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IPA13-SG-031

PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION


Thirty-Seventh Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2013
QUARTZ-RICH SANDY FACIES BEHIND THE MIOCENE VOLCANIC ACTIVITY IN SOUTH
EAST JAVA: INSIGHT FROM SANDSTONE CHARACTERISTICS WITHIN JATEN
FORMATION
Rian Cahya Rohmana*,***
Fajar Puspo Dewi*,***
Sutrio Wibowo**
Adrean Novadhani***
Iqbal Fardiansyah***

ABSTRACT
East Java lies on the South East (SE) margin of
Sundaland and is filled by thick sequence of
Tertiary volcanic sediment. Products of OligoMiocene volcanic and quartz deposits are
widespread, acting as important hydrocarbon
accumulation. SE Java is one location where quartzrich sandstone is found around volcanic arc. This
paper is analyzing Miocene volcanic quartz
sandstone that has been discussed as potential
reservoir.
Sandy facies within Jaten Formation is
characterized by flaser sandstone (Sfl), low angle
cross lamination sandstone (Sla), wavy lamination
sandstone (Sw), ripple cross lamination sandstone
(Sr) and horizontal laminated sandstone (Sh) with
total thickness of 2 to 9 m. Thin coal layers
occasionally present in muddy facies, considered as
a good intra formations source rock. Previous
studies describes sandstones of the formation
contains abundant bipyramidal, faceted crystal, and
embayed volcanic quartz grain, indicating volcanic
origin.
Integrated biostratigraphy, petrography and
lithofacies analysis have shown that sandstone of
Jaten Formation was deposited in terrestrial to
transition environment with fluvial point bar and
sand flat facies associations. They are interpreted as
a part of lower flank of the volcanoes in the
southconnected to open marine in the northern part,
indicating fluvial to estuary depositional system in
active volcanic setting. The existence of thic k
volcanic materials in SE Java was neglected

*
Department of Geology, UPN VeteranYogyakarta
** Sedimentology Lab., UPN Veteran Yogyakarta
*** Geopangea Research Group (gprg)

previously. As a matter of fact, it has valuable


implication for basin history, provenance, and
reservoir properties that will resolve future
exploration problems in SE Java.
Keyword: quartz-rich sand, volcanic, Jaten
Formation, Sandy Facies

INTRODUCTION
The research area is located in Batuwarno and
Giriwoyo Villages, Wonogiri, Pacitan Area, Central
Java. The area is part of Southern Mountain Zone
(Figure 2). The Miocene quartz rich sandstones has
been a subject of research of potential reservoir and
source rock in volcanic environment.
This study aims to get better understanding of
depositional facies of estuary system within
volcanic setting. The Jaten Formation that contains
quartz rich sandstone from volcanic origin is one
good example, an interesting study for potential
reservoir and source rock. A preliminary study of
outcrops is probably the most reliable method to
support the exploration in SE Java.

REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL SETTING


East Java is located southeast of Sundaland margin
(Figure 1). Sundaland is the core of SE Asia
continent and is commonly perceived to be the main
source of sediment to East Java (e.g. Ardhana,
1993; Sribudiyani et al., 2003). East Java is
subdivided into four east-west trending zones based
on the Van Bemmelen (1949). The zones were
determined by Smyth (2005) based on stratigraphy
and structural configuration. From North to South,
those are (Figure 2):

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Southern Mountains Zone


The Southern Mountain Zone consists of thick
oligo-miocene volcanogenic sendiment with
siliciclastic sediment that lies unformably on
Mesozoic basement. The lithology of this area
consisted of siliciclastic, volcaniclastic, volcanic
and carbonates rocks. The research area is located
in this zone.

LITHOFACIES AND DEPOSITIONAL


FACIES OF JATEN FORMATION
The focus of lithofacies and depositional facies
study is of the 7-12 km Jaten Formation, located in
along Wonogiri to Pacitan area. Physical analysis
was conducted by sampling, outcrop observation,
and graphic log. The facies in Jaten Formation is
divided into sandy facies and muddy facies.
Sandy Facies

Present-day volcanic arc:


The Late Miocene volcanic activity was reactivated
at the position of the present-day arc and
deformation events occurred throughout East Java.
Kendeng Zone:
Is the main Oligo-Miocene depocenter in East Java.
It contains thick sequences of volcanogenic and
pelagic sediments which now is W-E trending fold
thrust belt.

The quartz sandstone can be grouped in several


lithofacies based on their characters; flaser
sandstone (Sfl), low angle cross lamination
sandstone (Sla), wavy lamination sandstone (Sw),
ripple cross lamination sandstone (Sr) and
horizontal laminated sandstone (Shl). Rock
description is white to yellowish white, fining
upward sequence, very fine to gravel of quartz
grain, angular to well rounded of grains with flaser,
low angel cross lamination, wavy lamination, ripple
cross lamination and parallel lamination
sedimentary structures. Thickness ranges from 2 to
7 m (Figure 4).

Rembang Zone:
The Eocene-Pliocene sequence includes syn-rift
deposits and post-rift deposits such as fluvial
deltaic, deeper marine, shallow marine clastic
sediments and extensive carbonates are found in
this area. This zone is bounded by ENE-WSW
fault-high (Rembang High) from Kendeng zone in
the south and with many E-W structural trend.

Petrography analysis and QFL point measurement


revealed the predominant composition of the
sandstone; quartz grains slightly mixed with
feldspar and lithic (Figure 5). Based on facies
association analysis, most of the facies are related to
sandflat deposits that are deposited in transitional
environment (Figure 7).
Muddy Facies

METHODS
This research used publications, data and outcrop
observation that include sections profiling, spot
sampling, and geological mapping. In addition,
laboratory analysis consisted of petrography
analysis and paleontology analyses were conducted
as well. All data were integrated to create
depositional facies model of estuary in volcanic
environment setting. To meet the objectives of the
study, analyses were performed as below:
a. Facies identification (lithofacies & facies
association).
b. Laboratory Analysis (petrography, mineralogy /
QFL, paleontology).
c. SEM and Quartz Type (taken from Smyth,
2003).

Several muddy facies observed in Jaten Formation


are: Massive carbonaceous shale (CHm)
characterized by lenticular lignites within
carbonaceous shale, the thickness is approximately
estimated 0.5 1 m. Massive coal (Cm)
occasionally presents among massive carbonaceus
shale (CHm). The coal thickness ranges 0.3 -0.7 m
(Figure 6). The presence of bentonic foram
Elphidium quntori, Rotalia. sp, Quingueloculina sp.,
and shell fragment of gastropod, pelecypod,
molusca indicate transitional environment. The
facies is interpreted as mudflat deposits.
DISCUSSION
South East Java Basin is considered as frontier area
often overlooked due to the volume of EoceneMiocene volcanogenic sediments in the area.
However, some evidences show the possibility of
petroleum potential. Eocene volcanic activity in SE

Java is indentified from rock samples. The Plinian


type explosion has created large eruptive columns,
extended to as high as 50 kilometers into the
atmosphere. Magmas were acid to intermediate
such as rhyolitic to dacitic, trachytic and phonolitic
magmas (Smyth, 2003., Fisher et al., 1998). Some
of andesitic to dacitic Oligocene intrusions could be
examined in the study area and are potential source
of quartz (Figure 8).
Thus, their provenance has significantly contributed
to quartz-rich grains for sandy facies of Jaten
Formation. In tropical environment, the single
eruption, reworking and weathering of tuffs, ash
falls, and pyroclastic debris can form well-sorted
single crystal, angular shards or fragments due to
concentration within the magma chamber (Smyth,
2003., Cas and Wright,1987).
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) revealed that
quartz grains of Jaten Formation are bipyramidal
quartz, perfect crystal faces or alternatively have
large embayment with features indicating crystalmelt interaction producing multiple phases of
crystal growth. Other features show skeletal grains,
negative crystals, cracked tile -like fractures,
zonation, tracks or scours along the crystal surfaces
and microcrystalline surface growth. (Smyth, 2003.,
Donaldson and Henderson, 1988). The variety of
features indicates the quartz grains are derived from
a volcanic origin (Figure 9).
The Jaten Formation contains quartz sandy facies of
Midlle Miocene tidal deposits deposited in volcanic
arc setting. The abundant volcanic quartz grains
found in the sandy facies indicates good reservoir
potential analog in SE Java. Meanwhile the
alterations of feldspar, volcanic glass constitute
muddy facies. The presence of Eocene-Miocene
volcanic arc in Southern Mountain Zone has
suggested that the study area is adjacent to the
volcanic center. The older formations such as
Semilir Formation in south west or equivalent
Besole Formation north east of study area that
composed of volcanic breccias, lava, tuff, and
tuffaceous sandstone have a good role in controlling
the distribution of high and low area toward the
Jaten Formation.
The sandy facies within Jaten Formation has been
interpreted as part of lower flanks of volcanoes that
is it locally deposited and is interfingering with rim
carbonate reef (ex : Punung in NW and Wonosari
in SW) in the margin of high area . The lower flank
of volcano was swampy forest flood plain, resulting
muddy facies containing carbonaceous shale and

thin coal. The rivers were connected to transition


zone to open marine in the northern part. In this
case, integrated biostratigraphic and facies have
obviously proven distinctive characters of tidal
system such as intertidal and estuary tidal bars close
to active volcanic arcs. Volcanic input may have
influenced siliciclastic system and carbonate
development around active volcanic arcs without
killing carbonate-producing organisms and stop
supplying clastic provenance, causing deposition to
cease (Wilson and Lokier, 2002).
CONCLUSION
1. The facies analyses of Jaten Formation are
divided into sandy facies and muddy facies. The
sandy facies consists of flaser sandstone (Sfl),
low angle cross lamination sandstone (Sla),
wavy lamination sandstone (Sw), ripple cross
lamination sandstone (Sr) and horizontal
laminated sandtone (Sh) with dominant
composition of quartz grain, feldspar and silica
mud. The muddy facies comprises of massive
shale (SHm) characterized by lenticular lignites
within carbonaceous shale with massive coal
occasionally present among massive shale
(SHm).
2. Quartz grains is dominant in Jaten formation.
The quartz grains are previously reported to be
bipyramidal quartz, perfect crystal faces or
alternatively have large embayments with
features indicating crystal-melt interaction
producing multiple phases of crystal growth,
skeletal grains, negative crystals, cracked tile like fractures, zonation, tracks or scours along
the crystal surfaces and microcrystalline surface
growth. The grains feature volcanic origin.
Some of andesitic to dasitic of Oligocene
intrusion may be commonly potential for local
provenance to Jaten Formation.
3. The sandy facies within Jaten Formation is
interpreted as part of lower flanks of volcanoes,
locally deposited and is interfingering with rim
carbonate reef (ex: Punung
in NW and
Wonosari in SW) in the margin of high area .
Thus, the active volcanism was not necessarily
disturbing or ceasing the siliciclastic system and
carbonate development. The lower flanks of
volcanoes were swampy forest flood plain,
resulting muddy facies of carbonaceous shale
and thin coal that is potential intraformational
source rock. The rivers connected to transition
zone formed the intertidal and estuary tidal bars
as potential reservoir. Those are obviously

proven distinctive characters of tidal


environment that really close to active volcanic
arcs.
4. South East Java as frontier area has previously
been overlooked due to the volume of
volcanogenic sediments. However there are
several evidence of petroleum component in
this area, as presented in the Jaten Formation.
This can be used for further study on basin
history, provenance, and reservoir properties to
resolve exploration problems.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study is part of the authors thesis supported by
GeoPangea Research Group and Department of
Geology
UPNVeteranYogyakarta.
Special
acknowledgment to Agung Budiman and Leon
Taufani who reviewed this paper, GPRG members
and Pangea 2007 for help during fieldwork, UPN
geology laboratories for sample analysis, and IPA
committees for publishing this paper.

REFERENCES
Smyth, H., Hall, R., Nichols,J,G., 2008, Cenozoic
volcanic arc history of East Java, Indonesia: The
stratigraphic record of eruptions on an active
continental margin, The Geological Society of
America Special Paper 436
Smyth, H., Hall, R., Hamilton, J.P., and Kinny, P.,
2005, East Java: Cenozoic basins, volcanoes and
ancient basement: Jakarta, Proceedings, Indonesian
Petroleum Association Annual Convention, 30th, p.
251266.
Smyth, H., Hall, R., Hamilton, J.P., and Kinny, P.,
2003, Volcanic Origin Of Quartz-Rich Sediments In
East Java: Jakarta, Proceedings, Indonesian
Petroleum Association Annual Convention, 29th, p.
IPA03-G-014
Wilson, M.E.J., and Lokier, S.W., 2002,
Siliciclastic and volcaniclastic influences on
equatorial carbonates: Insights from the Neogene of
Indonesia: Sedimentology, v. 49, p. 583601

Figure 1 - Regional tectonic setting of se asia, the study area is highlighted by yellow box
(smyth,2003).

Figure 2 - Digital elevation model (shuttle radar transect mission) overlain by schematic zonation
of east java, the study area is highlighted by yellow box (after symth,2003).

Figure 3 - Shuttle radar transect mission overlain by regional geological map of study area (after
grdc,1992).

A
Figure 4 - A) Outcrop Of Jaten Sandstone In Sidorejo Village , (B) Close Up Of Quartz Sandstone
With Parallel Lamination Structure, And (C) Close Up Of Quartz Sandstone With Flaser
Structure.

Figure 5 - Point counting of qfl and quartz types showing jaten formation predominantly composed
of volcanic quartz origin.

C
Figure 6 - Muddy Facies
Massive Coal.

D
A) Massive Carboneceous Shale, (B) Massive Shalestone, (C&D)

Figure 7 - Sedimentological Log To Identify Facies Of Jaten Formation.

Figure 8 - Oligocene Dasitic Intrusion Is One Of Potential Source For Jaten Quartz-Rich Sandstone.

A0

A1

A2

A3

Figure 9 - The several thin sections of jaten quartz-rich sandstones,( a0&a1) composed of
bypiramidal quartz grains and rounded embayment. (a2 & a3) quartz wacke in sandy
facies, (b) bypiramidal crystal. Previous study (smyth,2003) c) sem image of rounded
embayments and me lt reaction textures. F) sem image of microcrystalline growth on the
surface of the grain. White bar = 1mm in photomicrographs.