta^^ liice
quod hesterno die fecit; correptis^' enim dudbus e reliquis
Turn, cum saxum
viris, carnem eorum sine mora devoravit.

Polyphemus iam

tantam

arbitratus, thinking that so

be let slip ; occasionem

is

good a chance

ought not

subject accusative of omittendam (esse)

to

see 424

^'m eo erat ut, was in that (state) that


and 425,
2 Compare 362, 2.
* ought to be done : supply esse, as with omit was on the point of.
tendam, above. Very often in forms of the infinitive made up of a partiI).

^ nihil sibi profuturum,


^ ly which.
and esse the latter is omitted.
would be no advantage to them; what literally? Again esse is omitted.
^ not even: see p.
''should kill, not had killed.
181, 1. 21, and note.
8 since these things were so = such being the case.
With conatu.
^^ state, not place.
^'^not to lose heart ; the clause depends upon hortatus
^'^
thai they ; go on, making a metaphrase mentally to the end,
est.
^* From adfero.
^^ orta luce =
and the meaning will be clear.
j^gm quod: see 332.
prima luce: orta from orior; what literally.?
1"
With viris.

ciple
it

i"*

i'^

STORIES OF ULYSSES
cum pecore suo ex
magnam

amovisset, ipse

cum

Graeci,

viderent

antro progressus

Quod

est.

spem venerunt

in

83

sc post

paulum evasuros.' Mox tamen ab hac spe repulsi sunt nam


Polyphemus, postquam omnes oves exierunt,^ saxum in locum
Reliqui omnI spe saliitis deposita lamentis lacrirestituit.
;

se dediderunt

misque

mus, vir magni

animo

bene intellegebat rem in disTandem postquam

fuit consili, etsi

cogitavit,

desperabat.

hoc cepit consilium.

lignis

quae

hunc summa
cum diligentia praeacutum fecit tum postquam sociis quid
lieri vellet ostendit, reditum Polyphemi exspectabat.
antro reposita^ sunt, palum

in

Ulixes vero qui, ut supra demonstravi-

nondum omnino

crimine esse,
diu toto

magnum

delegit

10

454.

POLYPHEMUS THRICE DRAINS A WINE-BOWL

Sub vesperum Polyphemus ad antrum

rediit

et

eodem

modo quo^ antea cenavit. Tum Ulixes utrem vini prompsit,"


quem forte, ut in talibus rebus accidere consuevit,' secum
attulerat,* et, postquam magnam crateram vino replevit, gigantem ad bibendum"-* provocavit. Polyphemus, qui numquam
antea vinum gustaverat, totam crateram statim hausit.^** Quod
cum fecisset, tantam voluptatem percepit ut iterum et tertium
crateram repleri iuberet. Tum cum quaesivisset quo nomine
Ulixes appellaretur, ille respondit se Neminem " appellari.
Quod cum audivisset, Polyphemus ita locutus est " Hanc tibi
gratiam pro tanto beneficio referam, te ultimum omnium

15

20

His^- dictis, cibo vinoque gravatus recubuit^^ et

devorabo."

post breve tempus


1

magnam

p. 182,

note

somno oppressus

venerunt,
3

4.

From

had great

hopes.

Observe

exeo.

translate as present.
11

Nomaii.

recumbo.

1-

p. 182,
^

note

From

these {things)

16.

adfero.

From

in this

the perfect after postquam; see p. 175, note

compare idem quod,

Ulixes sociis 25

evadd; supply esse; see

paragraph three examples of


*

6.

From
^

Tum

est.

From

promo.

See 367,

having been said

repono.

2.

this

as

From consuesco;
From haurio.
From
said.

"^

^'^

^-^

FIRST YEAR LATIN

84

"Habemus,"

convocatis,

tem

ne

"quam^

inquit,

occasionem

tantam

igitur

petiimus faculta-

gerendae

bene

rei

omittamus."

NOMAN

455.

Hac
5

postquam extremum^ palum Ignl


oculum Polyphemi, dum dormit, flagrante ligno trans-

oratione

calefecit,

Quo

fodit.

somno

omnes

in diversas speluncae partis se abdi-

subito

ille

dolore/ quod'' necesse

illo

clamorem terribilem

excitatus,

speluncam
lo

facto,

At

derunt.

habita,''

errat, Ulixi

iam omnino caecus

manum

inicere conabatur.

modo hoc

nullo

esset,

sustulit

et

fuit,

dum

per

Cum ^ tamen
potuit.

eflficere

Interea reliqui Cyclopes, clamore audito, undique ad spelun-

cam convenerunt

ad introitum adstantes, quid^'' Polyphemus


quam ob causam tantum clamorem
respondit se graviter volneratum esse et

et

ageret quaesiverunt et
sustulisset.
15

magno
vim

Ille

dolore adfici."

auditis,

unus

Cum tamen

respondit

intulisset,

quaesivissent quis

"ceteri

Neminem
"At si nemo,"

ille

e Cyclopibus,

inquit,

ei

Quibus

id fecisse.

"te volnera-

baud dubium est quin consilio^^ deorum, quibus resistere nee possumus nee volumus, hoc supplicio adficiaris."

vit,

20

His

abierunt

dictis,

Cyclopes eum in

insaniam

incidisse

arbitrati.^^

quam

petiimus facultatem

omittamus,

let its

not

let slip,

facultatem

Compare p. 182, 1. 2, and note 2.


and generally by a clause; see 358,

partem

=
1^

pali

see also 489.

the

from

clause

and note

questions.

a.

gxtremum palum = extremam


which was necessary
"^

what follows.

what Polyphemus was doing;

translate

From

what

^ since.

tollo.

ailed

Polyphemus

11 Passive infinitive present


depends on the next word.
^^ Depends on adficiaris, by the design
you are
.

3i

4.

"^ns

see 339, a, and 340,

Translate the ablative absolute here

a.

adficio.

afflicted.

petiimus.
;

Limits excitatus.

necessarily; the reference is to


Literally,

quam

hortatory subjunctive

pq^^jvalent to arbitrantes

Find

in this

anecdote

compare

five ablatives

suspicata, p. 179,

1-

6,

absolute and two indirect

STORIES OF ULYSSES

85

THE ESCAPE

456.

At Polyphemus, ubi socios suos abiisse sensit, furore atque


amentia impulsus Ulixem iterum quaerere coepit. Tandem cum
portam invenisset, saxum quo obstructa^ erat amovit, ut pecus

Tum^ipse in introitu sedit et ut ^ quaeque


locum venerat, tergum eius manibus tractabat, ne viri

ad agros exiret.
ovis ad

Quod cum

inter ovis exire possent.

bene enim

hoc"' iniit cdnsilium;


in

quam

dolo magis

animadvertisset Ulixes,

intellexit

omnem spem

Primum

in virtute poni.

tris

salutis

quas vidit

Quibus inter ^ se viminibus


earum ita subiecit ut
omnino lateret deinde ovis^ hominem secum ferentis ad portam egit. Id accidit quod fore" suspicatus erat. Polyphemus

pinguissimas ex ovibus delegit.

unum sociorum

conexis,^

ventribus

10

enim, postquam manus tergis earum imposuit, ovis praeterire

passus*

rem ita feliciter evenisse vidit, omnis


eodem modo emisit quo facto, ipse

Ulixes, ubi

est.

suos socios ex ordine

15

ultimus evasit.

OUT OF DANGER

457.

His rebus

ita confectis,

Ulixes

ne Polyphemus fraudem sentiret,


contendit.
relicti erant,

Quo '^ cum venissent, ab iis qui navi ^" praesidio


magna ^^ cum laetitia accepti sunt. Hi enim, cum "

animis anxiis iam


vissent, eos

The

^''

in

subject

is

periculum grave

porta understood.
3
*

conatii, p. 182,!. 10.


"

from ago.

and note.
cum compare p.
1.

since.

1^ in

cati folIo\ving.

fore
i'

21,

1*

reditum eorum in

tris dies

with the indicative.

egit,

cum sociis maxime veritus^


quam ^" celerrime ad litus

with

See

p. 179,
12

17S, note 9.

id

quod

1.

Compare
^ From

and

Seg o^g,
l*'

esse.
25,

quod

erat,

for order hoc destitit

1*

conecto.

P'rom patior.

note.

a.

that they

erat, that

^^

Translate ut as or w/u-n when used

consilium.

= futurum

horas exspecta-

incidisse,^*^ id

inter se, together.

horas, hourly.
^'

^^

11

thither

Compare

Object of

See

begin with

p. 184,

p. 37, foot-note.

had fallen ; depends on


= as was true.

which was

suspi-

20

FIRST YEAR LATIN

86

suspicati, ipsi auxiliandi causa egredi parabant.

non

tutum esse arbitratus

satis

celerrime

proficisci

c5nstituit.

si

Turn Ulixes

quam

in eo loco maneret,

lussit

igitur

omnis navem

conscendere et ancoris sublatis^ paulum a litore in altum proTurn magna voce exclamavit " Tu, Polypheme,
vectus est.
:

qui

iiira

hospiti^ spernis, iustam et debitam

tatis tuae solvisti."

Hac voce

poenam immani-

audita Polyphemus ira vehe-

menter commotus ad mare se contulit et ubi intellexit navem


paulum a litore rem5tam esse, saxum ingens manu conreptum

eam partem coniecit, unde vocem venire sensit. Graeci


minimum* afuit quin submergerentur,* nullo
accepto damno cursum tenuerunt.

10 in

autem, etsi

FABLES
CIRCUMSTANCES ALTER CASES

458.

Haedus stans
Cui lupus,
15

domus* lupo* praetereunti maledixit.


"sed tectum mihi maledixit."
tempus timidos homines audacis reddit.'
in tecto

"Non

Saepe locus

et

tu," inquit,

THE SENSIBLE GOAT

459.

Lupus capram

in alta riipe

in

ilia

et sterilia loca et

herbidos campos, qui

tibi

laetum pabulum

respondit capra
20

stantem conspicatus,^ "Cur non,"

nuda

inquit, "relinquis

"Mihi^ non

est in

hue descendis

ofiferunt

animo^ dulcia

"

Cui

tijtis

^^

praep5nere."

From

^ very little was it


off hit
^ See
came very near being drowned.
^ lupo praetereunti maledixit, to a wolf passing by said ill = reviled
482.
"
a wol/ who was passing by ; 566485.
wa/5'^; the singular is
6866354.
used in Latin because locus et tempus are thought of as one thing.
8 Equivalent to videns
^ to ;ne it is not in
see p. 1S4, 1. 21, and note.
mind = / have no intention.
dulcia tutis praeponere, to put sweet things
l^ See
before safe things to prefer what is pleasant to what is safe.
347.
1

tollo.

that they should be

Genitive of hospitium.

drowned

they

i^*

FABLES
THE DOG

460.

Canis iacebat

bovesque latrando^ a pabulo

Cui Onus boum,^ "Quanta

arcebat.^
est,

THE MANGER

IN

in praesaepi

quod* non pateris" ut eo cibo

capere nee veils

Haec

187

nee possis

ista,"* inquit, "invidia

vescamur quern tu ipse

'

"
!

fabula invidiae indolem deelarat.

THE GOLDEN EGG

461.

Mulier quaedam habebat gallinam, quae

Hine

pariebat aureum.

Sed

intus eelare et gallinam oeeidit.


nisi

quod

bus

divitiis^- inhiat,

etiam minores

UNION

fascem virgularum

adferri

sibi

^^

adpropinquare

Quibus

iubet.

possent, distribuit singulas virgas

quam

filios,

firma

maiori10

discordare

iisque

esset

res

^'

adlatls,

et

filios

faeere

eeleriter

non

fraetis,^** 15

quamque

coneordia

'''

sentlret,

noverat/'^

Quod cum

hortatur ut hune faseem frangerent.

docuit

dum ^^

Itaque

perdidit.

interdum

quos

convoeavit,

^^

STRENGTH

IS

eum mortem

Agrieola senex,"
filios

nihil in ea repperit,^"

in aliis gallinis reperiri solet.

462.

ovum
massam

ei cotidie

suspieari eoepit illam^auri

imbecillis diseordia.

see

Why

the imperfect rather than the perfect

365 and 367,

(because).

From

gallinam, subject
1'^

From

reperio.
!'

393.

and

dum

^^

i^

these

the imperfect

p. 177,

eelare,
.

inhiat,

1.

5,

is

and note.

May

had

//

to

See 132,

See 388.

"

of

Supply the Latin noun

quibus adlatis,

not was

ggg ^82.

patior.

accusative

" See 482.


when

clause.
1"

3.

See 331,
gge 505.

conceal

Gerund
^

that

illam
it

in that

illam

concealed.

while she was

in the right

be

b.
b.

left

^- See
dcsit-itig.
form from the preceding

untranslated.

been brought.

^^

From

i*'

From

frango.

nosco.
^^ is,

required because of the perfect docuit; see 297

FIRST YEAR LATIN

[88

KING LOG AND KING SNAKE

463.

Ranae aliquand5 regem

Quarum

sibi

love

dicuntur.

petiisse

precibus exoratus trabem ingentem in

ille

lacum

Ranae sonitu perterritae primum refugere,^ deinde


ver5 trabem in aqua natantem conspicatae^ magno cum condeiecit.

temptu in ea consederunt* aliumque^ sibi novis clamoribus


regem expetiverunt. Tum luppiter, earum'' stultitiam ut
puniret, hydrum illis misit, a ' quo cum plurimae captae ^

precum

perlrent, sero eas stolidarum

THE WOLF AND THE LAMB

464.

Lupus
iiirgi

et

agnus sitientes ad eundem rivum venerant.

lupus, longe inferior

[o rior^"

causam quaerens

lentam

reddidisti

possum?"

inquit,

"

"Tum,"

"Cur,"

"Huius^^ anni

-^^
:

dixit

"bibenti" mihi turbu-

mihi^* maledix-

initio

"equidem natus
Atque

de avia mea."

^^

nondumeram."

ita

agnum

dilaniat.

THE LION'S SHARE

Societatem iunxerant

autem quam ceperant

leo,

iuvenca, capra, ovis.

Praeda'**

in quattuor partis divisa, leo, "

Prima

"

^ quarum (ranarum) precibus,


by the prayers of these = by their prayers.
For the more common refugerunt.
See p. 184, 1. 21, and note.
^ With regem; remember that an adjective is often
From consido.
'^

separated from
stultitiam.
^

inquit,

inquit agnus,

465.

Supe-

agnus stabat. Tunc improbus latro

Hercle etiam," respondet lupus, "pater tuus contumeliose

quondam

" Qu5modo
aquam ? "
Agnus timens
"a te enim aqua ad me decurrit." Ille

veritate rei repulsus


[5 istl."

paenituit.

eas

11

its

^ Order
noun by one or more words.
^ captae perirent
and when by him.

a quo cum,

paenituit,

it

"mihi

huius anni.

From

nascor.

i''

praeda

repented them

Present participle, from bibo.

initio
16

"^

^^

From

maledixisti

they

repello.
:

^^ hijius
1.

13,

earum

see 353,

^"^

repented.

see p. 186,

ut

6.

See 489.

annI initio

and note

4.

with divisa, from dividd; see 358.

FABLES
"

ait,

Mea

est

Tollam
Tertiam vindicat

debetur enim haec praestantiae meae.

secundam, quam meretur robur meum.

et

189

meus.

sibi egregius labor

Quartam^ qui

adrogare voluerit,

sibi

habiturum me inimicum sibi." Quid facerent *


imbecilles bestiae ? aut quae" sibi leonem infestum habere
sciat se*

is ^

vellet

BELLING THE CAT

466.

Mures aliquando habuerunt consilium, quo modo a fele


Multis ^ aliis propositis, omnibus * placuit, ut ei
tintinnabulum adnecteretur sic enim ipsos^ sonitii admonitos
eam fugere posse. Sed cum iam inter muris quaereretur qui
caverent.

^"^

nem5

tintinnabulum adnecteret,

fell

Fabula docet,

repertus
^-

suadendo " plurimos

in

esse audacis, sed

ipso periculo timidos.

in

THE DEER AND THE VINE

467.

Olim cerva, quae celerrime fugiebat ut venatorum


bus se eriperet, sub vitem se condidit.
sequentes longius

^^

tur,

quod vident venatores

unt

ibi

ixlso.

aliis

Brevi tempore misera bestia volneribus

if

to be,
"^^

that he will have.

propositis, after
^

11

but that

of wounds

could do.

of

Gerund

many

i"

see 365.

are.

see 165.

The

posse.

'^^

too

accusative

the question
i-

Supply

had

What

omnibus placuit, all resolved.

accusative

other proposals

nia>ty

putaverunt preceded.

literally

^'^

senti-

moritur, 20

have

15

cervam

literally?

subject

Mox

latere et sagittis

2 Order
^ is
is qui voluerit adrogare quartam sibi sciat.
* se habiturum
him know ; see 339, a.
supply esse; himself to

be about to
tis

foliis

mani-

Folia agitan-

vitis carpere.

statim revertuntur.

bestiam aliquam sub

volnerant.

sciat, let

et

Interea venatores

Cerva autem non " iam

progrediuntur.

timens venatores incipiebat folia

as

10

est.

and

been

bestia.

made.
are

mul-

What
^

literally?
infinitive

''

The
used

was raised ; see 418. What


do not translate many

plurimos esse

far ; see 255,

a.

^*

non iam: see 327.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

190
sed moriens dicit
tegebat, nocere^

'* lustas do poenas, nam huic


non debui."

viti,

me

quae

STORIES FROM ROMAN HISTORY

THE BRAVE DEED OF HOBATIUS COCLES

468.

Porsena, rex Etrtiscorum,^


infesto exercitu
5

Non umquam

Romam

(B.C.

Primo impetu laniculum

venit.

Romanes

?)

cum

cepit.

invasit

urbem ipsam saepiunt

508

restituend5s Tarquinios

alias* ante tantus terror

urbem demigrant

agris in

ad"'

ex

praesidiis.

Alia^ urbis pars muris," alia Tiber! obiecto^ tuta videbatur.

10

Pons Sublicius iter paene hostibus dedit,^ nisi unus vir fuisset,
Horatius Codes, illocognomineappellatus, quod in alio proelio
oculum amiserat.^ Is, extrema pontis parte occupata,^" aciem
hostium solus sustinuit, donee pons a tergo interrumperetur."
armatus in
Ipsa audacia obstupefecit hostis ponte rescisso
Tiberim desiluit et multis ^^ superincidentibus telis incolumis
^-^

ad suos

tranavit.

publice

15 agri

Statua quoque

Cum

Porsena

stantiae,

necem

posita.^*

obsideret, Mvicius, vir

adiit

veniam^^

et

ought not

to

in castra Porse-

Adverb.
''

^alia

- I,ook on a classical
(modern Tuscany) north of Rome.

have injured.

of Italy for the country of Etruria

walls.

con-

petiit,

Ibi in confertissima turba prope regium tribunal

nocere non debui,

its

Romanae

transfugiendi

Accepta potestate,

regis repromittens.

See 429.

of

Comitio

Romam

senatum

nae venit.

map

ei in

THE FORTITUDE OF MUCIUS

469.

20

Grata tanta virtute civitas fuit ei tantum


est, quantum uno die circumarare potuit.
;

datum

alia: see 313.

by the interposed Tiber

With

by the Tiber

'j

tuta; by reason

being between.

^ From amitto.
For dedisset, would have allowed a passage (iter).
'^11 That is, by the Romans.
From rescindo.
13 That is, by Codes.
i veniam transfugiendi, /as-^r of
" Supply est.
though many, etc.

'^'^

deserting

= pertnission

to desert.

ROMAN HISTORY

STOR/ES FROM

Stipendium tunc forte militibus dabatur

constitit.

rege pari

IQI

et scriba

cum

Mucius, ignOrans uter rex esset,

fere ornatu sedebat.

Adprehensus et ad regem pertractus


dextram accenso^ ad sacriticium foculo"* iniecit, velut manum

'^

ilium pro rege occidit.

pimiens quod

caede peccasset/ Attonitus miraculo rex iuve-

in

nem amoveri ab
remunerans,

Qua

rasse.

trecentos

ait

re ille territus

sui

"^

Turn Mucius, quasi beneficium

altaribus iussit.

eum

adversus

similis''

coniu-

bellum acceptis obsidibus deposuit.

CLOELIA, THE HOSTAGE. ESCAPES

470.

Porsena Cloeliam, virginem nobilem, inter obsides accepit.

Cum*

haud procul ab

eius castra

ripa Tiberis locata essent, 10

Cloelia deceptis custodibus noctu castris egressa,^ equ5, quern


^^

fors dederat, adrepto

tiatum

primo

est,

Tiberim

Tum

quos

ipsa

vellet

Roman! eam ex

donaturum

^^

foedere

eam

admlratus^^

15

se dixit, permisitque

^*

obsidibus

Productis

legeret.

ubi regi nun-

^^

legates misit ad

rex virginis virtiitem

laudavit ac parte obsidum


ut

Romam

obsidem reposcendam.

Cloeliam

restituerunt.

Quod

traiecit.

incensus ira

ille

Cloelia

quorum aetatem iniuriae obnoxiam


R5mani novam ^^ in
sciebat et cum iis in patriam rediit.^^
femina virtiitem^'' novo genere honoris, statua equestri, donavirgines puerosque elegit,

In

vere."
pari

accendo

summa ^^ Via Sacra ^^ fuit


omatu

order

peccavisset.

with scriba; 566307.

^^

quod ubi

equo

translate as

From

1*

redeo.

See

se

1*

adrepto from
this.

12
13

^^

gee

donaturum esse, that he would


i" For the
5, and note 5.

1.

with

it

takes the accusative,

From superus (4S9),


running through the Forum up to the

virtutem, and the ablative, genere.

Via Sacra: a street

From

egredior, active in

reposceret; 566429.

p. iSS,

more common donaverunt, rewarded


1^

Full form

sui: the dative might

From

ubi quod, a(/ wlien

if

donatiirum se
^^

"^

adrepto, seizing a horse

reposcendam: might have been ut


1^

pertrahS.

See 347.

since.

similis.
^^

b.

note 9 on egressa.
give.

From
*

Subject accusative of coniurasse.

see 386,

adripio.

foculo accenso ad sacrificium.

have been expected after

meaning

posita virgo insidens equo.

highest part

Capitol.

of.

20

FIRST YEAR LATIN

192

CAIUS MARCIUS CORIOLANUS

471.

Marcius gentis patriciae captls^

C.

rum, Coriolanus dictus


tutela

adulescens,^
5

Cum

adolevit.^

rediit nisi

multis

Coriolis, urbe Volsco-

Puer patre

est.

quibus

proeliis,

facere

coepisset

numquam

interfuit,

corona aliove^ militari praemio donatus.

vitae ratione nihil aliud sibi proponebat


ceret

orbatus sub matris

stipendia

prima'*

493-488?)

(B.C.

cumque

audiret filium

ilia

demum

videret, turn

quam

In omni

ut matri pla-

laudari aut corona donari

''

Consul factus

felicem se ipsa putabat.

magno pretio
dandum populo ciiravit, ut plebs agros, non seditiones coleret.
Qua de causa damnatus ad Volscos infestos tunc Romanis
Imperator a
confugit eosque adversus Romanos concitavit.
gravi* annona advectum^ e Sicilia frumentum

lo

Volscis factus, castris ad quartum ab urbe lapidem positis,

agrum Romanum

est populatus.

Roma

15

ad Coriolanum oratores de pace, sed atrox


responsum rettulerunt.^" Iterum deinde iidem missi ne ^^ in
Sacerdotes quoque suis infulis
castra quidem " recepti sunt.
velati ad eum iverunt supplices, nee magis^^ animum eius

20

ac mulieres exitium imminens lamentabantur.

Missi sunt

Stupebat senatus, trepidabat populus,

flexerunt.^^

viri pariter

Turn Veturia,
Coriolani mater, et Volumnia uxor, duos parvos filios secum
Ubi matrem adspexit
trahens, castra hostium petierunt.
Coriolanus: "O patria," inquit, "vicisti iram meam admotis

^"'

captis Coriolis, because of the capture of Corioli.

From

adolesco.

= had
= vel alio.

(as a soldier)
**

aliove

annona,
is

/;;

titne

prima

12

From

See

fleets.

service.

to

gee 231 and 232.


earn first wages
^

in his yottth.

dandum

p. iSi,

1.

admotis

gravi

Agrees with frumentum, which

(esse).

Translate had (curavit) corn,

to the

and

21,

of extreme scarcity.

1*

had begun

Subject accusative of laudari and donari.

the subject accusative of

11

coepisset,

begun his first military


''

brought from Sicily, distributed


refero.

l"

From

nee magis, but no

fitore.

people at a high price.

note.

preeibus, by

i-

employing the prayers.

ROMA A HISTORY

STORIES FROM

193

matris meae precibus, cui ^ tuam in me iniuriam condono."


Complexus^ inde suos castra movit et exercitum ex agro

Romano

Coriolanus postea a Volscis ut proditor

abduxit.

occisus^ dicitur.

TITUS QUINCTIUS CINCINNATUS

472.

Romae nuntiatum

Id ubi

pavor, tanta trepidatio

obsiderent

tra hostes

quanta^

fuit,

cum autem

si

sensu dictator est dictus.

omnium

con- 10

Romani,
colebat agrum.
Ad "

lUe, spes unica imperi

trans Tiberim tunc quattuor iugerum


missi legati

tantus''

urbem ipsam, non casaltero consule parum


dici placuit, qui ^ rem ^

T. Quinctius Cincinnatus

adflictam restitueret.

eius cir-

est,

in

esse praesidi^ videretur, dictatorem''

quem

458)

Minucium atque exercitum

AequI"* cdnsulem

I.

cumsessos tenebant.

(B.C.

^^

nudum eum arantem

Salute

ofifenderunt.

^^

data invicem redditaque Cincinnatus togam propere e tugu-

uxorem Raciliam

rio proferre

iussit, ut senattis

mandata

toga- 13

tus audiret.

Postquam, absterso " pulvere ac sudore, toga indutus

II.

processit Cincinnatus, dictatorem

salutant

cinnatus

deductus

whose sake.

map

a classical
^

tantus

on parum
to be

est.

legati gratulantes con-

venit

et

sit,"

exponunt.

From

complector.

Supply

esse.

quanta, so great

it

"^

how great

as great as.

dictatorem dIci placuit,

was resolved that a

it

messengers

who were

had exchanged greetings.

p. 177,

1.

5,

Look on
Rome.
Depends

dictator be appointed.

and note.

i-

sent to him.

What

literally

saldte
^"^

From

pleased a dictator

^ rem adflictam, the suffering


419 and 420.
pends on agrum. F"or the form iugerum, see Vocabulary.

they

for the country of the Aequi, a short distance east of

restitueret: see

legati, the

Cin-

antecedentibus lictoribus 20

Postero die profectus, Minucio obsi-

see 256 and 257.

appointed

eum

exercitu

in

Romam

igitur

domum
"^for

quantus terror

qui

11

ad

reddita,

abstergeo.

De-

^^

state.

when
^^

See

FIRST YEAR LATIN

194
dione

victos

liberate,

triumphans ingressus

militaria signa praelata

tus
5

DuctP

natus sexto decimo die

'^

Urbem

misit.

ante currum duces hostium,

seciitus est exercitus

praeda onus-

omnium domos. Cincinsex mensis


dictatura,*' quam in
ante

epulae instructae sunt

iugum

sub

hostis

est.

''

acceperat, se abdicavit et ad boves rediit triumphalis agricola,

TITUS MANLIUS TORQUATUS

473.

(B.C.

361)

T. Manlius ob ingeni et linguae tarditatem a patre rus

I.

Qui cum audivisset patri^ diem dictam esse


a Pomponio, tribuno plebis, cepit consilium, rudis quidem et
relegatus erat.

animi, sed pietate

10 agrestis

mane
git.

^^

stans se

eum transfixurum

Cultr5 succinctus^^

laudabile.

minatur, nisi ab incepta acciisa-

Pavidus tribunus, quippe

tione desistat.
15

^^

urbem atque a porta c5nfestim ad Pomponium perIntroductus cultrum stringit et super lectum Pomponi
in

^^

qui cerneret ferrum

Ea

ante oculos micare, accusationem dimisit.

res adulescenti

honor!" fuit, quod acerbitas paterna animum eius a pietate


non avertisset ideoque eodem anno tribiinus militum factus est.
^^
II. Cum postea Galli ad tertium lapidem trans Anienem
fluvium castra posuissent,^*' exercitus
20 tus

est et

erat
1

Romanus ab urbe
Pons

in citeriore ripa fluvi constitit.

tunc Gallus eximia corporis magnitudine,"

For

translation,

compare

353,

6.

The

in

abdicavit
*

See

From

praefero

see 187

196, 2,

and

and

197,

supply sunt.
^

188.

2.

patri

Supply

after sixteen days: take with

Depends on
.

medio

vacuum

yoke, symbolical of servitude,

consisted of two spears set upright and a third laid across them.
sunt.

profec-

in

abdicavit; see 232.

esse, that

"^

for.

a day had been appointed

for his father^s trial {for his father), that is, for banishing his son.
^'^
Subject
girding himself
in point of Hal affection; see 374.
accusative of transfixurum (esse), and refers to Manlius, subject of minatur.

'^'^

13

quippe qui, since he.

into the Tiber three miles


Gallus.

See 306 and 307.

"^"^

" See

348, 2, and
above Rome.

a.
^^

^^

Yxqvs\

The Anio empties


pono.

^^

Limits

ROMAN HISTORY

STORIES FROM
pontem

processit

pugnam,

eventus

ut

Tum

fuit.

maxima voce potuit/ "Quem^

fortissimum habet,

certaminis nostri

Diu

bello sit^ melior."

silentium

quam

et

"Roma

nunc," inquit,

195

inter primores

is

procedat^ ad

ostendat, utra gens

iuvenum Romanorum

Titus Manlius ex statione ad impera-

"Iniussu tuo," inquit, " imperator, extra ordinem numquam pugnaverim,'' non si certam victoriam videam.
Si tu permittis, volo isti beluae ostendere me ex ea familia

torem pergit

ortum* esse, quae Gallorum agmen ex rtipe Tarpeia deiecit."


Cui imperator "Macte*^ virtute," inquit, "Tite Manli, esto
:

nomen Romanum invictum praesta."


scutum capit, HisIII. Armant deinde iuvenem aequales
pano cingitur ' gladio ad propiorem pugnam habili. Exspectabat eum Gallus stolide laetus et linguam ab inrisu exserens.
Ubi constitere inter duas acies, Gallus ensem cum ingenti
Manlius vero insinuavit sese
sonitu in arma Manli deiecit.
inter corpus et arma Galli atque iano et altero ictu ventrem

10

perge et

transfodit

iacenti^

torquem

detraxit, quern cruore

Defixerat paver

collo circumdedit suo.

respersum^

cum admiratione

Gal-

obviam militi suo progrediuntur et graManlius


tulantes laudantesque ad imperatorem perducunt.

Romani

los.

alacres

nomen accepit.
Idem Manlius, postea consul

15

20

inde Torquati
IV.

factus, bello Latino, ut

disclplinam militarem restitueret, edixit ne

nem

pugnaret.

hostium

'

1 quam
quem
.

R5ma
*

habet

filius

potuit,

in

the

procedat: translate as
;

from him

eius

accessit

quis extra ordi-

prope stationem

qui Latino equitatui praeerat, ubi consulis filium

What

loudest voice possible.


if it

stood:

is

literally?

fortissimus procedat quern

^ See sit, p. 193, 1. 19, and note.


on procedat, see 340, a (i).
^ From orior.
if it were pugnem
see 404, 4, and 406.
esto, be honored on account of thy valor = good for your

Translate ^s

macte
pluck!

is

Forte

'girds himself.
as he

Compare

succlnctus, p. 194,

was lying prostrate ; present

^ From respergS.
from iacio.
ne, and num, forms of quis mean

^'^

a;/y,

1.

10,

and note

ne quis, that ne one: after

any

11.

participle, dative singular,

one, anything.

si, nisi,

25

FIRST YEAR LATIN

196
agnovit,^

"Visne," inquit, " congredi mecum, ut singularis


quantum eques Latinus Romano

certaminis eventu cernatur,


praestet

Movit^ ferocem animum iuvenis seu

"

Oblitus

trectandi^ certaminis pudor.


5

ira seu de-

itaque imperi paterni

Latinum ex equo excussum^ transfixit,


Extemplo filium
aversatus consul milites classico advocat qui postquam f requentes* convenere "Quandoquidem," inquit, " tu, fill, condisciplinam poena
tra imperium c5nsulis pugnasti, oportet
Triste exemplum sed in ^ posterum salubre
tua restituas.
Metu omnes
I," lictor, deliga ad palum."
iuventuti eris.
certamen

in

ruit et

spoliisque lectis/ in castra ad patrem venit.

"^

'*

10

obstupuere

postquam, cervice caesa, fusus

sed

omni deinde

redeunti

tunc

eum

et

vita exsecrata est.

MARCUS VALERIUS CORVUS

474.

et

cruor,

est

Romam

^-

obviam exierunt; iuventus

seni5res tantum^^
15

Manlio

questus et lamenta erupere.

in

cum Romani

Bello Gallico

(B.C.

349)

in stationibus quieti

^*

tempus

quidam magnitudine ^^ atque armis insignis


ante alios processit quatiensque scutum hasta, cum silentium fecisset, unum e Romanis per interpretem provocavit,
qui
secum ferro decerneret. Erat Marcus Valerius tribunus
tererent," Gallus

20

^''

militum, adulescens, qui prius sciscitatus consulis voluntatem


in

medium armatus processit. Tunc res visu ^* mirabilis accinam cum iam manum consereret Valerius, repente

disse fertur

galea eius corvus consedit in hostem versus.

in

From agnosco.
From obliviscor.
1

The
^

subjects are ira and pudor.

excussum

compare 353,6.

From

great numbers.

oportet

^3

Adverb, only.

with terrerent.
1"

Compare

p. 193,

^^

posterum, for the future.

translate

Ales non

Compare

restituas

See

507.

oportet ut restituas.
i-

362,

2.

by two verbs

"qui ^Kisto^dxa, atid after they.

lego.
.

transfixit

in

^'Mn

Depends on obviam.
i^ po not confound

i-*

An

^i''

Ablative of cause with insignis; see 164 and 165.

note

adjective used adverbially.

S.

^^

See 372,

2,

and 374.

ROMAN HISTORY

STORIES FROM
solum captam

tamen

97

semel sedem tenuit, sed quotiescumque cer-

inituni est, levans se alls os oculosque Galli rostro et

Hostem

unguibus adpetiit.
conspectli

dictus

territum talis prodigi visu ocu-

Corvus

mente turbatum Valerius obtruncat.

lisque simul ac
e

elatus

orientem

Inde Valerius Corvus

petit.

PYRRHUS MAKES

475.

WAR ON THE ROMANS

(k.c.

280-275)

rex,

quod Romanorum legatis iniuriam fecissent


Quibus auxilio'' venit Pyrrhus, Epiri*
qui genus ab Achille ducebat.
Contra Pyrrhum missus

est

consul

I.

Tarentinis

'^

bellum indictum

iussit

est.

est.

cum exploratores regis cepisset,


Romana circumduci tumque incolumis
quae vidissent Pyrrho renuntiarent. Mox com-

Laevinus, qui,

10

eos per castra

dimitti, ut ea

missa pugna, cum


tos

" iam hostes pedem referrent, rex elephanRomanorum agmen agi iussit quo facto mutata est
fortuna.
Romanos vastorum'^ corporum moles terri-

in

proeli

bilisque*^

superadstantium armatorum species Hurbavit.

conspectu

etiam,

odore beluarum

et

exterriti,

finem

proelio

fecit.

Pyrrhus captivos Romanos

II.

sessores vel

Nox

excutiebant vel secum in fugam abripiebant.

summo

in

honore habuit

Quos" cum adverse volnere '" et truci voltu


etiam mortuos iacere vidisset, manus ad caelum sustulisse
dicitur cum hac voce: "Ego talibus viris" brevi ^- orbem
occisos sepelivit.

captam

literally.'

tenuit, kept /its perch,

'flying

away; from

coast of southeastern Italy.


p.

194,

1.

when

at last.

enormous

'

vastorum
^

size.

See

tive of iacere; see also p.

lectively; so voltii.
12

brevi

Find Epirus

16.

their

luitk.

15

Equi

11

See 348 and compare adulescenti honori,


in northwestern Greece.
'cum iam,
.

moles, the mass of their vast bodies

p. 1S8,

178,

1.

Ablative of

brevi tempore.

when he had once lighted on it. What


^ Find Tarentum on the

effero.

1.

18,

and note
and note.

5,

5.
'^'^

wounds, used

means with subegissem,

Subject accusacol-

best translated

20

FIRST YEAR LATIN

198

Deinde ad urbem Romam magnis


omnia ferro ignique vastavit ad vice-

terrarum subegissem."
itineribus contendit

simum ab urbe lapidem

castra

Pyrrho^

posuit.

obviam

cum novo exercitu quo ^ viso rex ait sibi ^


eandem* adversus Romanos esse fortunam, quam^ Herculi
venit Laevinus

adversus hydram, cui tot^ capita renascebantur, quot^ praecisa

Deinde

erant.

Campaniam

in

senatu de redimendis

"

captivis

se recepit

legates

missos**

honorifice

excepit

captiv5s sine pretio reddidit, ut Romani, c5gnita iam eius

cognoscerent etiam liberalitatem.

10 virtiite,

Pyrrhus miti ac placabili animo

Erat

III.

rnagni animi comes esse dementia.**

Qui cum sero

sunt Tarentini.

dominum

accepisse, sortem

vocibus querebantur,

liberls

idque aliquant5 liberius^ ubi vino incaluerant.

15

enim

se pro socio

intellexissent

suam

solet

Eius humanitatem expert!

Itaque arces-

ad regem sunt nonnulli, quod" inter convivium parum


honorifice de rege locuti essent sed periculum simplex consiti

fessio

culpae

Nam cum

discussit.

rex percontatus esset


ea quae ad auris suas pervenerant dixissent, " Et ^^
haec diximus," inquiunt, "rex! et nisi vinum defecisset,

num ^^

20

multo

pliira

malebat vini

graviora dicturi

et
^^

quam hominum

^^

fuimus."

Pyrrhus,

qui

earn culpam videri," subridens

e5s dimisit.
Pyrrho obviam

compare Manlio

obviam, p. 196,

^ With esse
and wheti the king saw this.
^ tot
quam see 332.
quot, so matty
as.
Compare p. 193, ]. 6, and note.
the ambassadors who were sent.
Compare

rex,

"^

solet.
13

See 255,

^'^

because.

we should have said.


wine rather than of the men.

dicturi fuimus,

the

rt.

" See
1*

298.

13.

1.

see 115.

how many
missos

364,
^"^

I.

et

8.
.

quo vIso

eandem

as ?nany
legates,

Subject of

et: see 155.

that it should seem the fault of

WAR

CAESAR: GALLIC
CAESAR: GALLIC WAR,

Aduaiuci prepare

77/ 1-

Aduatuci,*

to

make a

(n.c. 57)

desperate resistance

cum omnibus

qui

99

{Adapted)

THE STORY OF THE ADUATUCI

476.

I.

H, 29-33

copiis

veniebant, hac pugna" nuntiata, ex itinere

auxilio^

Nerviis

domum

reverte-

runt cunctis oppidls castellisque desertis sua omnia in unum


oppidum egregie natura munitum contulerunt. Quod* ex^
omnibus in circuitu partibus * altissimas rupis despectusque
;

habebat, sed una


batur

ex*^

parte leniter adclivis aditus relinque-

quern' locum duplicx altissimo

magni ponderis saxa

et

muro munierant et
in muro conlo-

praeacutas trabis

cabant.

From

their walls they taunt the

Ac primo^ adventu

II.

Romans

exercitus nostri'* crebras ex oppido

cum

excursiones faciebant parvulisque proeliis

tendebant

postea, vallo

decim milium

^"

Ubi,

vineis

^-

nostris con-

in circuitu quin-

circummuniti, oppido

crebrisque castellis

continebant.

sese

pedum duodecim ^
actis

aggere

^^

exstructo,

1 Look on a map of Gaul in the northeastern part, about the river Mosa
(now Meuse), in what is now Belgium.
-for an aid = to aid ; see 348
^ The reference is to a battle in which the Nervii had been
and 349.

almost annihilated.
a circuit

this toT.vn.

ex

partibus,

from

all parts in

On

on all sides round about, or simply all around.

the sepa-

^ on, as in line 4.
from partibus, see p. 188, 1. 5, note 5.
^
^ primo
nostri
as
Do not translate which place, but this place.
^ That is, in height.
What literally ?
soon as our army got there.
^i oppido = in oppido.
i- vineis actis (actis from
Supply pedum.
These vincae were wooden
that the vineae had been got readyago)
sheds, open in front and rear, used to protect men who were working to
undermine a wall or fill up a ditch in front of fortifications. They were
about eight feet high, of like width, and double that length, covered with
raw hides to protect them from being set on fire, and moved on wheels or
rollers.
See p. 155.

ration of omnibus

1''

FIRST YEAR LATIN

200

turrim^ procul constitui^ viderunt, primum inridere ex muro


atque increpitare^ vocibus coeperunt, quod tanta machinatio

ab* tanto spatio in.strueretur

quibusnam^ manibus aut

bus viribus*^ praesertim homines tantulae staturae


tanti oneris ^ in muro ^ sese conlocare confiderent ?

But soon
III.

they lose confidence

Ubi vero turrim mover!

^^

and offer

to

''

qui-

turrim

surrender

adpropinquare moenibus

et

nova atque inusitata specie commoti, legates ad


Caesarem de pace miserunt, qui ad hunc modum locuti ^^ sunt
AduatucI non existimant R5man5s sine ope divina bellum
viderunt,

10 gerere,

qui^^ tantae altitudinis machinationes tanta celeritate

promovere possint

^^

itaque se suaque omnia eorum potestati

Unum ^'

permittunt.

petunt

si

forte Caesar pro sua^'* de-

mentia ac mansuetudine statuerit


vandos, ne^*^ eos armis despoliet.
15

Aduatucos esse conser-

^'

Omnes

fere finitimi sunt


"
inimici ac suae virtuti invident, a quibus se defendere traditis

armis non poterunt.


cantur,-"

Sibi

^^

praestet,

si

eum ^^ casum dedupati, quam ab

in

quamvis fortunam a populo Romano

inimicis per cruciatum intertici.


1

See 479, c

Passive infinitive present

was being

raised.

increpitare

""with
^a\i tacato ST^aXio, so far azvay.
What literally ?
what hands, pray ? nam is added for emphasis, to point their sarcasm.
6 Not from vir.
To the taller Belgians the Romans looked like " little

vocibus, AjA

'^

chaps."

Compare

hoist the tower


loquor.

two

1-

upon

since

for

siege

their wall.
.

1*

lines below.

meaning

Roman

unacquainted with

they can.
his usual.

ponderis, p. 199,

1.

8.

^^ to

^^
^^

be

moved

was moving.

one thing, namely ne

''^^

be better for

them

in the next line.

deducantur

praestet
^^

arms; see
is

From

11
.

despoliet,

Future perfect, shall have decided

ne
but better translated shall decide or decides.
he (Caesar) would not deprive them of their arms.
they should deliver up their

The Aduatuci,

operations, supposed they intended to

357, a.

'^

1"

despoliet, that

traditis armis, //

sibi praestet,

/'/

woidd

used impersonally, the real subject being patI

eum casum,

^'

such a condition.

a conditional sentence of the second form

praestet, si

see 404, 4, and 406.

WAR

CAESAR: GALLIC
T/iey

201

must disarm, but are promised protection

haec Caesar respondit " Magis consuetudine mea


merito vestro civitatem conservabo, si prius quam murum

Ad

IV.

quam

aries- attigerit,'' vos dedideritis

imperabo ne quam

finitimisque

Romani
facere

'

inferant."

dixerunt.

sam quae

sed deditionis nulla est con-

Id quod in^ Nerviis feci faciam

dicio nisi* armis traditls.

erat

populi

iniuriam dediticiis

ante oppidum iacta

summam**

ut prope

est,

muri aggerisque altitiidinem^ acervi eorum adaequarent,

tamen

perspectum^

circiter pars tertia, ut postea

atque in oppido
die pace

^^

Re niintiata ad suos, quae imperarentur


Armorum tanta multitQdo de muro in fos-

retenta

est,

et

celata

^"

lo

Deinde portis patefactis eo

est.

sunt usi oppidani.


brave dash for freedom, but a terrible fate

./

Sub vesperum Caesar portas claudi militesque ex oppido


Oppidani consilio ^^ ante inito, ut intellectum ^^
facta nostros" praesidia deducturos aut
deditione
quod

V,

exire iussit.
est,

denique

indiligentius servaturos crediderant, tertia

^^

^^

vigilia,

qua^' minime arduus ad nostras mimitiones ascensus videbatur,


1

according

to

my

"

custom.

beam

long, strong

with an iron head in the form of a ram's head.

It

of wood, furnished

was suspended from a

framework by a strong chain or ropes, and worked by men,


breach

in

a wall.

See illustration,

following future perfect by the present; see

armis

traditis.

Compare

common meaning
*

it

See

p. 195,

may be

418,

b.

9.

24,

of

in

^
^^

Supply

^'

our commanders

i- consilio

servaturos (esse).

^*

at

5,

p. 200,

and

the

'v[i\\.Q,

any

summam

pace sunt usi

make a

1.

13,

and
^

ablative

note.

* nisi

in the case of; a

denoting persons.

expect se facturos esse, and


.

to

translate this and the

note.

"One would

I''

est.

1.

with nouns in

and note.

so translated.

kept quiet.

note

1.

200,

p.

202.

p.

forming a plan

altitudinem, top.

See

not used {enjoyed) peace, but


;

from

inito

ineo.

^'

See

subject accusative of deducturos (esse) and

rate.

^^

tertia vigilia

the night into four watches of about three hours each.

the

Romans
i"

-where.

divided

15

FIRST YEAR LATIN

202

repentino ex oppido eruptionem fecerunt.

omnibus

copiis

Celeriter,

ut ante Caesar

facta, ex

imperarat,^ ignibus

proximis castellis eo concursum

'^

significatione

Ibi

est.

pugnatum

ab hostibus in * extrema spe salutis iniquo loco


contra eos qui ex vallo Hurribusque tela iacerent, cum in una

est acriter
5

omnis spes

virtute

Occisis

salutis consisteret.

ad^hominum

oppidum reiecti sunt. Postridie**


cum" iam defenderet nemo/ atque

milibus quattuor reliqui in


eius diei refractis portis,

intromissis militibus nostris,


lo

Ab

Caesar vendidit.

eum
1

relatus

^^

p. 201,

p.

cum

virtijte,

91,

What

Iva^txll,

on the following day.


position.

"booty" included
cattle.

13

From

5,

eius oppidi
^^

universam

numerus ad

* in

13.

literally

Compare
all

What

'

literally

their (the

^^

was reported

to be

Romans')

since.
I

Compare

salutis, as their last

about, adverb.

" silver and gold have

the inhabitants.

refero

by fire signals.

note.

since in valor alone.

from

its

1.

and note

14,

1.

chance of saving themselves.


^

sectionem"

qui emerant capitum

^st milium quinquaginta trium.

For imperaverat, see

intellectum est,

iis

none."

1^

redoubt.
postridie

Emphatic

" The

\Ve say so many "head" of

^3,000.

These 53,000 captives

chain gangs to the Province or to Italy and sold


in lots to suit purchasers, there to wear out their lives in bondage.

were probably driven

in

Battering Ram

APPENDIX
TABLES OF
DECLENSION, CONJUGATION, ETC.

NOUNS
FIRST DECLENSION A-Stems

477.

Plural

Singular

Terminations

Terminations

Nom.

hasta

-a

hastae

-ae

Gen.

hastae

-ae

hastarum

-arum

Dat.

hastae

-ae

hastis

-IS

Ace.

hastam

-am

hastas

-as

Abl.

hasta

-a

hastis

-IS

SECOND DECLENSION O-Stems

478.

Plu:ral

Singular

Te rminations

Terminations

Masc.

Masc.

Nom.

hortus

-us

horti

-1

Gen.

horti

-i

hortorum

-orum

Dal.

horto

-6

hortis

-is

Ace.

hortum

-um

hortSs

-6a

Abl.

horto

-6

hortis

-is

203

FIRST YEAR LATIN

204

Plural

Sing ULAR

Terminations

Terminations

Neut.

Xeut.

Nom.

donum

-um

dona

-a

-orum

Gen.

doni

-i

dcnorum

Dat.

dono

-6

donls

-Is

Ace.

donum

-um

d5na

-a

Abl.

dono

-6

ddnis

-Is

a.

The

vocative singular of nouns in -us of the second declension

has a special form

in -e

horte.

Singular

Nom.

puer

ager

vir

Gen.

puerl

agri

virT

fill, -ii

Dat.

puer5

agro

viro

fllio

Ace.

puerum

agrum

virum

fllium

AM.

puero

agro

viro

fllio

Nom.

puerl

agrI

viri

fllil

Gen.

puerorum

agrorum

virSrum

flliorum

Dat.

pueris

agris

viris

filils

Ace.

pueros

agros

viros

filios

Abl.

pueris

agrls

viris

flliis

fllius

Plural

a.

The

vocative singular of

filius is fill.

THIRD DECLENSION

479.

M.

Mute Stems
Singular

Terminations
M. &

F.

N.

Nom.

rex

miles

virtus

caput

-s or

Gen.

regis

mllitis

virtutis

capitis

-is

-is

Dat.

regi

mllitl

virtuti

capiti

-I

-I

Ace.

regem

militem

virtutem

caput

-em

Abl.

rege

mllite

virtu te

capita

-e

-e

APPENDIX

205

I'LURAI.

Terminations
M. U

reges

niilites

virtutes

rcgum

mlHtum

virtu turn

regibus

militibus

virtutibus

reges

mllites

virtutes

regibus

militibus

virtutibus

It.

capita

N.

V.

-es

-a

capitum

-um

-um

capitibus

-ibus

-ibus

capita

-es

-a

capitibus

-ibus

-ibus

Liquid Stems

Singular

homo
hom inis
hom ini
hominem
hom ine

pater
patris
patri

patrem
patre

volnus

corpus

volneris

corporis

volneri

corpori

volnus

corpus

volnere

corpore

hom ines
hominum

volnera

corpora

volnerum

corporum

hominibus
homines
hominibus

volneribus

corporibus

Plural
patres

patrum
patribus
patres

patribus

c.

volnera

corpora

volneribus

corporibus

I-Stems

Singular

Terminations
M. &

hostis

nubes

urbs

animal

F.

N.

-s

-is

hostis

nubis

urbis

animalis

-is

host!

nubi

urbi

animal!

-1

hostem

nubem

urbem

animal

-em

hoste

nube

urbe

animali

-e

-i

-I

Plural
hostes

nubes

urbes

animalia

-es

-ia

hostium

nubium

urbium

animalium

-ium

-ium

hostibus

nubibus

urbibus

animalibus

-ibus

-ibus

urbis, -es

animalia

-Is.

urbibus

animalibus

-ibus

hostis, -es nubis, -es

hostibus

nubibus

-es -ia

-ibus

FIRST YEAR LATIN

2o6

Plur.

Sing.

Plur.

Sing.

Norn.

Ignis

Ignes

turris

turres

turrium

Gen.

Ignis

Ignium

turris

Dat.

Igni

ignibus

turri

Ace.

Ignem

Ignis,

turrim,

AM.

Igni, -e

Ignibus

-ei

turribus
-

em

turris, -es

turribus

turri, -e

FOURTH DECLENSION U-Stems

480.

Singular
Terminations

Terminations
Neut.

Masc.

cornu

-u

cornus

-us

cornu

-u

-um

cornu

-ii

-u

cornu

-u

Norn.

gradus

Gen.

Dat.

gradus
-us
gradui (-u) -ui (-u)

Ace.

gradum

Abl.

gradu

-us

Plural
Norn.

gradus

-us

cornua

-ua

Gen.

graduum

-uum

cornuum

-uum

Dat.

gradibus

-ibus (-ubus)

cornibus

-ibus (-ubus)

Ace.

gradus

-us

cornua

-ua

Abl.

gradibus

-ibus (-ubus)

cornibus

-ibus (-ubus)

FIFTH DECLENSION E-Stems

481

Terminations
Sing.

Plur.

Sing.

Plur.

Sing.

Plur.

Norn.

dies

dies

res

res

-es

-es

Gen.

diei

dierum

rei

rerum

-ei

-erum

Dat.

diel

diebus

rei

rebus

-ii

-ebus

Ace.

diem

dies

rem

res

-em

-es

Abl.

die

diebus

re

rebus

-e

-ebus

APPENDIX

207

SPECIAL PARADIGMS

482.

Singular
A^or/t,

cleus

domus

Gen.

del

donius,

Dat.

deo

domul, -6

Ace.

deum

Abl.

deo

Noin.

del, dii, di

Gen.

deorum, deum

Dat.

senex

VIS

senis

visi

seni

vP

domum

senem

vim

domo, -u

sene

vi

domiis

senes

vires

domuum, -orum

senum

virium

dels, diis, dis

domibus

senibus

viribus

Aee.

deos

donios, -us

senes

viris,

Abl.

dels, dils, dis

domibus

senibus

viribus

IVom.

iter

bos

mare

luppiter

Gen.

itineris

bovis

maris

lovis

-1

Plural

-es

Singular

Dat.

itineri

bovi

mari

lovi

Aee.

iter

bovem

mare

lovem

Abl.

itinere

bove

mari

love

No in.

itinera

boves

maria

Gen.

itinerum

maribus

Plural

Dat.

itineribus

bovum, bourn
bobus, bubus

Aee.

itinera

boves

maria

Abl.

itineribus

bobus, bubus

maribus

The

genitive and dative singular are rare.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

208

ADJECTIVES
FIRST

483.

AND SECOND DECLENSIONS


Singular

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

bonus

bonum

Gen.

boni

Dat.

bono

bona
bonae
bonae

Ace.

bonum

bonam

bonum

Abl.

bono

bona

bono

Nom.

boni

bonae

Gen.

bonorum

bonarum

bonorum

Dat.

bonis

bonis

bonis

Ace.

bonos

bonas

bona

Abl.

bonis

bonis

bonis

boni

bono

Plural
bona

Singular
Fem.

Neut.

Notn.

iTber

libera

llberum
ITberi

Masc.

Gen.

llberi

llberae

Dat.

llbero

iTberae

iTbero

Ace.

llberum

llberam

iTberum

AbL

llbero

libera

ITbero

No in

iTberi

llberae

iTbera

Gen.

iTberorum

llberarum

ITberorum

Dat.

iTberis

llberis

ITberis

Ace.

Hberos

iTberas

iTbera

AbL

llberis

ITberis

ITberis

Plural

APPENDIX

209

Singular
Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

piger

pigra

pigrum
pigri

Gen.

pigri

pigrae

Dat.

pigro

pigrae

pigro

Ace.

pigrum

pigram

pigrum

Abl.

pigro

pigra

pigro

Plural
iXoiii.

pigrI

pigrae

pigra

Gen.

pigrorum

pigrarum

pigrorum

Dat.

pigris

pigris

pigris

Ace.

pigros

pigras

pigra

Abl.

pigris

pigris

pigris

THIRD DECLENSION

484.

Singular
M. &

Nom

audax

Singular
M. &

N.

F.

audax

N.

V.

brevis

breve
brevis

Gen.

audacis

audacis

brevis

Dat.

audaci

audaci

brevi

brevi

Ace.

audacem

audax

brevem

breve

Abl.

audaci, -e

audaci, -e

brevi

brevi

Plural

Plirai

Nom.

audaces

audacia

breves

brevia

Gen.

audacium

audacium

brevium

brevium

Dat.

audacibus

audacibus

brevibus

brevibus

Ace.

audacis, -es

audacia

brevis, -es

brevia

Abl.

audacibus

audacibus

brevibus

brevibus

Plural

Singular
Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

acer

acris

acre

Masc.

Fem.

acres

acres

Neut.
acria

Gen.

acris

acris

acris

acrium

acrium

acrium

Dat.

acri

acri

acri

acribus

acribus

acribus

Ace.

acrem

acrem

acre

acris, -es

acris, -es

acria

Abl.

acri

acri

acri

acribus

acribus

acribus

FIRST YEAR LATIN

2IO

PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLES

485.

Plural

Singular
M. &

M. & F.

N.

F.

N.

Norn.

amans

amans

amantes

amantia

Gen.

amantis

amantis

amantium

amantium

Dat.

amanti

amanti

amantibus

amantibus

Ace.

amans

amantis, -es

amantia

Abl.

amantem
am ante, -i

amante,

amantibus

amantibus

N'ofn.

iens

iens

euntes

euntia

Gen.

euntis

euntis

euntium

euntium

Dat.

eunti

eunti

euntibus

euntibus

Ace.

euntem

iens

euntis, -es

euntia

Abl.

eunte,

eunte,

euntibus

euntibus

-i

-i

-i

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

486.

Plural

Singular
Masc.

Neut.

Fem.

Masc.

Fem

Neut.

Nom.

alius

alia

aliud

alii

aliae

alia

Gen.

alius

alius

alius

aliorum

aliarum

aliorum

Dat.

alii

alii

alii

aliis

aliis

aliis

Ace.

alium

aliam

aliud

alios

alias

alia

Abl.

alio

alia

alio

aliis

aliis

aliis

M. &

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Nom.

unus

una

unum

tres

tria

F.

N.

Gen.

vinius

unius

unius

trium

trium

Dat.

uni

uni

uni

tribus

tribus

Ace.

unum

unam

unum

tris,

Abl.

uno

una

uno

tribus

Nojn.

duo

duae

duo

mille

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

tres

Sing.

tria

tribus
Plur.
milia

Gen.

duorum

duarum

duorum

mille

milium

Dat.

duobus

duabus

mllle

mllibus

Ace.

duos, d lO

duas

Abl.

duobus

duabus

duobus
duo
duobus

mille

milia

mille

milibus

APPENDIX

211

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

481

COMFAKATIVK

Positive

Superlative

-um
-um
audacissimus, -a, -um
miserrimus, -a, -um
acerrimus, -a, -um

alius (alto-)

altior, altius

altissi\nus, -a,

brevis (brevi-)

brevior, brevius

brevissimus,

audax (audaci-)

audacior, audacius

miser (misero-)

miserior, miserius

acer (acri-)

acrior, acrius

-a,

DECLENSION OF COMPARATIVES

488.

Plural

SlNGU] -AR
M. &

A' out.

altior

M. &

N.

V.

N.

F.

altius

altiores

altiora

Gen.

altioris

altioris

altiorum

altiorum

Dat.

altiori

altiori

alti5ribus

altioribus

Ace.

altiorem

altius

altiores, -Is

altiora

Abl.

altiore, -i

altiore, -i

altioribus

altioribus

Norn.

plus

plures

plura

Gen.

pluris

plurium

plurium

pluribus

pluribus

Dat.
Ace.

plus

pluris, -es

plura

Abl.

plure

pluribus

pluribus

IRREGULAR COMPARISON

489.

Comparative

TOSITIVE

-um
malus, -a, -um
magnus, -a, -um
bonus,

multus,

-a,

-a,

-um
-um
maximus, -a, -um

optimus,

peior, peius

pessimus,

-a,

plurimus,

-a,

maior, maius

-um^
,

multi, -ae, -a

Superlative

melior, melius

plus

-a,

-um

-um

minor, minus

minimus,

-a,

senex, senis

senior

maximus

natu

iuvenis, -e

iOnior

minimus natu

vetus, veteris

vetustior, -ius

veterrimus,

parvus,

-a,

-um

-a,

-um

FIRST YEAR LATIN


Comparative

Positive

Superlative

humilis, -e

humilior, -ius

gracilis, -e

gracilior, -ius

-um
-um
simillimus, -a, -um
dissimillimus, -a, -um
humillimus, -a, -um
gracillimus, -a, -um

exterior, outer,

extremus

facilis, -e

facilior, -ius

difficilis, -e

difficilior,

-ius

similis, -e

similior, -ius

dissimilis, -e

dissimilior, -ius

exterus,

outward

facillimus, -a,

difficillimus, -a,

otitermost.

exterior

last

inferus, below

Inferior,

posterus, following

posterior, later

postremus

superus, above

superior, higher

postumus
supremus

lower

infimus
lowest

imus
J

summus
[cis, citra,

on this side^

[in, intra, in,

within]

citerior, hither

interior,

inner

former

[prae, pro, before]

prior,

[prope, near]

propior, nearer

beyond]

[ultra,

ulterior,

further

last
J

highest

citimus, hithermost

intimus, inmost

primus, frst
proximus, next
ultimus, firthest

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

490.
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

care (carus)

carius

misere (miser)

miserius

miserrime

acriter (acer)

acrius

acerrime

facile (facilis)

facilius

facillime

bene (bonus)

melius

optime

male (malus)

peius

pessime

multum (multus)

plOs

plurimum

parum,

little

diu, long,

a long time

saepe, often

carissime

minus

minime

diutius

diijtissime

saepius

saepissime

APPENDIX

213

NUMERALS

491.

Cardinals

ORniNALS
-um

primus,

2.

-um
duo, duae, duo

3.

tres, tria

tertius

4.

quattuor

quartus

5.

quTnque

quintus

6.

sex

sextus

7.

septem

Septimus

8.

octa

octavus

9.

novem

nonus

10.

decern

decimus

11.

undecim

undecimus

12.

duodecim

13.

tredecim

duodecimus
tertius decimus

14.

quattuordecim

quartus decimus

15.

quindecim

quintus decimus

16.

sedecim ^r sexdecim

sextus decimus

7.

septendecim

Septimus decimus

18.

duodevTgintI

duodevlcesimus

19.

undevlginti

undevTcesimus

unus,

1.

-a,

[vigintl
'

Lunus

unus or

et vTginti

JvigintI duo or

"'Iduo

alter)

vTcesimus

vigintl

20.

-a,

secundus (or

et vlginti

vTcesimus primus or

unus

et

vicesimus

rvlcesimus secundus or
lalter et vicesimus

28.

duodetnginta

duodetrlcesimus

29.

undetrlginta

undetrlcesimus

30.

trlginta

tricesimus

40.

quadraginta

quadragesimus

50.

quTnquaginta

quinquagesimus

60.

sexaginta

sexagesimus

70.

septuaginta

septuagesimus

80.

octoginta

octogesimus

90.

nonaginta

n5nas:esimus

FIRST YEAR LATIN

214
Cardinals

Ordinals

centum

loo.

centesimus

fcentum unus or

fcentesimus primus or

Lcentum

Icentesimus

loiA

et

unus

primus

et

200.

ducenti, -ae, -a

300.

trecentl

trecentesimus

400.

quadringenti

quadringentesimus

ducentesimus

500.

quingenti

qulngentesimus

600.

sescenti or sexcentl

sescentesimus
septingentesimus

700.

septingenti

800.

octingentT

octingentesimus

900.

n5ngentl

nongentesimus

mille

millesimus

1000.

duo milia
100,000. centum milia
2000.

bis millesimus

centies millesimus

PRONOUNS

PERSONAL

492.
Sing.

Plur.

Sing.

Plur.

Nam.

ego

nos

tu

vos

Gen.

mel

nostriini, -tri

tul

vestriim,

sui

sui

Dat.

mihi

nobis

tibi

vobis

sibi

sibi

Ace.

me
me

n5s

te

vos

se,

sese

se,

sese

ndbls

te

vobIs

se,

sese

se,

sese

AM.

DEMONSTRATIVE

49S.

Singular

Plural

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Norn.

hlc

haec

hoc

hi

hae

haec

horum

Gen.

huius

huius

hiiius

horum

harum

Dat.

huic

huic

huic

his

his

his

Aee.

hunc
hoc

hanc

hoc

hos

has

haec

hac

hoc

his

his

his

AM.

APPENDIX

215

Singular

Plural
Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

Masc.

Fem.

ille

ilia

illud

illl

iUae

illlus

illius

illTus

illorum

illarum

illorum

ill!

ill!

illf

illis

iUTs

illTs

ilium

illam

illud

iUos

illas

ilia

illo

ilia

ilia

illls

iUTs

illls

Norn,

is

ea

id

11,

eae

ea

Gen.

eius

eius

eius

eorum

Dat.

el

el

ils,

Ace.

eum

earn

eos

Abl.

eo

ea

iis,

Neut.

ei

els

ilia

earum
ils,

els

iis,

els

ils,

ea

eas
els

eorum

els

eis

ils,

Novi.

iste

ista

istud

istl

istae

ista

Gen.

istlus

istius

istlus

istorum

istarum

istarum

Dat.

istl

istl

istl

istis

istls

istls

Ace.

istum

istam

istud

istos

istas

ista

Abl.

ista

ista

isto

istls

istis

istls

fildem

Idem

e'adem

idem

eiusdem eiusdem eiusdem

eldem

eldem

eldem

eundem eandem idem


eodem

eadem

eodem

e'adem
eaedem
leldem
eorundem earundem earundem
fiisdem

ilsdem

iisdem

\^^^^^^
easdem

.j^^em

elsdem

easdem

e'adem

Jilsdem

iisdem

ilsdem

\elsdem

elsdem

eisdem

ipsa

Nom.

ipse

ipsa

ipsum

ipsT

ipsae

Gen.

ipsTus

ipsTus

ipsTus

ipsorum

ipsarum

ipsorum

Dat.

ipsT

ipsT

ipsT

ipsTs

ipsTs

ipsis

Ace.

ipsum

ipsam

ipsum

ipsos

ipsas

ipsa

Abl.

ipso

ipsa

ipso

ipsis

ipsTs

ipsis

FIRST YEAR LATIN

2l6

RELATIVE

m.I

Plural

Singular

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Nom.

qui

quae

quod

qui

quae

quae

qu5rum

Gen.

cuius

cuius

cuius

quorum

quarum

Dai.

cui

cui

cui

quibus

quibus

quibus

Ace.

quern

quam

quos

quas

quae

AM.

quo

qua

quod
qu5

quibus

quibus

quibus

INTERROGATIVE

495.

Plural

Singular

Masc

Neut.

Masc

Fem.

quid (quod)

qui

quae

Fem.

Nom.

quis (qui)

quae

Neut.

quae

Gen.

cuius

cQius

cuius

quorum quarum qu5rum

Dat.

cui

cui

cui

quibus

quibus

quibus

Ace.

quern

quam quid (quod)

qu5s

quas

quae

AM.

quo

qua

quibus

quibus

quibus

quo

INDEFINITE

496.

Singular

Nom.

aliquis

aliqua

aliquid, aliquod

Gen.

alicuius

alicijius

alicuius

Dat.

alicui

alicui

alicui

Ace.

aliquem

aliquam

aliquid, aliquod

AM.

aliqu5

aliqua

aliquo

Nom.

aliqul

aliquae

Gen.

aliquorum

aliquarum

aliquorum

Dat.

aliquibus

aliquibus

aliquibus

Ace.

aliquos

aliquas

aliqua

AM.

aliquibus

aliquibus

aliquibus

Plural
aliqua

APPENDIX

217

Singular

Nom.

quidam

quaedam

quiddam, quoddam

Gen.

cuiusclam

ciiiusdam

cuiusdam

Dat.

cuidam

cuidam

cuidam

Ace.

quendam
qu5dam

quandam

quiddam, quoddam

quad am

quddam

quidam
quorundam
quibusdam
quosdam
quibusdam

quaedam
quarundam

Abl.

Plural
N^om.
Gen.

Dat.
Ace.

Abl.

quaedam
quorundam
quibusdam
quaedam
quibusdam

quibusdam
quasdam

quibusdam

REGULAR VERBS
FIRST CONJUGATION

497.

A- Verbs

amo, love

Principal Parts

amo, amare, amavi, amatus

Indicative
Passive Voice

Active Voice
Present

love.,

am

loving.,

do love,

etc.

am

loved, etc.

amo

amamus

amor

amamur

amas
a mat

amatis

amaris, -re

amant

amatur

amamini
amantur

Imperfect

loved,

was

loving, did love, etc.

/ was loved,

etc.

amabam

amabamus

amabar

amabamur

amabas
amabat

amabatis

amabaris. -re

amabamini

amabant

amabatur

aniabantur

FIRST YEAR LATIN

2l8

Future

/ shall

/ shall be

love, etc.

loved, etc.

amabo

amabimus

amabor

amabimur

amabis

amabitis

amaberis, -re

aniabit

amabuiit

amabitur

amabimini
amabuntur

Perfect

/ have

loved, loved,

did

/ have

love, etc.

been (was) loved,

amavimus

amavi

amatus

amavisti

amavistis

amavit

amaverunt, -re

-;
-I

1^

sum

etc.

sumus

amati i estis

es
est

sunt

Pluperfect

I had loved,

/ had been

etc.

amaveram

amaveramus

amaveras
amaverat

amaveratis

amatus^ eras

amaverant

loved, etc.

eram

eramus

amati ^ eratis

erat

i^

erant

Future Perfect

I shall have

/ shall have

loved, etc.

amavero

amaverimus

amaveris

amaveritis

amaverit

amaverint

amatus \
1^

been loved, etc.

ero
eris
erit

amatl

[^

erimus
eritis

erunt

Subjunctive
Present

amem

amemus

amer

amemur

ames
amet

ametis

ameris, -re

ament

ametur

ameminl
amentur

Imperfect

amarem
am ares

amaremus

amarer

amaremur

amaretis

amareris, -re

amaret

amarent

amaretur

amaremiui
amarentur

^PENDIX

2]

Perfect

amaverim

amaverimus

amaveris

amaveritia

amaverit

amaverint

amavissem

amavissemiis

amavisses

amavissetis

amavisset

amavisseiit

fsim
aniatus

SU

amati

sit

simus
sItis

sint

essemus

iRFECT

essem

amatus

amati

esses

asset

-j

essetis

assent

Imperative
Present

am a,

amare, be thou loved.

love thou.

amamini,

amate, hn'e ye.

be ye loved.

Future
amato, thou shall

amato, he shall

amator,

love.

thoti shall be loved.

amator, he shall be loved.

love.

amatote, you shall

love.

amanto, they shall

love.

amantor. they shall be loved.

Infinitivf.

Pres. amare,

Perf. amavisse,
FuT.

amarl, to be loved.

to love.

araaturus

about

to

have

esse,

loved,
be

to

to love.

amatus esse,

[amatum

to

have been

iri], to

loved.

be about

to

be

-um,

to

be

loi'ed.

Participles

Pres. amans, -antis, loving.

FuT.

amaturus,

-a,

-um, about

Pres.

Ger.^ amandus,

Perf.

Perf.

-a,

lo7'ed.

to love.

amatus,

-a,

-um, having

been loved, loved.


1

Gerundive, sometimes czWed ftiture passive f'articiple

FIRST YEAR LATIN


Gerund

Nom.
Gen.

amandi, of loving.

Dat.

amando, for

Ace.

amandum,

AM.

amando, by

Ace.

[amatum,

AM.

[amatu,

loving.

loving.
loving.

Supine
to love.}

lo love, in the loving.']

SECOND CONJUGATION E- Verbs

498.

moneo, advise

Principal Parts

moneo, monere, monui, monitus

Indicative
Passive Voice

Active Voice
Present

I advise,

/ am

etc.

advised, etc.

moneo
mones

monemus

moneor

monemur

monetis

moneris, -re

monet

monent

monetur

monemini
monentur

Imperfect

/ was advising,

monebani
monebas
monebat

/ ivas advised,

etc.

etc.

monebamus

monebar

monebamur

monebatis

monebaris, -re

monebant

monebatur

monebamini
monebantur

Future

sJiall advise, etc.

/ shall

be advised, etc.

monebo

monebimus

monebor

monebimur

monebis
monebit

monebitis

moneberis, -re

monebunt

monebitur

monebimini
monebuntur

APPENDIX
Perfect

/ have advised^ I ad<'ised,


monui

monuimus

nionuisti

monuistis

monuit

monuerunt,

etc.

I have been

{ivas) adiJised, etc.

fsum
monitus

es

<

sumus

moniti-i estis

[est

-re
I'LUPIiKKliCT

/ had ad^'ised,

/ had been advised,

etc.

monueram monueranius
monueras
monuerat

monitus

monueratis

monuerant

eram
eras

'!

1^

etc.
f

eramus

moniti^ eratis

erat

erant

Future Perfect
/ shall have advised,

/ sJiall have

etc.

monuero

monuerimus

monueris

monueritis

monuerit

monuerint

been advised, etc.

fero
monitus

<j

eris

[erit

erimus

moniti<! eritis
(^

erunt

Subjunctive
Present

moneam

moneamus

monear

moneamur

moneas
moneat

moneatis

monearis, -re

moneant

moneatur

moneamini
moneantur

monerem

mi>neremus
moneretis
monerent

Imperfect

moneres
moneret

monerer

moneremur

monereris, -re

moneremini
monerentur

moneretur
I'erfect

monuerim

monuerimus

monueris

monueritis

monuerit

monuerint

monitus

-1

sim

simus

sis

moniti-l sitis

sit

Isint

Plipekkkct

monuissem

monuissemus

monuisses

monuissetis

monuisset

monuissent

Tessem
monitus

-1

fessemus

esses moniti-l essetis

l^esset

essent

FIRST YEAR LATIN


Imperative
Present

monere, be thou advised.


moneminl, be ye advised.

mone, advise thou.


monete, advise ye.

Future
monetor, thou shalt be advised.

moneto, thot( shalt advise.


moneto, he shall advise.
monetote, you shall advise.

monetor, he shall be advised.

monento, they shall advise.

monentor, they shall

be advised.

Infinitive

Pres. monere,

moneri

to advise.

Perf. monuisse,

to

moniturus
about

to

have

beeti

ad-

vised.

vised.

FUT.

to be advised.

monitus esse,

have ad-

esse,

to

[monitum

be

iri], to be

about

to be

advised.

to advise.

Participles

Pres. monens, -entis, advising.

Pres.

FuT.

Ger.

moniturus,

about

-a,

-um,

monendus,

-a,

-um,

to

be advised.

to advise.

Perf. monitus,

Perf.

-a,

-um, having

been advised., advised.

Gerund
Norn.

Gen.

monendi, of advising.

Dat.

monendo, for advising.

Ace.

monendum,

Abl.

monendo, by advising.

Ace.

[monitum,

Abl.

monitu, to advise, in the advising.

advising.

Supine
to advise."]

APPENDIX

223

E- Verbs

THIRD CON JUGATION

499.

rego, rule

Principal Parts:

reg5, regere, rexi, rectus

Indicative

Active Voice

Pass:ivE

Voice

Present
/rule,

I am

etc.

Titled, etc.

rego

regimus

regor

regimur

regis

regitis

regeris, -re

regimini

regit

regunt

regitur

reguutur

Imperfect

/ was

/ ivas

rulitig, etc.

ruled, etc.

regebam

regebamus

regebar

regebamur

regebas

regebatis

regebaris, -re

regebat

regebant

regebatur

regebamini
regebantur

Future

/ shall

/ shall

rule, etc.

be ruled, etc.

regam

regemus

regar

regemur

reges

regetis

regeris, -re

regemini

reget

regent

regetur

regentur

Perfect

/ have

ruled, etc.

rexi

reximus

rexisti

rexistis

rexit

rexerunt, -re

/ have

been ruled, etc.

rsum
rectus^ es

recti

sumus
estis

[sunt
Pluperfect

/ had ruled,

etc.

rexeram

rexeramus

rexeras

rexeratis

rexerat

rexerant

/ had been
feram
rectus

<

eras
erat

ruled, etc.
f

eramus

recti
ai^ eratis

FIRST YEAR LATIN

224

Future Perfect

I shall have

ruled, etc.

rexero

rexerimus

rexeris

rexeritis

rexerit

rexerint

I shall have

been ruled, etc.

fero
rectus

eris

<(

recti

[erit

erimus
eritis

j
[

erunt

Subjunctive
Present

regam

regamus

regar

regamur

regas

regatis

regaris, -re

regamini

regat

regant

regatur

regantur

Imperfect

regerem

regeremus

regerer

regeremur

regeres

regeretis

regereris, -re

regeremini

regeret

regerent

regeretur

regerentur

Perfect

rexerim

rexerimus

rexeris

rexeritis

rexerit

rexerint

rexissem

rexissemus

rexisses

rexissetis

rexisset

rexissent

fsim
rectus

SIS

recti

simus
sitis

[sint

[sit

Pluperfect
r

rectus

essem
esses

recti-!

[esset

essemus
essetis

essent

Imperative
Present
rege, rule thou.

regere, be thou ruled.

regite, rule ye.

regimini, be ye ruled.

Future
regito, thou shall rule.

regitor, thou shall be ruled.

regito, he shall rule.

regitor, he shall be ruled.

regitote,

ye shall

rule.

regunto, they shall

7'ule.

reguntor, they shall be ruled.

APPENDIX

225

Infinitive

Pres.

regere, to rule.

Perf.
FuT.

rexisse, to

esse,

recturus

about

regi, to be ruled.

rectus esse, to have been ruled.

have ruled.
to

be

[rectum

iri],

be about to

to

be

ruled.

to rule.

Participles

Pres.

regens, -entis, ruling.

FuT.

recturus,

-a, -urn,

Pres.

about

Gek.

regendus,

-urn, to be

-a,

ruled.

to rule.

Perf.

Perf.

rectus,

-a,

-um,

having

been ruled, ruled.

Gerund
Nofn.

Gen.
Dat.

regendi, of ruling.
regendo, for ruling.

Ace.

regendum,

Abl.

regendo, by ruling.

Ace.

[rectum,

Abl.

[rectu, to rule, in the rulifig.']

ruling.

Supine
to rule.']

THIRD CONJUGATION Verbs

500.

in -io

capi5, take

Principal Parts

capi5, capere, cepi, captus

Indicative
Passive Voice

Active Voice
Present

take, etc.

am

taken, etc.

capimur

capio

capimus

capior

capis

capitis

caperis, -re

capimini

capit

capiunt

capitur

capiuntur

226

FIRST YEAR LATIN


Imperfect

/ was

taking,

/ was

etc.

taken, etc.

capiebam

capiebamus

capiebar

capiebas

capiebatis

capiebaris, -re

capiebamini

capiebat

capiebant

capiebatur

capiebautur

capiebamur

Future

/ shall

/ shall

take, etc.

be taken, etc.

capiatn

capiemus

capiar

capiemur

capies

capietis

capieris, -re

capiemini

capiet

capient

capietur

capientur

Perfect
captus sum,

cepi, cepisti, cepit, etc.

es, est, etc.

Pluperfect

ceperam, ceperas, ceperat,

etc.

captus eram, eras, erat,

etc.

Future Perfect
cepero, ceperis, ceperit,

captus ero, eris,

etc.

erit, etc.

.Subjunctive

Present
capiam, capias, capiat,

capiar, -iaris, -re, -iatur, etc.

etc.

Imperfect

caperem, caperes, caperet,

etc.

ceperim, ceperis,

etc.

caperer, -ereris, -re, -eretur, etc.

Perfect
ceperit,

captus sim,

sis, sit, etc.

Pluperfect
cepissem,cepisses,cepisset,etc.

captus esseni, esses, esset,

etc.

Imperative
Pres.

FuT.

cape, take

thojt.

capere, be thou taken.

capite, take ye.

capimini, be ye taken.

capita, thoti shall take,

capitor,

etc.

etc.

thou

shalt

be

taken,

APPENDIX

227

Inkimtive
Prks.

capere, to take.

Pkrf.

cepisse, to have taken,

captus esse,

FuT.

capturus

[captum

about

capi, to be taken.

esse,

be

to

to

iri],

have been taken.

to

about

be

to

be

taken.

to take.

Participles

Pres.

capiens, -ientis, taking.

FuT.

capturus.

-a,

-um,

Pres.

Ger.

^(^d?7^/

capiendus,

-a,

-um,

/^ be

taken.

to take.

Perf.

Pekf.

captus,

-um, having

-a,

been taken.

Gerund
Gen.

capiendi, of taking,

etc.

Supine
Ace.

[captum,

Abl.

[captu, to take, in the taking.]

to take.']

FOURTH CONJUGATION I- Verbs

501.

audio,

Principal Parts

hear

audio, audire, audivi, auditus

Indicative
Passive Voice

Active Voice
PRE.'iKNT

/ hear,

/ atn heard,

etc.

audimus

audio

etc.

audior

audimur
audimini
audiuntur

audis

auditis

audiris, -re

audit

audiunt

auditur

Imperfect

Tuas hearing, etc.

/ zuas heard,

etc.

audiebam

audiebamus

audiebar

audiebamur

audiebas

audiebatis

audiebaris. -re

audiebamini

audiebat

audiebant

audiebatur

audiebautur

FIRST YEAR LATIN

228

Future

I shall hear,

/ shall

etc.

be heard, etc.

audiam

audiemus

audiar

audiemur

audies

audietis

audieris, -re

audiemini

audiet

audient

audietur

audientur

Perfect

/ have heard,

/ have been heard,

etc.

["sum

audlvi

audlvimus

audlvisti

audlvistis

audlvit

audlverunt, -re

auditus"! es

etc.
f

audit!

sumua
estis

sunt

l^est

Pluperfect

/ had heard,

/ had been

etc.

heard,

etc.

feramus

Teram

audiveram

audlveramus

audlveras

audiveratis

audTtus<! eras

audlti-^ eratis

audiverat

audlverant

[erat

[erant

Future Perfect

/ shall have

heard,

/ shall have been heard,

etc.

audivero

audiverimus

audiveris

audiveritis

auditus<; eris

audiverit

audlverint

lerit

audit!

-I

I,

etc.

erimus
eritis

erunt

Subjunctive
Present

audiam

audiamus

audiar

audiamur

audias

audiatis

audiaris,

audiamini

audiat

audiant

audiatur

audiantur

audirem

audiremus

audirer

audiremur

audires

audiretis

audireris, -re

audiremini

audiret

audirent

audiretur

audirentur

Imperfect

APPENDIX

audlverim

audiverimus

audlveris

audiveritis

audlverit

audlverint

audlvissem

audivissemiis

audivisses

audlvissetis

audivisset

audlvissent

229

sim

audlrus^ sis
I

audit!

sit

simus
sitis

-I

sint

essemus

Pluperfect
r

essem

audltus-l esses
I

audit!

essetis

essent

esset

Imperative
Present

hear thou.
audite, hear ye.

audire, be thou heard.

audi,

audimini. be ye heard.

Future
audits,

tJioii

auditor, thou shall be heard.

shall hear.

auditor, he shall be heard.

audits, he shall hear.

auditote, j^ shall hear.

audiuntor,

audiunto, ihey shall hear.

tliey

shall be heard.

Infinitive

Pres. audire,

Pf.rf. audivisse, to

FuT.

audiri, to be heard.

to hear.

audTturus

about

have heard,

esse,

to

be

audltus esse, to have been heard.

auditum

iri,

to

be

about

to

be

to

be

heard.

to hear.

Participles

Pres. audieiis,

FuT.

-eiitis,

auditurus,
to hear.

Perf.

-a.

hearing.

-um, about

Pres.

Ger.

audiendus,

-a,

-um,

heard.

Perf. audltus,

-a,

-um,

having

been heard, heard.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

230

Gerund
Norn.

Dai.

audiendi, of hearing.
audiendo, for hearing.

Ace.

audiendum, hearing.

AM.

audiendo, by hearing.

Gen.

Supine
audltum,

AbL

to hear.

audltu, to hear, in the hearing.

IRREGULAR VERBS
sum, be

502.

Principal Parts: sum,

esse, fui, futurus

Indicative

Present

Plural

Singular

sum, I
es,

sumus, we are.
estis, you are.

a?n.

thou art.
he {she,

est,

il) is.

sunt, they are.

Imperfect

eramus, we were.

eram, / was.

eratis,

eras, thou wast.


erat, he

you

were.

erant, they were.

was.

Future

/ shall

ero,

erimus,

be.

eris,

thou wilt

erit,

he will

be.

we

eritis, yoii

shall

will

erunt, they will

be.

be.

be.
be.

Perfect
fui,

/ have

fuisti,
fuit,

been,

was.

thou hast been, wast.

he has been, was.

fuimus,

we have

fuistis, yoti

fuerunt,
fuere,
5,

have

been, were.
been,

were

have been, were.


J

APPENDIX

231

Pluperfect
fuerani,

/ had

fueramus,

been.

fueras, thou hadst been.


fuerat, he

had

f ueratis,

FuTURi-:

been.

been.

had

been.

fuerant, they

been.

had

ive

you had

Perfect
fuerimus,

/ shall have been.


fueris, thou wilt have been.
fuerit, he will have been.
f iiero,

we

shall have been.

you will have

f ueritis,

fuerint, they will

have

been.

been.

SUBJU NCTIVE
Imperfect

Present
Plur.

Sing.

Plur.

Sim

simus

essem

essemus

sis

sitis'

esses

essetis

sit

sint

esset

essent

Sing.

Pluperfect

Perfect

fuerim

fuerimus

fuissem

fuissemus

fueris

fueritis

fuisses

fuissetis

fuerit

fuerint

fuisset

fuissent

Imperative

Future

Present
es, be

esto, thou shalt be.

thou.

esto, he shall be.

este, be ye.

estote,

ye shall

be.

sunto, thev shall

Participle

Infinitive

Pres.

be.

esse, to be.

have

Perf.

fuisse. to

FuT.

futiirus esse or fore, to be

about

to be.

been.
futiirus. -a,

-um, about

to be.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

232

503.

possum, be able, can

Principal Parts

possum, posse, potui.

Indicative

SUBJUNiCTIVE

Plur.

Sing.

Plur.

Sing.

possum

possumus

possim

posslmus

potes

potestis

possis

possitis

potest

possunt

possit

possint

Impf.

poteram

poteramus

possem

possemus

FUT.

potero

poterimus

Pres.

Perf.

potuI

potuimus

potuenm

potuerimus

Plup.

potueram

potueramus

potuissem

potuissemus

F. P.

potuero

potuerimus

Infinitive

Pres.

Perf.

posse

potuisse

prosum, benefit

504.

Principal Parts

prosum, prodesse, profui, profuturus

Indicative

Subjunctive

Sing.

Plur.

Sing.

Plur.

prosum

prosumus

prosim

prosTmus

prodes

prddestis

prosTs

prosltis

prodest

prosunt

prosit

prosint

Impf.

proderam

proderamus

prodessem

prodessemus

FuT.

prodero

proderimus

Pres.

Perf.

profuT

profuimus

profuerim

pr5fuerimus

Plup.

profueram

profueram us

profuissem

profuissemus

F. P.

profuerd

profuerimus

Imperative
Pres.

prodes, prodeste

Fut.

prodesto, prodestote

APPENDIX

233

Infinitive

Pres.

Pkkf.

prodesse

FuT.

profuisse

profiiturus esse

Participlk

FuT.
505.

profuturus,

V0I6, nolo,

Principal
Parts

vol5, velle, volui,


.,.

-i

.,

nolo, nolle, nolui,

-um

malo

-a,

[^mal5, malle, malui,

wish

-,

Be willing, will,

-,

be unwilling, will not

be

more willing, prefer

Indicative
Singular
Pres.

vols

nolo

vis

non
non

volt

vis

malo
mavis

volt

mavolt

Plural

volumus

nolumus

malumus

voltis

non

mavoltis

voltis

malunt

volunt

nolunt

Impf.

volebam

nalebam

malebam

Fur.

volam, voles,

nolam, noles, etc

malam, males,

Perf.

voluT

nolul

malul

Plup.

volueram

nolueram

malueram

F. P.

voluero

noluero

maluero

etc.

Subjunctive
Singular

P res.

velim

nolim

malim

veils

noils

malls

velit

nolit

malit

etc.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

234

Plural

malTmus

vellmus

nolTmus

velTtis

nolTtis

malitis

velint

ndiint

malint

Impf.

vellem

nollem

Perf.

voluerim

noluerim

mallem
maluerim

Plup.

voluissem

ndluissem

maluissem

Imperative
Pres.

noli
nolTte

FUT.

nolito, etc.

Infinitive

Pres.

velle

nolle

malle

Perf.

voluisse

naluisse

maluisse

Participle

Pres.

nolens

volens

506.

carry, endure

fero, bear,

Principal Parts

fero, ferre, tuli, latus

Indicative

Act IVE
Pres.

Passive

ferimur

fero

ferimus

feror

fers

fertis

ferris, -re

ferimini

fert

ferunt

fertur

feruntur

Impf.

ferebam

ferebar

FUT.

feram

ferar

Perf.

tulT

latus

sum

Plup.

tuleram

latus

eram

F. P.

tulerd

latus ero

Pres.

feram

FUT.

ferrem

ferrer

Perf.
Plup.

tulerim

latus sim

tulissem

latus

Subjunctive
ferar

essem

APPENDIX

235

Imperative
Passive

Active

feriminl

Pres.

fer

ferte

ferre

FUT.

ferto

ferto te

fertor

ferto

ferunto

fertor

feruntor

Infinitive

Pres.

ferre

ferri

Perf.

tulisse

latus esse

FUT.

laturus esse

Pres.

ferens

Pres.

FUT.
Perf.

laturus

Ger.

ferendus

Perf.

latus

Participles

Gerund
Gen.

ferendl

Dat.

ferenda

Ace.

ferendum

Abl.

ferendo

507.

eo,

Principal Parts
Indicative
eo

Imus

Is

Itis

it

eunt

Tbam

go

eo, ire, (ivi)

Subjunctive
earn

itum

(p. p.

Imperative
T

Ite

Trem

Tbo
ii

ierim

ieram

Tssem

iero

ii,

'ito

Itote

Jto

euntc

FIRST YEAR LATIN

236

Infinitive

Participles

Pres.

Ire

iens,

Perf.
FUT.

Isse

iturus esse

Gerund

Supine

Gen.

euiidi

Dat.

eundo

Ace.

eundum

itum

AM.

eundo

itu

508.

fio,

be 7/mde, become, happeti

Principal Parts
Indicative

Pres.

euntis

fio, fieri,

factus

sum

Subjunctive

Imperative

flam

ff5

fl

fis

fiunt

fit

bam

Impf.

fie

FuT.

flam

fierem

Perf.

factus

Plup.

factus

F. P.

factus erd

sum
eram

factus sim

factus essem

Infinitive

Pres.

fieri

Perf.

factus esse

FuT.

factum

faciendus
factus

Tri

DEPONENT VERBS

509.
r

Principal
Parts:

Participles

Ger.
Perf.

1.

II.

III.

W.

hortor, hortari, hortatus

vereor, vereri, veritus

sum, urge

sum,

sequor, sequi, secutus sum,


potior, potiri, potitus

y<?d;r

foHoiu

sum, get possession of

fIte

APPENDIX

237

Indicative
hortor

vereor

sequor

potior

hortaris, -re

vereris, -re

sequeris, -re

potlris, -re

hortatur

veretur

sequitur

potitur

hortanuir

vercmur

sequimur

potlmur

hortamini

veremini

sequiminl

potlmini

hortantur

verentur

sequuntur

potiuntur

hortabar

verebar

sequebar

potiebar

hortabor

verebor

sequar

potiar

veritus

sum

seciJtus

sum

potltus

sum

hortatus eram

veritus

eram

seciitus

eram

potitus

eram

hortatus ero

veritus ero

horter

verear

sequar

hortarer

vererer

sequerer

potirer

hortatus sim

veritus sim

secutus sim

potltus sim

hortatus essem

veritus

secutus essem

potltus

hortatus

sum

secutus ero

potltus ero

Subjunctive

essem

potiar

essem

Imperative
hortare

verere

sequere

potire

hortator

veretor

sequitor

potitor

hortarl

vererl

sequT

potiri

hortatus esse

verituc esse

secutus esse

potltus esse

hortaturus esse

veriturus esse

secuturus esse potiturus esse

hortans

verens

sequens

hortaturus

veriturus

secuturus

potiturus

hortatus

veritus

secutus

potltus

hortandus

verendus

sequendus

potiendus

sequendT, etc.

potiendT, etc.

[secutum,

[potitum, -tu]

Infinitive

Participi.es

potiens

Gerund
hortandl, etc.

verendl, etc.

Supine
[hortatum, -tu]

[veritum. -tu]

-tu]

FIRST YEAR LATIN

238

510.

FIRST PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATION


Indicative

Pres.
Impf.

amaturus sum, / afn about to love.


amaturus eram, / was about to love.

F. P.

I shall be about to love.


/ have been or was about to love.
amaturus fueram, / had been about to love.
amaturus fuero, I shall have been about to love.

Pres.

amaturus sim

FuT.

Perf.
Plup.

amaturus

ero,

amaturus

fuT,

Subjunctive
Impf.

amaturus essem

Perf.

amaturus fuerim

Plup.

amaturus fuissem

Pres.

amaturus

esse, to be

Perf.

amaturus

fuisse, to

Infinitive

So

about

to love.

have been about

in the other conjugations

to love.

am about to advise.
recturus sum, / am about to rule.
capturus sum, / am about to take.
audlturus sum, / am about to hear.,
moniturus sum, /

etc., etc.

511.

SECOND PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATION


Indicative

Pres.
Impf.

FuT.
Perf.

Plup.
F. P.

amandus sum, I am to be, must be, loved.


amandus eram, / was to be, had to be, loved.
amandus ero, / shall have to be loved.
amandus fuT, / was to be, had to be, loved.
amandus fueram, / had had to be loved.
amandus fuero, / shall have had to be loved.

Arri'lNDIX

239

Subjunctive
Pres.
IMPF.

Perf.

Plup.

amandus
amandus
amandus
amandus

sim

essem
fuerim
fuissem
Infinitive

Pres.

Perf.

amandus
amandus
So

esse, to

have io be loved.
have had to be

fuisse, to
in the

loved.

other conjugations

monendus sum, / am to be, tnust be, advised.


regendus sum, / am to be, tnust be ruled.
capiendus sum,

/ am

audiendus sum, / ani

to be, tnust be, taken.


to be, tnust be,

etc., etc.

heard,

RULES OF SYNTAX
N.B.

These

numbered consecutively for the convenience


The number following a rule is its section number.

rules are here


pupils.

of teachers

and

1.

The

2.

verb agrees with

3.

predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of

subject of a verb

in the

is

nominative.

subject in

its

51.

number and

person.

61.

the verb.
4.

99.

An

appositive agrees in case with the

5. A noun used to
same person or thing, is

6.

The

7.

is

taken.

and not denoting the


68.

used to denote a whole of

is

257.

92.

predicate adjective after a complementary infinitive

agrees with the subject of the main verb.


9.

10.
like,

The

indirect object

Adjectives

and

11.

is

meaning

in the dative.

near,

also

fit,

their opposites, take the dative.

The

dative

is

used with

est,

318,

and

Most verbs meaning

2.

79.

friendly, p/easi?ig,
117.

sunt, etc., to

possessor, the thing possessed being the subject.


12.

it

Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number,

case.
8.

limit another,
in the genitive.

partitive genitive

which a part

and

noun which

III.

limits.

denote the
115.

to believe, fa7'or, help, please, trust,

their opposites, also to com?nand, obey, pardon, persuade,

resist, serve,

and

spare,

and the

like,

241

govern the dative.

393.

FIRST YEAR LATIX

242
13.

Many

verbs

compounded with

ad, ante, con, in, inter, ^b,

and super often govern the dative. 347.


14. The dative is used with sum and a few other verbs to
show that for which a thing serves. 349.

post, prae, pro, sub,

15.

person
16.
tive.

17.

The gerundive with sum


who has to do a thing.
The

takes the dative to denote the


426.

direct object of a transitive verb

not

whither,

Place

names

including

expressed by the accusative with ad or


18.

the accusa-

is in

57.

Extent of time or space

is

towns,

of

is

160.

in.

expressed by the accusative.

278.

19.

The

personal agent with a passive verb

by the ablative with a or


20.

The

ablative

of an action,

21.
of

The

but cum

with the ablative.

23.

The
The

used to denote the means or instrument

cum

may

is

used to denote the

be omitted

tive.

25.

is

used to express cause.

ablative or the genitive of a

or within which

165.

is

307.

expressed by the abla-

188.

Place

7ahcrc,

not including names of towns,

expressed by the ablative with a


27.

used

noun may be used

by the ablative with a preposition, usually in.


26. Place whence, not including names

true.

is

129.

ablative

Time when

viaiine}-

an adjective

if

with an adjective to describe a person or thing.


24.

expressed

124.

ablative with

an action
22.

is

is

208.

ab.

The

ablative

is

(ab),

used to denote

de,

is

expressed

81.

of

towns,

e (ex).

in ivhat respect a

is

159.

thing

is

374.

28. The comparative


quam {than) is omitted.

is

followed

250.

by the ablative when

RULES OF SYNTAX
29.

Degree of difference

30.

These

and

is

deponents,

five

expressed by the ablative.

compounds govern the ablative.


The ablative absolute is used to
some other

cause, condition, or

main verb.
32.

264.

utor, fruor, fungor, potior, vescor,

their

31.

243

3S8.

express

the time,

circumstance of the action of the

358.

Words

signifying privation, removal, or separation are

followed by the ablative, without a preposition, or with the


prepositions

33.
is

ab,

232.

ex.

de,

Names of Towns and domus and

expressed by the locative.

197,

i-

rus.

(2)

(i) Place where

Place whither

is

expressed by the accusative without a preposition.


197, 2.
(3) Place whence is expressed by the ablative without a preposition.

34.

197,

3.

pronoun agrees with its antecedent


its case depends upon its relation

relative

gender and number, but

some word
35.

in its

or pluperfect.

38.

297.
is

subjunctive

is

used with ut and ut non to express

In a cum-clause expressing time, the verb


if

the tense

otherwise, in the indicative.

295-

is

is

commonly

the imperfect or pluperfect;

397.

In a cum-clause expressing cause or concession, the sub-

junctive

40.

used with ut and ne to express

290.

the subjunctive

39.

followed by the subjunctive pres-

284.

The

result.

in

is

to

213.

an historical tense, by the subjunctive imperfect

The subjunctive

purpose.

37.

clause.

principal tense

ent or perfect

36.

own

in

is

used.

The verb

398.
of an

indirect question is in the subjunctive.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

244
41. Purpose

often expressed

is

by a

relative with the sub-

420.

junctive.

42.

In simple conditions the indicative

43.

In doubtful conditions the subjunctive

perfect)

44.

is

used.

is

used.

405.

present

(or

406.

In conditions contrary

to

fact the subjunctive imper-

and pluperfect are used, the imperfect denoting present


407.
time, and the pluperfect denoting past time.

fect

45.

The

present infinitive denotes the

the verb on which

46.

The

The

it

depends.

future

verb on which
48.

The

49.

Indirect

sions of

depends.

sattie

time as that of

324.

perfect infinitive denotes time before that of the

verb on which
47.

it

325.

infinitive

depends.

it

denotes time after that of the


326.

subject of the infinitive

saying,

is

in the accusative.

thinking,

knowi?ig,

expressed by the infinitive with subject accusative.


50.

The supine

express purpose.

318.

and other expresand perceiving, and are

statements follow verbs

in

373.

-um

is

322.

used after verbs of motion to

LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
In this vocabulary, words inclosed in brackets (except in the case of compounds with one
or both parts changed in form) are sometimes primitives, sometimes cognates.

They are

Translations inclosed within parentheses are not intended to be used as such.


inserted to

show

literal

meanings.

Abbreviations are generally self-explanatory.


tive

= compare;

Cf. {confer)

subjv.

^subjunc-

imv. ^imperative.
printed in Gothic Italic type are at once derivatives and definitions. Many other
remotely derived words, not definitions, are added in small capitals.
be seen that comparisons of words in reference to meaning are much more frequent
usual in special vocabularies. This has been done from the con\'iction that the pupils

Words
more or

less

It will

than

is

should make such comparisons frequently from the outset.

a or ab, prep, with ah\./rom, by,


ab-dico, -are, -avi, -atus, reject
se, resign,

ab-do,

go or cotne near, approach.


adeS and adpropinquo.

off.

with

ac-cendo,

abdicate.

ab-eo,

-lie,

throw

ac-cido,

-il,

-iturus,

go from, go

-ere,

(507.)

Cf. decedo.

-iectus

-iecT,

cast

ac-cipio,

-reptus

snatch away, carry


abs-cido, -ere,
caedo], cut

-cidl,

[-rapio],

-cisus

acerbitas,
-tersi, -tersus,

wipe

ab-sum,
away,

-esse,

be

afuT,

absent,

off; with a or

ab and

distant,
abl.

acies,

of

(502.)

ac, conj., see atque.

accusation.

(182.)
f.

Acrid.

bitterness,

harsh-

m.

-is,

pile, heap, mass.

m. Achilles, a hero of

the Trojan war.

be
be

atis,

-T,

Achilles,

afuturus,
be

f.

ness, severity.

acervus,
abstersus, see absterged.

[ad-

acre, adj. sharp, keen

active, eager.

[ab(s)-

off.

abs-tergeo, -ere,

-ceptus

receive, accept.

to),

run towards, run up.

accusati5, -onis,
acer, acris,

off.

Acci-

ac-curr5,-ere,-currl(-cucurri),-cursus
[ad-],

-uT,

[ad-cado],

happen.

-cepi,

-ere,

capio], {take

aiuay.

ab-ripio, -ere,

otit,

[ad-],

inflame.

dent.

[-iacio],

down,

throw

off,

light

to,

-cidl,

-ere,

Cf.

-census

-dl,

fall upon, fall

off ; abduct.

go away.

ab-ici5,

lead

-ductus,

-duxT,

-ere,

away, take

-ere,

kindle, set fire

-ere, -didi, -ditus, Aide, conceal.

ab-dQco,

off,

-el,

f.

[acer], edge

battle, battle

line, line

array.

acriter, adv. [acer], sharply, eagerly,

ac-cedo, -ere, -cessi, -cessurus [ad-].

spiritedly, fiercely.

245

FIRST YEAR LATIN

246
ad, prep, with ace.

up
to,

to,

towards, near,

with gerund or gerundive,

to ;

for : ad hunc modum, after

manner ;
ad-aequ6,

equal

Adequate.

equal.

to,

adclivis,

adj.

-e,

ad-duco,

Acclivity.
lead

-ere, -duxT, -ductus,

-ire,

visit.

to.

to,

approach,

Cf. accedo

(507.)

and ad-

bring, render.

[-facio],

affect, influence ; afflict, oppress.

ad-fligo, -ere,

-fllxT, -fllctus,

-ere,

seek

-ere,

catch hold

-hendi, -hensus,

Apprehend.

of.

proach, come near

ad-ripio, -ere,
seize,

Cf. adeo

to.

ad-ministro,

-are,

still.

-onis,

man-

won-

astonishrnent,

-ere,

-scripsi,

-scriptus,

add, enroll.

addition),

in

{write

Ascribe.

Aspect.

look upon, behold.


-stiti,

-esse,

present, be here

stand near.

-futurus,

-fui,

with dat.

wonder

at,

-atus

sum

[admiratio],

admire.

ad-moneo, -ere, -ui,


warn, admonish.

-itus,

remind,

adulescens,

-entis,

m. and

Adolescence.

to,

attach.

Annex.

ad-olesc6, -ere, -olevi, -ultus,

Adult.

tie to,

Cf. iuvenis.

advectus,

see adveho.

ad-veho,

-ere,

-vexi,

bring on,

britig.

advena,

on

fire,

-ae,

-vectus,

m. and

f.

cany

[ad-venio],

stranger.
-us,

Advent.
adversus,

grow

[ado-

burn, singe.

adventus,

apply, employ.

ad-nect5, -ere, -nexui, -nexus,

f.

young person.

adultus, see adolesco.

to,

admotus, see admoveo.


ad-moveo, -ere, -m5vi, -motus, {move

fasten

be

(502.)

Aduatuci, -orum, m. plur. the Adu-

ad-iiro, -ere, -ussi, -iistus, set

der.
-arT,

claim.

-atus,

lesco, grow~\, youth,

[admiror], ad-

f.

[-rapio],

atuci, a Gallic tribe.

-atus,

age, direct, administer.

miration,

-reptus

-avi,

-are,

ad-sum,

-avT,

-ui,

snatch.

Arrogate.

at,

Cf. adventus.

access.

ad-miror,

ap-

-atus,

-avi,

-are,

ad-sto, -stare,

aditus, us, m. \2.A&o\, approach, -way

tip.

-itus,

[-habeo],

-itus

-uT,

ad-huc, adv. hitherto, as yet,

to),

(-ii),

ad-spicio, -ere, -spexi, -spectus, look

afflict.

admiratio,

-ivi

{dash at),

apply, employ, use.

of

seize,

ad-scrlbo,

(506.)

ad-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus

weaken,

-ere,

ad-rogO,

propinquo.

ad-hibeo,

put

and accedo.
go

-itus,

-i!,

ad-fer5, -ferre, attuli, adlatus, bea}to,

land,

after, attack.

ad-propinqu6,

Adduce.
ad-eo,

adpellere,

ad-prehendo,

sloping totvards,

rising, ascending.

navis

ad-peto,

become

-atus,

-avi,

to)

this

as adv. about.
-are,

ad-pello, -ere, -pulT, -pulsus, {drive

-a,

m. approach, arrirml.
Cf. aditus.
-urn,

adj.

turned

to-

wards, opposite, in front, adverse.


adversus, prep, with ace. against.

LA TIN- ENGLISH VOCA BULARY


ad-vOCO,
I

-are,

aedes

summon,

-atus,

-avi,

Advocate.

all upon.
(-is),

-is,

plur.

n. [aedifico],

-i,

/w/A// ;/(,>.

Kdifick.
[aedes-

-atus

-avi,

Edify.

facio], btiild.

aeger, aegra, aegrum, adj. sick, weak,

adj. equal, like,

-e,

of the

people of ancient

aestas,

m.

t/ie

Aequi, a

Alba, an ancient city of

-a,

-um,adj. ^/6an.- as noun,

an Alban, inhabitant of Alba, a


town in Latium.
adj. white.

-a, -urn,

Alcmena,

-ae,

Alcmena, the mother

f.

m. [ala], bird.

adv.

ali-quando,

sumtner.

f.

-itis,

any

alias, adv. [alius], elsewhere, at

other time.

Italy,

(ace. aera), air.

-atis,

time

some

at

[alius],

formerly, once.

Cf. olim.

ali-quanto, adv. [alius], somewhat.

age.

-atis,

f.

life,

-ae,

f.

Aetna, a mountain in

aliquis, -qua, -quid [-quod], indef.

Africa.

aliter, adv. [alius], othetwise, in

Aetna,

pron. sotne one, some, atty.

Sicily.

Africa,

-ae,

f.

ager, agrf, m. feld, ter7-itory, land.

-eris,

m. mound, rampart.

else

agito, -are, -avi, -atus [frequentative

shake,

ago],

agmen,
led),

disturb,

chase,

AGITATE,

drive.

agnosco,

host,

(the

thing

column.
-gnitus

[ad-

Cf.

-gnovT,

-i,

alius

other.

m. lamb.
egi,

bring up

agrestis, -e

do ;

dri^^e,

treat ;

lead,
cele-

{life).

[agar], of the country,

rustic, clownish.

agricola, -ae, m. [ager-cold],/?;;;/^;-,

husbandman.

another,

alius,

one

other,
.

an-

Cf. ceteri.

-tus or -itus, nourish,

al6, -ere, -in,

Alpes, -ium,

f.

plur. the Alps.

alter, -era, -erum, adj. the one, the

other {of two); second: alter

one

altitiido, -inis,

actus,

act,

brate ; pass

(312.)

alter, the

c5gn6sc6.

-ere,

adj.

-ud,

-a,
:

altaria, -ium, n. plur. altar.

know], recognize.

-ere,

(g)nosc6,

any

strengthen.

[ago],

n.

-inis,

army,

(496.)

other way.
alius,

(1 08.)

agger,

ago,

Albanus,

ales,

Aequi, -oruni, m. plur.

aer, aeris,

f.

-ae,

of Hercules.

age.

aeque, adv. equally.

agnus,

Alba,

albus,

feeble.

aequalis,

of

wing.

Italy.

-are,

aedific5,

aetas,

f.

alacer, -oris, -ere, adj. brisk, active,

eager.

Inuise.

aedificium,

same

aio, defective verb, say.

ala, -ae,

buildiug

f.

'A7

altum,
altus,

-I,

ambo,

f.

the other.

(312.)

[altus], height.

n. [altus], the sea.

-um, adj. high, deep.

-a,

alveus,

-T,

m. hollow vessel, tub, trough

-ae,

-6,

adj.

(decl. like duo),

both.

ambul5,
walk.

-are, -avi, -atas,

walk, take a

FIRST YEAR LATIN

248
amentia,

-ae,

want of ?-easofi,

f.

viad-

ness.

amicitia,

-ae,

[zmxzvii]. friendship.

f.

-um, adj. [amo], /rzVi//j';

-a,

as \\o\m, friend.
a-mitto,

-are,

-oris,

send

-atus [amor], love,

-avi,

like,befo7idof.

amor,

-missus,

Cf. perdo.

lose.

-um, large, 7oide

-a,

honor-

Ample.

able.

AmQlius,

Rhea

Silvia.

-ae,

angustus,

anima,

turn the

{a.mmws], breath, soul,

-1,

notice.
be-

soul,

Cf. mens.

Anio, -enis, m. the Anio, a branch of


the Tiber.

[annus], {the year's

supply), provisio7ts
visions),

annus,

-T,

market ;

m. year.

price (of pro-

Annual.

antea, adv. [ante], before.


-ere, -cessT,

ante-fero, -ferre,

-tulT, -latus,

advance, prefer.

-ere,

f.

f.

-i,

Aquatic.

water.

(Page

altar.

21.)

(Page

n. \2iXo\, plojtgh.

87.)

arbor,

-oris,

arcesso,

f.

sum, //;//^,j'?///i7j-^.

tree.

-uT,

-ere,

keep

-IvI,

arcus, -us, m. bow.

off.

se7id for,

-Itus,

Arc.

(242, a.)

ardeo, -ere, arsl, arsus, be on fire,


burfi, blaze.
-a,

Ardent.

-um, adj. steep ;

difficult,

arduous.
aries, -etis,

arma,

m. ram, battering

ratn.

-orum,

place in

(506.)

Cf. ante-

-posui,

-positus,

n.

[arm5],

arms,

weapons, armor.

armatus,
,go before.

pono and malo.


ante-pono,

ace. with, by, near,

(Page 202.)

scarcity.

ante, adv. and prep, with ace. before.

ante-cedd,

-ae,

arduus,
f.

-a.t\is,f!t.

summon.

(169.)

m. [anima], mind,

-ae,

Appeal.

name.

apud, prep, with

arceo, -ere,

[anima], living

n.

spirit, disposition.

annona,

self.

arbitror,-arT, -atus

mind to,

ing, animal.

animus,

[ad-], appear,

-ere, -ui,

dress, call,

aratrum,

-alls,

m. Apollo, a god of the

ap-pell5, -are, -avI, -atus [ad-], ad-

-um, adj. narrow.

f.

-um, troubled, anxious.

show one's

ara, -ae,

anim-adverto, -ere, -ti, -sus [animus-],

animal,

-inis,

anchor.

Animate.

life.

Apollo,

aqua,
f.

-a,

-ae,

-a,

atnong.

an, conj. or.

ancora,

old,

Cf. vetus.

n. cave.

-I,

anxius,

apto, -are, -avI,

m. Amulius, father of

-1,

Antiquity.

ap-pareo,

love.

a-moveo, -ere, -movl, -motus, move


away, put aside.

amplus,

antrum,

before.

-um, adj. [ante],

-a,

Greeks.

(497.)

[amo],

f.

ante-quam, adv. sooner than,


antiquus,
ancient.

-misT,

-ere,

away ;

Cf. an-

and mal5.

tefero, praepono,

amicus,

amo,

place in advance, prefer.

-T,

m. [armo], armed fnan,

warrior.

armo,

-are, -avi, -atus

[arma], arm,

equip.
aro, -are, -avI, -Mus, plough.
ars, artis,

f.

art, skill.

LA TIN-ENGLISH
arx, arcis,

ascensus,
asper,

[arceo], citadel.

f.

-era,

at, conj.

Exasperape.
but.
Cf. sed and autem.

Athena,

-ae,

harsh.

Athena, a goddess.

f.

amis, m. At/as, one of the

Atlas,

'OCA BULA R Y

auxilior,

and especially, and

and

atrox, -ocis, adj. savage, fierce, severe.

Atrocious.
at-tingo,

-ere,

at-tonitus,

[ad-

-tactus

-tigi,

Attain.

-oris,

m.

[augeo],

author,

-ae,

f.

[audax], daring, bold-

-acis,

audi5,

daring,

adj.

hear, listen.

Audience.

(501.)

Avaricious.

[ab(s)], bear

away.

off,

(506.)
-ae,

ablatus

carry away, take

Alil.ATIVE.

m. Augeas, a mythical

-ere, aii.xT,

auctus [auxilium],

increase, enlarge.

a-verto, -ere,

avia, -ae,
avis,

balteus,

barba,

m.

-T,

-ae,

beatus,

-T,

belt.

beard.

f.

m. barbarian.

-um, adj. happy.

-a,

or Belgae, a Gallic tribe.


-are,

AUGMENT.

air.

-um, adj.

[aurum], 0/

bellum,
bellus,

aurum,

ear.

AuRiST.
'

-I,

n.

gold.

Cf. bellum

n. [bello], 7var.

-T,

-a,

-um,

belua, -ae,

^.d].

beast,

f.

pretty.

monster.

bene, adv. [bonus],


n.

-I,

luell.

(267.)

[bene-facio], kind-

ness, service, benefit.

bestia, -ae,

f.

beast, animal.
,

drink.

Imbibe.

bis, adv. hvice.


-a,

-um,

adj.

good,

kind.

(483-)

bos, bovis, m.

gold, golden.
-is, f.

[bellum],

-atus

-avi,

war, carry on war.

bonus,

auris,

turn away,

Aviary.

bird.

aura, -ae,

f.

away

grandmother.

f.

-is, f.

bibo, -ere, bibi,

-a,

-sus,

-tT,

Augustus, -1, m. Augustus, title of


Caesar Octavianus as emperor.
aureus,

turfi

Averse.

beneficium,

hero.

augeo,

sum,

-atus

-arl,

gero.

abstull,

auferre,

au-fero,

-um, adj. greedy, rapa-

-a,

a-versor,

bell5,

-ire, -TvT (-ii), -Itus,

Augeas,

bold.

Audacious.

(484.)

[augeo], help, aid,

Belgae, -arum, m. plur. the Belgians

ness, audacity.

audax,

[auxilium],

Auxiliary.

barbarus,

doer.

audacia,

word),

-urn [ad-], thunder-

-a,

struck, astounded, azue-struck.

auctor,

first

turn aside, avert.

Cf. saevus.

tango], touch, reach.

n.

-i,

from.

-que.

either

sum

-atus

-arl,

auxilium,

cious.

Cf. at

aut,

give help, aid, assist.

avarus,

[cLd-],a>ii/ also,

however, moreover, now.

but,

and conso-

as.

autem, conj. (never the

nants, ac before consonants only)

(before vowels

aut

249

or.

support.

Titans.

at-que

or

conj.

aut,

m. a going /, ascent.
-erum, rough, fierce,

-us,

brevis.

-e,

Britannia,

and

f.

ox, cow.

adj. short, brief.


-ae,

f.

Britain.

(482.)

(182.)

FIRST YEAR LATIN

2t;o

Britannus,

m. a Briton, inhabitant

-I,

Brutus,

m. Brutus, a

-I,

caput,

Roman

sur-

name.
abbreviation for Gaius.

-um, adj.

-a,

caedes,

-is,

Carolus,

slaughter,

Caesar,

Roman,

a famous

m.

-I,

-inis,

pluck, nibble

m.

Caloric.

heat, glow.

m. Cambricus.

-I,

Campania,

f.

Carthage, a town

hut, cottage.

f.

-ae, f.

m. Cassivellau-

-T,

castellum,

[diminutive

n.

-1,

Castle.

Campania, a

dis-

casus,

m.

-us,

chance;

[cado],

a falling;

Catilina, -ae, m. Catiline, a

Cannae, -arum,

causa,

town

va..

field.

f.

plur.

Cannae, a

-avT, -atus

[cantus], sing.

Chant.
cantus,

m.

[canto],

singing,

Chant.
;

capra, -ae,

captiva,

form.
f.

captivus,

f.

[capio],

captive,

f.

cause, reason

causa

-ere, cavl,

guard

against.

cautus, be on one^s
;

with a and
Caution.

abl.,

Secede.

retire.

z.A].

freqtiented,

renowned, celebrated.

celeritas, -atis,

f.

[celer, swift], stafft-

ness, speed, quickness, celerity.


-T,

m.

[capio],

captive,

prisoner.

Italy.

caveo,

visited

prisoner.

Capua,

-ae,

celeber, -bra, -brum,

(500.)

she-goat.

-ae,

famous

conspirator.

cedo, -ere, cessT, cessurus, give way,

capio, -ere, cepT, captus, take, seize,

capture

crowd, troop, throng.

guard, beware

-lis,

song.

f.

(after a genitive), /^r the sake.

of southern Italy,

canto, -are,

caterva, -ae,

Roman

Case.

t?iisfortutte, loss.

Camp.
cancer, -cri, m. crab.
Cancer.
canis, -is, m. and f. dog.
Canine.

campus,

of

stronghold.

redoubt,

castra, -orum, n. plur. camp.

of Italy.
-T,

-um, adj. dear, precious.

-a,

casa, -ae,

castrum],

Cambricus,
trict

-tus,

-sT,

nus, a British chief.

Imskct.

hot, heat.

calor, -5ris,

Carnal.

i. flesh.

Cassivellaunus,

cale-facio, -ere, -feci, -factus [caleo-],

make

of,

m. wagon, cart, car.

-I,

Carthago,
carus,

m. Caius Julius Caesar,

-aris,

calathus,

heaven, heavens.

n. sky,

-I,

want

in Africa,

kill.

caelum,

in

abl.

enjoy.

carrus,

caesus [caedes],

-ere, cecTdT,

cut;

(154.)

m. Charles.

-T,

carpo, -ere,

i//fid.

[caedo],

f.

want ; with

caro, carnis,

carnage, mtirder.
caedo,

-ui, -iturus, be

careo, -ere,

cado, -ere, cecidi, casiirus,_/a//.


caecus,

head ; person.

care, adv. [carus], dearly.

lack,
C.,

n.

-itis,

Capital.

of Britannia.

-ae,

celeriter, adv. [celer, swift], swiftly,

quickly.
f.

Capua,

city

in

cel5, -are, -avT, -atus, conceal.

cena, -ae,

f.

dinner, meal.

LA T/.V^EA'GL/SH
Cenaeum,

Cenaeum, a prom-

n.

-I,

ontory on the island of Euboea.


-atus, diiu', take a

-avi.

ceno, -are,

Centaurus,

m. Centaur, a fabled

-I,

centesimus,

-um, num. adj. [cen-

-a,

centum, indecl. num.

adj.

hundred.

-avJ,

-are,

plough

around.
circum-do, -dare, -dedl, -datus, place

centurio,

m.

-dnis,

an

centurion,

underotificer in the

cera, -ae,

Roman

army.

crevl,

-ere,

certus

discern,

(cretus),

per-

decide,

-inis, n. strife, contest.

[certus], really, surely,

certe, adv.

circum-munio,
circum-sedeo,

-Ire,

-TvT,

-um, adj.yfx^o', determined,


sure

certain,

{make more
cerva, -ae,

certiorem

certain'),

facio,

inform.

-ere, -sedT, -sessus, {sit

-Icis, f.

Cf. alius.

-ere, -stetT,

circum-sto, -are,

sta>id

-steti

(stitT),

CIRCUM-

stand around, surround.


circum-venio,

famous

-T,

m. and

-is,

civitas,

hither,

(489.)

-atjs,

f.

citizen.

[civis],

f.

(169,

-are, -avI, -atus

tribe.

m. Cincinnatus, a

famous Roman.
cingO, -ere, cinxT, cinctus, surround,
encircle, gird.
circiter, adv. about.

circuitus, -us, m. [circum-e6],(a^'M^

round), circumference, circuit.


circum, prep, with ace. around.

c.)

{body

of
CiTY.

[clamor], cry,

shout.

clamor,

m. [clamo], shout, cry

-oris,

Clamor.
-um,

-a,

adj.

renowned, famous.
classicum,

orator.

Cimbri, -5rum, m. plur. the Cimbri-

German

civis,

comp.

adj.

-ius,

nearer.

clams,

m.food.

Cincinnatus,

-ventus,

-vcnl,

-Ire,

surround, circumvent.

barking.

m. Christ.

Cicero, -onis, m. Cicero, a

Roman

circum-sist5,

clamd,

the neck.

reviaining, the others.


-I,

besiege.

see circumsedeo.

citizens), state ; citizenship.

deer, hind.

f.

ceteri, -ae, -a, plur. adj. the rest, the

Christus,

wall

-Itus,

circumsessus,

citerior,

certainly.
-a,

-ductus, lead

STANCE,

ceive, see.

certamen,

ans, a

-ere, -duxl,

around, surround.

wax.

f.

distinguish,

-T,

circum-ducS,

around), blockade,

Cent.

cibus,

251

around, fortify, blockade.

tum], hundredth.

cervix,

circum-aro,

"

around.

monster, half man, half horse.

certus.

'OCABULAR]

around, surround, inclose.

vical.

cerno,

-1,

clear,

loud;

Clarion.

n. field signal,

trumpet

call.

claudo, -ere,

-sus, shut, close.

-si,

claustra, -orum, n.

plur.

[claudd],

barrier, dike.

dementia,
tion

Cloelia,

-ae,

Roman
Codes,

-ae,

indulgent disposi-

f.

gentleness, clemency.
f.

Cloelia,

noble

maiden.

-itis,

m., {blind of one eye),

Codes, surname of Horatius.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

252
coepi,

(defective

communis,

stem want-

com-pello,

coeptus

-isse,

tenses from present

togeth er) , force, compel.

ing), began.

[com-arceo],

-ul, -itus

CO-erceo, -ere,

keep

restrain.

check,

back,

Co-

consider thoroughly,
-inis, n.

co-gnosco,

[com-(g)n6men],
-gnitus

-gnovi,

-ere,

know, understand.
COhors, cohortis,

m.

-is,

Complete.

cultus,

honor.

f.

com-primo,

care for,
Cf. incola

f.

[com-eo],

comrade, companion.

spur on.

rouse,

of the

Roman

forum.

mind, remember,

trust,

-ere,

to

-ere,

move.

con-do,

hide

rush

to-

Concourse.

[con-d!co], {a talk-

f.

found.
-are,

surrender

CO-nectO.

con-fero,
(coll-),

-movT, -motus, {put

Commotion.

-did!,

-ere,
;

com-

in violent motion), shake, disturb,


agitate,

(-cucurri),

together,

ing together), agreement, condition,

-missus, in-

proelium

mittere, join battle, engage.

com-moveo,

-curri

-ere,

gether, rally, gather.

together

-misT,

commit:

to-

harmony, concord.

-ditus,

conceal,

Cf. celo.
-atus, give up,

-avT,

forgive, pardon, con-

done.

recouttt, tell.

Cf. eminus.

C0m-mitt5,

{an agreeing

f.,

run

con-dono,

-are, -avI, -atus, call to

com-minus, adv. [-manus], hand


hand.

-ae,

terms.

[com-eo], {place of

assembling), the comitium, a part

com-memoro,

rottse up,

COn-cito, -are, -avT, -atus,

COndicio, -onis,

m. and

[-cadd], fall

fall.

-cursus,

n.

m. [conor], attempt.

-lis,

con-curro,

-T,

see compello.

gether), union,

times intensive.

-pressus

Compress.

check, suppress.

primitive

comitium,

-hensus,

-di,

-press!,

-ere,

COmpulsus,

Concordia,
dove.

(col-, con-, cor-, co-),

-itis,

very many,

[-premo], press together, grasp;

form of cum, a prefix denoting


completeness or union; somecomes,

-ere,

con-cido, -ere, -cidl,

agricola.
-ae,

-a (-ia), adj.

com-prehendo,

down,

colui,

-ere,

com-plQres,

conatus,

Cf. mons.

n. neck.

-1,

columba,

com

army.

hill.

cultivate, till

and

Cf. agnosco.

cohort, a division

f.

Roman

of the

C0I6,

-plexus sum, embrace.

catch, seise.

[co(m) -gnoses], learn, recognize,

COllum,

-T,

-ere, -plevi, -pletus,y?// out,

com-pleo,

many, a number.

reflect.

surname, cognomen.

COUis,

com-plector,

fill up, cover.

erce.
COgito, -are, -avi, -at us [com-agito],

cognomen,

common, general.

adj.

-e,

-ere, -pulT, -pulsus, {drive

-ere,
;

Join,

tie.

-nexus,

contuli,

-ferre,

bind

CONNECT.
conlatus

bring together, collect: se

conferre, betake one's self.

c6n-fertus,

-a,

-um,

adj.

(506.)

crowded,

thick, dense.

confessio, -5nis,

f.

confession.

LA TIN-EAGUSH VOCABULARY
confestim, adv. immediately, fortltcon-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [-facio],

make, accomplish, carry

out, finish;

sum

-flsus

-ere,

(semi-

cU'ponent), trust entirely: believe,

Confide.

trust.

con-firmo,

make firm,
Confirm.

strengthen, steady.

c6n-fugi5, -ere, -fugl,

flee

for

sum

-gressus

-T,

dior], {come together)

{herd

-avT,

[grex],

-atus

gather,

together'),

collect, as-

Congregate.

semble.

row

[-iacio],

together; throw, put, hurl,

Conjecture.

cast.

con-iungo,

-iugis,

join

CONJUNCTION.

m. and

f.

[coniungS],

CONJUGAL.

husband, wife.

COn-iuro, -are, -avT, -atus,

unite by

Conjure.

oath, conspire.

C0n-l0c5, -are, -avT, -atus, place, station.

talking

[con-loquor], a

n.

-T,

together

conversation,

-ari,

sum,

-atus

endeavor.,

seize,

-reptus [-rapid],

-uT,

take hold

con-ruo, -ere,

hand.
preserve,

con-sido, -ere, -sedT, -sessus, sit down.

consilium,

con-sisto,

-ere,

counsel,

advice,

n.

-T,

plan, design.

-stitus,

-stiti,

stand

firm, take one^s stand, halt; de-

pend,

rest.

conspectus,
COnspicor,

m.

-us,

look, view, sight.

sum, get sight

-atus

-ari,

descry.

constanter, adv. [c6nstantia],yfr//)',


steadily, resolutely.
-ae,

[constanter], yfrw-

f.

ness: constancy.

c5n-stituo, -ere,

-utus [-statuo],

-ui,

determine, fix,

establish,

decide,

Constitution.

resolve.

c5n-suesco,

accustom

-suevT,

-ere,

-suetus,

accustomed

become

perf. be accustomed, be wont.

Cf.

consuetude,

-inis,

[consuesco],

f.

custom, habit.
-ulis,

c5nsulatus,

m. consul.

-us,

(479. ^)

m. [consul], consul-

ship.

attempt, try.
con-ripio, -ere,

to

-avT, -atus,

save.

consul,

conference, colloquy.

Conor,

-sertus,7W; with

-uT,

soleo.

Cf. pono.

conloquium,

m. [con-sentio],^^^^!?-

ma.num, fight hand

constantia,

-ere, -iunxi, -iunctus,

together, unite.

coniunx,

-us,

con-sero, -ere,

of,

c5n-ici6, -ere, -iecl, -iectus


til

[-gra-

engage in

Congress.

battle, meet, fight.

-are,

-scensus

mount, go on

board.

c5nsensus,

prudence, wisdom

refui^e, flee.

con-grego,

tip,

con-servo, -are,

-are, -avT, -atus,

con-gredior,

-scendT,

ment, unanimity, consent.

weaken, wear out.


con-fldo,

-ere,

climb

c6n-scend6,
[-scaiido],

ivith.

253

-uT,

,fall together,
Cf. concido.

c5n-salut6, -are, -avi, -atus, salute


cordially, greet.

-psi,

-ptus, use up,

spend, pass, consume.

of.

fall down, fall.

c5n-siimo, -ere,

con-temno,
despise,

-ere,

-tempsi, -temptus,

contemn.

contemptus,

-us,

contempt, scorn.

m.

[contemno],

FIRST YEAR LATIN

254
con-tendo,

-ere,

struggle,

-tus,

strain,

hasten.

Con-

-dl,

strive,

tend.
-onis,

COn-tineo, -ere,

[contendo],

f.

Contention.

struggle, exertion.

-tentus [-tene5],

-ul,

hold together, keep together, hold,


contain.

-um, adj. [contineo],

-a,

contra, prep, with ace. against, con

-ae,

f.

dispute, quarrel

adv.

contumeliose,

abusively,

in-

con-venio,

-veni, -ventus,

-ire,

come

together, assemble ; convene.

con-verto, -ere,

-ti,

-sus, turn,

be

to

believed,

credible.

make, create

creo, -are, -avI, -atus,

Excru-

cruciatus, -us, m. torture.

criidelis, -e, adj. cruel.

cruor,

banquet.

COn-voco, -are, -avi, -atus, call together,

[com-ops], abundance,

f.

wealth, plenty

; plur. troops, forces.

Copious.
coram, a.Av.face
Corinthus,

-T, f.

Coriolanus,

fa-

warrior.

Cornelia,

-ae,

crown.

-oris, n. (J(?^.
-i,

m.

[culpo], blame, fault.


Cf. vitium.

-avi, -atus

although.

(242.)

Coronet.
Corpse.
grappling

(163.)

raven;

hook.
COtidie, adv. [quot-dies], daily.

[culpa], blame,

as, since ;

abl. with.

plur. cradle.

-a,

's

knife.

though,

(397, 398.)

cunae, -arum,

f.

-um, adj. all together,

all.

and universus.

cupide, adv. [cupidus], eagerly.


-atis,

f.

\zvi'^\d^\i%\,

longing,

Cupidity.

desire.

-a,

-um, adj. [cupio], desir-

ous, fond.

cupio, -ere,

horn.

f.

f.

cum, prep, with

cupidus,

mother of

the Gracchi.
-us, n.

[cubo], bedchamber.

n.

find fault with.


culter, -tri, m. knife, butcher

cupiditas,

ancient town in Italy.


f.

-I,

Cf. omnia, totus,

(47, 2.)

-Oram, m. plur. Corioli, an

Cornelia, -ae,

Cf.

-ul, -itiirus, lie, lie asleep.

Culpable.

cunctus,

to face.

Corinth.

m. Coriolanus, a

-1,

mous Roman

cubo, -are,

cum, conj. when

summon, convoke.
COpia, -ae,

gore.

blood,

crus, criiris, n. leg.

culpo, -are,

n. feast,

-T,

m.

-oris,

culpa, -ae,

turn

Convert.

COnvivium,

COrvus,

Cf. frequens.

adj.

-e,

CUbiculum,

solently.

corpus,

credibilis,

sanguis.

controversy.

corona,

-brum, adj. thick, nu-

merous, frequent.

cruentus, -a,-um, adj. [cruor], bloody.

to.

COntroversia,

COrnu,

bowl.

ciating.

continuous, successive.

away.

mixing bowl,

f.

choose, elect.

COntinuus,

Corioli,

-ae,

Crater.
creber, -bra,

contentio,

trary

cratera,

-Tvi (-ii), -Itus

desire, be eager for.

cur,

adv.

[qua-re],

[cupidus],

Cf. volo.

why,

where-

fore.

cura, -ae,

curiSsus,

f.

[cur5], care, anxiety.

-a,

-um,

adj.

inquisitive,

LA TIN-ENGLlSH VOCA B ULA R V


cur5, -are, -avi, -atus [cura], care
taki care

''or,

with gerundive, Aaze (a

sus,

cursus, -us, m. course.


adj. cur-''-:: sella curulis,

official chair,

used by higher magis-

custodi5,

-Ire, -ivT (-il), -Itus

[custos],

run down.

dediticius,

custos, -odis, m.

and

guardian, keeper.

f.

[custodio],

CUSTODIAN.

Cyclops, -opis, m., {round eye), a


Cyclops, one of a fabulous race of

giants on the coast of Sicily.

-are, -avi, -atus

[damnum],

condemn, sentence, doom.

damnum,-!,
damage,

n.

de-do, -ere,

give

de-duco,

from

note

(Page

[deus], goddess.

f.

-itus,

-ui,

ought,

owe,

de-fendo,

-um, adj.

due, appropriate.

die.

\A^\iQ.o\,

Cf. abeo

decern, indecl.

and

num.

owed

Debit, Debt.

-ere, -cessi, -cessurus,

depart

rate

from),

mine

-a,

decide,

settle,

deter-

-cidl,

[-cad 6], fall

off.

-um, num. adj. tenth.

de-cipi5, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus [-capio],

deceive.

to.

-fensus [defen-

-di,

off from),

defend,

protect.

m.

-oris,

[defendo],

defender, protector.

-um, adj.

-a,

weary, very
de-ficio, -ere,

de-figo, -ere,

Deianira,

tired out,

tired.

-fectus [-facio],

-feci,

runout.

-fixi, -ilxns,

-ae, f.

-ere,

de-ici5,

DEFECT,

fasten,

fx

Deianira, wife of

stumble.

-iectus

-iecT,

throw down,

de-inde,

contend; decree.

down, fall
decimus,

bring

let

[-iacio],

fall ; pass,

slip,

DEJECTED,

deiectus, see deicio.

morior.
adj. ten.

de-cerno, -ere, -crevT, -cretus, {sepa-

de-cido, -ere,

-ere,

{strike

lead

-ductus,

off, escort,

Hercules.

must, should.
-a,

give up,

-ditus,

strike motionless, stupefy, astonish.

2.)

-ere,

[dedo], a giving

-duxT,

-ere,

be wanting, fail,

during, for.
dea, -ae,

f.

-didi,

do7un, lead

de-fessus,

loss.

about, concerning, of; (of time) in,

de-ced5,

noun,

plur. as

away ; surrender.

defensor,

[damno], hurt, harm,

de, prep, with abl. dozvn from ,

debitus,

Masc.

deditio, -onis,

sor],

debeo,

-um, adj. [dedo], sur-

-a,

rendered.

up ; surrender.

guard, protect, defend.

22,

show,

prisoners of war, subjects.

trates.

damn5,

[clarus],

-atus

-avi,

de-curro, -ere, -cucurrl (currl), -cur-

currus, -us, m. chariot, car.

-e,

-are,

{clear off), disclose, prove,

declare.

thing done).

curulis,

de-claro,

255

adv.,

{from

thence), then,

afterzuards, next.

delecto, -are, -avi, -atus, delight.


deleo, -ere, -evi, -etus, destroy,
out.

de-ligo, -are, -avi, -atus, bind

fasten,
de-ligo,

wipe

Delete.
down,

tie.

-ere,

-legT,

pick out, choose,

-Iectus

select.

[-lego],

FIRST YEAR LATIN

256

Delphi, -orum, m. Delphi, a town

in

Greece.

of Delphi,

adj.

-urn,

-a,

Delphic.
-are,

migrate

-atus,

-avi,

remove, go away.

Cf. abed

and decedd.
de-mitto,

down,

de-monstro,

turn

-avT,

-atus, point

describe.

Demon-

adv.

demum,

at

length,

not

till

any

at

-a,

last:

at

Dentist.
-pulsus,

-pull,

abandon.

aside,

put
De-

posit.

-are,

-atus,

-avi,

{thrust

doivn), upset, drive away, dislodge.

deus,

m. god.

-i,

-are,

{482.)
-atus,

-avI,

swalloiv

up, devour, gulp down.


-vovT,

-ere,

-trum

-tra,

adj. right {hand).

dico,

f.

vow,

-erum),

Dexterous.

dictus

say,

dice),

(-era,

[dexter], right hand.

dlxT,

-ere,

for

-votus,

devote.

offer,

tell,

(imv.

die,

speak;

ap-

point.

dictator, -oris, m. [dico], chief in agistrate, dictator.

depositus, see depono.

depulsus,

dictatiira, -ae,

-ere, -dl, -sus,(r/m3(/^ze/),

come down, descend.


-ere,

-uT,

dies,

-ei,

m. and

abandon,

-tus,

difficult.

desertus, see desero.

down,

leap down.

-atis,

dignus,

-a,

-stiti, -stilus,
off,

{stand off

cease;

de-

sist.

di-lanio,

upon),

view,

m.,

diffi-

{a looking dozan

prospect;

plur.

heights.

abl.

-are,

-avi,

-atus,

tear to

pieces.

diligenter,
iis,

[difficilis],

f.

-um, adj. worthy, deserv-

ing ; with

despectus,

(275.)

culty.

de-sili5, -ire, -ul, -sultus,y/cw/

leave

day.

(254.)

dif&cultas,

or apart),

f.

dif-ficilis, -e, adj. [dis-facilis], ha7-d,

desert.

de-sisto, -ere,

[dictator], dictator-

f.

ship.

see depello.

de-scendo,

de-spero,

draw
Detract.

remove.

off,

decline, refuse.

dextra, -ae,

drive

-posuT, -positus,

-ere,

down, lay

de-sero,

throw

dexter,

rate.

drive away, remove, banish.

de-pono,

off,

de-voveo,

finally

-um, adj. thick, dense.

de-pell6, -ere,
out,

at

then.

last,

dens, dentis, m. tooth.

densus,

from,

be

de-traho, -ere, -traxi, -tractus,

de-voro,

denique, adv. at
least,

-esse, -fuT,

de-turbo,

let go, lose.

-are,

show,

{send

strate.

demum,

de-sum,

de-trecto, -are, -avI, -atus [-tracto],

-ere, -misi, -missus,

dowii), let

out,

rob,

-atus,

-avI,

be watitittg, lack ; with dat.

de-migro,
;

-are,

dep! ive, despoil.

Delphicus,

from

de-spolio,

adv.

[dlligentia],

dili-

gently, industriously.
dlligentia, -ae,

f.

[diligenter], dili-

gence, carefulness, industry.


-are,

-avT,

hopeless, despair.

-atus [spes], be

dimico,
tend.

-are,

-avi,

Cf. pugHo.

-atus, fight, con-

;:

LA TIN-ENGLISH VOCABL/LA R V
di-mitto,

dis-,

-misi, -missus,

seiiJ

doceo, -ere,

-ui, -tus,

go by.
prefix denoting separa-

doleo, -ere,

-ui,

-ere,

dismiss

off,

di- (a

let slip, let

tion), asunder, apart, in different

Cf.

directions.

discedo,

dimittS,

go

withdraw,

depart,

-cessurus,

-cessi,

-ere,

Cf.

off.

abeo and decedo.


disciplina,

-ae,

order,

[disco],

f.

disco, -ere, didici, disciturus, learn.

[discords], disagree-

discordo, -are,

[discordia],

n.

-inis,

risk,

danger

dis-cutio,

-cussus

-cussT,

-ere,

(shake apart),

[-quatio],

scatter,

unlike,

adj.

-e,

dis-

dis-tribuo,

-ere,

divide,

-utus,

-uT,

for a long time, long.


-ere,

(490.)

-volsus,

-vellT,

tear

um,

-a,

adj.,

[turned away),

adj. rick.

-itis,

-ere,

apportion.

divinus,

-a,

-vTsT,

divide,

DIVISION.
-um,

adj.

0/ the gods,

-arum,

f.

plur.

[dives],

put.

b,

(195,

domi,
482.)

197,

Donate.

Cf. do.

n. \6lo\, gift, present.

-T,

dormio,

[donum], give,

-avi, -atus

present.

-Ire,

-IvI

(-ii),

-itus,

sleep.

Dormitory.
dubito,

-are,

-atus

-avI,

[dubius],

dubium,

dedi,

Cf. dono.

n.

[dubius], doubt.

-um, adj. [duo], doubt-

Dubious.

ful.

duco,

-T,

-a,

-ere, dfixi,

Duilius

ductus [dux], lead,

derive.

(C),

Roman

-T,

m. Caius Duilius,

general.

-e,

adj.

sweet,

pleasant.

Dulcet.
dum, conj. while, as long as ;
duo. duae, duo, num. adj.
)

until.

two.

Cf. ambo.

duo-decim [-decem],

indecl.

num.

adj. t-welve.

duo-decimus, num. adj. [duodecim],

divolsus, see divello.


dare,

f.

lord, master,

DOMINATE,
house, home:

d5nec, conj. until.

(304

riches, wealth.

do,

(109.)
-us,

dulcis,
-visus,

divine.

divitiae,

[dominus], mistress,

f.

home.

at

separate, different, diverse.

dives,

domus,

draw

asunder, tear apart.

di-vido,

-ae,

dominus, -I,m. [domina]

dubius,

distribute.

diversus,

fraud, cun-

hesitate, doubt.

similar.

di-vello,

deceit, trick,

draco, -onis, m. serpent, dragon.

Discuss.

dis-similis,

diu, adv.

domina,

donum,

Cf. periculum.

reiuffve.

m.

-I,

ning.

dono, -are,

be at variance, differ, quarrel.

crisis.

DCJLOROUS.

Domestic.

ment, discord.

discrimen,

[doleo], pain, grief.

dolor, -oris, m.

07vner.

f.

[dolor], grieve,

lady.

discipline.

discordia, -ae,

teach, show.

'

be sorry.

dolus,

dissimilis, distraho.

dis-cedo,

257

datus, give,

offer

twelfth.

duo-de-viginti, num. adj. eighteen.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

258
duplex,

[duo],

adj.

-icis,

twofold,

durus,

eheu, interj alas

elatus, see effero.

double.

-um,

-a,

rough,

hard,

adj.

dux, ducis, m. and

[duco], leader,

f.

Duke.

general.

elephantus,

m. elephant.

-i,

e-ligo, -ere, -legi, -lectus \Aego], pick

harsh, cruel.

Cf. imperator.

Elect.

out, choose, select.

Elis,

-idis,

a division

Ells,

f.

of

Greece.
e, see

Elisabetha,

ex.

e-dic5,

Edict.

ptMish, proclaim.
edo,

-are,

bring up,

-atus,

-avl,

train, educate.

e-duc6, -ere, -duxl, -ductus, lead out,

lead forth, bring atuay

Edvardus,
bear

(506.)

[ex-],

lift

up,

Elated.

ef-flo,

effect,

-avl,

-are,

-atus

ef-fundo,

pour forth, pour

[ex-],

{blow

[ex-],

e-gredior,

forth

-i,

nos, we.

-gressus sum, go out,

in terram egressus,

having

gone ashore.

eo, ire, IvI

(ii), itiirus,

-I,

Cf. eximius

egressus, see egredior.

^^.

(507.)

Epirus, a division of

f.

Greece.

-itis,

letter, epistle.

f.

epulae, -arum,

equester,

f.

^\\\r. feast, banqttet.

m. [equus], horseman,

-tris, -tre,

equidem,

adj. [eques], {of

adv.

EGREand praestans.

indeed,

certainly,

truly.
-us,

m. [eques], {body of

horsemen), cavalry.
equus,

-um, adj. extraordinary,

distinguished, excellent.

GIOUS.

to that place, thither,

[is],

equitatus,

excellently.
-a,

eo, adv.

horsemen), equestrian.

go

egregie, adv. [egregius], remarkably,

egregius,

utter.

Enunciate.

knight.
plur.

Egotist.

(492.)

word),

first

for ; indeed, in fact. Cf. nam.


ensis, -is, m. sword.
Cf. gladius.

eques,

out, shed.

pron. /;

Emit.

emi, emptus, buy.

-ere,

enim, conj. (never the

epistula, -ae,
-fusus

effusus, see effundo.

ego, pers.

dis-

send

-missus,

-misi,

-ere,

let loose, let out.

Epirus,

accomplish.

-fudl,

at a

there.

out), breathe out.


-ere,

[-manus],

Cf. comminus.

e-niintio, -are, -avi, -atus [nuntius],

ef-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [ex-facio],

bring about,

Elizabeth, a queen

proclaim, announce, reveal,

extuli, elatus

carry forth

out,

raise.

draw.

m. Edward.

-I,

-ferre,

ef-fero,

forth,

emo,

raise, utter.

educo,

f.

tance, afar.

e-mitto,

Cf. devoro.

-ditus, pict forth,

-didi,

-ere,

-ae,

of England.

e-minus, adv.

devour,

eat,

Edible.

consitnte.

e-do,

esus,

edi,

-ere,

declare,

-dictus,

-dixi,

-ere,

-i,

m. horse.

Equine.

erga, prep, with abl. towards.


e-ripio,

snatch
escape.

-ere,

out,

-ul,

-reptus

[-rapio],

se

eripere,

seize:

LA TIN-ENGLISH
wander,

erro, -are, -avT, -atus,

e-rump5,

burst

forth, break out.


eniptio, -onis,

conj. and, also: et


.

and.

(a burst-

Eruption.

ing forth), sally.


et.

atque,

Cf.

both

ac,

and

cans, people of Etruria, in Italy,

Eunomus,
EuT5pa,

m. Eunomus.

-T,

-ae,

m. Eurytus, father of

-T,

out.

{go out),

-ere, -vasl, -vasus,

Evade.

get away, escape.

e-venio,

out), fall out,

Cf. accid5

and

e ventus, -us,

{come

happen, turn

out.

or

of,

{a

happen-

eximius,

arise,

-Irl,

welcome, entertain

cut

Excite.
-atus, cry out,

de-

begin.

running

Excursion.

out),

-pull,

-pulsus,

sum

-pertus

drive

[-pario],

Cf. tento.

experience.

see experior.

ex-pet5, -ere,

-ivT

(-ii),

-Ttus, seek out,

ask.

ex-pio, -are, -avT, -atus,

make amends

for, expiate.
-oris,

m. [explore],

scout,

spy.

ex-pl6ro, -are, -avi, -atus [explorator]

examine, explore, invest/gate.


ex-pono,

exclaim.

sally, sortie.

ruin,

Expulsion.

-irT,
;

explorator,

EXCEPT.

(a

Cf.

-ortus sum, spring up,

ex-pell6, -ere,

demand,

ex-cit5, -are, -avi, -atus, {call out),

f.,

think.

ex-oro, -are, -avi, -atus, prevail upon,

expertus,

excursio, -onis,

-atus,

suppose.

[ex-eo],

n.

appear ;

-um, adj breathless,

-avi,

[existimo],

f.

-avT,

-are,

-1,

-a,

-are,

re-

struction.

try, test

rouse, arouse, wake.

thing trained),

and puto.

arbitror

ex-perior,

out

ex-cipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptus [-capio],

ex-clamo,

-onis,

consider,

Judge,

of,

with abl.

interrupt.

Cf.

Cf. egregius.

ex-istim5,

on; in accordance

out of breath, exhausted.

receive,

go forth,

-um, adj. excellent,

-a,

out, expel.

with.

ex-animatus,

out,

Exit.

-us, m., {the

off,

prep,

e,

go

(507.)

persuade, induce.

fio.

m. [evenio],

ing), issue, result, event.

from,

sample, example,

army.

ex-orior,

-ventus,

-veni,

-Ire,

strike

egredior.

exitium,

lole.

e-vado,

off,

estimate, opinion.

Eurystheus, -T, m. Eurystheus, king


of Mycenae, in Greece.
Eurytus,

throw

-itus,

-Ire, -il,

existimatio,

Europe.

f.

n.

-T,

markable.

although.

et-si, conj.

off,

ex-e5,

exercitus,

Cf. quoque.

Etrusci, -drum, m. plur. the Etrus-

off,

wartiing.

come

etiam, adv. and conj. [et-iam], (and

ex

shake

off

exemplutn,

et,

-que.

now), also, even.

259

ex-cutio, -ere, -cussl, -cussus [-quatid],

[erumpo],

f.

VCABULA R Y

excussus, see excutio.

err.

-rupl, -ruptus,

-ere,

-ere,

-positus,

-posul,

forth, explain, relate

expositus, see expono.

expose.

set

FIRST YEAR LATIN

26o
ex-pugno,

take by

factum,

Cf. oppugno.

Fact.

-atus,

-are, -avi,

storm, take, capture.

expulsus, see expello.


ex-secror,

-atus

-arl,

facultas,

sum,

curse, exe-

dart

jump forth,

out.

exsilium,

ex-specto, -are,

-atus,

-avi,

await,

wait for, wait, expect.


ex-spiro,

-are, -avT, -atus,

Cf. morior

expire, die.

ex-struo,

{heap
exsul,

-ae,

and

decedo.

-structus,

tip), build, erect, construct.

-ulis,

m. and

an

f.

and

Ci. subito

with.

ex-terreo,

-ere,

fo7-th-

frighten,

with

prep,

ace.

outside

of,

m. bundle,

-is,

extremus,

-a,

-um, adj.

furthest;

load ; plur.

an axe, carried by the

lictors.

m. Faustulus, a shep-

-T,

herd.

faveo, -ere, favi, fauturus, be favorable

favor, befriend ; with dat.

to,

fax, facis,

feles,

torch, firebrand.

f.

-T,

-is, f. cat.

m. February.
Feline.

nately, successfully.

outerviost,

end of; extreme.

(4S9)

lucky, fortunate,

adj.

-icis,

Felicity.

happy.

femina,

beyond.

last,

f.

fascis,

felix,

affright.

extra,

household, family.

familia, -ae,

feliciter, adv. [felTx], luckily, fortu-

repente.

-itus,

-ui,

-is,

hunger, famine.

f.

Februarius,

exile.

extemplo, adv. immediately,

-ae,

f.

woman.

Feminine.

Cf. mulier.

for the most part,

fere, adv. nearly,

almost, about.
fero, ferre, tulT, latus, bear,

faber,

workman,

-bri,

artisan, smith.

Fabius, -T, m.{Quintus) Fabius {Maxi-

mus), a celebrated

Roman

con-

report, say.

veho
ferox,

bring;

Cf. porto

(506.)

and

also tolero.

-ocis,

adj. fierce,

impetuous.

Ferocious.

sul.

Fabricius,

Roman
fabula,

op-

rumor, report ; fame,

f.

Faustulus,
breathe out,

-struxT,

-ere,

power,

FACULTY.

the fasces, a bundle of rods with

n. [exsul], exile.

-i,

[facio],

f.

renown.
fames,

out.

ex-silio, -Ire, -silul,

-atis,

portunity, chance.

fama,

crate, abhor.

ex-sero, -ere, -seruT, -sertus, thrust

n. {i&cio], act, deed, action.

-T,

-T,

m. Fabricius, a famous

general.

-ae,

f.

ferrum,

story, tale, fable.

[facio], {that

done), easy to do, easy.

form, perform.

[ferrum], of

n.

-T,

can

(254.)

be

FA-

ferveo, -ere,

sword.

Cf.

make;

be hot, glow.

Fervent.
fidelis, -e, adj.

do,

iron

gladius and ensis.

CILITY.
facio, -ere, feci, factus,

-um, adj.

-a,

iron, iron.

facile, adv. [facilis], easily.


facilis, -e, adj.

ferreus,

ful.
fides,

[fides], trusty, faith-

Fidelity.
-ei, f.

trust, confidence.

LA TIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
fidus, -a, -um, adj.

trusty,

[fides],

figura, -ae,

[fi(n)g6], shape, form;

f.

[filius],

f.

note

filius,

[filia],

sou.

fIn.\T, flctu.s,

(478, a.)

-is,

tories.

{169,

facio), he

sum

(supplies pass, to

made, he done, beeome, hap-

and

Cf. accido

(508.)

evenio.

-um, adj. strong, firm.

-a,

flagrans, -antis,

z.^). flaming,

blazing,

FLAGRANT.

burning.
flecto, -ere,

flexus, bend, turn.

fle.xi,

which flows),

flowing thing),

m., [the

-i,

m.

-i,

sacrificial hearth, fire

pan, brazier.
-um,

-a,

-eris,

filthy, foul, hor-

n. league,

treaty, alli-

Federal.
-i,

-ae,

fors, fortis,

fraudis,

fraus,

frequens,

-e,

crowded,

adj.

-entis,

Cf.

-um, adj. [frigus],

cold.

creber.

frigidus,

-a,

frigus, -oris, n. [frigidus], cold.

frumentum,

f.

leaf, foliage.

-I,

n.

[fruor],

fruor,

-I,

com,

fructus (fruitus) [frumen-

-ae,

f.

(388.)

Frustrate.

friistra, adv. in vain.

[f ugio] , _/f/>//A

[fugo, fuga],

fugio, -ere, fQgl,

flee from.

Fugi-

tive.

-I,

fundo,

-ere, fudi, fusus,

esse.

form, figure

beauty.

chance, luck.

adj.

in

Frequent.

great mnnbers.

put

f.

trickery,

deceit,

f.

Fraud.

crime.

fugo, -are, -avi, -atus [fugio, fuga],

[fortiter],

brave, courageous.

strong,

Cf. validus.

to flight, rout.

m. smoke.

Fumes.
pour, pour

out.

funis,

forte, adv. \toxs\, by chance, perhaps.


fortis,

-tris,

nal.

fumus,

f.

[fragor],

FRACTURE.
m. brother. Frater-

m. spring, fount, source.

futurum

fore, for

m. [frango], crash.

-ere, fregi, fractus

Foliage.

n. leaf.

fons, fontis,

forma,

-oris,

7un away, flee ;

ance.

fosse

break in pieces, break.

fuga,
2^6].

rible.

folium,

fragor,

tum], d-zyVy; with abl.

river, stream.

foedus,

good

grain.

river, stream.

foedus,

ditch, trench,

f.

irons, frondis,

fliimen, -inis, n., (that

foculus,

fortitude.

[fors], fortune,

f.

Frigid.

Flexible.

fluvius,

-ae,

-ae,

frater,

[finis], bor-

plur. neighbors.

factus

terri-

Final.

e.)

-um, adj.

-a,

dering upon

firmus,

fossa,

frango,

m. end, border ; plur.

finitimus,

f 10, fieri,

fashion, de-

Fiction.

Feign.

vise.

fortuna,

canal.

fingo, -ere,

pen.

[fortis], strength,

f.

fortune.

2.)

m.

-1,

(Page

daughter.

Filial.

finis,

fortitiido, -inis,

bravery, endurance

figure.

22,

fortiter, adv. [fortis], bravely, cour-

ageously.

J\jithful.

filia, -ae,

261

furor,

-is,

m. rope, cord.

-oris,

m.

furor.

fusus, see fundo.

(176, a.)

madness, frenzy,

FIRST VEAR LATIN

262

Roman

Gaius, Gai, m. Caius, a

first

name.
Galba,

sum

-atus

-arl,

[gratus], give

thanks, thank ; with dat.

m. Galba.

-ae,

galea, -ae,

Gallicus,

gaude5,

gratus,

-um, adj. Gallic.

gallina, -ae,

able,

hen.

f.

sum

[gaudium],

(semi-

be

glad,

[gaudeS], joy, glad-

n.

-I,

Grave.
[gravis],

heavily,

severely, vehemently, greatly.


-are, -avi, -atus

[gravis], op-

press, burden, overcome.

gusto, -are, -avi, -atus,

Cf. laetitia.

ness.

adv.

graviter,

heavy,

[graviter],

adj.

-e,

grav5,

rejoice.

gaudium,

-um, adj. [gratia], accept-

-a,

severe, serious.

gavisus

-ere,

[gratus],

pleasing; grateful.

gravis,

m. a Gaul.

deponent)

sum

-atus

-ari,

congratulate.

89.)

Gaul.

f.

-a,

-I,

gratulor,

(Page

helmet.

f.

Gallia, -ae,

Gallus,

grator,

taste, eat.

gavisus, see gaudeo.


Gelertus,

m. Gelert, name of a

-I,

hound.

geminus,

gemma,

-um,

-a,

twin-born,

adj.

m. groan, moan.

-us,
-ae,

habito,

gem, jewel.

f.

-eris, n.

Genteel.

Germanus,

-i,

m. a German.

on, wage (war);

manage, do; wear:

se gerere, act, behave

pass, go on,

-us,

m. sword.

Graecus,

gramen,

(Page

27.)

m. step; period,

f.

stage.

Greece.

m. a Greek.

-inis, n.

gratia, -ae,
ness

(254.)

Grade.
-i,

(Page

f.

grass.

[gratus], favor, kind-

plur. thanks, gratitude.

m.

-alis,

famous

stick,

Hannibal,

Carthaginian

general.

97.)

-ae,

f.

spear.

not.

(53.)

(Page

43.)

Cf. non.

haud-quaquam, adv. by no means,


not at

adj. slender.

Graecia, -ae,

kid.

haesus,

haesi,

Adhere.

Hannibal,

haud, adv.

Cf. ensis.

gradus,

-ere,

live.

vivo,

m. yoicng goat,

-T,

haereo,

hasta,

gigas, -antis, m. giant.

-e,

and

Cf. incolo

tate.

take place.

gracilis,

[frequentative

cling, be fixed ; be perplexed, hesi-

ger5, -ere, gessi, gestus, bear, carry

-T,

-are, -avi, -atus

haedus,

[gens], race, lineage;

kind, class.

(242.)

adj. [habeo], [easily han-

-e,

of habeo], inhabit; dwell,

[genus], race, tribe,

f.

house, family.

gladius,

habilis,

dled), suitable, ft.

gens, gentis,

genus,

-ere, -ul, -itus, have, hold, keep;

with orationem, make, deliver.

twin-.

gemitus,

habeo,

haurio,

all.
-ire,

herbidus,

hausT, haustus, drink,

ExHAUST.

drain.

-a,

-um, aA]. grassy.

Hercle, interj. by Hercules, assuredly,


indeed.

Hercules,
Jupiter

-is,

m. Hercules, son of

and Alcmena, and god of

strength.

LA TIN-ENGLISH VOCA BULARY


the Hesperides,

htimanus,

daughters of Hesperus, guardians

taining

Hesperides, -um,

f.

-um, adj. of yesterday,

-a,

hie,

demon, pron.

haec, hoc,

this
she,

of mine

this,

as pars. pron. he,

l>)-

Hydra,

low, lowly, humble.

-e,

-ae,

[hydrus], the Hydra,

f.

Her-

a water monster killed by

hydrus,

hie, adv. here, hereupon.

[hiems],

-aturus

-avi,

-are,

to

cules.

(200.)

it.

hiemo,

(95.
humilis,

yester-.

-um, adj. [homo], {per-

-a,

man), man's, human.


(locative), on
the ground.

humi

of the golden apples,

hesternus,

^63

m. water-serpent, serpent,

-I,

snake.

spend the winter.


hiems, hiemis,

[hiemo], winter;

f.

from

hinc, adv. [hie], hence,

Hispania,

-ae,

Hispanus,

f.

here.

Spam.

f.

in

horribilis,

-e,

horas,

from

adj. terrible, dreadful,

-atus

-arl,

sum, urge,

m. garden.

-I,

hostilis,

-\,

entreat,

e,

adj.

17

r.)

m. and
Hostile.

-is,

[hostis],

of the

enemy.

(169,

Cf. inimicus.

hue, adv. [hie], hither.

hiimanitas,

humanity,
refinement.

-atis,

f.

gentleness,

m. stroke, blow.

same:

Idem

same

qui,

as.

(3-9)
adv. for that reason,

id-eo,

idoneus,

there-

-um, adj.yfA suitable.

-a,

-uum,

f.

the Ides.

(seldom the

therefore, then.

Cf. infestus.
f.

in that place, there.

[is],

igitur, conj.

(84.)

n. hospitality.

enemy, hostile.

Janiculum, one

Rome,

idem, eadem, idem, demon, pron.

Idiis,

hospitium.

hostis,

adv.

Cf. nunc,

n. the

-I,

fore.

exhort.

hortus,

ibi,

[is],

Cf. terribilis.

horrible.

{the thing

[iacio],

iam, no longer.

ietus, -us,

m. Horatius {Codes).

-i,

n.

-T,

of the hills of

hour, hourly.

Horatius,

hortor,

hour:

throw,

hurl.

laniculum,

with marks of honor.


f.

{be

dead.

iam, adv. already, now, at last: non


being),

honorifiee, adv. [honor], honorably,

to

lie

thrown), dart, javelin.

hom5, -inis, m. and f., {human


man. (163.) Cf. vir.
honor, -oris, m. honor.

-ae,

[iacio],

-ul,
lie,

iacio, -ere, iecl, iactus [iaceo],

iaculum,

history.

ho-die, adv. [hoc-die], to-day.

hour

-ere,

cast,

m. a Spaniard.

-T,

historia, -ae,

hora,

iace5,

thrown),

storm.

[humanus],
kindness,

ignis,

-is,

ignoro,

m.y?r^.

-are, -avI,

be ignorant of.

ignotus,

first

word),

Cf. itaque.
(169,

<r.)

-atus,

Igmtk.

not know,

Ig.N'ORE.

-um, adj. [in-(g)notus],

-a,

unknown, unfamiliar, strange.


-ud, demon, pron. that
-a,

ille,

{yonder)
it.

(200.)

as pers. pron. he, she,

FIRST YEAR LATIN

264
imbecillis,

weak,

adj.

-e,

feeble.

imbuo,

-ere, -uT,

moisten,

-wet,

-litus,

Imbue.

soak.

immanitas,

-atis,

savageness,

f.

[in-]>

-ui,

hang

Imminent.

impedi5,

-missus

-ere, -misi,

[in-],

entangle, hamper, impede.


[in-],

move, induce, drive, impel.

mander,

imperium,
rule,

-I,

n.

Empire.
[imperium],

Imperative. Cf.
m. attack,
-us,
Impetuous.

dat.

impiger,

-gra,

with

iubeo.

impetus,

-grum, adj. [in-piger],

-ere, -posuT, -positus


i}i

or upon

[in-],

mount

with dat.

bad,

-a,

-um,

adj., {not

good),

cry out

-are, -avi, -atus,

to.

in-cliid5, -ere,

-sT,

-sus [-claudo], shut

Include.
m. and f. [incolo], inhab-

in, co>ifine.

itant.

in,

inhabit;

and

live,

[incola], dwell

Cf. ha-

dzvell.

vivo,

incolumis,

adj.

-e,

unharmed,

safe.

of.

with abl.

upbraid,

taunt, abuse.
[is],
-i,

thence, thereupon.

n. evidence, proof, sign,

token.

declare, appoint.

see impello.

upon, towards, for

in-crepito, -are,

in-dic5, -ere, -dixi, -dictus, proclaim,

in, prep, witli ace. into, to, against,

in case

[-cado], fall

-dl,

hand), begin. Incipient.

in-clamo,

indicium,

wicked, shameless.

impulsus,

uncertain,

in-cipio, -ere, -cepT, -ceptus [-capio],

inde, adv.

impositus, see imp5n6.

improbus,

adj.

Cf. dubius.

Cf. salvus.

ptit or place
;

-um,

-a,

into: in insaniam incidere, become

bito

-ere, -evi, -etus \\u.-'],flll np,

impose

Incense.

in-col6, -ere, -ui,

cover, fill.

im-pono,

-census, set fire

-um, adj. [incendo], in-

doubtful.

incola, -ae,

assault.

{not slow), active, diligent.

im-pleo,

-dl,

inceptus, see incipio.

appeal

de??iand ;

cotnmatid,

grow

Incendiary.

-a,

{take in

[impero], command,

-are, -avi, -atus

order,

-ere,

bur?t.

incensus,

hot.

insafie.

[impero], order,

Cf. iussum.
n.

-i,

power.

impero,

Emperor.

ge7ieral.

in-cendo,

in-cid5, -ere,

m. [impero], com-

-oris,

Eng.

Cf.

-calui,

-ere,

in-certus,

-pulsus

im-pelI6, -ere, -pull,

imperatum,
command.

participles, often

fiatned, hot, fiery.

[in-pes],

-Ire, -Ivi (-iT), -itus

imperator,

in-calesco,

to,

setid against, let fly, let in.

etc.

nouns,

un-, in-, not.

warm, grow

cruelty, barbarity.

im-mineo, -ere,
over, impend.

and

adjectives,

having negative sense.

imitor, -an, -atus sum, imitate, copy.

im-mitto,

upon, towards,

in-, prefix, into,

also in composition with

Imbecile.

Of I,

;;

in,

in-diligenter,

adv.

Indict.
carelessly,

lessly.

indoles,

-is, f.

tiaturc. character.

list-

LA TIX-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
in-duc6, -ere, -duxT, -ductus, lead

dniw

induo, -ere,

-utus,

-uT,

industria, -ae,
-Ire,

-ui

on, clotlic

go

-itus,

in, enter

as noun, infant, lyahy.

lucky, unhappy.

Inferior.

(489.)

in or against), cajise, bring upott,

inferus,

with dat.

derneath.
infestus,

-um,

noun, enemy.
in-fici5,

-ere,

-ae,

as

-fectus [-faci5],

INFECT.

f.

-sus,

more

laugh

at,

tnock,

ridicule.

m.

-us,

ery, derision

[inrideo],

viock-

ab inrlsu, in mock-

ery.

into,

break

-ere, -rupl, -ruptus,

break

in,

rush

Irrup-

at*

(worn

fillet

insania, -ae,

insanity, madness.

f.

in-signe,

-is,

[insTgnis],

n.

mark,

l)y

insignis,

adj. [in-sTgnum], {distin-

-e,

guished by a mark), remarkable,

ingenium,

-I,

n.

genius, temper, char-

conspicuous, prominent.
in-silio,

acter.

ingens, -entis, adj. huge, great.

Cf.

magnus.
-!,

-gressus sum, step in,

Cf. intro.

in-hi5, -are, -avT, -atus,

for, desire.
-ere,

gape

at,

long

unequal

upon,

leap

-T,

[-iacio],

put

upo)i.

m. [-amicus], enemy.

um,

-are,

-fitus

[-statud],

-stiti,

-statiirus,

{stand

instrQctus, see Instruo.

instrumentum,

-T,

n.

[Instruo],

in-

strument.

Inimic.\l.
-a,

in-st5,

-ui,

arrange.

-iectus

-iecT,

-ere,

against ) press on, pursue.

iniectus, see inicio.

in-iquus,

-uT,

Insinuate.

in.

set up, fix,

Cf. cupio.

thro^v upon, cast upon,

(171.)

push

in-stitu5,

ingressus, see ingredior.

in-imicus,

-Ire,

throw one's self upon.


in-sinuo, -are, -avT, -atus, thrust in,

in-gredior,
enter.

-sT,

or

he.

sign, symbol, insignia.

priests).

in-icio,

quoted words), said

in-sido, -ere, -sedi, -sessus, sit upon.

Cf. hostilis.

soak, imbue, stain.

infula,

hostile;

adj.

-feci,

want, poverty, lack,

f.

need.

tion.

(489.)

-a,

-ae,

without command.

abl. -e, dirt, filth.

in-rumpo,

(506.)

-um, adj. low, below, un-

-a,

inluvies,

inrisus,

in-fero, inferre, intull, inlatus, {bear

inflict

in-iussii, only abl.

in-rideo, -ere,
[Tnferus], lower.

adj.

inferior, -ius,

harm,

[in-ius], ivrong,

f.

inquit (placed after one

adj. unfortunate, un-

-Icis,

iniiiria, -ae,

inopia,

(507.)

in-fans, -amis, adj., {not speaiing);

in-fellX,

beginning.

[ineo],

n.

-I,

insult, injury.

diligence, industry.

f.

(-il),

begin, form.

put

initium,

Initi.'VL.

wrap.

or.e's self in, clothe,

in-eo,

to,

induce, persuade.

to,

265

Cf. hostis.

adj.

uneven,

[-aequus],

unfavorable.

in-stru6, -ere, -struxl, -structus, build


in,

form

instruct,

train

pre-

pare, provide.
insula, -ae,

f.

island.

Peninsula.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

266
in-sum,

-esse,

and

-fui,

abl.

in, be

be

and with

with dat.

a?no7ig;

in

[inter-

between),

learn,

{choose

In-

know, perceive, jinderstand.

tellect.

{stretch out

-tus,

-di,

Intend.
between, among,

while:

amid, during,

inter

se,

in-victus,

in-video, -ere,

invidia, -ae,

lolaus,

Iphicles,

death.

kill, slay, ptit to

ipse,

inner,

adj.

-us,

interior.

m. interpreter.

-etis,

inter-rumpo,

-rupT,

-ere,

iratus,

-fui,

is,

-futiirus,

amotig, be present at ;

be

with dat.

Cf. adsum.

-are,

-avi,

-atus,

go

Cf. ingredior.

f.

-a,

ea, id,

(329.)

anger, wrath,

-um, adj.

demon, pron. that ; as

iste, -a, -ud,

adv.

it.

m.

-us,

[intro-eo],

en-

demon, pron. that

intro-mitto, -ere, -mlsT, -missus,

{let

-i,

m. isthmus.
Cf. sic

so, thus.

-are, -avT, -atus, overflow, in-

and so,

ita-que, conj.

iter, itineris,

tarn.

therefore.

Cf.

n.

[eo],

way, journey,

-um,

(482.)

Itin-

erant.
Iteration.
iubeo, -ere, iussT, iiissus, bid, order,

connnand.

undate, cover.

strange.

and

iterum, adv. a second time, again.

admit.

intus, adv. [in], within, inside.

-a,

{of

(493.)

march, line of march.

trance.

in-usitatus,

pers.

(138.)

igitur.

introduce.

in), let in,

angry, en-

Ir.\te.

pron. he, she,

ita,

ire.

[ira],

Italia, -ae, f . /ta/y.

intro-diiCO, -ere, -duxT, -ductus, lead

in-undo,

-um, demon, adj. and pron.

very.

isthmus,
into,

daughter of Eurytus.
m. Iphicles, brother of

lole,

yours).

intra, prep, with ace. zvithin.

go

of,

[invideo], envy, jeal-

f.

-is,

raged.

-ruptus,

Interrupt.

break down.

inter-sum, -esse,

f.

-a,

self,

ira, -ae,

introitus,

jealous

Hercules.

Cf. neco

occido.

(4S9-)

in,

be

m. lolaus, a friend of Her-

-T,

lole, -es,

enter.

-vTsus [invidia],

cules.

inter-ficio, -ere, -feci, -feet us [-facio],

intro,

uii-

envy.

interfectus, see interficio.

(345.)

-visT,

to7vards),

{look

inter-ea, adv. fneanwhile.

interpres,

-um, adj. [-vinco],

-a,

ousy:

inter-dum, adv. sometimes.

interior,

come

Cf. reperio.

in-vicem, adv. in turn, mutually.

together.

and

-ventus,

-Veni,

-ire,

lipon, find, discover.

towards), bend, aim.


inter, prep, with ace.

come upon,

conquered, invincible.

Cf. cognosco.

in-tendo, -ere,

-sus,

-ere, -si,

attack, invade, take possession of.

in-venio,

(345-)

intellego, -ere, -lexi, -lectus

lego],

in-vado,

adj.

itnnsual,

Cf. impero.

iudico, -are, -avi, -atus [ius], judge,


decide.

LA TIN-ENGLISH
iugerum,

iugum.

-I,

lulius,

T,

iunctus,

iungo,

n. (gen. plur.

-i,

iugerum),

jiiger.

liiic'.

Roman name.

m. Julius, a

-ere, iunxT, iunctus, unite-, join.

Junction.
Juno, queen of the

s/'an, cross.

luno, -onis,

f.

gods and wife of

preme

deity of the

iuro,

an

[ius],

swear,

NiLE.

Cf. adulescens.

m.

toil.

Iate5, -ere, -ui,

El.\ BORATE.

suffer.

Latinus,

-a,

latus,

m. robber, brigand.
adj.

-e,

[laudo], praise-

lectus,

m. bed, couch.

-1,

-T,

lenis,

Legate.

[lego], {a gathering),

f.

adj. [leniter], soft, smooth,

-e,

leniter,

Lenient.

adv. [lenis], gently, moder-

m.

Lerna, a

laetitia, -ae,

Greece.

\\3iQi\is.'\,Joy,glad)iess.

merry,

lion.

-a,

lacus, -us, m. lake, pool.

adj. glad,

m. ambassador, deputy,

lego, -ere, legl, lectus, gat h er ; select

Lernaeus,

pleasant, joyful.

[laudo], praise, glory,

f.

fitne.

ately.

-ae, f. tear.

-um,

lurk, lie hid, be

laud.

lacrima,

-a,

-um, adj. Latin.

laus, laudis,

leo, -onis,

laetus,

La pi-

-um, adj. broad, wide.

-a,

lac, lactis, n. milk.

f.

milestone.

Latent.

gentle, mild.

opera.

laboro, -are, -avi, -atus [labor], work,


toil

stotie,

da ry.

read.

m. [laboro], labor,

and

[lamenta],

legion.

m. Labienus, a lieuten-

ant in Caesar's army.

Cf. opus

sum

wail, lament.

lieutenant, legatus.

abbreviation for Lucius.

labor, -oris,

-atus

-ari,

legio, -onis,

-T,

lick, lap.

laments, lamentation.

'uhiiliiig,

lamentor,

legatus,

iuvo, -are, iuvT, iutus, help, aid.

Labienus,

lectus, see lego.

[iuvenis], body of

f.

youth, youth.

L.,

n. plur. [liimentor],

laudo, -are, -avi, -atus [laus], praise,

iuventiis, -utis,

Roman

worthy, laudable.

young cow, heifer.


iuvenis, -e, adj. young; as noun,
young man, youth. (260.) Ji"\ K-ae, f

-ere,

laudabilis,

-um, adj. [ius],yus^

-a,

lambo,

latro, -onis,

[iubed], order, com-

Cf. imperatum.

iuvenca,

m. Laevinus, a

latro, -are, -avi, -atus, bark.

iussus, see iubeo.


iustus,

concealed.

right, justice.
n.

-i,

mand.

(482.)

Abjure.

oath.

iiis, iuris, n.

iiissum,

-atus

-avT,

-are,

take

Romans.

quarrel, dispute.

n.

-T,

-I,

lapis, -idis,

Jupiter.

luppiter, lovis, m. Jupiter, the su-

iurgium,

267

the left hand.

laeva, -ae,

Laevlnus,

lamenta, -orum,

iungo.

sc-c-

VCABULARV

consul.

[iungo], yoA-e.

n.

-um, adj. Lernaean, of

district

near Argos in

levo, -are, -avi, -atus, lift up, raise.

libenter, adv. willingly, gladly.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

268
m.

liber, -bri,

liimen,

book.

liber, -era, -erum, adj. free.

(103.)

Liberal.
liberalitas, -atis,

f.

[liber], noble dis-

-5rum, m. plur. [iTber],

liberi,

chil-

Lunatic.

luna, -ae,

f.

[lux], 7noon.

lupa,

f.

[lupus], she-wolf

-ae,

lupus,

position, generosity, liberality.


libere, adv. [\\heT'\, freely, fraftkly.

Lumi-

[lux], light.

-inis, n.

nous.

m. [lupa], wolf.

-T,

lutum,

mud, mire.

n.

-i,

lux, lucis,

(no gen. plur.) [liiceo],

f.

light.

dren.
libero, -are, -avi, -atus \]lher'],setf>-ee,

free, liberate

with abl. of sepa-

libertas,

-atis,

freedotn,

[liber],

f.

licet, -ere, licuit

or

licit

um est, impers.

m. Licbas, an attendant

-ae,

m.

-oris,

lictor,

attendant of a high

lignum,
limus,

ceremonial

stick.

n.

-ae,

f.

totigue,

loco, -are, -avi, -atus

put,

m.

-a,

position,

loca,

situation

Local.

-urn, adj.

off.

[longus],

-um, adj. long,

-ciitus

-i,

-a,

muddy.

sum, speak,

talk, say.

Lubric-^te.

sport, sportive.

-um,

-a,

sad.

adj.

Cf.

tristis.

magnificus,

-a,

-um, adj. [magnus-

facio], splendid, magnificent.

magnitiido,

inis, f. \ma.gr\us\,

great-

magnitude.

magnopere, adv.

[abl.

of

magnum

opus], greatly, exceedingly, heartily.

tedious.

-um, adj. slippery, slimy,

magnus,

serving

-a,

-um, adj. great, large

(260.)

maiestas,

-atis,

f.

[maior], dignity,

honor, majesty.

maior,

[lux], shine.

[ludicer], -era, -crum, adj.

for

goodfor your pluck

Immaculate.

soil.

loud.

luceo, -ere, luxl,

phrase

-are, -avi, -atus, spot, stain,

ness, size,

Longitude.
lubricus,

the

honored for

(of a magistrate), magistracy.

and

distant, remote, far atvay.


-a,

thy valor

esto, be

teacher.

longe, adv. \\or\gVi&\, far, far

longinquus,

(voc), in

adj.

magistratus, -us, m. [magister],^?^^^

chance, opporticnity.

loquor,

coti-

[locus], place,

lociitus, see loquor.

longus,

[machina],

magister,-trl,m.[mag(nus)], master,

(plur. loci, m.,

place,

n.),

f.

xaag\S,a.A-v.\m3ig{n\xs)'],more,7-ather.

Locate.

set.
-1,

-onis,

language.

litus, -oris, n. shore.

locus,

macte,

maestus,

officer.

wood ; stake,
m. mud, slime.

-I,

-T,

lingua,

machinatio,

maculo,

of Hercules.
lictor,

contrivance, machine,

f.

macte virtute

permitted, {one) may.

Lichas,

-ae,

trivance, machine, engine.

liberty.

it is

machina,
engine.

ration.

(260.)

male,
(267.)

-ius,

adj.

greater,

larger.

Major.
adv.

[malus],

Malevolent.

badly,

ill.

LA TIN-ENGLISH VOCA B ULA R Y


male-dic5,
til

-ere,

-dictus, speak

-dixl,

Maleijic-

abuse.

revile,

of,

TION.

volo],

malum,
malus,

more

be

would

rather.

-T,

-a,

[magis-

malui,

malo, malle,

willing, prefer,

-um, adj. bad,

evil.

evil.

(260.)

of Quintus Fabius.

me,

see ego.

mediocris,

ocre.

{put in hand), charge, command,

medius,

mane, adv. in the morning.


maneo, -ere, mansT, mansurus,
Manlius,

m. Manlius, a

-1,

stay,

mansuetudo,

Roman

-inis,

clemency, kind-

f.

ness, gentleness.
-us, f

(243,

M.VNUAL.

a)

m. Marcius, a

Roman

m. Marcus, a

Roman

-T,

name.
first

(4S2.)

gen.

plur.),

sea.

Marine.
-T,

mater,

membrum,

-i,

m. [Mars], March.
f.

matrimonium,

mother.
-1,

[memoro],

f.

-avT, -atus

n.

mony, marriage ;
dilcere, to marry.

mendacium, -I, n.
Mendacious.
mensis,

-is,

Maternal.
matrimonium
Cf.

properd and contendo.

maxime, adv. [ma.ximus],


pecially, greatly.

falsehood,

mi7id.

f.

lying.

Cf. animus.

m. trader, merchant.

m. Mercury, messen-

-i,

-eri, -itus

mergo,

metus,

meus,

(84, d.)

sum, deserve, merit.

-ere, -si, -sus, sink.


-T,

n.

see
-us,

Merge.

[mereor], thing de-

-a,

mergo.

m.f-ar, dread.

-um, possess, adj. and pron.

my, mine.
mico,

matiiro, -are, -avi, -atus, hasten.

Commem-

state.

m. month.

-oris.

Mercurius,

mersus,

[mater], matriin

/Tjemo/"/.

[memoria],

served, deserts, merit.

mass, lump.

-tris, f.

Amelio-

orate.

meritum,
-ae,

in

Member.

n. limb.

-T,

memoria, -ae,
memoro, -are,

mereor,

war.

Martius,

Medium.

(260.)

ger of the gods.

m. husband.

Mars, Martis, m. Mars, the god of

massa,

rae\\ox,-\.vks, better.

mercator,
(no

n.

-is,

(them)

to the centre.

mens, mentis,
-i,

name.

maritus,

-um, adj. tniddle, middle

tnentiojt, relate,

hand ; grappling hook ;

force, band.

Marcius,

mare,

-a,

Medi-

little.

rate.

name.

Marcus,

[medius], mid-

adj.

-e,

medium,

I'I'-RMAnent.

remain, wait.

physician.

doctor,

cf: in medio, between

intrust.

manus,

m.

-T,

Medicine.

[manus-do],

-are, -avi, -atus

greatest.

adj.

dling, tnoderate ; a

Cf. improbus.

mand5,

-um,

-a,

Maxi.mum.
Maximus, -T, m. Maximus, surname
(260.)

medicus,

(505.)

[malus], bad thing,

n.

maximus,

269

(229.)

-are, -uT,

quiver ; flash,

gleam, twinkle.
mihi, see ego.

most,

es-

Ci. praecipue.

miles,

-itis,

militaris,

m.

-e,

soldier.

Military.

adj. [miles], military.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

2/0
mille,

num.

adj., indecl. in sing.

(supply passuum), miles.

minitne, adv. [minimus],


at

-um,

-a,

{305,
least,

e.)

jiot

-arl,

-atus

little.

smaller,

lesser.

m. Minucius, a

-i,

Roman

mirabilis,

adj. [miror], to he

-e,

dered at;

won-

extraordi-

wotiderful,

Admirable.

nary..

miraculum,

-T,

-arl,

-atus

wonder
-a,

at,

sum

[mlrus], won-

admire.

-um, adj. [miror], 'wonder-

ful, extraordinary.
-era,

-erum, adj. wretched, un-

happy, miserable.
adv.

misere,

miserably.

-e,

[miser],

wretchedly,

-ae,

f.

pity, compassion.

-um, adj. [morior],

-a,

dying, at the point of death.

mortuus sum

-1,

[mors],

moror,

-atus

-ari,

part.

(fut.

die.

sum [mora],

retard,

mors,

mortis,

[morior],

death.

mortifer,

f.

Cf. nex.

-erum, adj.

-era,

[mors-

fero], death-dealing, deadly, fatal.

-um,

adj.

[morior],

mos, moris, m. manner,

habit, cus-

-a,

dead.

Moral.

tom.

moveo, -ere, movl, motus, move.


mox, adv. soon, presently.
Mijcius, -I, Mucius, a Roman name,
mulier,

-eris,

woman.

f.

Cf.

fe-

multitiido,

-inis,

f.

[multus], great

adv.

multo,

[multus],

by

much,

much.

adj. mild, gentle.

Mis-

sion.

multum,

[multus],

adv.

tnuch.

(267.)

modo, adv. [modus], otily.


modus, -T, m. way, manner.
moenia, -ium,
(of a city).
-is, f.

n. plur.

multus,

Mood.

[munio], walls

Cf. miirus.

mass, heap.

-are, -avi, -atus,

much;

-ire, -iv! (-ii), -Itus

-onis,

tion, defence.

miinus,
hill.

plur.

[moenia],

miirus,

-eris, n.
-I,

f.

\m.\:i\\\o\,

fortifica-

Munitions.
dtdy,

m. wall.

offi.ce.

Cf. moenia.

mils, muris, m. mouse.

Cf. collis.

Demonstr.\te.

miinio,

-um, adj.

(260.)

miimtio,
advise,

mons, montis, m. mountain,


monstro,

-a,

many.

fortify, defend.

moneo, -ere, -uT. -itus, remind,


warn. (498.) Monitor.

out.

bite.

number, multitude, quantity.

mitto, -ere, mlsl, missus, send.

moles,

momordi, morsus,

mina.

(267.)

misericordia,
mitis,

-ere,

Morsel.

mortuus,

[miror], wonder,

n.

marvel, miracle.

miser,

[moror], delay.

Mortal.

consul.

der,

mordeo,

monster.

n.

-I,

f.

hinder, delay.

Miniicius,

mirus,

-ae,

moritiirus)

(260.)

miror,

mora,

morior,

sum, threaten.

adj.

-us,

monstrum,

moribundus,
very

least,

Minimum.

(260.)

minor,

in

by no means.

all,

minimus,
minor,

thousand ; also

plur., milia, -ium,

show, point

miito, -are, -avI, -atus, change, alter.

Mut.\tion.

LA TIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
nam, con], for.
namque, con], for, inasmuch
narr5,

-atus,

-avi,

-are,

Nessus,

tell,

neuter,

relate,

nascor,

sum,

niitus

-1,

of no], swim, float.

(260.)

natura,

-ae,

niger, -gra, -grum,

m. [for navita;

-ae,

navalis,

navigo,

navis,

-is,

(169,

nobilis,

f.)

abl.

-T,

Naval.

ne, conj. that not, that;

hortatory

with

lest;

subjunctive,

ne

tiot:

(44, 3.)

and num.

of high birth

-atis,

f.

[necesse], need,

hurt, injure

-avi,

-are,

-atus

Cf. interficio

negotium,

n.

-T,

to,

Noxious.

[ne-vol6], be

nolo, nolle, noluT,

will

nomen,

n.

-inis,

not,

not

wish.

[nosco],
is

{that

by

kno'wn), name.

Nominal.

[nex],

and

hill,

no longer.

Cf. baud,

non-dum, adv. not yet.

occido.

[nec-6tium, ease],

non-ne, interrog. adv. suggesting an


alfirniative

no gen. or abl.), ni.


f. [ne-homo], no one, nobody,
no man.

and num.

-ini (dat.

ne-que or nee, conj. and


.

harm

do

with dat.

Cf. obsum.

business, labor.

neque

-iturus,

non, adv. [ne-unum], not: non iam,

necessity.

nemo,
and

swim.

noble.

-uT,

which a thing

necessary.

slay.

adj. \xio%co\,well-known,

(505-)

necesse, indecl. neut. adj. unavoid-

neco,

-e,

unwilling,

nee, see neque.

necessitas,

much.

noctu, only abl. [nox], by night.

-ne, interrog. adv. enclitic.

able,

too

snow.

f.

noce5, -ere,

quidem, not even.

Cf. nonne

Negro.

if not, unless, except.

no, nare, navl,

navigate.
(ace. -em, -im

f.

ship.

-e.),

nix, nivis,

[navis-ag5],

-are, -avI, -atus

sail, cruise,

black.

m. the Nile, a river of Egypt.

ni-si, conj.

adj. [navis], naval.

-e,

T,

nimium, adv.

navit;],

NAUTICAL,

sailor.

2.d].

NiHiLLST.

no food.
Nilus,

ture, character.

nauta,

nihil, n., indecl. nothing: nihil cibi,

[nascor], {birth), na-

f.

Cf mors,

ni, conj. if not, imless.

[nascor], by birth,

abl.)

in age.

(no gen. plur.) [neco],

f.

death, slaughter, murder.

nato, -are, -avI, -atus [frequentative

natu (only

Neutral.

(312.)

nex, necis,

be born.

-trum, adj. neither (of

-tra,

two).

narrate.

m. Nessus, a centaur

-I,

by Hercules,

slain

as.

271

not,

neque, neither

nor
.

nor.

-a,

Cf. -ne

-um, adj., {not none),

some, several.

n5nus,
.

Nervii, -orum, m. plur. the Nervii,


a tribe of northeastern Gaul.

non-niillus,

answer, not

-a,

-um, num. adj. [novem],

ninth.

nos, see ego.

nosco, -ere, novT, notus, learn

know.

perf.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

2/2

noster, -tra, -trum, possess, adj.

pron.

our men.

ours:

our,

[nos],

and

nostri,

NOTATION.

observe, perceive.
-a,

novem,
novus,
nox,

-um, adj. [nosco], known.

num.

indecl.
-a,

adj.

-um, adj. new.

noctis,

night.

f.

nudus,

Novelty.
Noctur-

cloud.

-um, adj. [ne-ullus], no,

-a,

no7ie, 7to one.

num,

obscurus,

Nullity.

(312.)

interrog. adv. suggesting a neg-

ative answer; in indir. question,

and

Cf. nonne

whether.

-ne.

m. number. Numeral.
numquam, adv. [ne-umquam], never.

numerus,

-T,

nuntio, -are,
report,

nuntius,

-atus

-avT,

[nuntius],

m. [nuntio], bearer of
[for

noviper; novus],

who

-ae,

0, interj. O, oh!
ob, prep, with ace.
ob-icio,

-ere,

07t

-ieci,

account

-iectus

of.

[-iacio],

{throw in the way), throiv between,


interpose.

Oblitus,

-a,

obsidio,

Cf. oppugn5.

-onis,

adj.

[obllviscor],

[obsideo], siege,

f.

blockade.

obsitus, see obser5.

ob-struo,

-structus,

-struxl,

-ere,

(build up against), block up, bar,


barricade, obstruct.
-ere,

-feci,

-factus,

astonish, amaze, astound.


-ere, -stupui,

be

astonished, be amazed.
-esse, -ful,

be against,

be opposed to; injure ; with dat.

Cf. noceo.
-uT,

(hold

against),

hold.

Obtain.

ob-trunco,

-tentus [-teneo],
possess,

-avI,

-are,

-atus,

occupy,

cut

to

pieces, kill, slay, slaughter.

Obviam, adv. in the way: obviam

Occasion.

with dat.

OCCasus,

-us,

f.

chance, opportunity.

Cf. potestas.

m. setting

(of the sun).

OC-cido, -ere, -cTdi, -cisus [ob-caedo],

forgetful.

Obliviscor,

against), besiege, beset,

OCCasio, -onis,

offero.

-um,

down

blockade.

fio, tneet ;

Object.

Obiectus, see obicio.

Oblatus, see

[ob-sedeo],

f.

remains as a

or

sits

Ob-tineo, -ere,

nymph.

f.

dark.

ob-sideo, -ere, -sedi, -sessus [-sede5],

(502.)

recently, lately.

nympha,

[obsciiro],

m. and

-idis,

ob-SUm,

fiews, tnessenger.

niiper, adv.

[obscurus],

cover, strew, fill.

Obses,

ob-stupesco,

announce.
-T,

-um

-a,

ob-stupefacio,

Cf. iam.

nunc, adv. tiow.

-avT, -atus

Obscure.

(sit

unclothed; nude.

nuUus,

to,

pledge), hostage.

(169.)

-um, adj. stripped, bare,

-a,

liable

adj.

darken, conceal.

(one
-is, f.

-um,

-a,
to.

ob-ser5, -ere, -sevi, -situs, (sow, plant),

7ti7te.

nal.
nubes,

exposed

obscuro, -are,

(229.)

not5, -are, -avi, -atus, mark, notice,

notus,

Ob-noxius,

-T,

Oblivious.

oblitus

sum, forget.

cut dorv)!, slay,


need,

kill.

and obtrunco.

Cf. interficio,

LA TIN-ENGLISH VOCA BULARY


occupd, -are,

-atus [ob-capio],

-avi,

take possession

seize ;

of,

occupy.

niii tincaiiis

octavus,

-a,

oculus,
odi,

-um, num. adj. [octoj,

-bris,

m.

-I,

man.

Ocular.

oppidum,

eye.

(used only in perf.

OniUM.
odor,

Oechalia,

Oechalia, a city of

f.

m.

-I,

Oeneus,

father

of

-ae,

mountain

Oeta,

f.

in

-di,

-fensus

\_oh-'],

strike

against; come npon, find.

offer, present.

officlna, -ae,

f.

that time)

formerly,

ille],

once

once upon a time.


Cf. aliquandoOlympus, -I, m. Olympus, a mountain in Greece, the abode of the
gods.
-ere,

-misl,

-missus

[ob-],

let go by, disregard, neglect, omit.


Omnino, adv. [omnis], wholly, alto-

gether, entirely.

omnis,

-e,

-eris,

weight.

n.

Cf.

and universus.

load,

Onerous.

ex-

-um, adj.

Cf. auxilium.
(260.)

best.

-I,

work, labor.

Cf. labor.

n. [5r6], oracle.

[oro], speech, plea

f.

oration

m.

-oris,

orator

speaker,

[oro],

ambassador.

m.

-is,

circle, orb,

world :

orbis

tenarum, earth, world.


orbo,

-are,

-atus,

-avi,

deprive,

be-

reaie.

ordo,

-inis,

m. rank, order

ex ordine,

one after another

in succession,

extra ordinem, out of the ranks.

m.

[orior],

rising

Orient.
ortus sum, arise,

spring,

-entis,

(sun), east.
orior,

-Tri,

descend {from)

orta luce, at day-

break.

adj. whole, all, every.

totus, cunctus,

onus,

aid, help.

-eris, n.

oraculum,

oriens,

0-mitt5,

Cf.

Optimist.

orbis,

workshop, laboratory.

olim, adv. [olle, old form of


(at

f.

-a,

orator,

of-fer5, -ferre, obtuli, oblatus [ob-],

[ob-], at-

besiege.

obsideo.

oratio, -onis,

(Greece.

of-fendo, -ere,

-pressus [ob-

-are, -avT, -atus

[ops], opis,

opus,

Deianira.

Oeta,

be-

town, stronghold.

assault,

optimus,

luiboea.

Oeneus,

n.

pugno and

m. smell, odor.

-ae,

//

m. [oppidum], towns-

-ere, -press!,

0p-pugn5,
tack,

-oris,

(impers.),

necessary, one ought.

-T,

-T,

op-primo,

care,

premo], overcome, crush, oppress.

hate.

[odi], hatred, enmity.

n.

-T,

-uit

it is

oppidanus,

and pluperf.) [odium],


odium,

hooves,

labor,

and opus.

expectation, opinion.

f.

-ere,

m. [oct5], October.

clef,

-isse,

[opus],

f.

Cf. labor

oportet,

OCT.WE.

eighth.

-ae,

work.

opinio, -onis,

meet, fall in with.

m. ocean.

-i,

October,

[ob-],

-um, adj. [onus], laden,

-a,

loaded.

opera,

Cf. potior.

OC-curro, -ere, -curri, -cursus

oceanus,

onustus,

271

burden,

bulk,

ornamentum,

-T,

n.

[orno],

{that

which adorns), ornament, jewel.


ornatus,

-us,

ni.

adornment ;

[orno], equipment,

dress.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

274

-atus, adorn,

-avi,

orno, -are,

orna-

oro, -are, -avi, -atus [os], {speak), beg,

stretch

(no gen. plur.), month, face.


[ob(s)-],

-tus

-dl,

-ere,

OS-

show, display.

out;

ovis,

-i,

ovum,

-i,

pabulum,

n. \^z.?,zo\,

-i,

food.

-uit

paenitet, -ere,

(impers.),

it

re-

pents ; with gen. and ace.

-I,

m.

-iidis,

paratus,

Parity.

pepercl (pars!), parsus,

-ere,

spare; with dat.


parens,
pare5,

-entis,
-ere,

Parsimony.

m. and

-uT,

f.
,

appear), be obedient

parent.

(come forth,

to,

obey ; with

peperl,

-ere,

forth, bear

partus,

bri}ig

-avi, -atus,

make

ready,

pars, partis,
tion, side.

f.

pari, share;

direc-

Partial.

parum, adv. too little, not enough :


parum honorifice, disrespectfully.
(490)

f.

[patior], patience.
suffer,

allow, permit.

patria,

-ae,

[pater], fatherland,

f.

Patr IOTISM.

native land, cowitry.


patricius,

-a,

-um, adj. [pater], pa-

trician, noble.

few,

-a,

-um, adj. (generally plur.),

Paucity.

little.

paulum, adv. a
-a,

little, little.
little,

somewhat.

-um, adj. [pavor], trem-

bling, fearful, timid.

pavor,

prepare for, prepare.

(163.)

-um, adj. [pater], of a

passus sum, bear,

-1,

pavidus,

equally with, as well as.

paro, -are,

open, be open,

m. father.

-a,

paulo, adv. by a

lay.

pariter, adv. [par], equally: pariter


ac,

lie

father, father's, paternal.

paucus,

dat.

pario,

patientia, -ae,
patior,

prepared.
parco,

-ui,

-tris,

paternus,

[paro], ready,

-a, -urn, adj.

-factus [pateo],

-feci,

{make open), open, throw open.

pater,

swamp, marsh.

par, paris, adj. equal.

step,

be exposed.

stake, pale.
f.

m. [pateo], {a stretching

-us,

pate5, -ere,

n. cloak, mantle.

palus,

pasture.

pate-facio, -ere,

paene, adv. nearly, almost.

palus,

pasco, -ere, pavi, pastus, feed, tend;

pace: mille passuum, m/'/e.


pastor, -oris, m. [pascor], (feeder),
Pastor.
shepherd.

Oval.

n. egg.

-1,

little.

out of the feet in walking),

sheep.

pallium,

-um, adj. small,

-a,

{260.)

passus,

n. leisure, idleness.

-is, f.

masc. plur. as noun,

passus, see patior.

TENSIBLE.
otium,

significant

parvus,

ortus, see orior.

os-tendo,

-um, adj. [diminutive

-a,

the little ones, the babies.

pray, entreat, plead.

OS, oris, n.

parvulus,

of parvus], very small, slight, in-

ment, deck.

-oris,

m.

dread, alarm.

pax, pacis,

f.

Cf. timidus.

[pavidus], fear,
Ci. terror.

(no gen. plur.), peace.

Pacify.
pecco, -are,
take, err.

-avi, -atus,

make a

Peccadillo.

mis-

Cf. erro.

LA TIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY
Pectoral.

-oris, n. breast.

pectus,

pecunia,

-ae,

money.

[pecus],

f.

-oris, n. cattle, flock.

pedes,

-itis,

Cf. peragro.
-ere, -misi, -missus, allow,

grant, suffer, permit ; yield, give

m. [pedes], infan-

-us,

up

peior, -ius, adj. worse.


pellis,

-is, f.

pensum,

{what

n.,

-I,

weighed

out,

wool, as a task for spinning),

per, prep, with ace. through, by, by


of,

per-agro,

on account

wander through, pass

[ager],

over, trav-

per-cipio, -ere, -cepT, -ceptus [-capi5],

per-contor,
quire.

-ari,

sum, ask,

-atus

perspectus, see perspicio.

through), see clearly, ascertain.

per-suadeo,

Cf. quaere, rogo,

per-terreo,

-ere,

and

in-

pet5.

per-traho,

per-diic5,

Per-

lose.

-ductus, lead

-duxT,

-ere,

-Ire, -ivi (-ii), -iturus,

perish.

per-ficio, -ere, -feci, -fectus [-facio],

accomplish

-ere,

-fregl,

-fractus

perrectus [per-

rego], go on, proceed, hasten.

Cf.

procedo and progredior.

periculum.

-i,

n. trial,

danger, peril.

pessimus,

{drag

come

pedem
Pedal.

referre,

-a,

-um, adj. worst.

(260.)

Pessimist.
-ivi

attempt

risk,

-itus,

ask,

Cf.

seek,

de-

beg; attack.

postulo,

quaerd,

rogo.
-atis,

f.

filial affection, love,

PlETY.

loyalty.

piger, -gra, -grum, adj. slow, lazy.


pigritia, -ae,

(-ii),

for,

Petition.

and
pietas,

completely wreck.
-ere, perrexl,

-veni, -ventus,

pes, pedis, m. foot:

mand, ask

[-frangS], break to pieces, shatter,

pergo,

-Ire,

peto, -ere,

perfect.

perfractus, see perfringo.


per-fringo,

per-venio,

retreat, fall back.

through, conduct, bring.


per-eo,

-ere, -traxT, -tractus,

up, arrive, reach.

Cf. amitto.

dition.

ob-

through), drag, drag along.

run through.

per-do, -ere, -didi, -ditus,

stinacy, pertinacity.

pertractus, see pertraho.

strike,

thor-

-itus,

pertinacia, -ae, f perseverance

per-cutio, -ere, -cussi, -cussus [qua////,

-suasus,

-suasi,

-ere,

with dat. Persuasion.

percussus, see percutio.

tio],

-scriptus,

oughly frighten, alarm.

Cf. sentio.

perceive, feel.

-scripsi,

-ere,

persuade

Cf. perlustro.

erse.

per-scribo,

per-spicio, -ere, -spe.\i, -spectus {see

of.

-atus

-avi,

-are,

burst

through, break through.

write at length, describe fully.

task ; lesson, exercise.

means

-ere, -rupl, -ruptus,

per-rumpo,

Pelt.

is

-um, adj. continual,

-a,

continuous, perpetual.

(260.)

skin, hide.

Permission.

with dat.

perpetuus,

try.

e.g.

through, view all over, examine,

per-mitto,

m. \^^s\ foot-soldier

peditatus,

wander

per-liistro, -are, -avI, -atus,

survey.

Peciniary.
pecus,

275

pilum,

-i,

pinguis,

xi.

-e,

f.

[piger], /^zzm^jj, sloth.

javelin.

(Page

2A).fat, heavy.

27.)

FIRST YEAR LATIN

276
pinus,-!,

(abl. plnu),)0//;e tree, pine.

f.

pirata, -ae, m. pirate.


placabilis,

easily pacified,

adj.

-e,

placeo, -ere,

-ei,

plebs, plebis,

f.

ports, -are, -avI, -atus, carry, bring.

{a flatness),

level

portus,

the co?n7non people,

-um, zA^.fidl.

-a,

-are,

plurimus,

-at us,

-avi,

-a,

bewail,

la-

Deplore.

ment, grieve.

-um, adj. most, very

have most influence.

more;

plus, pluris, adj.

many.
poena,
tnent

f.

[punio] yf ;/^, punish,

poenas dare, suffer punish-

poeta,

m. a CartJiaginian.

-T,

Roman

m. Pompey, a famous

general.

[posterus],

m.

-T,

-I,

Postern.

(489.)

post-quam, conj.

after.

next day.
postulo, -are,

-avT, -atus, ask, request,

of

Pomponius, a

f.

imperium and

rogo.

permisoccasio.

sum, become master

-itus

-TrI,

and

[possum], power,

opportutnty,

Cf.

sion.

peto, quaero,

-atis,

get, get possession

of ; with gen.

Cf. occupo.

prae-acutus,

-a,

-um, adj. sharpened

at the Old, pointed.

praebeo,

n. apple.

-eris, n.

weight, bulk.

Pon-

derous.
-ere,

-um, adj. \j^o?X\ fol-

-a,

lowing, next.

or abl.

tribune.

-ere, -ui, -itus

hold forth,

offer,

[prae-habeo],

furnish

cause,

render.
posuT, positus, put, place,

set, set up, pitch

{camp)

pass.

lie.

Position.

-ari,

-atus

's

-ere, -cavi, -cautus,

precautions,

take

care,

DE-

cut

be

take

on

guard.

prae-cido, -ere,

sum, lay waste,

devastate, plunder, pillage.

POPULATE.

prae-caveo,

one

pons, pontis, m. bridge.


populor,

as adv. afterwards.

post-ea, adv. afterwards.

potior,
-el,

Pomponius,

pono,

503-)

authority

m. Polyphemus, a

-T,

Cyclops.

Pompeius,

pondus,

potestas,

m. poet.

-ae,

Polyphemus,

pomum,

be able,
possum, posse, potui,
can : plurimum posse, be very powerful, have most influence.
(344, b,

demand. Cf.

fnent.

Poenus,

{242, a.)

postridie, adv. [posters die], on the

n. cup, bowl.

-T,

-ae,

(260.)

plur. tnore,

Plural.

(260, 261.)

poculum,

m. harbor, port.

post, prep, with ace. after, behind

many plurimum posse, bevery powerful,

and veho.

-lis,

positus, see pono.

plebeians.

ploro,

Portal.

gate, door.

f.

with

grotind, plain.

plenus,

Etruria.

Cf. fero

f.,

m. Porsena, a king of

please

-uT, -itus,

Placid.

dat.

planities,

-i,

-ae,

porta, -ae,

placable.

Populous.

m. people.

populus,

Porsena,

off.

praecipue, adv.
ticularly.

-cTdT, -cTsus

[-caed5],

Precise.
chiefly, especially, par-

Cf maxime, praesertim.
.

'

LA TIN-ENGLISH VOCA B ULA R \


prae-clarus,

-urn, adj. vt-ry splen-

-a,

-ae,

[praedor], booty, spoil,

f.

Predatory.

prey.

prae-dico,

-are,

-atus

-arl,

Cf. spolium.

tnale

-atus,

-avi,

known, proclaim,
cate.
praedor,

Predi-

boast.

carry

pratum,

-latus,

Prefer.

(506.)

praesaepe,

praecipue.

<Zi.

protector,

guardian.
-ere, -sedT,

before),

over

preside

n.

-I,

with

support,

guard. Cf auxilium and subsidium.


.

praestans,

-antis,

remarkable,
passing.

adj.

[praestd],

extraordinary,

sur-

Cf. egregius.

praestantia, -ae,

f.

out, surpass, be

erable

[praestans], /rt--

be at the

dat.

-stiti,

-esse, -fui,

to,

stand

be pref-

Cf. supero.
,

be before,

head of command ; with

(345.)

value

reward,

(used mostly in

f.

prayer, entreaty.
{}^x\m\x%\, at first, first,

in the first place.

m. plur. [primus],

the first (men), leaders, chiefs.

primus,

adv. [primus], yfrj-/, at first.

-um, adj.

-a,

Prime.

(489.)

-cipis,

the

leader.

Prince.

adv.

foremost.

m. [primus-capio],

{taking

prius,

first,

Primal.

first

place),

chief,

Cf. dux.

[prior],

before,

sooner,

previously.

prius-quam,
-a,

zox\].soo7ier than, before.

-um, adj. [privo], pri-

vate.

privo, -are, -avT, -atus, deprive

-stilus,

superior

perform.

prae-sum,

plur.),

privatus,

eminence, superiority.
prae-sto, -stare,

[pretium],

precious.

n. price,

-1,

princeps,
[praesideo], de-

protection,

help,

pretium,

primum,
[-sede5],

President.

fence,

-um, adj.

-a,

primores, -um,

[praesideo],

f.

prae-sideo,

dat.

pretiosus,

prim5, adv.

present.

m. and

tent.

meadow.

[prex, precis],

n. stable, stall.

praesertim, adv. especially, particu-

praesidium,

general's

n.

-T,

n.

-I,

ransom

Cf. antepono.

larly, chiefly.

bordered:

adj.

worn by the higher magisand by free-born children.

costly, 7'aluable,

praesens, -entis, adj. instant, im me-

-idis,

-urn,

-a,

seize.

prize.

-ere, -posu!, -positus, ////

-is,

pass

by,

prehend5,-ere,-hendi,-hensus,^raj/,

reward,

n.

before, prefer.

go

toga praetexta, toga with purple

praetorium,

prae-pono,

{sit

praetextus,

trates

-tull,

praemium, -T,
Premium.

praeses,

-ire, -il, -itus,

by.

[praeda], rob,

praelatus, sec praefero.

diate,

praeter-eo,

border,

sum

plunder.
prae-fero, -ferre,
bc-forc.

praeter-ea, adv., (besides this), besides,

m oreoz'cr.

did, i^lorioiis.

praeda,

277

with

abl.

pro, prep, with abl. before, in behalf


of,

for, instead of ; considering ; in

accordance with.
pr5bo,

-are,

prove.

-avi,

-atus,

prove, ap-

FIRST YEAR LATIN

278

come forward, go forward, advance, pro-

pro-cedo, -ere, -cessi,

and pergo.

Cf. progredior

ceed.

procul, adv./zr, afar

run forward, rush forward.

surus,

n. sign,

-T,

omen, prodigy.

Prodigious.
prSditor,

pro-duco,

-duxl, -ductus,

-ere,

mish.

n.

-i,

lead

Produce.

forth, britig forth.

proelium,

traitor.

Cf. pugna.

march,

-i,

go.

pro-fundo,
ottt,

-fectus

sum,

Cf. exe5

and

-fiidi,

shed copiously.

pro-gredior,
dior],

gress.

bri>ig

set out,

egredior.

-fusus, pour
Profuse.

-gressus

sum

pro-veh5,

proximus,
prudens,

pr5-moveo,

-ere,

-T,

n.

-entis, adj. [for

move
Promote.

pudor,

-ius,

adj.

caicse

for

[diminutive of puer],

f.

girl, 7naiden.
-e rl,

pugna,
Cf.

[prope], nearer,

(489.)

propius, adv. [prope], nearer.

pr6-p6no,

public

boy, ch ild.

03

)
.

Puer-

ile.

maturd and contends,


close.

m. shame,

-oris,

puer,

Propel.

propere, adv. hastily, quickly.

propior,

[populus],

to the people),

shame, disgrace.
puella, -ae,

-are, -avi, -atus, hasten.

-um, adj.

-a,

pro-pello, -ere, -puli, -pulsus, drive

propero,

[prudens], foresight,

wisdom, prudence.

state, publicly.

publicus,

prope, prep, with ace. near, near to;


adv. close at hand, nearly, almost.

forward, drive.

-ae,f.

providens],

knowing, prudent.

see res.

-movi, -motus,

forward, advance.

-um, adj. nearest, next.

{pertaining

promontory.

forth,

Provoke.

publice, adv. [pubhcus], in the ttame

of the

-mptus [pr5-em5],

take out, britig forth.

-a,

wise, sagacious,

sagacity,

promontorium,

-avi, -atus, call

Proximity.

(489.)

prudentia,

-ere, -mpsi,

carry

-ere, -vexl, -vectus,

pro-voco, -are,

[-gra-

progressus, see progredior.

pr5mo,

cover in

-texT, -tectus,

front, protect.

go forward, advance, proCf. procedo and pergo.

-T,

(345.)

pro-tego, -ere,

challe?tge, invite.

-ere,

be

proceed.

-latus,

-tulT,

(506.)

proficlscor,

beneft, avail

to,

forward, carry off; pass, advafice,

profectus, see proficlscor.

forth.

before, be useful

provectus, see proveho.

battle, cofnbat, skir-

pro-fero, -ferre,

de-

thrown

adj.

-urn,

-a,

down, prostrate.
pro-sum, prodesse, profuT,
with dat.

m. betrayer,

-oris,

make known,
Proposition.

propter, prep, with ace. on account of.

prostratus,

off.

pr6-curr5, -ere, -currl (-cucurri), -cur-

prodigium,

before, setforth ;

clare, propose.

-ere, -posui, -^os\t\xs,. put

test,

-ae,

f.

fight.

[pugno],

battle,

Cf. proelium.

con-

Pugna-

cious.

pugno,

-are, -avi, -atus

[pugna] ,7?^//^

Cf. dimico.

pulcher, -chra, -chrum, adj. beautiful,


fair, pretty.

LA TIN-ENGLISH VOCABULA R Y
quercus,

Pullo, -onis, m. Pullo, a centurion,


pulvis,

Punicus,
puni5,

-a,

-um, adj. Carthaginian.


-Ivi

-Ire,

Pulverize.

m. dust.

-eris,

(-il),

[poena],

-itus

-are, -avi, -atus, clean, cleanse.

Purge.
purus,

tree, oak.

bewail.

of,

m. [queror], complaint,

-us,

um,

-a,

clean, clear, pure.

Cf. arbitror

reckon.

putridus,

-a,

who,

liad,

rotten,

decayed.

Pyrrhus,

quia, conj. because.

Pyrrhus, king of

ni.

f.

Pythia, the inspired

prophetess of Apollo at Delphi.

Cf. quod.

dam), indef. pron. certain, a certain


(335

quidem, adv. (never the


indeed,

Epirus.
-ae,

adj.
that.

quidam, quaedam, quod dam (quid"-"''. ''

i,

and

what,

rel.

which,

(210.)

and existimo.

-um, adj.

quod,

quae,

qui,

pron.

puts, -are, -avI, -atus, think, believe,

Pythia,

complain
questus,

oak

questus sum, complain,

-1,

wailing.

punish.

purg5,

-us, f

queror,

279

quies,

quidem, not
-etis,

first

word),

truth

in

certainly,

ne

ei'en.

[quietus], quiet, rest,

f.

repose.
Q.,

abbreviation for Qulntus.

quadragesimus,

-a,

quietus,

-um, num. adj.

quin, conj. [qui-ne], {why not), but

fortieth.

quaero, -ere, quaesIvT

(-il),

quaesTtus,

seek, ask, inquire. Cf. peto

and rogo.

that, that.

qui-nam (quisnam), quaenam, quod-

quam, adv. than, how.

nam

quam-quam,

and

conj. though, although.

quand5-quidem, conj. since indeed,


-um, adj. [quam],

how much ; as great


much as. Quantity.

great,

quartus,
iMox'],

-a,

-um, num. adj.

how

as,

as

-a,

[quat-

quatio,

que-decem],

fifteen.

[quinque],

indecl.

num.

adj.

adj.

five.

fifty.

num.

indecl.

Quinquennial.
-a,

-um [quinque], num.

adj./////.
,

quassus, {shake),

quippe,

adv.

and conj.

truly,

no

doubt ; inasmuch as, since.

strike.

quattuor, indecl. num.


-que, conj.,

m. Quinctius, family

-T,

quindecim, indecl. num. adj. [quin-

quintus,
if.

-ere,

pron.

of Cincinnatus.

quinque,

-um, num. adj.

fourteenth.
qua-si, adv. as

interrog.

who? which? what?

quinquaginta,

Quart.

fourth.

quartus decimus,

Quinctius,

name

since, seeing that.


-a,

(quidnam),
adj.

(emphatic), who, pray ? etc.

quando, conj. when.

quantus,

-um, adj. [quies], quiet,

-a,

inactive.

enclitic,

atque, and ac.

2.6].

four.

and.

Cf.

quis (qui), quae, quid (quod),


et,

terrog.

pron.

which? what?

and
(142.)

adj.

in-

who?

FIRST YEAR LATIN

28o

recessus, -us, m. comer, inner room,

quis, qua, quid, indef. pron. after


ne,

si, nisi,

a}iy one, any-

and num,

recess.
re-cipio, -ere, -cepT, -ceptus [-capi5],

iking.

quisnam, see quinam.


quisquam, quidquam (no

tahe

or

fern,

plur.), indef. pron.

any, any one,

anything

(335.)

{at all).

back,

recipere,

one

-are,

-avi,

-at us,

refresh,

Recreation.

recreate, revive.

que), indef. pron. each one, each,

recte, adv. [rectus], rightly.

e-very.

rectus,

(335.)

qui-vis, quaevis, quodvis (quidvis),

any one, anything (you


any whatever. {335.)
quo, interrog. and rel. adv. [qui],
indef. pron.

wish),

quod, conj. because, in

Cf.

that.

quo-mode, interrog. adv. in

what

how?

2vay?

re-cumbo,

-ere, -cubuT,

He down,

Recumbent.

sink down.

re-curr5, -ere, -curri,

{run back),

Recur.

re-ciis6, -are, -avT, -atus

[-causa], de-

word), also,

red-do, -ere, -didl, -ditus [re(d)-],^/ir


back, return, render, 77iake.

quoque, conj.

(after

an

how many? as many


as.
quot, as many
.

emphatic

rel.

as: tot

red-eo,

adj.
.

so-

ever ; just as often as.

Racilia, wife of Cin-

cinnatus.

-ae,

dering.

rapio, -ere,

f.

[rapio], robbery, plun-

re-duc6,

-tus,

[re(d)-

seize; snatch,

back, returned.
-ferre,

-ttulT,

nounce: pedem

re-ficio,

raro, adv. seldom, rarely.


(a reckoning), reason,

method, plan, way, conduct. Ratio.

lead

Reduce.

[reduce], {led back),

-ucis, adj.

come

-ductus,

-duxl,

-ere,

back, bring back.

make
f.,

-emi, -emptus

-ere,

-latus,

bring

repay; report, anreferre,

withdraw,

Relate.

retreat, fall back.

drag.

ratio, -onis,

-ere,

back; reticrn,

Rapine.
-uT,

back,

emo], buy back, purchase, redeem,


ransom.

re-fero,

-ae, i.frog.

rapina,

go

{drive back), reduce, subdue.

redux,
f.

-itus [re(d)-],

reditus, -us, m. [redeo], return.

often ? as often as.

quoties-cumque, adv. how often

-ii,

(507.)

redigo, -ere, -egl, -actus [re(d)-ag6],

redimo,

quot-anms, adv. every year, yearly.


quoties, interrog. a nd rel. adv. [quot],

Racilia. -ae,

-ire,

return.

Cf. etiam.

too.

quot, indecl. interrog. and

rana,

[reg5], straight, di-

cline, refise.

quia,

how

-um

-a,

rect, right.

retire, return.

whither, where.

se

retreat, betake

'j self.

re-creo,

quisque, quaeque, quidque (quod-

recover:

receive,

withdraw,

-fectus

-feci,

[-facio],

over, repair.

refractus, see refringo.


re-fring5,

-ere,

-fregl,

-fractus

[frango], break down, break open.

LA TIN-ENGLISH VOCA B ULA R Y


re-fugio,

-fugi,

ere,

regina,

-ae,

Refuge.

{the ruling

[rego],

f.

for

flee

safety, flee, take to flight.

one), queen.

regio, -onis,

regius,

i.

phice, region, country.

of the king, royal.


rule.

[rex],

Regent.
-iectus

-iecl,

[-iacio],

throw back, drive back, hurl back.

Reject.
-lapsus sum, (slide back),

flow back, subside.

Relapse.

banish, expel.

leave,

abandon.

Relin-

(jrisH.

-um, remaining, rest of

as noun, the rest.

Cf. ceteri.

-missus,

-ere, -movT,

back), remove.

re-muneror,

-arl,

-motus,

Remote.

re-porto, -are, -avi, -atus, bring back,

m. oar.

-I,

-natus, {be borti again),

-are,

-avi,

-pulT,

report,

-ere,

-missus,

-m!sl,

repulsus, see repello.


thing, event, circumstance,

f.

affair, schetne, cause, matter,


:

fact

res publica, republic, state,

commonwealth

qua

re,

'wherefore.

break down, demolish.

re-sisto,

-ere,

-stiti,

Rescind.

-ere,

resist,

-sus

-si,

[-spargo],

bespatter, besprinkle.

respersus, see respergo.

re-spondeo,

-ere,

-dl,

-sponsus,

promise in return), answer, reply,

-pulsus,

responsum,

-I,

n.

[respondeo], reply,

response.
<//-/rr

away, cast down, deprive ; repulse,


repel.

re-stituo,

-ere,

and statim.

-utus

-ul,

replace, restore.

re-tineo, -ere, -ul,

repente, adv. suddenly, unexpectedly.


Cf. subito

demand

respond.
-atus,

Renunciation.

-ere,

promise in return.

renatus, see renascor.

announce.

Cf. refero.

repositus, see repono.

re-spergo,
of

gro'u again, spring up.

re-nuntio,

REPORT.

re-posc6, -ere,

oppose; with dat.

Remus, -i, m. Remus, brother


Romulus.
re-nascor,

put

rescissus, see rescinds,

sum, repay,

-atus

-positus,

re-scindo, -ere, -scidT, -scissus, cutoff,


{nio-c'c

REMUNERATE.

reward.
-T,

-posul,

-ere,

a'cvay, store, keep.

(275)

send

Remit.

back, give up.

re-moveo,

up

REPLETE.

again.

res, rel,
-a,

re-mitto, -ere, -mIsT,

re-pello,

erer, inventor.

re-promitto,

re-linquo, -ere, -llquT, -lictus, leave

remus,

repertor, -oris, m. [reperio], discov-

back, ask for, claim.

away,

re-lego, -are, -avi, -atus, se?td

reliquus,

-pperl, -pertus [pario],

win, gain.

-T,

behind,

-Tre,

re-p6no,

-ere,

re-labor,

unexpectedly.
re-perio,

re-pleo, -ere, -plevi, -pletus, flll

rego, -ere, rexi, rectus

re-icio,

repentino, adv. [repente], suddenly,

flnd, discover, ascertai7i. Cf.invenio.

-um, adj. [rex], the king's,

-a,

2I

[-statuo],

Restitution.
-tentus

keep back, reserve.

reversus, see revertor.

[-teneo],

Retain.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

282
re-vertor,

rex, regis, m.

Rhea

(active in perf.,

perf.),

fut.

turn back,

Revert.

return.

(479,

sum

-sus

-i,

and

plup.,

[rego], {ruler), king.

Silvia,

-ae,

Rhea

Silvia,

a priestess of Vesta and mother


of Romulus and Remus.
rideo,

-ere,

rigeo,

risus,

-ere,

at,

be

numb.

crack, chink.

f.

-i,

robur,

-oris, n.

rogO, -are,

oak ;

-avT,

-i,

Xi\.

Rivulet.
strength. Cf

of

vis.

-atus, ask, question.

and

postulo.

-T,

rudis,

f.

m. Romulus,

first

king

rude, uncultivated,

steep

rock,

cliff.

Cf.

rursus, adv. [for reversus], {tttmeii


back), again.
rfiris,

rusticus,

-e,

forest, glade, thicket.

healthy,

[salus],

adj.

wholesome, salutary.
-utis,

welfare;

safety,

f.

saluto, -are, -avi, -atus \szS.\\^, greet,

Salutatory.

salute, welcome.

salvus,

-a,

-um, adj. [salus], unhurt,

safe, sound.
-inis,

Cf. tutus,

m.

blood.

Cf. cruor.

sapienter, adv. [sapiens], wisely.


f.

[sapiens], wisdom.

enough,

adv.

satis,

sufficietitly.

saxum,

-i,

n. stone, rock.

Cf. riipes.

scelus, -eris, n. wickedness, crime.

sazum.

197.)

trux.

Satisfy.

hurry, run, rush.

rus,

-lis, TO.,

sapientia, -ae,

f.

and

arrow.

sapiens, -entis, adj. wise, sensible.

rose.

ruo, -ere, ruT, rutus (ruitus), hasten,

-is,

f.

greeting.

ignorant.

rupes,

Cf. atrox

sanguis,

adj.

-e,

-um, adj. cruel, savage,

-a,

saliibris,

salQs,

funeral pile, pyre.

Rome,

rosa, -ae,

saevus,

saltus,
.

Roma, -ae, f. Rome.


Romanus, -a, -um, adj. [Roma],
Roman ; masc. as noun, a Ro7uan.
Romulus,

{490.)

{hedge in), sur-

-tus,

-Ire, -si,

salto, -are, -avi, -atus, dance.

Cf. quaero, peto,

rogus,

sacrifice.

saepio,

sagitta, -ae,

bank.

f.

m. brook.

rivus,

sac-

[sacrifice],

n.

-T,

sacrifico, -are, -avi, -atus [sacer-facio],

fierce.

-ae,

ripa, -ae,

sacrificium,

round, forti/y, guard.

Rigid.
rima,

[sacer],

f.

saepe, adv. often, frequently.

laugh

Deride.

laugh.

m. and

-otis,

rifice.
f.

risi,

sacerdos,

priest, priestess.

Regal.

a)

sacer, -era, -cnim, adj. sacred.

n. the country.

Cf. patria
-a,

schola, -ae,

and

(195,

b,

terra,

-um, adj. [rus], of the

country, rustic, provincial.

scio,

-ire,

school.

Sabini, -orum, m. the Sabines, a

f.

scivi

know how.

tiny spark.
(-il),

scTtus,

SCIENCE.

know,

Cf. nosco

and cognosco.
Scipi5, -5nis, m.

Roman
tribe of Italy.

f.

scintillula, -ae,

general.

sciscitor, -arl, -atus

Scipio, a

(Page

famous

97.)

sum, ask, inquire,

LA TIN- ENGLISH VOCA BULARY


scriba, -ae, m. [scrlbo], writer, clerk,

septen-decim,

scribo, -ere, scrlpsi, scriptus, write.

Septimus,

Scripture.
scriptor, -Oris,

m.

[scribo], writer,

sequor,

-I,

sectio, -Onis,

secundus,

(a cutting), sale

f.,

-a,

-um, adj.

following, next
sed, conj. iut.

servitus,

of

[sequor],

second.

-is, f.

Cf. autem.

[sedeo],

f.

discord,

[sedeo],

sitter,

sextus,

num.

adj. six.

-um, num.

-a,

adj.

[sex],

Sextus,

f.

sextus decimus,

[sedeo], seat, chair.

num. adv.

once, once for all.

m. [senex], cotmcil of

elders, senate.

senectus,

[senex], old age.

senex, senis, adj. old ; as noun, old

m.

[senex],

elder.

sic,

adv.

ita

sensi, sensus,/tv/,

know

{by the senses), see, perceive.

Cf.

-a,

-um, sixteenth.

thus, in this way.

so,

-um, adj. dry

-a,

-Ire, -ivi (-ii),

sepultus, bury,

on

f.,

{a pointing out),

announcement, signal.
(Page 151.)

silva, -ae,

similis,

mark, sign, ensign,

n.

-1,

signal.

-T,

f.

-e,

simplex,

n. silence.

wood, forest.
adj.

-icis,

[simul],

time

[septem], Septem-

simultas,

Silvan.
like,

re-

(254.)

adj. simple, sincere.

[similis],

at the

simul ac, as soon

adj. seven.

septem, indecl. num.

in sicco,

Sicily.

f.

significatio, -onis,

simul, adv.

inter.

dry ground.

sembling, similar.

percipio.

Cf.

and tam.

silentium,

Senior.

-bris

first

whether.

if,

signum,

Senile.

{260.)
-oris,

September,

conj.

Sicilia, -ae,

-litis, f.

-ire,

si,

siccus,

everlasting.
-us,

Roman

m. Sextus, a

-1,

name.

semper, adv. always, ever.


sempiternus, -a, -um, adj. [semper],

ber.

m.

seu, see sive.

sex, indecl.

[sedeo], seat, dwelling,

-onis,

sepeli5,

slave, servant.

-oris,

sixth

sella, -ae,

senti5,

m.

-T,

rider.

revolt, sedition.

man.

[servus], slavery,

f.

serve.

servus,

perch.

senior,

-utis,

sessor,

Sedentary.

senatus,

follow.

serv5, -are, -avi, -atus, save, keep, pre-

Section.

sede5, -ere, sedl, sessurus [sedes],

setnel,

?,\xm,

servitude.

confiscated goods, booty.

seditio,

secutus

-T,

serpens, -entis, m. serpent, snake.

(Page 163.)

n. shield.

se, sese, see sui.

sedes,

-um, num. adj. [sep-

-a,

sero, adv. late, too late.

scriptus, sec scribo.

sit.

adj.

tem], seventh.

author.

scutum,

num.

indecl.

[septem-decem], seventeen.

ScRIBE.

secretary.

283

-atis,

f.

same

as.

[similis], rivalry.

sine, prep, with abl. without.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

284
singularis,

adj. [singuli], single.

-e,

Singular.
singuli, -ae,

adj. one at a time,

-a,

one on each

single, separate.

side,

Sinister.
-um, adj. placed,

whether

seu,

-atis,

if,

f.

whether:
.

or.

[socius], alliance,

association, partnership ; society.

m. comrade, companion,
ally.
Social.
sol, solis, m. (no gen. plur.), sun.

socius,

-i,

Solar.

sum

(semi-depo-

nent), be accustomed, be wont.

-um, adj. alone, single;

-a,

solyo,-ere, solvl, solutus,

m.

-T,

/i^^j^?,

loosen;

Solve.

melt ; break ; pay.

tioise,

din, clash.

S0n5, -are,

cent.

spolio, -are,
rob,

-oris,

m.

sound, resound.

sors, sortis,

f. lot,

spatium,

n. rootn,

-I,

slumber.

sleep,

f.

spolium,

[spolio], booty, prey,

n.

-T,

sponte (sua), only

f.

m.

-oris,

stabulum, -I,

on the

luck, fo7-tiine, fate.

space, distance,

appearance,

Species.

-arl,

SPECTACLE.
-atus

sum, spy

f.

statua, -ae,

f.

Squalid.

repente.

[sto],

{standing place),

[statuo], {the thing set

f.

up), statue.

cave, cavern, den.

-litus

-uT,

{make

[sto],

stand, set up), fix, determine, decide.


f.

[sto], stature.

star.

f.

sterilis, -e, adj. barren, sterile.

stipendium,

-T,

n.

wages, pay

mili-

Stipend.

sto, stare, stetT, status, stand.

adv.

[stolidus],

stupidly,

stolidly.

stolidus,
out,

watch, examine; peep. Speculate.


-ae,

dirt, filth.

immediately, at once.

and

statio, -onis,

stolide,

specto, -are,-avl, -atus, look at, behold,


7vitness.

of (one's own)

n. [st.d], {standingplace),

spot,

Stella, -ae,

sight,

abl.

accord.

tary service.
(-ei),

[spolium],

Cf. praeda.

spoil.

statiira, -ae,

sister.

time.

pretence.

-atus

-avT,

plunder, spoil, despoil.

statuo, -ere,

-ul, -itus,

soror, -oris,

spelunca,

shitie.

[splendeo],

post, station.

Somnolent.

sleep.

sonitus, -us, m. [sono], sound,

speculor,

-um

-a,

Cf. subito

species

spem

in

stable, stall.

sole.

somnus,

statim, adv. [sto], {standing there),

solum, adv. [solus], alone, only.

sopor,

-ere,

splendidus,

squalor,

soleo, -ere, solitus

solus,

[spero], hope

f.

splendid, fine, handso7ne, magnifi-

societas,

hope for.
spes, speT,

splendeo,
lying,

set,

situated.

si-ve or seu, conj. or

seu

spurn.

spero, -are, -avi, -atus [spes], hope,

venire, to entertain hopes.

sitiens, -entis, adj. thirsty.


-a,

-ere, sprevi, spretus, despise,

reject, scorn,

sinister, -tra, -trum, adj. left {hand).

situs,

sperno,

-a,

-um

[stolide], dull, stu-

pid
stringo, -ere, strinxT, strictus,
tight;

draw

draw. Stringent. Strict.

LA TIN-ENGLISH VOCABULA R Y
studium,

-T,

n. zeal,

stultitia. -ae,

stupeo,

i.

eagerness

study.

foolishness, folly.

-Cre, -ui,

be astonished,

suadeo,

-C-re, -si,

-sus, advise, urge.

and

abl.

under,

sub-do,

-ere, -didi, -ditus,

put under,

-ire,

enter

sub-ici5,

-ii,

-itus,

go under,

undergo.

-ere,

up

with dat.

[-ago],

-actus

-egl,

bring under, subdue.

Cf. repente

and statim.

sub-levo, -are,

-atus,

-avT,

lift

up,

resting on

adj.

siimpsi,

-ere,

highest,

(4S9.)

Sum.

sumptus,

take,

-ere,

-mersT,

-mersus,

overwhelm, submerge.

sub-rideo, -ere,

subsidium,

-I,

Subsidy.

-risl,

n.

help,

smile.

aid,

Cf. auxilium

and

abl. over,

super-iacio, -ere,

and

prae-

stand

-iecT, -iectus,

throw

cast upon.

superiectus, see superiacio.


-ere,

fall

upon from above.


higher, superior.

-ius, adj.

(489.)

supero, -are,

-avi, -atus [super],

surpass,

conquer.

outdo,

Cf. praesto

survive

pass

overcome,

and

-esse, -fuT,

be left over

relief.

-stitl,

above, appear above.

vinco.

be over,

with dat.

(345-)

superus,

-um, adj. [sm^qx], above.

-a,

(489.)

sub-venio,

suc-cid5,

super-adst5, -stare,

super-sum,

sidium.

'j

super, prep, with ace.

over;

the pile bridge.

i.e.

sub-mergo,

-Ire,

-venl, -ventus,

{come

relief), help, aid, assist.


-ere,

caedo],

down,

sum5,

superior,

-um,

-a,

pons Sublicius, the Sublician

bridge,

one

adj.

extreme.

super-incido,

raise up.

sublicius,

to

-um,

-a,

greatest,

oz'er.

subito, adv. suddenly, unexpectedly.

sink,

summus,

above, upon.

-iectus [-iacio],

-ere, -ieci,

sub-igo,

go.

(507.)

put under, place under

piles

exist.

be,

take up ; assume.

set to.

to,

(492.)

futurus,

ful,

C0NSUMM.A.TE.

to.

sub-eo,

esse,

(502.)

sub, prep, with ace.

up

sum,

of himself {herself

themselves).

itself,

amazed.

be

sui, reflex, pron.

285

{cut

-cidi,

-cTsus

from

tnider),

[sub-

cut

supplex,

-icis, adj.,

treaty),

noun,

hu/nble,

{kneeling in en-

suppliant;

as

supplia>it.

supplicium,

-T,

n.

[supplex], punish-

tnent, torture.

fell.

succinctus, see succingo.

supra, adv. [superus], above, before.

suc-cingo,

supremus,

-ere, -cInxT.-cinctus [sub-],

gird up, put on with a girdle ; provide.

-a,

(489.)

-um, adj. [superus],

Supreme.

sus-cipio, -ere, -cepT, -ceptus [sub-

suc-curro, -ere, -curri, -cursus [sub-],

{run up
sudor,

last.

to), help, aid,

-oris,

m. sweat.

succor.

capio], take up, undertake.

suspicio, -onis,
cion.

f.

[suspicor], suspi-

FIRST YEAR LATIN

286
su-spicor, -an, -atus

sum

[suspicio],

sus-tineo, -ere, -tinui, -tentus [sub-

hold up,

teneo],

endure;

bear,

-a,

-um, possess, and reflex, adj.

and pron.

[sul], his, her, hers, its,

their, theirs.

-atis,

[tempus], storm,

f.

tempest, weather.

templum,
tempus,

support; withstand, sustain.


suus,

temere, adv. rashly, iticonsiderately.

tempestas,

suspect, mistrust.

teneo, -ere,

tentus, hold,

-ui,

93.)

Temporal.

n. titne.

keep,

have.
tener, -era, -erum, adj.

(229.)

(Page

temple.

n.

-T,

-oris,

soft, delicate,

tender.

tento, -are, -avi, -atus, try, attempt.

T., abbreviation of Titus.

tacitus,
talis,

-a,

-um, adj.

Tacit.

silent.

much.

tarn, adv. so, so

Cf. ita

and

yet, but, however, never-

[tarn-], {just so far), at

-ere,

tactus,

tetigi,

touch.

Tan'gent.
tantulus,

-a,

-um,

adj.

so

great,

so

-atis,

[tardus], slowness.

f.

-um, adj. [tardo], slow,

-a,

land ;

region.

-ere,

[terror],

-itus

-uT,

frighten, alartn, terrify.


[terra],

adj.

-e,

of the

TERRESTRIAL.

land, land.

terror,

m.

-oris,

Cf. horribilis.

tertium, adv.
tertius,

[terreo],

terror,

Cf. pavor.

[\.en\\i.?,'],the

third tifne.

-um, num. adj.

-a,

[tres],

Tarentinus,

tum, a

-a,

city

-um, adj. of Tarenof

tertius decimus,

southern Italy;

masc. plur. as noun, the Taren-

thalamum,
Tiberis,

-a,

Tarquinius,

-um, adj. Tarpeian.


-T,

m. Tarquin,

name

of

n. [tego], roof, house.

tego, -ere, texT, tectus, cover, conceal.


n.

weapon.

-is,

-i,

chamber.

n.

m.

(ace. -im), the Tiber.

-i,

m. the Ticinus, a river of

Italy.

two kings of Rome.


-T,

-um, num. adj.

a river of Italy.
Ticinus,

tines.

Tarpeius,

-a,

thirteenth.

sluggish, tardy.

-1,

wear

{rub,

third.

hinder.

tectum,

earth,

f.

alarm, fear.

tardo, -are, -avi, -atus [tardus], delay,

tardus,

-ae,

frightful, terrible.

only.

much, such.
tarditas,

tritus,

trivl,

terribilis, -e, adj. [terreo], dreadful,

tantus], so small.

-a,

a tergo, behind,

Terrace.

terrestris,

-um, adj. [diminutive of

tantum, adv. [tantus],


tantus,

-ere,

terreo,

length, finally.

tango,

back

n.

away), pass, spend, waste.


terra,

theless.

tandem, adv.

-T,

in the rear.
tero,

sic.

tamen, adv.

telum,

Cf. experior.

tergum,

adj. such.

-e,

timeo,
of.

-,fear, be afraid

-ere, -ui,

Timid.

timidus,

-a,

Cf. vereor.

-um, adj. \f\m&o\, faintCf. pavidus.

hearted, timid.

tintinnabulum,

-i,

n. bell.

LA TIN-ENGLISH VOCABULAR Y
Tiryns

(ace. Tiryntha),

Titus,

f.

Tiryns, a

m.

-I,

trecenti,

-ae,

num.

-a,

adj.

[tre.s-

centum], three hundred.

Greece.

city of

287

Roman

Titus, a

first

name,

tre-decim, num.

[tres-deeem],

adj.

thirteen.

toga, -ae,

f.

trepidatio,

toga.

-onis,

[trepido], con-

f.

-um, adj. [toga], clad in

fused hurry, alarm, consternation,

tolero, -are, -avi, -atus, bear, endure.

trepido, -are, -avi, -atus, be in alarm,

togatus,

-a,

the toga.

trepidation.

Tolerate.
toUo,

-ere,

Cf. fero.

be in confusion.

sublatus, raise,

sustulT,

pick up, take.

Torquatus,

-i,

m. [torquis], Torqua-

surname of Titus Manlius.

tus,

torquis, is,m. ckain, necklace, collar.


t5tus,

-a,

-um, adj. whole,

(312.)

ToT.VL.

versus,

and cunctus.

trabs, trabis,
tracts,

f.

-are,

handle, feel
tra-do,

-ere,

all, entire.

omnis,

Cf.

log.

[traho],

-atus

-didi,

-ditus

[trans-],

surrender, de-

tip,

traxi,

-ere,

drag, lead.
tra-icio,
iacio],

-ere,

draw,

tractus,

Traction.
-iecT,

-iectus

[trans-

[trans-],

swim

across.

over, the other side of.

(507.)

-ii,

-itus,

go

through,

stab.

Roman

adj.

[tres],

thirty.

sad, gloomy.

adj.

-e,

Cf.

maestus.

triumphalis,

-e,

[triumphus],

adj.

-fixi,

-fixus, pierce

TRANSFIX,

transfixus, see transfigo.

triumpho,

the enemy), desert.

-are,

-avi,

-atus

[tri-

celebrate a triumph.

triumphus,
Troia,

-I,

m.

[triumpho],

tri-

-ae, f

Troy,

an ancient

city of

Asia Minor.
trux, trucis, adj. wild, harsh, savage,
Cf. atrox

and saevus.

tu, pers. pron. thou, you.


-ae,

-T,

(492.)

(Page

trumpet.

f.

tugurium,
tumulus,

35.)

n. hut, cottage.

,go over

-T,

m. mound, bank of earth,

dike.

tunc,

through, pierce through, stab.


trans-fugio, -ere, -fugT,

tri-

umph.

turn, adv. at that time, then.

trans-fodio, -ere, -fodi, -fossus, run

(to

num.

indecl.

triginta,

tuba,
over, cross.

Transit.

trans-figo, -ere,

m. tribune, a

-T,

ofticer.

fierce.

trans, prep, with ace. across, beyond,

-Tre,

(304.)

[inhvinMs], judg-

n.

umph.

throw across, cross ; pierce.

tra-no, -are, -avT,

trans-eo,

adj. three.

tnent seat, tribunal.

tribunus,

umphus],

liver: tradunt, they say.

traho,

-alis,

triumphal, having enjoyed a

of.

give over, give

num.

tribunal,

tristis,

beam, timber,
-avI,

uni-

tres, tria,

[tum],

adv.

at

that

time,

then.

turba,

-ae,

f.

[turbo], crowd, throng.

turbo, -are, -avi, -atus [turba], disturb, confuse, trouble.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

288
turbulentus,

-a,

-urn [turba], stirred

Turbulent.

up, troubled; tniiddy.

turpis,

adj. ug/y,foul ; base, dis-

-e,

graceful, shameful.
turris,

-is, f.

tutela, -ae,

tutus,

f.

Turret.

(479.)

guardianskip, charge,

Tutelary.

care.

tuus,

tower.

-a, -urn,

adj. safe.

thy, thitie ; your,

one person).

-um, num. adj. one

-a,

alone.

(304-)
-is, f.

usus,

-us,

city.

when

Suburbs.

(169.)

m. use,

ut or uti, adv.

benefit,

advantage.

and conj. how,

as,

that, in order that, so that,

to.

Cf. salvus.

-um, possess, adj. and pron.

-a,

unus,

urbs,

yours

only

(of

(229.)

uter,

-trum,

-tra,

%vhich

{of two)

zvhich
uter,

to

uter

the other.

m. leather

-tris,

pron.

interrog.
.'

utri,

{312.)

bottle,

skin (of

wine).
ubi, interrog.

and

adv. where,

rel.

when.
ultus sum, avenge.

-i,

Ulixes,-is, m. Ulysses, a

-um,

-a,

adj.

utilis, -e, adj. [utor],

Greek hero.

[for

unulus,

diminutive of unus], any, any one.


(312.)
-a,

-um, adj. furthest,

-!,

unda,

f.

wave.

adj.

[unus-

-a,

unguis,

-is,

m.

unicus,

-a,

-um, adj.

claw, talon.

universus,

-arl,

[unus], only.

-uT, -iturus,

good health

be strong, be

farewell,

vale,

good-bye.

m. Valerius, a

-I,

Roman

name.
-a,

-um, adj. [vale5], strong,

stout, sturdy.

vallum,
varius,

Unique.

sheath, scabbard.

m. a crying.
-atus sum, wander.

valeo, -ere,

validus,

undique, adv. froin all parts, on all


sides, evetywhere.

f.

-lis,

Valerius,

-um, num. adj.

[unus-de-vlginti], nitteteenth.

tiail,

vagor,

in

decim], eleventh.

undevicesimus,

-um, adj. empty, vacant,

-ae,

vagitus,

adv. whence.

-um, num. adj. [un-

-a,

(388.)

wife.

f.

-a,

vagina,

Undulate.
rel.

undecim, indecl. num.


decem], eleven.

undecimus,

-oris,

destitute.

adv. at any time, ever.

-ae,

usus sum, use, employ, en-

-1,

joy, maintain ; with abl.

vacuus,

m. shoulder.

umquam,

unde, interrog. and

advan-

last.

Ultimate.

(489.)

Valid.

n. earthrvorks,

-1,

Cf. fortis.
7-ampart.

-um, adj. various.

-a,

vas, vasis,

f.

(plur. vasa,

-orum,

n.),

vase, pot.
-a,

-um,

adj.

[unus-

versus], {turned into one), whole,

Universal.
cunctus, omnis, and totus.

all,

utor,

{312.)

useful,

Utility.

tageous.

uxor,

ultimus,

umerus,

utraque, utrumque, indef.

pron. each {of two), both.

ulciscor,

uUus,

uterque,

in a mass.

Cf.

vasto,

-are, -avi, -atus

[vastus], lay

waste, ravage.
vastus,

-a,

desolate

-um, adj. [vasto], waste,

immense, huge.

LA TIN-ENGLISH
-ve, conj., enclitic (44, 3), or.

very much, vehemently.


vexi,

-ere,

carry,

vectus,

convey;

pass,

ride,

sail.

or

vel

vel,

envelope, veil.
swiftness, velocity.

f.

vel-ut, adv.yj/ as, as

venator,

vendo,

-oris,

venia,

-ae,

indulgence, favor.

f.

veni, ventus, come.

venor,

-ari,

-atus

venter,

-tris,

ventus,

-T,

m.

Ve-

verbum,

word.

n.

-T,

verecundia,

-ae,

f.

-eri, -itus

Vernal.
Verb.

Roman
Veritas,

Vergil,

famous

deal with.
versus, sec verto.

-a,

vesper,

Vesta,

eat.

real.

Cf. edo.

m. n'eniug, nightfall.

-erT,
f.

[victor], victory.
district, street.
see,

perceive

Vision.

watch, night watch.

pliant twig, withe,

n.

vinxT, vinctus, bind.

-Tre,

Vesta, a goddess.

conquer, de-

vlci, victus,

-ere,

Cf. supero.

feat.

-T,

n. [vincio],

chain, bond:

in vincula, into prison, in chains.

vindico, -are, -avi, -atus, lay claim


;

to,

claim, demand.
-ae,

f.

vinum,

-I,

n.

VINDICATE.

covered shed, movable

(Page 155.)

shelter, vinea.

-sus, tur7i, change.

-um, adj. true,

-i,

-ae,

vincio,

vinea,

-tl,

f.

-inis,

vinculum,

125.)

vero, adv. [verus], in truth, but.

verto, -ere,

vimen,

vinc5,

\y^\Vi%\, truth, verity.

f.

f.

m. village,

osier.

(Page

poet.

-atis,

-I,

vigilia, -ae,

bashfulness, mod-

verso, -are, -avi, -atus [verto], turn

verus,

m. [vinco], conqueror,

as adj. victorious.

pass, be seen, seem.

sum./t'ar, reverence,

m.

-i,

[vi-

-um, adj. [vicus], near,

-a,

video, -ere, vidl, vTsus,

Cf. timeo.

Vergilius,

gap.

Vicinity.

bor.

viCUS,

esty ; reverence.

respect.

street ;

-um, num. adj.

-a,

vict5ria, -ae,

stomach.

m. wind.

ver, veris, n. spring.

vescor,

way, road,

f.

viator, -oris, m. [via], traveller.

victor

sum, hunt, chase.


belly,

Vet-

(260.)

Cf. antiquus.

victor, -oris,

-ire,

vereor,

-eris, adj. old.

eran.

neighboring; masc. as noun, neigh-

nial.
venio,

mother of

Coriolanus.

vicinus,

Venom.

n. poison.

-T,

robe, clothing.

Veturia,

f.

gintl], twentieth.

vend.

-ere, -didi, -ditus, sell,

venenum,

-ae,

vicesimus,

if, like.

m. [venor], hunter.

n. [vestis], clothing,

garment,

-is, f.

via, -ae,

-atis,

(229.)

-I,

Vestment.

garment.
vestis,

vetus,

Cf. aut.

or.

velo, -are, -avi, -atus, coz'cr, encircle,

vel5citas,

one person).

Veturia,

conj. [vol5],

either

and
more than

-trum, possess, adj.

-tra,

vestimentum,

Vehicle.
vel,

289

pron. your, yours (of

vehementer, adv. eagerly, earnestly,

draw,

'OCA BULARY

vester,

vectus, see veho.

veho,

wine.

violentia, -ae, {.fury, violence.


vir, virJ,

m. man, hero.

(478.)

homo.
vireo, -ere,

be green.

Cf.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

290
virga, -ae,
virg5,

virgula, -ae,

small

[virga], little twig,

f.

f.

bravery

vis,

[vir], manliiiess, cotir-

Vola-

tile.
,

wish, be will(505.)

Volsci, -orum, the Volscians, a people

voltus,

m. countcnatice,

-us,

looks,

features.

vita, -ae,

[vivo],

f.

-T,

Volumnia,

Vital.

life.

n. [vitis], {a ftioral twist),

fault, blemish, vice.

viv5, -ere, vixi,

Cf. culpa.
Cf. habito

live.

-avi,

Vocation.
Volcanus,

-i,

-atus

voluntas,

-atis, f.

voluptas,

-atis,

[volo], will,

good

VOLUNTARY.

will, consent.

Vorenus,

vix, adv. hardly, with difficulty.


-are,

Volumnia, wife of

f.

[vol5], pleasure,

enjoyment.

Vivid.

incolo.

-ae, f.

Coriolanus.

vine.

-is, f.

voco,

[volnero], wound.

of Italy.

Cf. robur.

(482.)

attce.

and

-eris, n.

ing, desire, intend.

visus, -us, m. [video], sight, appcar-

vitium,

volnus,

volo, velle, volui,

virtue, valor.

strength, power, force,

f.

violence.

vitis,

VULNER-

V0I5, -are, -avi, -atiirus,y?}'.

vis, see volo, wish.


vis,

injure.

ABLE.

maiden, virgin.

7-od.

virtus, -utis,
age,

wound, hurt,

twig, rod.

f.

-inis, f.

[vox],

call.

m. Vorenus, a centurion.
[voco], voice, word,
f.

-i,

v5x, vocis,

VoCAL.

remark.

Cf. appello.

m. Vulcan, the god of

vulpes,

-is,

f /^jf
.

Vulpine.

fire.

volnero, -are,

-avi,

-atus

[volnus].

Zama,

-ae,

f.

Zama, a town

in Africa.

ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY
For the principal pans

and

of verbs

not giv

otlier details

may be made

ere, reference

The

Latin-English vocabulary or to the special vocabiilarii

to the

figures,

i,

2, 3,

4 after

verbs indicate the conjugation.

a,

an,

commonly

not translated

dam, quaedam, quoddam

qul-

(quid-

about to

-gnim

acer,

-T,

-a,

atque (ac)

et,

ira, -ae,

advance, procedo,
advise, moneo,

-alls, n.

2.

par-

(335)

quidvis (quodvTs) (335).

again, rursus.

arm, armo, i.
arms, arma, -orum,

aid, n. auxilium, auxilT, n.

army,

aid, V. iuvo,

arrow, sagitta, -ae,/.

i.

air, aer, aeris (ace. aera), in.

all,

omnis,

as,
;

totus,

-a,

-um

(312).

ally, sociu.s, socT, vi.

alone, solus,

-um

-a,

unus,

also,

-a,

-um

subjv.

interrogo,

(for),

rogo,

3.

assemble, congrego,

at, in,

quoque.

with

so,

conveniS,

4.

such, etc.), ut.

ccc.

or abl.

with

names

of towns, locative case '195); abl.

altar, ara. -ae,/

although, cum,

cum, with

ask,

as to (after

already, iam.

n.

e.xercitus, -us, vi.

peto,

(31-^)-

i.

art, ars, artis,/.

-e

quIvTs, quaevis,

approach, adpropinquo,

afterwards, postea, deinde.

alas

ullus, -a,

aliquis, aliqua, aliquid

quidquam
in

ticiple.

eheu

(169).

(aliquod) (335); quisquain,

2.

Africa, Africa, -ae, y^

implied

abl.

alius, -a, -ud (486).

-um (312);

afraid (be), vereor, 2; timeo,

with

-um.

any. any one, any thing,

3.

2 (49S).

sometimes

in,

-que.

answer, responded,

i.

in.

animal, animal,
another,

acris, acre.

after,

and,

anger,

of cause.

(on), abl.

active, impiger, -gra,

adorn, orno,

ace.

ancient, antlquus,

abl.

(love, etc.),/A act. part.

account of

with

inter,

Amulius, Amulius,

<Jam) (335, 496).

about, de, with

always, semper.

among,

loitli

subjv.

0/ cause ; abl. of time.


Athens, Athenae, -a.rnm, f. plur.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

292
at last, iam, tandem,
attack, n. impetus,

broad, latus,

Augustus, Augustus,

away

m.

-us,

m.

-I,

-um.

-a,

brother, frater,

-tris,

Brutus, Brutus,

from, a or ab, with abl.

build, aedifico,

m.

m.

-1,

i.

building, aadificium,

bad, malus,

pugna,

battle,
-T,

be,

-um

-a,

but, sed

(260).

-ae,

/.

proelium,

sum

a,

autem

-T,

at.

3.

ab, with abl.; denoting

or instrument, abl. alone

(502).

fero

bear,

buy, emo,
by,

n.

tolero,

(506);

sus-

times ijiiplied

ill

means

some-

participle.

tineS, 2.

beautiful, pulcher, -chra, -chrum.

Caesar, Caesar,

because, quod

call, appalls,

become,

quia,

fI6 (508).

before, ante, with ace.

behooves
benefit,

oportet,

(it),

prosum

between,

2.

(504), with dat.

beyond, extra, with

voc5,

i.

camp, castra, -orum, n.


can, possum (503).
Capua, Capua, -aa,/.
care for, euro,
carefully,

ace.

plitr.

i.

cum

cura.

fero (506);

carry, ports, i;

2.

bind, vinci5,

m.

-aris,

care, cura, -ae,/.

ace

inter, with

bid, iubeo,

pr5, with abl.

carry

on war, helium gero.

4.

bird, avis, -is,/. (169,

Carthage, Carthago, -inis,/

<r).

black, niger, -gra, -grum.

Carthaginian,

-I,

m.

blame, culp5,

i.

Carthaginian, adj. Punicus,

-a,

body, corpus,

-oris, n.

Catiline, Catilina, -ae, m.

bold, audax, -acis

boldly,

book,

cum

cause, praebeS,

fortis, -e.

m.

certain

both (each of two), uterque, utraambo, -ae,


que, utrumque (312)
;

-5

both

boy, puer,

-eri,

brave, fortis,

and,

at

at.

cum

-Srum,

virtute.

educ5,

faro (506)

m.

i.

in), sustineo, 2.
711.

VI.

citizen, civis,
;

(up),

-is,

m.

and/

city, urbs, -is,/

cloud, nfibes, -is,/

I.

Britain, Britannia, -ae,y.

Briton, Britannus,

quaedam,
(335).

Cicero, Cicero, -Snis, m.

bravery, virtus, -utis,/


bridge, pons, pontis, m.
ports,

-T,

change, mfUo,

children, puerT, -Srum,

-e.

bravely, fortiter

bring,

m.

quoddam (quiddam)

check (hold

m.

-us,

quidam,

(a),

chance, locus,

-I,

m.

-um.

2.

cavalry, aquitatus,

audacia.

liber, -brl,

Poenus,

n.

cold, adj. frigidus,

-a,

-um.

cold, . frigus, -oris, .

liberi,

ENGLISH-LA TIN VOCABULA R Y


come,

deputy, legatus,

veil 10, 4.

coming,

command,

iubeo,

suni (504),

2,

with ace.

prae-

dat.

U'i//t

common, communis, -e.


commonwealth, res publica,

lei

m.

socT,

conquer, supero,
consul, consul,

vinco,

Corinth, Corinthus,

diligenter

3.

dog, canis,

patria,

-ae,

{)iot city),

-I,

also as auxil-

m.

and/

m.

-is,

dove, columba, -ae,/

draw, educ5,

(up), instruo,

3.

i.

dwell, habits,
-T,

3.

Duilius, Duilius, Dulll, m.

-utis,/

3.

cup, poculum,

dili-

(not), noli, nolite.

drive, agito,

virtiis,

cum

3.

ago, 3

doctor, medicus,

/.

-T,

rus, runs, n.

i.

each (one), quisque, quaeque, quidque (quodque) (335)


(of two),

i.

danger, perlculum,

-T,

uterque, utiaque,

n.

-ae,

filia,

utrumque

(312).

eager, acer, acris, acre.

daring, audacia, -ae./

(page

22,

eagerness, stadium, studi, n.


easily, facile.

2).

day, dies,

f acio,

iary

3.

{land), terra, -ae,/.

note

morior,

difficulty, difificultas, -atis,/

do,

country {father land),

daughter,

die, dect'do, 3

dismount, descends,

Cornelia, Cornelia, -ae,/.

dance, salto,

-um.

2.

dismiss, dimitto,

3.

-ae, /.

-ulis, /.

contend, contendo,

cover, tegd,

-a,

destroy, deleo,

gentia.

constancy, constantia,

courage,

desirous, cupidus,

diligently,

confidence, fides, -el,/,

m.

diligence, dlligentia, -ae,/

publicae, f.

comrade, socius,

/.

-I,

design, consilium, consilT, .

advc-ntus, -us, ni.

>t.

293

-el,

dear, carus,

m.

-a,

and/

(275).

easy,

facilis, -e (254).

elephant, elephantus,

-um.

death, mors, mortis,/

eleven, undecim.

death (put

to), interficio, 3.

end,

deck, oino,

endure, tolero,

i.

enemy,

-is,

deep, altus,

-a,

-um.

defeat. vinc5, 3; supero,

defend, defends,

i.

-oris,

m.

deprive, prTv5,

i.

hostis,

-T,

c).

m. and/;

iniml-

m. (171).
3,

with

abl.

Europe, EurSpa, -ae,/


event, res, rei,/ (275).

i.

Delphi, Delphi, -orum,

m. (169,

m.

even, etiam; ipse (329).

delay, mora, -ae,/


delight, delecto,

cus,

enjoy, fruor,

3.

defender, defensor,

finis, -is,

-T,

tn.

phir.

every one, quisque, quaeque (335).


everything, omnia, -ium, n. flur.

FIRST VEAR LATIN

294
example, exemplum,
excel, praesto,

form, facio,

n.

-I,

with dat.

i,

former,

3.

-ud.

ille, -a,

exile, exsilium, exsilT, n.

fortification, munltio, -onis,/.

Fabius, Fabius, Fabi, m.

fortune, fortuna, -ae,/.

fortify, miinio, 4.

Fabricius, Fabricius, Fabric!,

found, condo,

ni.

fact, res, rel,/. (275).

faithful, fidelis,

3.

fourteen, quattuordecim.
free, adj. liber, -era, -erum.

-e.

faithfully, fideliter.

free, v. libero,

famous,

friend, amicus,

clarus,

-a, -urn.

farmer, agricola,
father, pater,

-ae, vi.

-tris,

w.

from, de, with


or ab, with

vereor,

February, Februarius,
few, pauci,

-T,

m.

full,

m.

fifteenth, quTndecimus,

pugno,

out

compleo,

pugnatur.

is),

impleo,

first,

primus,

five,

quinque.

-ae,
-i,

m.
m.

Gallus,

(a),

-i,

m.

general, dux, ducis, ni.; imperator,

2.

-oris, in.

Germans, German!, -5rum, m.

m. (169,

fire, ignis, -is,

get (possession of), potior,

c).

-um.

-a,

gift,

donum,

girl, puella,

fly, fugio, 3.

give, do,

-is, in.

inimicus,

-T,

dono,

glad, laetus,

in.

n.

-!,

cum

i.

-um.

-a,

foliage, frons, frondis,/.

gladly,

gladness, gaudium, gaudi,

3.
-a,

food, cibus,

in.

-i,

foot, pes, pedis,

with
in,

go, e5 (507)

-um.

m.
-itis,

m.

prep., de, pr5,

abl. ; {of time, space, purpose),


ace.

ad, with gerundive

with ace. of extent.

(off,

discedo, 3

going

of dative

gaudio.

-1,

in.

;/.

away), demigro,

abeo.
(482).

goddess, dea, -ae,/ (page 22, note

nam.

with

god, deus,

foot-soldier, pedes,

with

-ae,/

follow, sequor,

fond, cupidus,

4,

abl. (3SS).

flee, fugio, 3.

for, sign

from, e

of separation.

Gaul, Gallia, -ae,/

Gaul

i.

find, reperio, 4.

for, conj.

from, a

of,

-um.

-a,

garden, hortus,

-a, -urn.

dimicS,

fighting (there

foe, hostis,

planus,

away

abl. ;
abl. ;

abl. ; abl.

Galba, Galba,

-erum.

fierce, asper, -era,

fill,

or ex, with

2.

;;/.

2.

-ae, -a.

field, ager, agri,

fight,

-i,

frighten, terred,

fault, culpa, -ae,/


fear, v. timeo, 2

i.

gold,

to, fitt. act. part.

aurum,

-i,

golden, aureus,

n.
-a,

-um.

-um
grain, frumentum, -!,
good, bonus,

-a,

(260).
.

2).

EXGLISU-LA TIN VOCA BULARY


magnus,

great,

-urn

-a,

(260)

maximus, -a, -um


mus, -a, -um (489).

greatest,

sum-

grieve, doleo,

happen, accido, 3
hasten, proper5,

hurl, iacio, 3

I,

sum,

dat.

witli

of

(13S)

hie (200)

head, caput,

-itis,

ille

infantry, peditatus,

n. (156).

heaven, caelum,

injure, noceo,

n.

(138); huius (200)


reflexh'e,

suus,

illTus

-um

-a,

adsum

i.

high,

-um

altus,

-a,

superus,

-a,

himself, see
eius

island, insula, -ae,/


it, is

(13S); hie (200);

ille

(200).

flexive, suus,
;

ilHus

-a,

-um

re-

(200);

hope,

n. spes,

hope,

V.

spero,

cum gaudio.
jump down, desilio, 4.

(in check),

keep,

habeo,

arceo,
-us,

(195, b).

-el,/
i.

n.

-um.

-a,

(230, a).

teneo, 2

2.

home, domus,
home, domi

(page 27).

joyfully,

self.

hold, habeo, 2

-T,

gaudium, gaudi,

joyful, laetus,

(138);

sustineo,

javelin, pllum,
joy,

{489).

hill, collis, -is, ni.

his,

obsum

itself, see self.

(502).

hesitate, dubito,

-um

and/

with dat.;

2,

Italy, Italia, -ae,/

(230, a).

here (be),

m.
m.

iron, ferreus, -a, -um.

V. iuvo, i.

-us,

-ae,

into, in, zvith ace.

help, n. auxilium, auxill, n.

(200)

specifica-

(502), with dat.

helmet, galea, -ae,/

her, eius

of

tio7i.

(200).

inhabitant, incola,

help,

3.

i.

abl.; ahl.

in, ivith

hear, audid, 4 (501).


-T,

mitto,

if not, nisi.

imitate, imitor,
in,

possessor.
is

ego {492).

if, si

i.

conicio, 3

flo (508).

quot.

hundred, centum.

y".

hand to hand, comminus.


Hannibal, Hannibal, -alls, m.

he,

-e.

house, domus, -us,/ (482).

{loc).

how many,

and/

w.

hour, hora, -ae,/

-us,

have, habeo,

m.

-itis,

-idis,

hostile, hostilis,

2.

ground (on the), humi


hand, manus,

vi.

-i,

hostage, obses,

-um.

-a,

-us, n. (242).

horse, equus,

horseman, eques,

Greece, Ciraecia, -ae,/.

greedy, avarus,

Horatius, Horatius, HoratT, m.


horn, cornu,

ingens, -entis.

295

(482)

at

kill,

neco,

teneo,

-um

-a,

king, rex, regis,


scio,

and abl.

interficio, 3.

kind, bonus,

know,

with a (ab)

2,

(260).

vi.

cognosco,

3.

(off),

FIRST YEAR LATIN

296

many,

lack, n. inopia, -ae,/

lack,

careo,

V.

with abl.

2,

desum

(502), with dat.

multi, -ae, -a (260).

March, Martius, Marti, m.


march, v. iter facio (3).

lady, domina, -ae,/.

Marcus, Marcus,

lake, lacus, -us, w.

master, dominus,

land, terra, -ae, /.


large,
last,

magnus,

-a,

proximus,

laugh, rideo,

-a,

-tri,

-um
-um

w.
vi.

-i,

(4S9).

magister,

(109).

means {by means of), use


memory, memoria, -ae,/.

(260).

abl.

Mercury, Mercurius, Mercuri, m.


merry, laetus, -a, -um.

2.

lay waste, vasto,

m.

-i,

i.

laziness, pigritia, -ae,/

messenger, nuntius, nuntl,

lazy, piger, -gra, -grum (483).

mile, mllle

lead, duco,

reduce,

educo, 3

(back),

passuum

mind, animus,
mine, meus,

3.

-a,

-i,

(305,

tn.

-um

(229).

m. and/.

miserable, miser,

leaf, fr5ns, frondis,

leap down, desiliS,

4.

money, pecunia, -ae,/


month, mensis, -is, tn.
moon, luna, -ae,/

leader, dux, duels,

legion, legi5, -onis,/

with subjv.

lest, ne,
let,

liberate, Hbero,

down,

lie, lie

life, vita,

-erum.

-ae,/

mother, mater,

-trls,

mountain, mons, montls, w.


move, moveo, 2.

i.

iace5, 2.

lieutenant, legatus,

-era,

more, plus (261) comp. degree.


most, superl. degree.

sign of subjv. or imv.

letter, epistula,

>n.
e).

m.

-i,

much, adj. multus, -a, -um (260),


much, adv. multum multo.

-ae,/

like, similis, -e (254).

multitude, multitudo, -inis,/

line of battle, acies, -ei,/

must, gerundive with sum.


my, meus, -a, -um (229).

m.

lion, le5, -onis,

parvus,

little,

-a,

-um

live, vivo, 3; habito,

long, longus,

-a,

(260).

native country, patrla, -ae,/

i.

-um

for a long

time, long, diu (490).


love,

71.

amor,

-oris,

never,

m.

numquam.

nevertheless, tamen.

amo, I (497).
mendacium, mendaci,

new, novus,

love, V.

lying,

neither, neque (nee),

night,

n.

no, niillus,

make, faciS, 3 (ready), paro,


man, vir, viri, m. (47S) homo,
;

m.

(163).

manage,

rego, 3.

i.

nor,

-inis,

not,

neque

-a,

-um.

noctis,/

no.\,

-a,

-um

(nee),

non ne.
now, nunc lam.
;

(312).

;
;

ENGLISH-LA TIN VOCA BULARY


0! o:

physician, medicus,

oak, oak tree, quercus, -us,/.

pine, pine tree, pinus,

oar, remus,
of, sign

out

m.

-I,

pirate, piratus,

of genitive ; de, ^vith


or ex, with abl.

ahl.

of, of, e

ahl.

senex,

vetus, -ens

senis

{260,

{/taring been born), natus,


older,

482)

-um.

-a,

maior natu.

on {ofplace),

in, wit/i abl. ;

{of time),

once (upon a time), olim.

another

thing,
aliud
.

-um (304)

-a,

the one

one

another,

alius

the other, alter

m.

orator, drator, -oris,

that, ut,

subjv.

-erum

alter, -era,

{of t-vo),

which

{of two)

to the other, uter utri (or alterl).

debeo,

ought,

rundive

-trum.

-trum

-trum

-a,

aratrum,

plough,

n.

plough,

V. aro,

vinco,

-um

n.

PompC-I, m.

poor, miser, -era, -erum.


position, locus,

{plnr.

-I

and

loci

m.
abl.

power, potestas, -atis,/


pray, oro,

malo

prefer,

i.

i.

(505).

prepare, paro,

i.

donum, -i, n.
present (be), adsum (502),
present,

prove, probo,

3.

-um;

(our), noster,

vester,

(your),

-a,

-um

-tra,

(229).

ni.

-T,

zvith dat.

i.

Pullo,

-entis.

onis, 7n.

punish, punio,

4.

purpose {for the purpose


with snbjv.
;

put, pono, 3

m.

of), ut or

ad, with

gerund

causa, following a

gerund or gerundive

peace, pax, pacis,/.

persuade, persuadeo,

m.

-I,

r.

prudent prudens,
PuUo,

qui,

part, pars, partis,/,

-T,

-1,

Pompey, Pompeius,

or gerundive

people, populus,

-um.

-a,

pretty, pulcher, -chra, -chrum.

(thy), tuus,

owner, dominus,

with dat.

2,

pleasing, giatus,

prisoner, captivus,

(his, her, their), suus, -a,

(my), meus,

I.

preserve, conserve,

self.

overcome, supero,

-tra,

ge-

or ex, with abl.

of, c

own

oportet,

sum.

-tra,

ourselves, see

out

-with

our, noster,

plead, 016,

praise, lauds,

-ud (486)

-a,

3.

possession of (get), potior, iwith


in order

2, zuit/i ace. ;

7uit/i

{plur. loci and

-I

w.

please, placed,

loca),

other, alius,

pinu),/

poet, poeta, -ae, w.

one

alter.

order, iubeo,

{abl.

plenty, copia, -ae,/.

abl.

one, unus,

locus,

-T

plan, consilium, consill, n.

-um

old, antiquus, -a,


;

loca),

m.

-T,

w.

-1,

place, V. pono,

of separation.
often, saepe (490).

(260)

place, n.

297

(on),

supine.

induo, 3

(tO

death), 'interficio, 3; (to flight),


2,

with dat.

fugo,

I.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

298
queen, regina, -ae,y.

school, schola, -ae,/

Scipio, ScTpio, -onis,


rather, comp. degree.

raven, corvus,
read, lego,

sea, mare,

m.

-I,

/.

n.

-is,

second, secundus,

-a,

-um.

see, video, 2.

3.

ready, paratus,

reduce, redigo,
relate, narr5,

seek, peto,

-a, -urn.

receive, capio, 3 (500)

recipio, 3.

2.

seize hold of, adprehendo,

3.

i.

remain, nianeo,

3.

seem, videor,
self, ipse, -a,

-um

(329)

mittb,

3;

(off,

send,

2.

remember, memoria teneo, 2.


remove {emigrate), demigro, i.

servant, servus,

resound, sono,

set

i.

reverence, vereor,

reward, praemium, praemi,


right (hand), dexter,

-tra,

n.

-trum.

away),

m.

-i,

proficiscor,

(out),
;

several, plures, -ium (261).

Sextus, Se.xtus,

tn.

-1,

she, ea (13S).

road, via, -ae,/

shepherd, pastor,

-oris,

rob, spolio,

shield, scutum,

n.

robber, latro, -onis, m.


robust, validus,

-a,

shine, luceo,

-T,

Roman, Romanus, -a, -um.


Rome, Roma, -ae,/.

shore, lltus, -oris, n.

Romulus, Romulus,

show, monstro,

-T,

ni.

-era,

rouse, concito,

-erum.

at,

inrumpo,

-e.
i

praebeo,

2.

silent, tacitus, -a, -um.

since,

i.

cum, with

suhjv.

sometimes

implied in participle.

rule, V. rego, 3 (499).

rush

short, brevis,

e).

sick, aeger, -gra, -grum.

rose, rosa, -ae,/.

rough, asper,

m.

2.

ship, navis, -is,/ (169,

-um.

(free),

3;

(up), instituo, 3.

river, flfimen, -inis, n.

I.

dl-

mitto, 3.

libero,

2.

3.

sul (492).

sing, canto,

3.

i.

sister, soror, -oris./

sad,

six, sex.

tristis, -e.

safety, salus, -Otis,/

slave, servus,

sagacious, prudens, entis.

sleep,

sailor, nauta, -ae,

sake {for the

m.

small, parvus,

sake), cdLUSSi, following

a gen.

say, dico,

snow,

nix,

so, tarn:

same, idem, eadem, idem (493).


save, servo,

i.

to), ut

m.

-I,

-a,

m.

-um

(260).

nivis,/

(that, as to), ut;

non

(as not

ne.

soldier, miles,

-itis, vi.

some, often not expressed; some

3.

scare, terreo,

conserve,

-i,

somnus,

2.

others,

alii

alii.

;;

EXGLlSH-l.A TIN VOCABULA R

299

something, aliqukl.

ten, decern.

sometimes, iiUercKim.

tender, tener, -era, -erum.

son,

m.

flliiis, fill,

song, cantus,

tenth, decinius,

w.

-us,

soon, mox.
i.

test, experior, 4.

spare, parco,

3, -vitli dat.

than,

spear, hasta, -ae,/

animus,

res publica,

purpose or result

ill

verbs

after

ne

(not),

verbs of fearing, ut

of saying and the

maneS,

pressed.

2.

that, demon, pron.

steadfastness, constantia, -ae,y!


step, gradus, -us,

m.

stone, lapis,

m.

story,

-idis,

strong, validus,

suus,

-urn

there,

this,

with

i,

m;-.

survive, supersum (502).

nato,

(across), trano,

i;

sword, gladius, gladi,

;//.

teach, doceo,

-T,

i.

narro,

not

is,

sometimes omitted.
arbitror,

ea, id (13S)

r.

hlc, haec,

hoc

sometimes

supericiS,

(over),

3.

sic.

tempus,

-is,

m.

-oris,

n.

spatium,

tired, tired out, defessus, -a, -um.


-tri, in.

dlco, 3.

temple, templum,

expletive,

spatl, n.

2.

an

thousand, mllle (304).


throw, iacio, 3; mittd, 3;

time,

;/.

teacher, magister,

res, re!,/;

Tiber, Tiberis,

-um.

task, pensum,

reflexive,

(200).

thus,
take, capio, 3 {500).
tall, altus, -a,

is

implied in paiticiple.

swiftness, veldcitas, -atis,/

swim,

of

though, cum, with subjv.

dat.

wt'i/i

-ud

(229).

as

think, puto,

i.

aestils, -atis,/

supero,

-um

-a,

ibi

thing,

suffer, tolero, i; labSro,

i,

-a,

translated.

suddenly, subito.

praestS,

iste,

then, turn.

fortis, -e.

successfully, felTciter,

surpass,

plur.

their, gen.

study, studium, studT, n.

summer,

ea, id (138)

the, not expressed.

-oris, n.
-a,

ex-

pron. qui, quae, quod

rel.

after

not

like,

is,

(200)

after verbs

(210).

and/,

-ae, ni.

-ae,/

strength, robur,

-ud

-a,

(493)

-ae,/

f fibula,

stranger, advena,
street, via,

ille,

(242).

of fear-

non

ut

publicae.y.

stay,

plitr.

abl. (250).

ut

ing, ne

state, cuitas, -atis, /.

tell,

coiij.

clauses,

spiritedly, acriter.

rei

quam;

that,

in.

-1,

m.

m.

terror, terror, -oris,

sound, sono,

spirit,

-um.

-a,

territory, fines, -ium,

-T,

n.

to,

sign of dative ; ad,

in.

with ace.

expressingpurpose, ut, with subjv.


ad,

with gerund or gerundive;

FIRST YEAR LATIN

300
a

following

causa,

gerundive

geru7id

or

supine.

to-day, hodie.
too,

water, aqua, -ae,/.

quoque; camp, degree.

touch, tango,

way,

town, oppidum.

-i,

vi.

i.

tree, arbor, -oris,/".

tribe, gens, gentis,/

what,

trumpet, tuba, -ae,/

where,

ablative absolute.

ubi.

twenty-fourth, vTcesimus quartus.

whether, num.

twenty-one,

which,

vlgintl unus.

(which

of), uter,

(each of),

uterque,

-ae, -o

-trum;

-tra,

utraque, utrumque.

qui, quae,

two), uter, utra,

while,

in,

(be),

with

urge, hortor,
use, utor,

3,

n6l5 (505).

who,

quae

whole, totus,

why,

abl.

(142).
-a,

-um.

-a,

very, superl. degree


-a,

-um

-ae,

victory, victoria,

maxime

ipse,

-i,

n.

wise, sapiens, -entis

abl. alone.

-I,

within
m.

(into), in, %vith ace.

without,

with abl.

sine,

withstand, sustineo,

want

-T,

-I,

(lack),

desum, with

woman,

m.

{take a walk),

wall, niurus,

-entis.

ae,/

Vorenus, Vorenus,

walk

prudens,

wish, volo (505) (not), nolo.


with, cum, zuith abl. ; sometimes

-oris, tn.

virtue, virtus, -utis,/

carrus,

e.

wisely, sapienter.

victorious, victor,

wagon,

omnis,

winter, hiems, hiemis,/

(329).

Vesta, Vesta,

-um (312)

cur.

wine, vinum,
various, varius,

quae (210); interrog.

rel. qui,

quis,

i.

with

-um.

-a,

whither, quo.

or abl.

ace.

(of

some-

times implied in participle.

under, sub, with ace. or ahl.

unwilling

quod (142);
utrum (312).

with gerund ;

inter,

white, albus,

upon,

interrog. quis (qui), (juae, quid

when, cum

twenty-eight, duodetrlginta.

two, duo,

itineris,

(quod) (142).

experior, 4.

iter,

ille.

troops, copiae, -arum,/. //r.

-ae,

weapon, telum, -T, ti.


welcome, gratus, -a, -um.
well, bene (267).
well-known, sometitnes expressed by

n.

-i,

townsman, oppidanus,

try, tents,

via,

(4S2).

3.

train, educo,

war, bellum, -I, n.


warn, moneo, 2.

ambulo,

word, verbum,
2,

abl. (502).

with

2.

-ae,

-eris,/

i.

w.

careo,

femina,

aid.

work, laboro,
worse, peior,

-I,

n.

i.

-ius (260).

/.

mulier,

ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY
worst, pessimus,

wound,
wound,

-a,

//.

volnus,

7'.

volnero,

wretched, miser,
write, scrlbo,

-I,

(260).

yonder

-erum.

(that),

you, siug. tu
your,

I.

-era,

sing,

ille, -a,

-oris, vi.

m.

-ud.

plur. vos {492).


tuus,

-a,

-um

plur.

vester, -tra, -trum (229).

yourselves, see

3.

writer, scnptor,

year, annus,

-um

-eris, .

301

youth (body
Ti&vii&^

Zama,

self,

of), iuventus, -utis,/

-ae,

./.

INDEX
NoTB

a or ab

References are

witli ablative of agent,

to sections unless

207. a.

otherwise indicated.

adjectives of third declension, 182, 484.


of one, two, and three terminations,
182,

20S.

(7,

b,

note.

irregular (gen. in -lus), 312, 313, 4S6.


comparison, 246-248, 253, 254, 260,

a-declension of nouns, 48, 53, 477.


a-verbs, 59, 60, 497.
ablative case, 46 and d.

487, 489.
of comparative

and superla-

meaning

absolute, 357, 358.

tive, 255, a.

after a comparative, 249, a, 250.

of cause, 164, a, 165.

declension of comparatives, 248, 488.


irregular comparison, 254, 260, 489.

of degree of difference, 263, a, 264.

comparison

of agent, 207, a, 20S.

means or instrument,

whence, 159, 197,

of specification, 372, b, 374.


of time, 187, a, 188.

predicate, 100, a.

with

with iitor,fruor,^\.z., 387, 388.


with ex, equivalent of partitive geni-

rule

1S2, b.

-abus in dative and ablative of first declension, page 22, note 2.

manner, 128, a, 129.


with dat., 116, a, 117.
adverbs, definition,

of extent, 277, a, 278.


object of transitive verbs, 57.
of place whither, 160, 197, 2.

comparison, 267 and

kmds and
of first

490.

208.

with the gerundive, 425,

(/.

426.

ager, declension, loS, 478.


agreement of adjectives, 92.

3.

definitions,

a-/.

5,

b,

in place of positives of adjectives, 262.


agent, expressed by abl. with a or ab,

i.

acer, declensicfn, 182, 484.

comparison, 253.
adjectives, definition,

5.

kinds and definitions,


formation, 267, b.

c.

subject of the infinitive, 318, rule


in indirect discourse, 321-326.

318,

of

d.

accusative case, 46 and b and

infinitive,

2.

of description, 306, a, 307.

accent, 44, i, 2, and 3.


in contracted genitive of nouns in -ius,
<:,

complementary

used as nouns, 3, d.
in the plural without a noun, page 39,
note I.
with nouns agreement, 92.

256, b.

ablative of adjectives of third declension,

84,

and

between suns and eitis, 230, a\ between tuus and vester, 229, note;
omission of situs, 230, b.

3.

of separation, 231, a, 232.

tive,

a,

interrogative adjectives, 144, a, b.


possessives, 229; distinction in use

123, a, 124.

of place where, 81.


of place

26,

positive wanting, 262, 489.

of manner, 128, a, 129.


of

by adverbs,

note.

of description, 306, a, 307.

3.

a-d.

and second declensions,

after
rule

90, 483.

303

complementary
2.

infinitive,

318,

F/RSr YEAR LATIN

304
agreement of appositives,

cause, expressed by the ablative, 164, a,

iii.

of predicate nouns, 99.

165; 357,358-

of relative pronouns, 213, 222, a.

aliquis, 335, 496.


alius, declension, 312, 486.

alius

alius

gs cions, 59.

alius, 313.
aliud, 313.

civis, 169,

clauses,

alter, 313.

rt,

c.

and kinds, 20 and

definition

b, e.

and ne, 283, a, 284.


and ut non, 289, a,

altior, declension, 248.

of purpose, with ut

altus, comparison, 247.


amans, declension, 485.

of result, with ut
290.

am5, conjugation, 497.

relative of purpose, 419, 420.

Anecdotes, 434-43S.
animal, declension, 169, 479, c.
antecedent, definition, 2, note,
antepenult, 42, 5.
when accented, 44,
appeals, 340 and a.

with cum, when, 396-398.


commands, 340 and a.

comparative, declined, 248, 48S;

pli'es,

declined, 261.

followed by the ablative, 250.

2.

meaning

article,

no, iii.
none in Latin,

artus,

irregular

apposition,

too,

255, a.

comparison, definition, 26 of adjectives,


246-248, 253, 254, 260-262, 4S7;
methods in English and in Latin, 26,
a, and note
irregular, 254, 260-262,
;

50, a.

dat.

and

'

abl.

plural,

242, a.

audax, declension, 1S2, 4S4.


comparison, 247.
audio, conjugation, 501.
avis, 169,

See

characteristic vowels of the four con ju-

alphabet, 36.
alter

characteristic ablative, 306, a, 307.


ablative of description.

489; six adjectives in -lis, 254, 489;


positive wanting, 262, 4S9.
of adverbs, 267 and b.
ablative

c.

B
base, 53, b.
bonus, declension, 483.
comparison, 260, 4S9.
bos, declension, 4S2.
brevis, declension, 182, 4S4.

of,

249, a, 250.

complement of verb, 15, ^.


compound tenses often omit

contrary to

comparison, 247.

est, cf.

page

190, note 14.

conditional sentences, 403.


simple conditions, 404 and a, 405.
doubtful conditions, 404 and b, 406.
fact,

404 and

c,

407.

conjugation, definition, 27.


in

capi5, conjugation, 500.

caput, declension, 154, 479.


cardinals, definition,

3, b.

table of, 491.

indeclinable from qiiattiior to cciifiiw,


35. c.
declension, 304, 305, 486.
case of relative pronouns, 213.

names of English, 24, i, 2, 3.


names of Latin, 46. See under nomi-

cases,

native, genitive, etc.

general rules for endings, 46, a~d.


causal clauses, with ctim, 396, a, 39S.

English verb, 27,

conjunction, definition,

7.

kinds and definitions,


consilium, genitive in

See verbs.

a.

7, a, b.

84, d.

-?,

consonant-i, 37.
consonant stems, pages 60, 64.
consonants, 38.

how pronounced,

41.

contraction in perfect and cognate tenses

when V

is lost,

in gen. of
c

and

nouns

b.

414,

in -iiim

d.

coordinate clauses, 20,


copula, 15, a.

c.

and

-iits,

84,

INDEX
cornu, declension, 242, 480.
corpus, declension, 163, 479,

cum, prep, with

e-verbs, conjugation, 498.


6-verbs, 147.

b.

manner,

abl. of

129.

joined to abl. of p.'rsonal, relative, and


interrogative pronouns, 221, d.

cum, conj.
causal

conjugation, 499.
ego, declension, 492.

compared with

eius

in clauses of time, 396, a, 397.

and concessive,

305

siuts, 230, a.

enclitics, 44, 3.

60,414-416; conjugation, 507.


est often omitted, cf. page 190, note 14.
extent of time or space, how expressed,

396, a, 398.

dative case, 46 and d.


of agent, 425, d, 426.

277, a, 278.

with adjectives, \\b, a, 117.


with compound verbs, 346, a, 347.

F.\BLES, 45S-467.
fearing, verbs of, 415, a.

of indirect object, 79.

feminine gender,

of possession, 114, a, 115.

fero,

of service, 348, 349.


with intransitive verbs,

filia,

lieve,

favor,

and

dea, dat.

declension,

meaning

to be-

etc.,

392, 393.
abl. plural, page 22, note 2.

definition,

adjectives,

See nouns,

22.

and comparatives.

ablative, 263, a, 264.

demonstrative adjectives and pronouns,


definition, 2, d, 3,

ipse,

is,

c.

also hie,

Idem,

declension, 47S.
finis, 169,

c.

finite verb, definition, 35.

414-416; conjugation, 50S.


fruor, followed by the ablative, 3S8.
fungor, followed by the ablative, 38S.
future active participle in place of perfect passive participle in principal
parts,

tile,

pag-

75, foot-note

19, note,

20 and

a and

a.

and

gen., 306, a, 307.

gender, in English and in Latin, 25 and a.


general rules for Latin gender, 47, i

and

dies, declension, 275, 481.

gender, 276.
diphthongs, how pronounced, 40.

locative, 195,

with pres.

second declension,

85.

in fifth declension, 276.

b.

gender, 243, a.
construction, 197.

dum

in

in fourth declension, 243.

domo, used of place whence, 196 and b.


domum, used of place whither, 196 and b.
domus, declension, 482.

d5num, declension,

2.

in first declension, 54.

in third declension, 173-175.

4,

direct statements, 321.

domi as

192,

deus, declension, 482.

quantity, 43,

of,

b.

deponents, see verbs.


descriptive abl.

i.

future perfect tense, formation

iste.

dependent clause,

filius, vocative, 84, d, 478, a.

fi5,

degree of difference expressed by the

See pronouns;

rule, 47, 2.

414-416; conjugation, 506.


declension, page 22, note 2.

descriptive, 306, a, 307.


limiting, 68.
partitive, 256, 257.

gerund, a verbal noun, 365.

84, 478.

ind.,

genitive case, 46.

pige

duo, declension, 304, 486.

172, note 4.

use, 367 and a and b.


gerundive, a verbal adjective, 361, 362.

agreement

of, 361.

takes the dative of agent, 425, d, 426.


used with ad to express purpose, 362, 3.
5-stems (nouns), 275, 481.
e-verbs, 59, 71.

used with

sum

to

form the Second

Periphrastic Conjugation, 424.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

3c6

gerundive with stim implies necessity,


duty, or obligation, 425,

b.

infinitive, takes a subject accusative, 317,


a, 318, rule i.

gradus. declension, 242, 480.

in

compound

forms

esse

omitted, pige 182, note

is

often

4.

inflection, definition, 21.

hasta, declension, 53, 477.


hie, declension, 200, 493.
uses, 201, a-c.

of nouns, 22-25.
of adjectives, 26.

of verbs, 27-31.
inimicus, distinguished from hostis, 171.

historical tenses, 296, a.

homo, declension,

instrumental abl., 123, a, 124.


insam, followed by / with abl., 347,

163, 479, b.

hortor, conjugation, 509.

hortus, declension, 84, 478.


hostis, declension, 169, 479,

a.

interjection, definition, 8.

interrogative adjsctives, 142-145.

c.

distinguished from inimicus, 171.


humi, as locative, 195, b.

pronouns declined,
table of

142, 495.

meanmgs,

definition, 2,

143.

c.

intersum, followed by inter with ace,

with force of a consonant before a


vowel, T,7.
i-stems (nouns), 169, 479, c.

i,

i-verhs, conjugation, 501.

347, a.
intransitive verbs, definition,

4, b.

followed by dative, 393.


15, verbs in -id of the third conjugation,

Idem, declension, 329, 493.

157-

use, 331, a.

conjugation, 500.

gender, 243, a.
iens, declension, 485.
idiis,

ipse, declension, 329, 493.


used for emphasis, 331,

Ignis, 169,

c.

distinguished from se, 331, c.


adjectives (genitive in -Jus),

c, 479, c.
declension, 200, 493.
uses, 201, a-d.

ille,

irregular

312, 486.

imperative, formation, 339.


in commands and appeals, 340 and a.

comparison: of adjectives, 254, 260,


489 of adverbs, 267.

impersonal use of verbs, 418 and b.


impersonal verb, definition, 4,/.
in, with ace. and abl., 77, 81, 127, 160.

verbs:

indefinite pronouns
nition, 2,

e, 3, c.

independent clause,

and adjectives, defiSee zho pro?ioicns.


18, note, 20 and b.

indirect discourse, 321-326.

eo, 414-416, 507; fcro a.nd /id,


414-416, 506, 508; possum and/wstan, 503, 504
void, nolo, mdlo, 391;

is,

395 505declension, 138, 493.

common

uses, 140.

used as an adjective, 140, a.


used as a pronoun, 140, b.

indirect object, definition, 14, note.


case of, 78, 79.

relation to

indirect questions, 294, 295.


infinitive, definition and English uses,

32 and a and
formation, 316.

h'lc

and

ille,

uses of, 331, ^ and


declension, 4S2.

b.

201,

table of meanings, 139.


iste, declension, 493.
b.

iter,

used as subject, 317,

a.

complementary, 317,

a.

luppiter, declension, 482.


iuvenis, comparison, 260, 489.

in indirect discourse, 321, 322.


tenses in indirect discourse, 323-326.

used as in English, 317.


not used to express purpose, 283,

liber, declension, 103, 483.


b.

liquid stems, 163, 479,

b.

c.

INDEX
nouns, definition,

liquids, 38.

what words used, 195 and

magnus, comparison,

b.

260, 489.

a.

mare, declension, 482.


masculine, rule of gender, 47, i.
means, denoted by the abl., 123,
Mercurius, has vocative in
miles, declension,

-i,

i,

a-e.

gender, 47 and i and 2.


first declension, 48, 53, 65, 76, 90, 477;
second, 84, 90, 103, 108, 478; third,
154, 163, 169, i73-75> 479; fourth,

malo, 391-395; conjugation, 505.


malus, comparison, 260, 489.
manner, how expressed, 128, a, 129.

manus, gender, 243,

i.

kinds and definitions,

locative case, 195, 197.


endings, 195, a.
in

307

a, 124.

84, d.

242, 480; fifth, 275, 481.


predicate nouns, 98, a, 99.
rules of gender, 47,

and

i73-'75. 243. 276.


nubes, declension, 169, 479,
num in questions, 273.

2,

54, 85,

c.

number, singular and plural, 23.


numerals, 304, 305, 309, 486.
table of, 491.
definition, 3, b.

54, 479.

mllitiae, as locative, 195, b.


mille, declension, 304, 486.

o-stems (second declension), 84, 103, 478.

use, 305, e.
miser, comparison, 253.

object, definition, 14.

moneo, conjugation, 498.


moods, definition, 29-31.
multus, comparison, 260, 489.

mute stems,

6.

tabb, 491.
declined like bomes, 491.

340, a, 2.

conjugation, 505.

and tiol'tte in negcommands, 340.

nol'i

ative appeals or

b,

in

4S5.

equivalents in English, 353 and a.

time denoted by, 353, a.


future, used with siim to form the peri-

have no perfect active, 357, c.


in deponent verbs, 386, c.
perfect of, in deponent verbs, 386, d.
often best rendered as clause, 353, a.
tenses

case, 46.

of,

relative to

main

verb, 353, a.

subject of a finite verb, 51.

partitive genitive, 257.

in the tliird declension has a different

parvus, comparison, 260, 4S9.


passive, compound forms, 235,

of

vowel from the stem, i 54, e.


pronouns expressed only for emphasis

or contrast, 221, a.

predicate nominative,

15, b.

nonne, suggests the answer yes, 273.


nos, declension, 492.

Eng-

b, c.

phrastic conjugations, 424, 425.

-ne, enclitic, 44, 3, 50, d.

neuter, see 71011ns.

the imperatives

and uses

lish, 34 and a and b.


agreement, 235, a, note, 352,

declension, 352,

pose, 284.

various ways of translating, 283, 2S8.


as negative of commands and appeals,

nominative

indirect, 14, note.

participles, definition

c.

nh,ihat {lest), 415, rt.


introducing negative clauses of pur-

n516, 391-395

and

of a transitive verb, 57.


indirect object, 79.
ordinals, definition, 3, b.

154, 479, a.

mutes, 38.
followed by a liquid, 43,

navis, 169,

direct

a,

and

note.

formation, 205, a and b.


the agent expressed by the abl. with d
or ab, 208.
pater, declension, 163, 479, b.

FIRST YEAR LATIN

3o8
penult, 42, 5.
when accented, 44,

quldam,

335, b, 496
quivis, quisqiie, 335, c

2.

perfect tense, loss of v in,


tion

may

when

take place, 414,

contrac-

adjectives, 335, d.
interrogative, definition,

3.

See also pariiciples.


periphrastic conjugations, 424-428.

synopsis

of,

first,

second,

third, 2, a.

personal pronouns, see pronoutis.


phrase, definition

and kinds,

16.

piger, declension, loS, 483.

where,

whence,

whither,

with

names of towns, 197.


with places other than names of towns,
81, 159, 160.

pluperfect tense,

and

of,

192,

irregular

followed by cum,

cum, 221,

d.

possessive, see possessive adjectives.


definition,

reflexive,

of

221,

and

first

2, f; use, 220,
second person,

c.

definition,

2,

b;

agreement,

212, a, 213, 222, a; declension, 210,

dat.

and

abl.

plur.,

possessive adjectives, see adjectives.

how compounded,

potior, conjugation, 509.

meanings, 211;

proper

names

in -iics contract

84,^.
prosum, how compounded, 344,

it

and

t,

puer, declension, 103, 478.

purpose clauses, expressed by the subjunctive with ut and ne, 283, a, b,

b.

simple, 12.

284, 288.

13.

accusative of the gerund or gerundive

predicate adjectives, 100, a.

with ad, 362,

definition of, 15.

predicate nominative, 15, b.


predicate nouns (nominative), 98, a, 99.

b, 367, b.

dative of service, 34S, 349.


relative clauses, 419, 420.

supine in -um, 372, a, 373.

definition of, 15.

prepositions, definition,

not expressed by the infinitive, 283, b.


review of expressions of purpose, 429.

6.

principal parts of verbs, 131

and

a.

principal tenses, 296, a.

pronouns, definition,

to

c.

conjugation, 504.

governs the ablative, 388.


predicate, definition, 11

of

table

fol494
lowed by cum, 221, d.
pronunciation, Roman method, sounds
;

of the letters, 39-41.

344, b.

conjugation, 503.
postquam, with perfect tense, page 175,
note 6.

complete,

495

2, a; declension,
492 nominative expressed only for
emphasis or contrast, 221, a; third
person sometimes supplied by is,
Jiic, or ille,
220, b; used with a
reflexive sense, 221, c; followed by

relative,

b.

242, a.

possum,

142,

as

declen-

2, c;

personal, definition,

b;

formation

plus, declension, 261.

portus,

qiiid-iorms

of relative pronouns, 222, a.

place,

221, d.

person, distinction between

and

sion,

510, 511.

quisquam,

used as pronouns, qitod-iorms

2.

kinds and definitions, 2, a-f.


demonstrative, definition, 2, d;

quam
full

declension, 493 Iitc and ille, declension, 200; uses, 201, a-d\ is, 138,
;

with a comparative, 249, 25

-que, enclitic, 44,


qui, 210-213.

declension, 210, 494.


declension, 496.

and

139; uses, 140, a, b; relation to Jiic


ille, 201, c; iste, idem, ipse, 329,

quidam, 335, b

330; uses, 331, a-c.

quis, 142-144.

indefinite, definition, 2, e

aliquis

and

3.

questions, indirect, 294-296.

declension, 142, 495.

'.

INDEX
quis, after

note

si,

nisi,

M?,and num, page

195,

stem

quisque, 335,

adjective, 144,

page

pronouns.

Story of the Aduatuci,

of purpose, 419, 420.


declension, 275, 481.
result, expressed by the subjunctive wi^h

chuses

res,

as locative, 195, b.
the accusative of, 196,

names

complete,

an

of

and

196

note

b.

with

197.

sentence, definition,

in,

past

296, 297

time,

and

and pluper-

fect, 293.

tense

translated

as

future,

b.

415,

of purpose, 283, 2S4, 288.

of result, 289, 290.


of indirect question, 294-296.
i.

nouns of the first declension, page 22


nouns of the second declension, page

in relative clauses of

purpose, 4 19, 420.

after verbs of fearing, 415, a.


in doubtful conditions, 404, b, 406.
in conditions contrary to fact, 404,

32-

nouns

page
d; the
last vowel changed to form the nominative, 154, e; mute, 154; liquid,
of the third declension,

how

a.

of perfect

perfect, 287

present

specification, ablative of, 372, b, 374.


stem of a word, defined, page 22, note

found, 154,

c,

169,

163; /-stems, 169, 170.

nouns of the fourth declension, page


98.

of

pluperfect,

282; of im-

a, 297.

space, extent of, 277, 278.

of

and

forniiition of present, 281,

expressed, 231, 237.

sibilant, 38.

P60;

appeals,

also page 184,

404, d.

service, dative of, 348, 349.

of

temporal, causal, and con-

sequence of tenses

sequor, conjugation, 509.

of

aim

time,

9.

sequence of tenses, 296,

and a

2.

imperfect subjunctive denoting present

c.

kinds and definitions, 10, 17-19.


parts, 11-16, 20 and a, b, and c.

how

b.

commands and

cessive, 39C>-398.

distinguished from ipse, 331,


senex, comparison, 260, 489.

of

infinitive, 317, a, 318.

hortatory, 340

2.

towns,

of

476.

a.

13.

subjunctive, in

se,

separation,

and

not expressed, G\, a,

39-41-

like

1 1

simple, 12.

of a verb, 51.

Roaian method of pronouncing Latin

riis,

subject, definition,

agreement of verb with, 61.

n'on, 289, 290.

rex, declension, 154, 479.

ruri,

72.

475-

lit

131, b, 136, a,

Stories of Hercules, 439-449.


Stories of Ulysses, 450-457.
Stories from Roman History, 468-

conjugation, 499.
relative pronouns, see pronouns.

or

principal

in

185, b, and note,


of adjectives of tiie third declension,

b.

reflexive pronouns, see

tit

stem of verbs.

perfect

c.
c.

335,

stem

parts of verbs, 131.

quod, used for quid as an interrogative

rego, 147

of verbs, 59.
participle

perfect

10.

quisquam, 335, c
quivis,

309

nouns of the
no.

fifth

declension, page

407.
sui, declension, 492.

distinguished from ipse, 331,


sum, 96 conjugation, 502.
compounds, 344, 345.

c.

supine, definition, 370.


in-ttw, 3-2, 1,373.
in

-j7,

8UUS,

372,

2.

374.

how formed and

declined, 229.

c,

FIRST YEAR LATIN

3IO

suus, compared with eius, 230, a.

omission

of,

division

by the

number

when

ut, translated

230, b.

syllables, definition,

of, 42, i.

ind.,

when followed

or as,

page

185, note 2.

utor, governs the abl., 388.

of, 42, 2, 3.

compound words,
how named, 42, 5.
when long, 43, 5, 6.

in

42, 4.
V, often lost

fect

between vowels

and cognate

in the per-

tenses, 414,

b.

verbs, definition, 4.

temporal clauses introduced

by cum,

396, a, 397.
tense, definition, 11 and a.
tenses, of infinitive in indirect discourse,

distinction in use between perfect

imperfect, 132,

case of subject, 51 of object, 57.


personal endings, 60, 132.
;

and

historical, 296, a.

sequence of, 296, 297.


terminations, definition,

sitive in

497of second conjugation, 71

conjuga-

53, b.

oi third conjugation, 147; conjugation,

499.
of third conjugation in

of

154; -stem3, 169.


of fourth declf nsion, 242.

157; con-

-io,

jugation, 500.

of third declension, consonant stems,

fourth conjtigation, 185

conjuga-

tion, 501.

how conjugations are distinguished,

of fifth declension, 275.

principal parts, 131

expressed, 188.

extent, 278.

transitive verb,

dat.,

tion, 498.

of first declension, 53.


of second declension, 84.

towns, rules for names

Latin and govern the

392>
oi first conjugation, 60; conjugation,

sign of future, 126, a.

how

a-f.

in relative clauses, 222, a.

and

b.

sign of imperfect, 121, a.

time,

4,

transitive in English are often intran-

323-326.

principal

kinds and definitions,


agreement, 61.

of, 197, i, 2, 3.

4, a.

and

59.

a.

review of four conjugations, 378-385.


deponents: form, meaning, how distinguished, 386 active forms, 386,
b participles of both voices, 386, c
;

tres, declension, 304, 305, b

and/, 486.

tu, declension, 492.

perfect participle active in meaning,

turris, i6g,

and gerundive

tuus,

c,

c.

479,

how formed and

compared

\\\\\\

declined, 229.

vesier, 229, note.

passive, 386, d; con-

jugation. 509.
conjugations,

periphrastic

synopsis

424-428

of, 510, 511.

irregular verbs, see under eo.fio, fer'o,

u as a semivowel, page

15, note.

u-stems, 242, 4S0.


-ubus, irregular dat. and abl. plur., 242, a.
ultima, 42, 5.

void, nolo, tndlo,

sum and

418,

a and

com-

b.

tinus, declension, 304, 305,/, 486.

vereor, conjugation, 509.

urbs, declension, i6g, 479, c.


ut, of purpose (negative ne), 284.

vescor, governs ablative, 388.

how formed and declined, 229.


compared with titus, 229, note,

vester,

translated in various ways, 283, 288.


of result (negative ut non), 289, 290.

vetus, comparison, 260, 4S9.

translated that not with verbs of fear-

vir, declension, 47S.

ing, 415, a.

its

pounds.
impersonal use and impersonal verbs,

virtiis, declension, 154, 479.

INDEX
vis, declension, 482.

vocabularies, Latin-English, page 245.

311

voice, d:'finition, 28.

intransitive verbs used only in active,

English-L?tin, page 291.


vocative case, 46.

volnus, declension, 163, 479,

vocative form, 46, a.

V0I6, 391-395.

use, 53, a.
of proper

names

in -ins, 84, d.

of 5-noiins of the second declension,


84, a, 47S, a.

2%, a.
b.

conjugation, 505.
vos, declension, 492.

vowels, quantity
3.4-

short, 43, 2

long, 43,

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