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DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH

UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI

SUBJECT

MEDIA DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

ASSIGNMENT

LANGUAGE OF POLITICS

SUBMITTED TO

SIR OWAIS RIAZ

SUBMITTED BY

NIAZ AHMAD

MA LINGUISTICS (FINAL)

DATED: 25 March, 2010.


Language of politics

1. Paralllelism

(a) But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years
later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the
chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of
poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later,
the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an
exile in his own land. And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.

(Martin Luther King, Jr."I Have a Dream" delivered 28 August 1963, at the Lincoln Memorial,
Washington D.C.)

Comments: using same grammatical structure to enhance the effect of his rhetoric.

(b) Americans have known wars -- but for the past 136 years, they have been
wars on foreign soil, except for one Sunday in 1941. Americans have known the
casualties of war -- but not at the center of a great city on a peaceful morning.
Americans have known surprise attacks -- but never before on thousands of
civilians. All of this was brought upon us in a single day -- and night fell on a different
world, a world where freedom itself is under attack. Americans have many questions
tonight. Americans are asking: Who attacked our country?

(Richard M. Nixon ,Address to the Nation on Vietnam ,delivered 7 April 1971)

Comments: using same grammatical structure to enhance the effect of his rhetoric.

2 Euphemism

(a) Now another indication of the progress we have made is in reducing American
casualties. Casualties were five times as great in the first 3 months of 1969 as they
were in the first 3 months this of year, 1971. South Vietnamese casualties have also
dropped significantly in the past 2 years.

(Richard M. Nixon ,Address to the Nation on Vietnam ,delivered 7 April 1971)


Comments: Using word casualties, instead of death. The speaker has used this word
because he is aware of the protest launched by public who thinks that Vietnam War was
a suicide.

3. Personification

"The Treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of St Germain are kept alive by Bolshevism
in Germany. The Peace Treaty and Bolshevism are two heads of one monster. We
must decapitate both."

(This edited interview of Adolf Hitler by George Sylvester Viereck took place in 1923. It was republished
in Liberty magazine in July 1932)

Comments: Two famous treaties of World have been given the traits of an animate
thing. Personification has been use to show one’s hatred.

4. Metaphor

Now, the other thing that the Church must do as it removes the yoke of segregation
from it’s own body.

(Martin Luther King, Jr., Methodist Student Leadership Conference Address, delivered 1964, Lincoln, Nebraska)

Comments: The speaker has used the metaphor of yoke which means that church
should avoid spreading racism.

5. Rule of three

(a) My message to you all is of hope, courage and confidence. Let us mobilize all
our resources in a systematic and organized way and tackle the grave issues that
confront us with grim determination and discipline worthy of a great nation.

(Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali jinnah ,Eid-ul-Azha Message to the Nation October 24, 1947.)

(b) The enemy of America is not our many Muslim friends; it is not our many Arab
friends. Our enemy is a radical network of terrorists, and every government that
supports them. Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will
not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped, and
defeated.
(George W. Bush, Address to a Joint Session of Congress Following 9/11 Attacks, delivered 20
September 2001)

Comments: In above instances Rule of Three has been used to enhance the
effect of rhetoric.

6. Positioning

HUMPHRYS: But quite a lot to India, and as the code of conduct that you were
partly responsible for bringing in nineteen-ninety-seven makes clear that we're
committed not, I think it's going to be incorporated in a Bill, isn't it, we are committed
not to supply arms in areas of instability, arms that may be used to attack others,
so it would make sense if we were not going, it would be quite right for us not to
sell arms to India or Pakistan at this time, wouldn't it?

COOK: In, in present circumstances, it would be plainly wholly consistent


with those criteria that we set out that we would not provide weapons to places
where there is a risk that those weapons would help to fuel tension. What both
sides now need to do is to step back from any military solution to the problem because
ultimately no military solution is going to be permanent or stable and look for a way in
which they can find a diplomatic solution to enhance the relations between the two
countries, and find a way in which they can find a just solution to the situation in
Kashmir that's also acceptable to the people of Kashmir.

(BBC On The Record - Broadcast: 26.05.02 ,Interview: ROBIN COOK MP, Leader of the House of
Commons)

Comments: The interviewer has put the interviewee that it is not good to provide
weapons to Pakistan and interviewee consents.
------‘’-------

TRIMBLE: When I consider that appropriate John, I'll do it. I am able to say to people
that I'm the only person that I know of who has voluntarily put himself out of office twice
in order to sustain progress. I have resigned, I have ensured at an earlier stage that
there was a suspension of the assembly in order to sustain progress...

HUMPHRYS: And you're prepared to do it again?

TRIMBLE: if that happened .When the circumstances are right. If it is necessary


I'm quite happy to do it, but if I do this John, please, if I do it, it will be in order to
make progress, to make further progress in order to ensure that the agreement is
fulfilled and fully implemented. I will not be acting to destroy that agreement, because I
know that agreement represents the best hope for the people of Northern Ireland. And
our present difficulties are coming because the paramilitaries on all sides, but
particularly Sinn Fein and the IRA have not kept the agreement, and are not
implementing it properly. That's the problem.

(BBC On The Record - Broadcast: 16.06.02 ,Interview: DAVID TRIMBLE MP, Northern Ireland First
Minister.)

Comments: The interviewer has positioned the interwievee to suspend the assemblies
and he shows his willingness for it.

7. Presupposition

“I confess that I have no argument to convince through reason. Faith


transcends reason. All that I can advise is not to attempt the impossible.”

(Mohandas Gandhi Address at Kingsley Hall delivered 17 October 1931, London)

Comments: The speaker has presupposed that he will not be able to convince.

“I think the time has come for me as President and as Commander-in-Chief of


our Armed Forces to put these reports in perspective, to lay all the pertinent facts
before you and to let you judge for yourselves as to the success or failure of our policy.”

Comments: It means the reports were kept secret earlier.

8. Use of Pronouns

TRIMBLE: When I consider that appropriate John, I'll do it. I am able to say to people
that I'm the only person that I know of who has voluntarily put himself out of office twice
in order to sustain progress. I have resigned, I have ensured at an earlier stage that
there was a suspension of the assembly in order to sustain progress...

(BBC On The Record - Broadcast: 16.06.02 ,Interview: DAVID TRIMBLE MP, Northern Ireland First
Minister.)

Comments: The speaker has used the pronoun “I” to show that he is the person who
has done many good things and even suffered because of it.