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Resources

C hapter 1 and Deve lopment

R esources

S ubstances av ailable in ou r environme nt that can b e used for sp ecific purpo ses and are

t echnological ly accessible , economical ly viable and r esources.

culturally a cceptable ar e referred to

as

C lassificatio n of Resou rces R esources can be classifie d on the basi
C
lassificatio n of Resou rces
R esources can
be classifie d on the basi s of
Orig in: Biotic a nd abiotic
Exh austibility: Renewable and non-ren ewable
Own ership: Ind ividual, com munity-ow ned, nationa l and interna tional
Stat us of Devel opment: P otential, dev eloped and stock

Biotic Resources : Having life Tree Hum an Birds Fish Anima l
Biotic Resources : Having life
Tree
Hum an
Birds
Fish
Anima l
 
 
Abioti c Resource s: Non-livin g Sto nes Water Moun tains Renewa ble Resour ces: Can
Abioti c Resource s: Non-livin g
Sto
nes
Water
Moun tains
Renewa ble Resour ces: Can be
reproduced
or replenis hed
Solar ene rgy
Wind energ y
Forest
Water
Non-rene wable Res ources: Can not be repr oduced or re plenished. T hey take mi llions
of years to
form.
E.g. Meta ls, fossils fue ls, minerals etc.
Coa l
Petrol
Individual Resources
Privat ely owned b y individuals
E.g. I ndividual ow nership of la nd in the fo rm of houses and agricul tural fields
Communit y-Owned
Acces sible to all
Resources
members of a
community
 
 

E.g.

Village pond s, public par ks, burial gr ounds etc.

National R esources

Those resources t hat exist wit hin the territ ory of a nati on. All m inerals, wate r bodies, for ests, wildlif e etc. within the country and within 12 nautic al miles fro m the sea coa st are called national res ources. Internatio nal Resour ces

Thos e oceanic res ources that natio n.

do not lie wi thin the Exc lusive Econo mic Zone o f any

They are manage d by internat ional institut ions and eac h country h as an equal ri ght to acc ess these re sources. Potential R esources

  • E.g. V illage pond s , public par k s, burial gr o unds
Making hydr ogen and oxy gen from w ater water for gen erating elec tricity
Making hydr ogen and oxy gen from w ater
water for gen erating elec tricity

Thou gh they are i n existence, they are not being comp letely utilize d. E.g. P otential of w ind and sola r energy in Rajasthan

Developed Resource s Those resources t hat have bee n surveyed a nd are ready for utilizati on.

Stock

R

Resou rces that exi st but have

E.g.

not been util ized owing t o lack of tec hnical exper tise.

eserves

They are those res ources for w hose utilizat ion man has the technica l know-how but has no t started usi ng them.

E.g. U se of river

P

roblems R elated to R esources

Deple tion of reso urces due to over-utilizat ion. Accu mulation in f ew hands.

Indisc riminate exp loitation of resources re sulting in ec ological imb alances.

  • E.g. V illage pond s , public par k s, burial gr o unds
  • E.g. V illage pond s , public par k s, burial gr o unds

S

ustainable Developm ent

It refers to th at developm ent which is lasting enou gh to be use d by the futu re generatio ns.

the needs o f the coming

D evelopment should be s uch that it do es not comp romise with g enerations.

R

io de Jane iro Earth S ummit, 19 92

Unite d Nations C onference on

Environme nt and Deve lopment (U NCED)

Held at Rio de Jan eiro in Brazi l.

First e ver Internat ional Earth S ummit.

Aime d at addressi ng the probl em of enviro nmental deg radation an d finding wa ys of prote cting the env ironment.

The d eclaration o n global clim atic change

and biodiver sity was sign ed.

The G lobal Forest Principles w ere adopted .

 
 

AGE NDA 21 was formulated .

Aims at ac hieving glob al sustainabl e developme nt.

For comba ting environ mental dam age, poverty and disease s through glo bal

cooperatio n. Every cou ntry is suppo sed to form ulate its own Agenda 21.

R esource Pl anning It is n ecessary for making max imum utiliza tion of the a vailable reso urces.

It invo lves

Identificati on of resour ces through surveys, ma pping and m easurement.

Evolving a structure fo r utilizing re sources by

means of app ropriate
means of app ropriate

technolog y and skills. Synchroni zing the reso urce develo pment plans with the nat ional developm ent goals.

Resou rce planning

in India is d one through the Five Ye ar Plans.

C onservatio n of Resou rces Resou rces need to be conserve d as they ar e vital for de velopment.

Over- utilization a nd irrational consumptio n of resourc es creates ec ological imbal ance.

Plains: 43 % Mountains : 30% Plateaus: 2 7% Forests Net sown area Pastures Housing Roads
Plains: 43 %
Mountains : 30%
Plateaus: 2 7%
Forests
Net sown area
Pastures
Housing
Roads
Barren and
waste land

Brun dtland Co mmission

Report of 1 987 introduc ed the conc ept of ‘Sustai nable

Develo pment’ that f ocused on th e conservati on of resour ces for the f uture.

all other re sources exis t.

L and Resou rces Land is the basic n atural resou rce on which

India’ s total land a rea: 3.28 m illion sq. km .

•

Uses of Land

Culturable waste land Fallow lan d Area unde r miscellane ous trees, cr ops and grov es

Natio nal Forest Policy (19 32) envisage s 33% of the land area u nder forests in India. However, i t is only 22% .

 
 
Caus es Deforestat ion Over-graz ing Mining an d quarrying Over-irrig ation Mineral pr ocessing Industrial
Caus es
Deforestat ion
Over-graz ing
Mining an d quarrying
Over-irrig ation
Mineral pr ocessing
Industrial effluents
Jhark hand, Chhatt isgarh, Mad hya Pradesh and Orissa a re the states where
defor estation, owi ng to minin g activities, h as resulted i n the degrad ation of lan d.
In Raj asthan, Guja rat and Mah arashtra, the main cause of land degr adation is ov er-
grazin
g.
Meth ods for St opping Lan d Degrada tion
Afforestati on
  Caus es Deforestat ion Over-graz ing Mining an d quarrying Over-irrig ation Mineral pr ocessing

L and Degra dation

•

Proper ma nagement o f grazing Stabilizatio n of sand du nes Control of mining acti vities Proper dis charge of in dustrial efflu ents

S oil

Soil is a renewable

natural res ource.

It take s millions o f years to for m. It is fo rmed by the action of te mperature,

running wat er, wind and glaciers.

 
 
  S oil Erosio n T he washing away of the top layer of soil by
  S oil Erosio n T he washing away of the top layer of soil by
  S oil Erosio n T he washing away of the top layer of soil by

Soil Erosio n The washing away of the top layer of soil by the a ction of win d and water is called soil erosion.

Soil fo rmation and betwe en the two.

soil erosion are simulta neous proce sses and a ba lance exists

Activi ties such as

 

Deforestat ion

Over-graz ing

Mining

Constructi on

Increa se the rate o f soil erosio n and disturb

the natural balance.

Gully

Erosion a nd Badlan ds

 
 

Deep chan nels called g ullies are for med when f ast running water cuts through th e soft clayey soil making deep ravine s.

This type

of land beco mes unfit for cultivation and is called badland.

E.g. Cham bal basin in Madhya Pra desh

Shee t Erosion: I t is caused w hen water fl ows as a she et down a sl ope and was hes- off th e top layer o f soil. Wind s can also blo w-off the to p layer of so il. M ethods of Soil Conse rvation

• • Ploug hing along th e contour li nes of slopes Terra ce farming •
Ploug hing along th e contour li nes of slopes
Terra ce farming
Planti ng strips of g rass betwee n crops restr icts the flow
speed . This is call ed strip cro pping.
of water an d breaks wi nd
Planti ng lines of tr ees creates a
shelter fro m the fast m oving winds and prevent s
erosio n. These are
called shel ter beds.
Stud ents’ Co ntributi on to Re vision N otes
Land Degradati on
Land degradation is a human i nduced or n atural proce ss which neg atively affec ts the land
to fu nction effect ively with in an ecosyste m, by accept ing, storing and recyclin g water,
energ y and nutrie nts.
– Co ntributed by:
Gari ma Dhirayan
  Deep cha n nels called g ullies are fo r med when f ast running

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