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PREPOSITIONS

A preposition indicates a relation between things mentioned in a sentence. For


example, in the sentence "The cat sleeps on the sofa", the word "on" is a preposition,
introducing the prepositional phrase "on the sofa".
Preposition Example
About -He walks about the town
-He went at about 3 o’clock
After -The white house is after the stadium
-Danielle is preparing the activities after the classes
Against -She is against you
-The boy is against the wall
Along -The lights along the bridge went out.
-There are candles along the hall
Around -She lived here around 1960
-They talked around two hours
At -I was at home
-We will be at the beach
Before -The police station is before the yard
-They will get married before a judge
Between -The child will be between you and me
-The cat was between two dogs
For -This big gift is for you
-He came home for Christmas
From -She is from Peru
-I study from 7 to 2
Like -They play like horses
-She laughed like her dad
Over -I hit the ball over the last net
-The helicopter was over our heads
Trough -We passed trough a dark tunnel
-They explain the topic trough a poster
Up -My grandmother lived up the mountains
-I Tried to climb up the high rock
With -She danced with Aaron
-Albert was chatting with June
PHRASAL VERBS
Phrasal verbs are part of a large group of verbs called "multi-word verbs". A multi-
word verb is a verb like "pick up", "turn on" or "get on with". These verbs consist of a
basic verb + another word or words.
Examples:
(to) fall about: troncharse, partirse (de risa).
(to) fall apart: romperse, deshacerse, caerse a pedazos.
(to) fall away: disminuir/desaparecer/desprenderse.
(to) fall back: retroceder, retirarse.
(to) fall back on to: recurrir a, echar mano de, apoyarse en.
(to) fall behind: retrasarse, quedarse atrás, rezagarse.
(to) fall behind with: retrasarse.
(to) fall down: caer, caerse/ hundirse, derrumbarse, venirse abajo/fallar/ dejarse
engañar por, picar.
(to) fall in love: enamorarse de.
(to) fall in: desplomarse, venirse abajo/ alinearse, formar filas, ponerse en filas.
(to) fall in with: encontrarse con, juntarse con/convenir en, aprobar, aceptar
(to) fall into: dividirse en, clasificarse en/ adquirir.
(to) fall off: bajar, disminuir/ empeorar/ desprenderse, caerse.
(to) fall on: incidir en, recaer en, tocar a/atacar, caer sobre.
(to) fall out: reñir/ pelearse /romper filas/ caerse.
(to) fall over: caer, tropezar con/ caerse
(to) fall through: fracasar, quedar en nada.
(to) fall to: empezar a, ponerse a/ corresponder a, incumbir a, tocar a.
(to) fall under: clasificarse en, estar incluido,-a en.

Surgeries
Surgery (Latin: chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses
operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or
treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily
function or appearance, or sometimes for some other reason.
Types of surgery
Surgical procedures are commonly categorized by urgency, type of procedure, body
system involved, degree of invasiveness, and special instrumentation.

Elective surgery is done to correct a non-life-threatening condition, and is carried out


at the patient's request, subject to the surgeon's and the surgical facility's availability.
Emergency surgery is surgery which must be done quickly to save life, limb, or
functional capacity. Exploratory surgery is performed to aid or confirm a diagnosis.
Therapeutic surgery treats a previously diagnosed condition.

Amputation involves cutting off a body part, usually a limb or digit. Replantation
involves reattaching a severed body part. Reconstructive surgery involves
reconstruction of an injured, mutilated, or deformed part of the body.

Cosmetic surgery is done to improve the appearance of an otherwise normal


structure. Excision is the cutting out of an organ, tissue, or other body part from the
patient.

Transplant surgery is the replacement of an organ or body part by insertion of another


from different human (or animal) into the patient. Removing an organ or body part
from a live human or animal for use in transplant is also a type of surgery.

Terminology
Prefixes
• Angio-: related to blodd vessels
• Arthr-: related a joint
• Colpo-: related to the vagina
• Encephal-: related to the brain
• Hepat-: related to the liver
• hyster-: related to the uterus
• lapar-: related to the abdominal cavity
• lobo-: related to a lobe (brain or lungs)
• mammo- and masto-: related to the breast
• myo-: related to the muscle tissue
• nephro-: related to the kidney
• oophor-: related to the ovary
• orchid-: related to the testicle
• splene-: related to the spleen
• vas-: related to the vas deferens

Suffixes
• Excision surgery names often start with a name for the organ to be excised (cut
out) and end in -ectomy.
• Procedures involving cutting into an organ or tissue end in -otomy. A surgical
procedure cutting through the abdominal wall to gain access to the abdominal
cavity is a laparotomy.
• Minimally invasive procedures involving small incisions through which an
endoscope is inserted end in -oscopy. For example, such surgery in the
abdominal cavity is called laparoscopy.
• Procedures for formation of a permanent or semi-permanent opening called a
stoma in the body end in -ostomy.
• Reconstruction, plastic or cosmetic surgery of a body part starts with a name for
the body part to be reconstructed and ends in -oplasty. Rhino is used as a prefix
for "nose", so rhinoplasty is basically reconstructive or cosmetic surgery for the
nose.
• Reparation of damaged or congenital abnormal structure ends in -rraphy.
Herniorraphy is the reparation of a hernia, while perineorraphy is the reparation
of perineum.

The United States of America (commonly referred to as the


United States, the U.S., the USA, or America) is a federal constitutional republic
comprising fifty states and a federal district. The country is situated mostly in central
North America, where its forty-eight contiguous states and Washington, D.C., the
capital district, lie between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to
the north and Mexico to the south.
George Walker Bush was born July 6, 1946 the 43rd President of the United States
from 2001 to 2009 and the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.

Bush is the eldest son of George H. W. Bush (the 41st President) and Barbara Bush,
making him one of only two American presidents to be the son of a preceding
president. After graduating from Yale University in 1968, and Harvard Business School
in 1975, Bush worked in his family's oil businesses.

SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS
The September 11 attacks (often referred to as September 11th or 9/11) were a series
of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11,
2001. On that morning, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet
airliners.

The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the
World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and many others
working in the buildings. Both buildings collapsed within two hours, destroying nearby
buildings and damaging others.