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**if there is more variations in t domain then in freq. domain variations will b

e lesser.

to generate a transfer funcn we use command:- tf(numerator,denominator)

eg>:tf([1,1],[1 1 1]);

a=[1 1] and b=[1 1 1]

tf(a,b)

Eg. SISO Type:-

ans =

s + 1

----------s^2 + s + 1

Continuous-time transfer function.

>> tf([2 5 0],[5 0 3 1])

ans =

2 s^2 + 5 s

--------------5 s^3 + 3 s + 1

>> b=tf([0 1],[5 2 0]);

>> mimo=[a;b]

mimo =

From input to output...

s + 2

1: -----------s^2 + s + 10

1

2: ----------5 s^2 + 2 s

Continuous-time transfer function.

OTHER WAY FOR MIMO:num={[1,2];[0 1]};

>> dem={[1,1,10];[5,0,0,2,0]};

>> tf(num,dem)

ans =

From input to output...

s + 2

1: -----------s^2 + s + 10

1

2: ----------5 s^4 + 2 s

Continuous-time transfer function.

TO PLOT CONTINOUS TO DISCRETE TIME:>> tf(num,dem,0.2)

ans =

From input to output...

z + 2

1: -----------z^2 + z + 10

1

2: ----------5 z^4 + 2 z

Sample time: 0.2 seconds

Discrete-time transfer function.

zpk(zeros,poles,gain);

ans =

(s+2) (s-3)

----------(s+4) (s-6)

Continuous-time zero/pole/gain model.

Eg>:

>> z=zpk([],[-2 3],1)

z =

1

----------(s+2) (s-3)

Continuous-time zero/pole/gain model.

>> p=zpk([0],[6 -7],2)

p =

2 s

----------(s-6) (s+7)

Continuous-time zero/pole/gain model.

>> tf=[z;p]

tf =

From input to output...

1

1: ----------(s+2) (s-3)

2 s

2: ----------(s-6) (s+7)

bode plot, nyquist plot,step response,impulse response,root locus,rise time,peak

time,settling time,undershoot,overshoot,damping,damping ratio,crossover freq,sp

ecified gain

STATE SPACE ANALYSIS:when you dont know final and initial value of states but know everything other

possoble states then we use state space analysis.

COMMAND IS:- ss(a,b,c,d)

eg>:>> ss(a,c,b,d)

ans =

a =

x1

x2

x1 x2

3 4

4 5

b =

x1

x2

u1

2

4

c =

y1

x1 x2

2 4

d =

y1

u1

6

where a=nxn

b=nx1

c=1xn

d=1x1

1)every controller has a compensated formula:for PID COntroller:c=kp + ki/s + kds/(tfs+1)

where, kp= proportional gain

ki= integral gain

kd=derivative gain

tf=first order derivative time constant

command is:- pid(kp,kv,kd,tf)

Eg.:pid(1,4,7,2)

ans =

1

s

Kp + Ki * --- + Kd * -------s

Tf*s+1

with Kp = 1, Ki = 4, Kd = 7, Tf = 2

Continuous-time PIDF controller in parallel form.

how to know type of controller:- (the type depends upon th evalue of the control

ler);

use command:-

getType(ans);

to generate random state space:- use command:er states and it will give o/p states.

rss(4)

ans =

a =

x1

x2

x3

x4

x1 -1.158 0.01607 -0.5121 -0.1164

x2 0.01607 -0.954 -0.1244 0.1954

x3 -0.5121 -0.1244 -1.739 0.05443

x4 -0.1164 0.1954 0.05443 -2.012

b =

u1

x1 -1.069

x2

0

x3

0

x4 1.438

c =

y1

x1

x2

0.3252 -0.7549

d =

y1

u1

0

x3

1.37

x4

-1.712

rss(n)

when we know pure sytem random states:- rss(4,2)

order will be 4

Eg.:rss(4,2)

ans =

a =

x1

x2

x3

x4

x1

-2.476

-0.9504

2.185

3.519

x2

x3

3.375 -0.02252

-2.147

-2.105

1.079

-3.482

2.382

1.243

x4

-2.581

-3.592

-0.1983

-1.651

b =

u1

x1 0.2916

x2 0.1978

x3

1.588

x4 -0.8045

c =

y1

y2

x1

x2

0.6966 -0.2437

0 0.2157

x3

-1.166

-1.148

x4

0.1049

0.7223

d =

y1

y2

u1

0

0

now if we know op ip and order then:- rss(4,2,3) 4th order with 2 o/p and 3 i/p.

Eg.:rss(4,2,3)

ans =

a =

x1

x2

x3

x4

x1

-1.588

-1.569

-8.34

3.512

x2

3.05

-1.298

6.661

-2.151

x3

x4

7.711 -3.947

-6.942

2.767

-1.943 -1.796

3.082 -0.7082

b =

x1

x2

x3

x4

u1

-0.262

-1.75

0

-0.8314

u2

u3

-0.9792

0.9642

-1.156

0.5201

-0.5336 -0.02003

-2.003 -0.03477

c =

x1

x2

x3

x4

y1 -0.7982 -0.1332

1.351

0

y2

1.019 -0.7145 -0.2248 -0.2938

d =

y1

y2

u1

0

0

u2

u3

2.526 0.3075

1.655 -1.257

TO GENERATE DISCRETE TIME STATE SPACE MODEL :drss(n)

drss(n,2)

drss(n,2,4)

:- nth order

:- nth order, with 2 o/p

:- nth order with 2 o/p and 4 inputs

specify the discrete t.funcn in a digital signal processing format:use command:- filt(num,dim);

filt(num,dim,ts);

Eg.:> filt([1],[1 2])

ans =

1

---------1 + 2 z^-1

Sample time: unspecified

Discrete-time transfer function.

>> filt([1],[1 2],0.2)

ans =

1

---------1 + 2 z^-1

Sample time: 0.2 seconds

Discrete-time transfer function.

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