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Fixed-Frequency Boundary Control of Buck Converter

With Second-Order Switching Surface


- The a dva n ced d ig it a l ized c on trol in SMPS…… . .

Under The Guidance- Seminar presentation by-


Mr. PAPANNA DHANANJAY,
Mr. JAY KUMAR,
M.TECH-POWER ELECTRONICS,
SENIOR LECTURER,
2nd SEMESTER, TOCE, EEE Dept,
TOCE, EEE Dept, VTU.
11 VTU
INTRODUCTION:

The control of Buck converter is done by BOUNDARY


CONTROL TECHNIQUES with linear switching
surfaces, such as Hysteresis control and Sliding-mode
control , or nonlinear switching surfaces have been proposed
to be alternatives to pulse width-modulated control strategies
in dc/dc switching regulators.

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Fixed Frequency Boundary Control
AIM:
To achieve an ideal switching surface . That leads to
Global and large signal stability.
Good large-signal operation.
Fast Dynamics.
Better steady-state and transient behaviors.
Reduce the hardware & software design complexity.
Immune to Chaos due to Electro magnetic Interference from
outside source

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Fixed Frequency Boundary Control
Existing System:

CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR


THE BUCK CONVERTER

PWM Boundary control with


undary control with Fuzzy logic along w
ding Controller Control PID controller
Hysteresis Controller
ler

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Fixed Frequency Boundary Control
PROBLEM STATEMENT:

In conventional DC/DC controllers we are facing the following


problems:
q Deterred steady-state behaviors.
q The Transient Dynamics is not optimized.
q Chattering as a result of imperfect control switchings
q When a converter is operated in the discontinuous
conduction mode, an additional boundary due to the
zero inductor current is created which forms an unstable
combination.
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The Challenge:

To design the universally acceptable DC/DC controller that satisfies


the aims and Overcomes the problems specified.

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PROPOSED SOLUTION:

Use Fixed Frequency Boundary Control technique with


Second- Order Switching Surface to design the
DC/DC controller.

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ELABORATING OF THE TOPIC

q Fixed Frequency: The output power is controlled by


making Frequency as constant even under variation in the input
voltage.
q Boundary Control: controlling of on & off state trajectory for
maintaining large-signal stability.
q Buck Converter: It’s a fixed DC to variable DC converter, where
output voltage is always less than or equal to input voltage. The
output voltage can be varied by varying the duty cycle.
i.e., Vo/Vs= D continue……

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Continue………

2nd order Switching Surface:


q

Ø It consists of two poles


Ø It controls the hysteresis band by generating upper and lower
bands together.
Ø It helps in determining the switching times of the main switch S.
Ø It exhibit better steady-state and transient behaviors than the one
with a first-order switching surface.

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WORKING OF THE
CONTROLLER:

Figure 1: System Block Diagram.


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Figure 2: System Implementation
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Figure 3: Small-signal block diagram of the control loop.

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Figure 4: Key time-domain waveforms of the converter.
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In Mode 1 (t1 ≤ t < t3), S is ON and D is OFF.

In Mode 2 (t3 ≤ t < t5 ), S is OFF and D is ON.

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As the load variation is small, vC is relatively constant
over a switching cycle. Thus

Then, by substituting equation (4.6) into (4.2), the Mode-1 state trajectory
can be shown to be

Where,

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Assume that iC varies linearly in Mode 2. By
substituting (4.5) into (4.3)

Thus, by substituting (4.8) into (4.4), the Mode-2 state trajectory can be
shown to be

Where,

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CRITERIA FOR TURN ON & OFF:
The criteria for switching S ON is based on considering
that

Thus, by substituting (4.10) and (4.11) into (4.7), S will be switched ON


when
and 4.12
The criteria for switching S OFF is based on considering that

and
Thus, by substituting (4.13) and (4.14) into (4.9), S will be switched OFF
when

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FIGURE 5: STATE-PLANE TRAJECTORIES (SOLID LINES: MODE-1
TRAJECTORIES, DOTTED LINES: MODE-2 TRAJECTORIES).
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SWITCHING FREQUENCY AND
OUTPUT VOLTAGE RIPPLE:
By substituting (4.5) into (4.1) and (4.3), it can be
shown that

and

Equations (4.12) and (4.15) will then give

and

Where

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Thus, by substituting (4.18) and (4.19) into (4.16) and
(4.17), the switching frequency fS is equal to

Where and

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Fixed Frequency Boundary Control
SMALL-SIGNAL MODELING:
Based on (4.20), the small-signal frequency-to-ripple
transfer function GSBC of SBC is

Where ,
Δ = >The steady-state value of the hysteresis band.
KT => The total gain including the gain of the transducers.

The transfer function of FVC is, GFVC = KFVC

The transfer function of the low-pass filter at the output of


FVC is

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Where

is the cutoff frequency of the low-pass filter.


Transfer unction of a non inverting EA is

Where is the cutoff frequency of the EA.

The loop gain TOL of the frequency control loop is

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SIMPLIFIED DESIGN PROCEDURES:

The system is designed by considering the following


specifications:
a) Input voltage vi: [Vin,min, Vin,max];
b) Output voltage vo: Vo;
c) Maximum output voltage ripple: ΔVo;
d) Maximum inductor current ripple: ΔIL;
e) Switching frequency: fS.

The design procedures are described as follows.


qThe minimum values of L and C in the power stage are designed by the

formulas of
and

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qthe values of K1 and K2 are chosen to be

and

Where

The values of RLP, CLP, RC, and CC are chosen so that ωLP = 2 ωC = α
(2πfS), where α << 1.

and

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TABLE 1: COMPONENT VALUES OF THE PROTOTYPE

FIGURE 6.B: CIRCUIT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SYSTEM SHOWN IN


FIGURE 2.
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FIGURE 6.A: CIRCUIT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SYSTEM SHOWN IN
FIGURE
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
A 140 W buck converter has been designed and
tested and the specifications are given as follows:
a) Input voltage, vi: 20–30 V;
b) Output voltage, vo: 12 V;
c) Maximum output voltage ripple, 2Δ: 160 mV;
d) Maximum inductor current ripple: 7 A;
e) Switching frequency: 25 kHz;

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Sudden change of the output current io
from 11A (132 W) to 2.5A (30 W).
(VO: 1V/div, io: 5A/div, vg: 2V/div)
(Time base: 100μs/div).
Transient response of vf and Δ
when current changed from 11A to
2.5 A and 2.5A (30 W) to 11A
(132 W).
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Sudden change of the input voltage Sudden change of the input voltage
vi from 20Vto 30V. vi from 30V to 20V

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Switching frequency and output
voltage ripples without the
proposed control method.

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Switching frequency and output
voltage ripples with the
proposed control method.

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Characteristics of the
control loop shown in
Figure (a) Gain
curve. (b) Phase curve.

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CONCLUSIO
N:
An improved boundary control technique with
second-order switching surface for buck converters has
been presented which provides-
q By using of SBC the converter can reach the steady state in two
switching actions after large-signal disturbances.
q The switching frequency can be kept at a relatively constant value and
the implementation of the frequency control loop only requires
simple circuitry.

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Finally, I Thank to novel Boundary control method
That as boosted the performance of the control
system in
DC/DC converter system.

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Q/A

Questions and answer time

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THANK YOU

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